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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202573/alteration-of-the-microsaccadic-velocity-amplitude-main-sequence-relationship-after-visual-transients-implications-for-models-of-saccade-control
#1
Antimo Buonocore, Chih-Yang Chen, Xiaoguang Tian, Saad Idrees, Thomas Muench, Ziad M Hafed
Microsaccades occur during gaze fixation in order to correct for miniscule foveal motor errors. The mechanisms governing such fine oculomotor control are still not fully understood. In this study, we explored microsaccade control by analyzing the impacts of transient visual stimuli on these movements' kinematics. We found that such kinematics can be altered in systematic ways depending on the timing and spatial geometry of visual transients relative to the movement goals. In two male rhesus macaques, we presented peripheral or foveal visual transients during an otherwise stable period of fixation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198465/fatigue-related-impairments-in-oculomotor-control-are-prevented-by-norepinephrine-dopamine-reuptake-inhibition
#2
Charlotte J W Connell, Benjamin Thompson, Jason Turuwhenua, Alexa Srzich, Nicholas Gant
Fatigue-induced reductions in saccade velocity have been reported following acute, prolonged exercise. Interestingly, the detrimental impact of fatigue on oculomotor control can be prevented by a moderate dose of caffeine. This effect may be related to central catecholamine upregulation via caffeine's action as an adenosine antagonist. To test this hypothesis, we compared the protective effect of caffeine on oculomotor control post-exercise to that of a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Within a placebo-controlled crossover design, 12 cyclists consumed placebo, caffeine or a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (bupropion) during 180 minutes of stationary cycling...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196204/selective-extraocular-muscle-atrophy-secondary-to-chronic-oculomotor-denervation
#3
Andrei-Alexandru Szigiato, Donald H Lee, J Alexander Fraser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195951/assessment-of-oculomotor-function-in-patients-with-postconcussion-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#4
Foad Taghdiri, Brenda Varriano, Maria Carmela Tartaglia
BACKGROUND: Concussion and its associated sequel, postconcussion syndrome (PCS), have a debilitating impact on the lives of concussed patients. However, a diagnostic biomarker for this condition is lacking. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in using oculomotor function testing as an objective assessment of patients with PCS. OBJECTIVES: To systematically synthesize, appraise, and summarize all published empirical studies that have assessed alteration of oculomotor functions in patients with PCS...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195427/oculomotor-deficits-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3-potential-biomarkers-of-preclinical-detection-and-disease-progression
#5
Chao Wu, Ding-Bang Chen, Li Feng, Xiang-Xue Zhou, Ji-Wei Zhang, Hua-Jing You, Xiu-Ling Liang, Zhong Pei, Xun-Hua Li
AIMS: To detect specific oculomotor deficits in preclinical stage of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) and evaluate whether these abnormalities prove useful as potential biomarkers of disease progression. METHODS: A Chinese cohort of 56 patients with SCA3, including 12 preclinical carriers of SCA3 (pre-SCA3) and 44 manifest SCA3, and 26 healthy control individuals were recruited. We performed a detailed investigation on central oculomotor performance including fixation, gaze, smooth pursuit, prosaccade, and antisaccade using video-oculography...
February 13, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192092/peripheral-oculomotor-training-in-individuals-with-healthy-visual-systems-effects-of-training-and-training-transfer
#6
Dylan Rose, Peter Bex
Individuals with pathological or simulated central visual field loss can be trained to use a preferred retinal locus (PRL) as a substitute for their non-functioning fovea. The functional benefits of a stable PRL are well documented, but little is known about oculomotor adaptations during PRL acquisition or transfer of training to another location in response to real or simulated disease progression. In this study, eight normally-sighted observers were trained to use a pseudo-PRL (pPRL) at one of two locations by guiding an eccentrically placed, gaze-contingent ring over a fixation target...
February 9, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192091/the-influence-of-age-onadaptation-of-disparity-vergence-and-phoria
#7
Tara L Alvarez, Eun H Kim, Chang Yaramothu, Bérangère Granger-Donetti
A paucity of research exists to investigate whether the normal aging process influences the ability to adapt disparity vergence and phoria. Vergence eye movements and dissociated phoria were recorded from 49 healthy subjects (ages 20-70 years) using an objective eye movement tracking system. Four-degree vergence responses were modified using a double-step protocol. Dynamics of vergence were quantified via peak velocity. The phoria adaptation experiment measured the magnitude (net change in phoria level) and rate (magnitude divided by the time constant) of phoria adaption during 5 minutes of sustained fixation on a binocular target (40cm/8...
February 9, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177529/a-central-mesencephalic-reticular-formation-projection-to-medial-rectus-motoneurons-supplying-singly-and-multiply-innervated-extraocular-muscle-fibers
#8
Martin O Bohlen, Susan Warren, Paul J May
We recently demonstrated a bilateral projection to the supraoculomotor area from the central mesencephalic reticular formation (cMRF), a region implicated in horizontal gaze changes. C-group motoneurons, which supply multiply innervated fibers in the medial rectus muscle, are located within the primate supraoculomotor area, but their inputs and function are poorly understood. Here we tested whether C-group motoneurons in Macaca fascicularis monkeys receive a direct cMRF input by injecting this portion of the reticular formation with anterograde tracers in combination with injection of retrograde tracer into the medial rectus muscle...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177526/segregated-fronto-cortical-and-midbrain-connections-in-the-mouse-and-their-relation-to-approach-and-avoidance-orienting-behaviors
#9
Michael Anthony Savage, Richard McQuade, Alexander Thiele
The orchestration of orienting behaviors requires the interaction of many cortical and subcortical areas, for example the Superior Colliculus (SC), as well as prefrontal areas responsible for top-down control. Orienting involves different behaviors, such as approach and avoidance. In the rat, these behaviors are at least partially mapped onto different SC subdomains, the lateral (SCl) and medial (SCm), respectively. To delineate the circuitry involved in the two types of orienting behavior in mice, we injected retrograde tracer into the intermediate and deep layers of the medial and lateral SC (SCm and SCl), and thereby determined the main input structures to these subdomains...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176404/clinical-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-of-idiopathic-oculomotor-neuropathy-in-14-dogs
#10
Roser Tetas Pont, Courtenay Freeman, Ruth Dennis, Claudia Hartley, Elsa Beltran
Ophthalmoplegia/ophthalmoparesis (internal, external, or both) has been reported in dogs secondary to neoplasia affecting the oculomotor nerve and is usually given a poor prognosis. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the clinical findings, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, management, outcome, and follow-up in a group of canine cases with idiopathic oculomotor neuropathy. Inclusion criteria included cases with ophthalmoplegia/ophthalmoparesis (internal, external or both) as sole neuroophthalmologic signs, complete ophthalmic and neurologic examination, head MRI, and a minimum follow-up period of 1 year...
February 8, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168705/the-role-of-dentate-nuclei-in-human-oculomotor-control-insights-from-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis
#11
Francesca Rosini, Elena Pretegiani, Andrea Mignarri, Lance M Optican, Valeria Serchi, Nicola De Stefano, Marco Battaglini, Lucia Monti, Maria T Dotti, Antonio Federico, Alessandra Rufa
It is well known that the medial cerebellum controls saccadic speed and accuracy. In contrast, the role of the lateral cerebellum (cerebellar hemispheres and dentate nuclei, DN) is less understood. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a lipid storage disorder due to mutations in CYP27A1, typically characterized by DN damage. CTX thus provides a unique opportunity to study DN in human oculomotor control. We analyzed horizontal and vertical visually-guided saccades and horizontal antisaccades of 19 CTX patients...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167284/isolated-pseudoabducens-palsy-in-acute-thalamic-stroke
#12
Mehdi Ghasemi, Nazish Riaz, Anna Bjornsdottir, David Paydarfar
Oculomotor abnormalities are rarely noted in thalamic strokes. We describe isolated right pseudoabducens palsy in a young patient with acute left thalamic infarction revealed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The patient's horizontal diplopia and oculomotor palsy resolved within 3days. This case supports the hypothesis that a lesion can cause isolated esotropia by interrupting descending inhibitory convergence pathways that traverse the paramedian thalamus and decussate in the subthalamic region to innervate the contralateral third oculomotor nucleus...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165559/comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-surgical-clipping-and-embolization-for-oculomotor-nerve-palsy-due-to-a-posterior-communicating-artery-aneurysm
#13
G Gao, D-Q Gu, Y Zhang, J Yu, Y Chen, Y-J Chao, J-J Wei, X-M Fu, C-S Niu
OBJECTIVE: To aim at the efficacies of surgical clipping and endovascular embolization for oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) as treatments for posterior communicating artery aneurysm (PcoAA), and the comparison and various influencing factors of the treatments. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An analysis of the clinical data of 52 enrolled PcoAA patients with ONP who had treatment in the Department of Neurosurgery in Anhui Provincial Hospital from January 2011 to June 2015 was conducted...
January 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159609/disentangling-the-mechanisms-underlying-infant-fixation-durations-in-scene-perception-a-computational-account
#14
Irati R Saez de Urabain, Antje Nuthmann, Mark H Johnson, Tim J Smith
The goal of this article is to investigate the unexplored mechanisms underlying the development of saccadic control in infancy by determining the generalizability and potential limitations of extending the CRISP theoretical framework and computational model of fixation durations (FDs) in adult scene-viewing to infants. The CRISP model was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms modulating FDs in 6-month-olds by applying the model to empirical eye-movement data gathered from groups of infants and adults during free-viewing of naturalistic and semi-naturalistic videos...
January 31, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153623/dti-tractography-detecting-isolated-oculomotor-nerve-damage-after-brain-traumatic-injury
#15
Timothée Jacquesson, Carole Frindel, Francois Cotton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149393/eye-movement-abnormalities-in-essential-tremor
#16
Magdalena Wójcik-Pędziwiatr, Klaudia Plinta, Agnieszka Krzak-Kubica, Katarzyna Zajdel, Marcel Falkiewicz, Jacek Dylak, Jan Ober, Andrzej Szczudlik, Monika Rudzińska
Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent movement disorder, characterized mainly by an action tremor of the arms. Only a few studies published as yet have assessed oculomotor abnormalities in ET and their results are unequivocal. The aim of this study was to assess the oculomotor abnormalities in ET patients compared with the control group and to find the relationship between oculomotor abnormalities and clinical features of ET patients. We studied 50 ET patients and 42 matched by age and gender healthy controls...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146671/the-neuroergonomics-of-vigilance
#17
Matthew E Funke, Joel S Warm, Gerald Matthews, Gregory J Funke, Peter Y Chiu, Tyler H Shaw, Eric T Greenlee
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of uncertainty about where in the field of view critical signals for detection appear during a vigilance task (spatial uncertainty) on cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and oculomotor fatigue. BACKGROUND: Neuroergonomics is a dimension of human factors founded by Raja Parasuraman that studies brain functions underlying performance at work. Neuroergonomic studies have shown that observers in vigilance tasks lose information-processing resources over time and experience oculomotor fatigue as indexed by a temporal decline in CBFV and elevation in eye closure as reflected in the PERCLOS metric...
February 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144831/conscious-error-perception-the-impact-of-response-interference-from-a-secondary-task
#18
Maria M Robinson, David E Irwin
An erroneous response is not always accompanied by the conscious perception of the error being made. We examined whether increased response interference on a manual task improved the conscious perception of erroneous eye movements on a concurrent oculomotor task. In the first experiment, we examined whether a correlate of response interference, increased task difficulty alone, could improve perception of errors. We found no effect of task difficulty on self-monitoring. Results from a second experiment suggested that participants' ability to monitor their eye movements improved with increased response interference, but post hoc analyses indicated that this was due to a decrease in corrective behaviors...
January 31, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144623/eye-movements-in-darkness-modulate-self-motion-perception
#19
Ivar Adrianus H Clemens, Luc P J Selen, Antonella Pomante, Paul R MacNeilage, W Pieter Medendorp
During self-motion, humans typically move the eyes to maintain fixation on the stationary environment around them. These eye movements could in principle be used to estimate self-motion, but their impact on perception is unknown. We had participants judge self-motion during different eye-movement conditions in the absence of full-field optic flow. In a two-alternative forced choice task, participants indicated whether the second of two successive passive lateral whole-body translations was longer or shorter than the first...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130466/antisaccades-in-parkinson-disease-a-new-marker-of-postural-control
#20
Claire Ewenczyk, Salma Mesmoudi, Cécile Gallea, Marie-Laure Welter, Bertrand Gaymard, Adèle Demain, Lydia Yahia Cherif, Bertrand Degos, Habib Benali, Pierre Pouget, Cyril Poupon, Stéphane Lehericy, Sophie Rivaud-Péchoux, Marie Vidailhet
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relation between gaze and posture/gait control in Parkinson disease (PD) and to determine the role of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and cortex-MLR connection in saccadic behavior because this structure is a major area involved in both gait/postural control and gaze control networks. METHODS: We recruited 30 patients with PD with or without altered postural control and 25 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). We assessed gait, balance, and neuropsychological status and separately recorded gait initiation and eye movements (visually guided saccades and volitional antisaccades)...
January 27, 2017: Neurology
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