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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145322/ptosis-as-the-only-manifestation-of-diabetic-superior-division-oculomotor-nerve-palsy-a-case-report
#1
Ping-Yin Chou, Kun-Han Wu, Poyin Huang
RATIONALE: Diabetic oculomotor nerve palsies, also called ischemic third nerve palsies, are the most common etiologic subset of oculomotor nerve palsy in adults. Diabetic oculomotor nerve palsies typically present with ptosis and diplopia, but pupillary function is often spared. The oculomotor nerve separates into superior division and inferior division, with the superior division innervating the superior rectus and levator palpebrae superioris. The diabetic oculomotor nerve palsy may affect isolated superior or inferior division of the oculomotor nerve, but diplopia usually exists...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142092/response-of-supra-oculomotor-area-neurons-during-combined-saccade-vergence-movements
#2
Adam C Pallus, Mark M G Walton, Michael J Mustari
Combined saccade-vergence movements allow humans and other primates to align their eyes with objects of interest in three-dimensions. In the absence of saccades, vergence movements are typically slow, symmetrical movements of the two eyes in opposite directions. However, combined saccade-vergence movements produce vergence velocities that exceed values observed during vergence alone. This phenomenon is often called "vergence enhancement", or "saccade-facilitated vergence," though it is important to consider that rapid vergence changes, known as "vergence transients," are also observed during conjugate saccades...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141478/utility-of-quick-oculomotor-tests-for-screening-the-vestibular-system-in-the-subacute-and-chronic-populations
#3
Helen S Cohen, Jasmine Stitz, Haleh Sangi-Haghpeykar, Susan P Williams, Ajitkumar P Mulavara, Brian T Peters, Jacob J Bloomberg
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of some widely used, easily administered clinical tests. BACKGROUND: Simple tests of oculomotor function have become widely used for clinical screening of patients suspected of having vestibular disorders despite a paucity of evidence showing good statistical support for their use in this highly variable population. METHODS: Healthy controls with no history of otologic or neurologic disorders (n = 291) were compared to patients with known vestibular disorders (n = 62)...
November 16, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138991/test-retest-reliability-and-interpretation-of-common-concussion-assessment-tools-findings-from-the-ncaa-dod-care-consortium
#4
Steven P Broglio, Barry P Katz, Shi Zhao, Michael McCrea, Thomas McAllister
BACKGROUND: Concussion diagnosis is typically made through clinical examination and supported by performance on clinical assessment tools. Performance on commonly implemented and emerging assessment tools is known to vary between administrations, in the absence of concussion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the test-retest reliability of commonly implemented and emerging concussion assessment tools across a large nationally representative sample of student-athletes. METHODS: Participants (n = 4874) from the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education Consortium completed annual baseline assessments on two or three occasions...
November 14, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138705/physiotherapy-and-rehabilitation-in-a-child-with-joubert-syndrome
#5
Özge İpek, Özge Akyolcu, Banu Bayar
Objective: Joubert syndrome (JS) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by brain malformation, hypotonia, breathing abnormalities, ataxia, oculomotor apraxia, and developmental delay. The purpose of this study was to report the efficiency of the physiotherapy and rehabilitation program in a child with JS. Materials and Methods: Our case is a 19-month-old female child with mild clinical signs of JS. The pretreatment and posttreatment motor functioning level of the case was evaluated through the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), whereas the independence level was evaluated through the Pediatric Functional Independence Measure (WeeFIM)...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134445/ptosis-and-bulbar-onset-an-unusual-phenotype-of-familial-als
#6
Fabiola De Marchi, L Corrado, E Bersano, M F Sarnelli, V Solara, S D'Alfonso, R Cantello, L Mazzini
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of upper and lower motor neurons that usually spare the oculomotor nerves. Here, we describe a case of two siblings with a familial bulbar-onset ALS both with ptosis manifested at the onset of the disease.
November 13, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133438/normal-topography-and-binocularity-of-the-superior-colliculus-in-strabismus
#7
John R Economides, Brittany C Rapone, Daniel L Adams, Jonathan C Horton
In subjects with alternating strabismus either eye can be used to saccade to visual targets. The brain must calculate the correct vector for each saccade, which will depend on the eye chosen to make it. The superior colliculus, a major midbrain center for saccade generation, was examined to determine if the maps serving each eye were shifted to compensate for strabismus.Alternating exotropia was induced in two male macaques at age one month by sectioning the tendons of the medial recti. Once the animals grew to maturity, they were trained to fixate targets with either eye...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127364/comparing-ataxias-with-oculomotor-apraxia-a-multimodal-study-of-aoa1-aoa2-and-at-focusing-on-video-oculography-and-alpha-fetoprotein
#8
L L Mariani, S Rivaud-Péchoux, P Charles, C Ewenczyk, A Meneret, B B Monga, M-C Fleury, E Hainque, T Maisonobe, B Degos, A Echaniz-Laguna, M Renaud, T Wirth, D Grabli, A Brice, M Vidailhet, D Stoppa-Lyonnet, C Dubois-d'Enghien, I Le Ber, M Koenig, E Roze, C Tranchant, A Durr, B Gaymard, M Anheim
Whether the recessive ataxias, Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1) and 2 (AOA2) and Ataxia telangiectasia (AT), can be distinguished by video-oculography and alpha-fetoprotein level remains unknown. We compared 40 patients with AOA1, AOA2 and AT, consecutively referred between 2008 and 2015 with 17 healthy subjects. Video-oculography revealed constant impairments in patients such as cerebellar signs, altered fixation, impaired pursuit, hypometric saccades and abnormal antisaccades. Horizontal saccade latencies could be highly increased reflecting oculomotor apraxia in one third of patients...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120512/endoscopic-endonasal-surgery-for-pituitary-adenomas-extending-to-the-oculomotor-cistern
#9
Masaaki Taniguchi, Tomoaki Nakai, Hidehito Kimura, Yuichi Fujita, Yoichi Uozumi, Masaaki Kohta, Eiji Kohmura
BACKGROUND: Extension of a pituitary adenoma to the oculomotor cistern harbors the risk of oculomotor nerve impairment and further extension into the interpeduncular cistern. The role of endoscopic endonasal surgery for those lesions was investigated. METHODS: The medical records were retrospectively analyzed. Attention was paid to the oculomotor nerve function and removal rate of the tumor within the oculomotor and interpeduncular cisterns. RESULTS: Six patients were eligible for the study, including 2 with oculomotor nerve palsy...
November 9, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110566/predicting-the-outcome-after-acute-unilateral-vestibulopathy-analysis-of-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-gain-and-catch-up-saccades
#10
Niccolò Cerchiai, Elena Navari, Stefano Sellari-Franceschini, Chiara Re, Augusto Pietro Casani
Objectives (1) To describe the relationships among the main instrumental features characterizing an acute unilateral vestibulopathy and (2) to clarify the role of the video head impulse test in predicting the development of chronic vestibular insufficiency. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary referral center. Subjects and Methods Sixty patients suffering from acute unilateral vestibulopathy were retrospectively analyzed: 30 who recovered spontaneously (group 1) and 30 who needed a vestibular rehabilitation program (group 2)...
November 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109905/abnormalities-of-eye-hand-coordination-in-patients-with-writer-s-cramp-possible-role-of-the-cerebellum
#11
Ketan Jhunjhunwala, Raviteja Kotikalapudi, Abhishek Lenka, Kandavel Thennarassu, Ravi Yadav, Jitender Saini, Pramod Kumar Pal
Background: Writer's cramp (WC) is one of the commonly observed focal dystonias. The pathophysiology of WC has not been fully understood. The role of the cerebellum has been increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis of dystonia. As the cerebellum is crucial for maintaining accurate eye-hand coordination (EHC), its role in the pathogenesis of WC can be investigated by studying the EHC in patients with WC. Methods: Fifteen patients with WC (women:men, 3:12) and 15 age- and gender-matched controls performed oculomotor and EHC tasks...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109127/a-complex-genomic-locus-drives-mtdna-replicase-polg-expression-to-its-disease-related-nervous-system-regions
#12
Joni Nikkanen, Juan Cruz Landoni, Diego Balboa, Maarja Haugas, Juha Partanen, Anders Paetau, Pirjo Isohanni, Virginia Brilhante, Anu Suomalainen
DNA polymerase gamma (POLG), the mtDNA replicase, is a common cause of mitochondrial neurodegeneration. Why POLG defects especially cause central nervous system (CNS) diseases is unknown. We discovered a complex genomic regulatory locus for POLG, containing three functional CNS-specific enhancers that drive expression specifically in oculomotor complex and sensory interneurons of the spinal cord, completely overlapping with the regions showing neuronal death in POLG patients. The regulatory locus also expresses two functional RNAs, LINC00925-RNA and MIR9-3, which are coexpressed with POLG The MIR9-3 targets include NR2E1, a transcription factor maintaining neural stem cells in undifferentiated state, and MTHFD2, the regulatory enzyme of mitochondrial folate cycle, linking POLG expression to stem cell differentiation and folate metabolism...
November 6, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098982/what-tests-and-measures-should-be-added-to-the-scat3-and-related-tests-to-improve-their-reliability-sensitivity-and-or-specificity-in-sideline-concussion-diagnosis-a-systematic-review
#13
Ruben J Echemendia, Steven P Broglio, Gavin A Davis, Kevin M Guskiewicz, K Alix Hayden, John J Leddy, William P Meehan, Margot Putukian, S John Sullivan, Kathryn J Schneider, Paul McCrory
OBJECTIVES: Several iterations of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) have been published over the past 16 years. Our goal was to systematically review the literature related to the SCAT and provide recommendations for improving the tool. To achieve this goal, five separate but related searches were conducted and presented herein. DESIGN: Systematic literature review. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, SPORTDiscus and PubMed...
June 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071352/characterizing-eye-movement-behaviors-and-kinematics-of-non-human-primates-during-virtual-navigation-tasks
#14
Benjamin W Corrigan, Roberto A Gulli, Guillaume Doucet, Julio C Martinez-Trujillo
Virtual environments (VE) allow testing complex behaviors in naturalistic settings by combining highly controlled visual stimuli with spatial navigation and other cognitive tasks. They also allow for the recording of eye movements using high-precision eye tracking techniques, which is important in electrophysiological studies examining the response properties of neurons in visual areas of nonhuman primates. However, during virtual navigation, the pattern of retinal stimulation can be highly dynamic which may influence eye movements...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066240/pitfalls-in-the-diagnosis-of-pupil-sparing-oculomotor-nerve-palsy-without-limb-ataxia-a-case-report-of-a-variant-of-claude-s-syndrome-and-neuroanatomical-analysis-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#15
Eiichiro Amano, Tetsuya Komatuzaki, Hideaki Ishido, Tasuku Ishihara, Shinichi Otsu, Ichiro Yamada, Akira Machida
Midbrain infarction causing oculomotor nerve palsy with contralateral ataxia is named Claude's syndrome. Herein we report the case of a variant of Claude's syndrome, which shows pupil-sparing oculomotor nerve palsy without the accompanying neurological deficits other than subtle truncal ataxia. MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging revealed that midbrain infarction was located rostrally above the decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) and might have partially destructed the tectospinal tract, which resulted in the absence of limb ataxia and presence of subtle truncal ataxia...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061701/a-subconscious-interaction-between-fixation-and-anticipatory-pursuit
#16
Scott N J Watamaniuk, Japjot Bal, Stephen J Heinen
Ocular smooth pursuit and fixation are typically viewed as separate systems, yet there is evidence that the brainstem fixation system inhibits pursuit. Here we present behavioral evidence that the fixation system modulates pursuit behavior outside of conscious awareness. Human observers (male and female) either pursued a small spot that translated across a screen, or fixated it as it remained stationary. As shown previously, pursuit trials potentiated the oculomotor system, producing anticipatory eye velocity on the next trial before the target moved that mimicked the stimulus-driven velocity...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058243/orbital-fat-volume-in-the-inferolateral-quadrant-in-japanese-a-guide-for-orbital-fat-decompression-without-injury-to-the-oculomotor-nerve
#17
Yasuhiro Takahashi, Yoshiyuki Kitaguchi, Maria Suzanne Sabundayo, Hirohiko Kakizaki
PURPOSE: The inferior oblique muscle branch of the oculomotor nerve is susceptible to injury during orbital fat removal from the inferolateral quadrant of the orbit. Understanding the amount of removable orbital fat volume in this quadrant may be helpful in achieving maximum fat decompression without causing nerve injury. The aim of this study was to calculate the orbital fat volume in the inferolateral quadrant using computed tomographic (CT) images. METHODS: In this retrospective, observational study, contiguous 1-mm coronal CT images were obtained from 53 sides (30 patients)...
October 20, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054879/domain-specificity-of-oculomotor-learning-after-changes-in-sensory-processing
#18
Yuliy Tsank, Miguel P Eckstein
Humans visually process the world with varying spatial resolution and can program their eye movements optimally to maximize information acquisition for a variety of everyday tasks. Diseases such as macular degeneration can change visual sensory processing, introducing central vision loss (a scotoma). However, humans can learn to direct a new preferred retinal location to regions of interest for simple visual tasks. Whether such learned compensatory saccades are optimal and generalize to more complex tasks, which require integrating information across a large area of the visual field, is not well-understood...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052730/the-reward-of-seeing-different-types-of-visual-reward-and-their-ability-to-modify-oculomotor-learning
#19
Annegret Meermeier, Svenja Gremmler, Kerstin Richert, Til Eckermann, Markus Lappe
Saccadic adaptation is an oculomotor learning process that maintains the accuracy of eye movements to ensure effective perception of the environment. Although saccadic adaptation is commonly considered an automatic and low-level motor calibration in the cerebellum, we recently found that strength of adaptation is influenced by the visual content of the target: pictures of humans produced stronger adaptation than noise stimuli. This suggests that meaningful images may be considered rewarding or valuable in oculomotor learning...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049593/spatiotopic-updating-of-visual-feature-information
#20
Eckart Zimmermann, Ralph Weidner, Gereon R Fink
Saccades shift the retina with high-speed motion. In order to compensate for the sudden displacement, the visuomotor system needs to combine saccade-related information and visual metrics. Many neurons in oculomotor but also in visual areas shift their receptive field shortly before the execution of a saccade (Duhamel, Colby, & Goldberg, 1992; Nakamura & Colby, 2002). These shifts supposedly enable the binding of information from before and after the saccade. It is a matter of current debate whether these shifts are merely location based (i...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
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