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U Janssens, S Hillen, T Janssens, J Grafe
BACKGROUND: This case report presents a case of symptomatic methemoglobinemia (MetHb 31.6%) after inhalation of volatile nitrites (poppers). METHODS: The patient's medical history and symptoms are discussed together with pathophysiology of methemoglobinemia, diagnostics, and antidote therapy. Pulse oxymetry, arterial blood gas analysis, and CO-oximetry receive particular attention as well as antidote therapy with methylene blue. RESULTS: The patient was treated successfully with intravenous methylene blue...
April 17, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Anna Buchman, John M Marshall, Dennis Ostrovski, Ting Yang, Omar S Akbari
Synthetic gene drive systems possess enormous potential to replace, alter, or suppress wild populations of significant disease vectors and crop pests; however, their utility in diverse populations remains to be demonstrated. Here, we report the creation of a synthetic Medea gene drive system in a major worldwide crop pest, Drosophila suzukii We demonstrate that this drive system, based on an engineered maternal "toxin" coupled with a linked embryonic "antidote," is capable of biasing Mendelian inheritance rates with up to 100% efficiency...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bethany Powell Gray, Linsley Kelly, Douglas P Ahrens, Ashley P Barry, Christina Kratschmer, Matthew Levy, Bruce A Sullenger
Therapies that can eliminate both local and metastatic prostate tumor lesions while sparing normal organ tissue are desperately needed. With the goal of developing an improved drug-targeting strategy, we turned to a new class of targeted anticancer therapeutics: aptamers conjugated to highly toxic chemotherapeutics. Cell selection for aptamers with prostate cancer specificity yielded the E3 aptamer, which internalizes into prostate cancer cells without targeting normal prostate cells. Chemical conjugation of E3 to the drugs monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) and monomethyl auristatin F (MMAF) yields a potent cytotoxic agent that efficiently kills prostate cancer cells in vitro but does not affect normal prostate epithelial cells...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Stefano Costanzi, John-Hanson Machado, Moriah Mitchell
Nerve agents are organophosphorus chemical warfare agents that exert their action through the irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, with a consequent overstimulation of cholinergic transmission followed by its shutdown. Beyond warfare, they have notoriously been employed in acts of terrorism as well as high profile assassinations. After a brief historical introduction on the development and deployment of nerve agents, this review provides a survey of their chemistry, the way they affect cholinergic transmission, the available treatment options, and the current directions for their improvement...
April 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Qinying Li, Guoyun Li, Xiaoliang Zhao, Xindi Shan, Chao Cai, Jing Zhao, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt, Guangli Yu
As an important glycosaminoglycan, keratan sulfate (KS) mainly exists in corneal and cartilage, possessing various biological activities. In this study, we purified KS from blue shark ( Prionace glauca ) cartilage and prepared KS oligosaccharides (KSO) through keratanase II-catalyzed hydrolysis. The structures of KS and KSO were characterized using multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Shark cartilage KS was highly sulfated and modified with ~2...
April 14, 2018: Marine Drugs
Alexis Jemal
The education system has been heralded as a tool of liberation and simultaneously critiqued as a tool of social control to maintain the oppressive status quo. Critical consciousness (CC), developed by the Brazilian educator, Paulo Freire, advanced an educational pedagogy to liberate the masses from systemic inequity maintained and perpetuated by process, practices and outcomes of interdependent systems and institutions. If people are not aware of inequity and do not act to constantly resist oppressive norms and ways of being, then the result is residual inequity in perpetuity...
November 2017: Urban Review
Ertugrul Kilic, Mesut Ortatatli, Sermet Sezigen, Rusen Koray Eyison, Levent Kenar
Sulfur mustard (SM) is an highly toxic and vesicant chemical weapon that was used in various military conflicts several times in the history. The severity of ocular, dermal, and pulmonary symptoms that may appear following a characteristic asymptomatic period are depending on the SM concentration and exposure duration. The aim of this study is to present the clinical features and share the intensive care unit (ICU) experiences for the medical management of mustard gas victims. Thirteen Free Syrian Army soldiers near Al-Bab region of North Syria were reportedly exposed to oily blackish smoke with garlic smell due to the explosion of a trapped bomb without causing any blast or thermal effect on 26th November 2016...
April 12, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Annick Judenherc-HaouzI, Takashi Sonobe, Vikhyat S Bebarta, Philippe Haouzi
This study was aimed at determining the efficacy of epinephrine, followed by chest compressions, in producing a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during cyanide (CN)- or hydrogen sulfide (H2 S)-induced toxic cardiac pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in the rat. Thirty-nine anesthetized rats were exposed to either intravenous KCN (n = 27) or H2 S solutions (n = 12), at a rate that led to a PEA within less than 10 min. In the group intoxicated by CN, 20 rats were mechanically ventilated and received either epinephrine (0...
April 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Mohamed Salaheldeen, Victor Vega, Angel Ibabe, Miriam Jaafar, Agustina Asenjo, Agustin Fernandez, Victor M Prida
In this article, the magnetic properties of hexagonally ordered antidot arrays made of Dy13 Fe87 alloy are studied and compared with corresponding ones of continuous thin films with the same compositions and thicknesses, varying between 20 nm and 50 nm. Both samples, the continuous thin films and antidot arrays, were prepared by high vacuum e-beam evaporation of the alloy on the top-surface of glass and hexagonally self-ordered nanoporous alumina templates, which serve as substrates, respectively. By using a highly sensitive magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements an interesting phenomenon has been observed, consisting in the easy magnetization axis transfer from a purely in-plane (INP) magnetic anisotropy to out-of-plane (OOP) magnetization...
April 8, 2018: Nanomaterials
Manali Sughosh Upasani, Sughosh Vishweshwar Upasani, Vishal Gokul Beldar, Chetana Gokul Beldar, Pranjal P Gujarathi
Snakes have fascinated humankind for millennia. Snakebites are a serious medical, social, and economic problem that are experienced worldwide; however, they are most serious in tropical and subtropical countries. The reasons for this are 1) the presence of more species of the most dangerous snakes, 2) the inaccessibility of immediate medical treatment, and 3) poor health care. The goal of this study was to collect information concerning rare, less utilized, and less studied medicinal plants. More than 100 plants were found to have potential to be utilized as anti-snake venom across India...
March 2018: Integrative Medicine Research
Yongzhuang Ye, Zhenning Liu
Amanita phalloides poisoning with a high mortality is a serious health problem in the world. The typical clinical manifestations are usually characterized by the absence of any symptoms followed by severe gastrointestinal disorders and acute liver failure. Inhibition of RNA polymeraseII (RNAP II) activity, apoptosis, and oxidative stress are considered as the major mechanism of amatoxins intoxication. The current treatment measures mainly include prevention of amatoxins absorption, elimination of absorbed amatoxins, potential antidotes therapy, and liver transplantation...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Muhammad Hassham Bin Asad, Arooj Fatima Asad, Sumbal Bibi, Kaleem Ullah, Tariq Javed, Majeed Ullah, Atif Ali, Ziaur Rahman Qureshi, Muhammad Imran Amirzada, Yasser Msa Al-Kahraman, Syed Muhammad Farid Hasan, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Albert Rizvanov
Recent recognition about snake bite envenomation on June, 2017 as neglected tropical disease under category-A by World Health Organization advocated again its undeniable importance. Present circumstances reasoned to work on a neglected subspecies of Naja naja, i.e., Naja naja karachiensis (N. n. karachensis) has been documented for frequent deaths in Pakistan. In this study median lethal toxic dose (LD50 ) was determined intraperitoneally in Swiss albino mice and was found to be 2.0µg/g (2.0mg/kg) equal in potency to Naja pallida (red spitting African cobra)...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Muhammad Avais, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Muhammad Arif Khan, Kamran Ashraf, Zahoorul Hassan, Jawaria Ali Khan, Nisar Ahmad
This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of aqueous garlic extract, sodium nitrite (SNT), sodium thiosulfate (STS) and hydroxocobalamin against oral cyanide exposure in rabbits. For this purpose, forty two adult male rabbits were divided randomly into 7 groups of 6 animals (A-G) each. Rabbits in group A were offered feed only and served as negative control, while the rabbits in group B received feed plus potassium cyanide (KCN) at 3mg/kg orally and were kept as positive control. Animals in group C received feed, KCN and intraperitoneal injection (IP) of aqueous garlic extract at 500mg/kg...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
E M Price, Wendy P Robinson
It is well-known, but frequently overlooked, that low- and high-throughput molecular data may contain batch effects, i.e., systematic technical variation. Confounding of experimental batches with the variable(s) of interest is especially concerning, as a batch effect may then be interpreted as a biologically significant finding. An integral step toward reducing false discovery in molecular data analysis includes inspection for batch effects and accounting for this signal if present. In a 30-sample pilot Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 (450k array) experiment, we identified two sources of batch effects: row and chip...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Caroline Floreoto Baldo, Luiza Mateus Silva, Livia Arcencio, Agnes Afrodite Sumarelli Albuquerque, Andrea Carla Celotto, Anibal Basile-Filho, Paulo Roberto B Evora
Evidence-based review of the existing literature ultimately recommends stocking of methylene blue (MB) as an emergency antidote in the United States. The same is reported around the world in Japan, Greece, Italy and Canada. The observation that MB is always present as the main antidote required in emergency and critical care units calls for a revisit on its effects on the NO/cGMP system to reemphasize its multisystem actions. Therefore, the present review aimed to display the role of MB in emergency units, concerning: 1) Polytrauma and circulatory shock; 2) Neuroprotection, 3) Anaphylaxis and, 4) Overdose and poisoning...
April 2, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Mary Chacko Sunitha, Radhakrishnan Dhanyakrishnan, Bhaskara PrakashKumar, Kottayath Govindan Nevin
Doxorubicin (Dox) is a widely administered chemotherapeutic drug and incidences of cardiotoxicity associated with its administration have been of general concern. Extensive research proposes several mechanisms as a cause of Dox induced cardiotoxicity. However, none of these studies have been able to suggest a find one, cure all antidote for the same. To this end, several studies involving plant based compounds or natural products have gained acclaim for their ability to address at least one factor contributing to drug induced pathogenesis...
March 29, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Francesco Marongiu, Doris Barcellona
Acutely ill hospitalized medical patients are at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Although thromboprophylaxis in these patients is recommended since 2004 by the American College of Chest Physicians, it is widely underused. The doubt as to whether or not to treat patients at high VTE risk after hospital discharge came from the knowledge that this risk may persist after the hospital admission period. Two meta-analyses comparing extended- versus short-duration prophylaxis are published. The results demonstrate an unfavorable balance between VTE prevention and incidence of major bleeding in patients assigned to extended-duration thromboprophylaxis...
March 28, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
D Nicholas Bateman, Victoria Eagling, Euan A Sandilands, Gill Jackson, Catherine Crawford, Leonard Hawkins, Ted Cheung, Gillian Cooper, Sally M Bradberry, John P Thompson, Simon H L Thomas, Michael Eddleston
BACKGROUND: Iron poisoning is potentially serious, but mortality has fallen worldwide since implementation of pack size and packaging restrictions, and changes in iron use during pregnancy. The management of individual cases of overdose remains problematic due to uncertainty about indications for antidote. We examine the epidemiology of iron overdose in hospital cases referred to the UK National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) and evaluate the toxicokinetics of iron in patients ingesting only iron preparations...
March 28, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Arne A Rüdiger, Katharina Brassat, Jörg K N Lindner, Wolfgang Bremser, Oliver I Strube
Site-specific formation of nanoscaled protein structures is a challenging task. Most known structuring methods are either complex and hardly upscalable or do not apply to biological matter at all. The presented combination of enzyme mediated autodeposition and nanosphere lithography provides an easy-to-apply approach for the buildup of protein nanostructures over a large scale. The key factor is the tethering of enzyme to the support in designated areas. Those areas are provided via prepatterning of enzymatically active antidots with variable diameters...
March 26, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Olanrewaju I Fatola, Francis A Olaolorun, Funmilayo E Olopade, James O Olopade
Vanadium, atomic number 23, is a transition metal widely distributed in nature. It is a major contaminant of fossil fuels and is widely used in industry as catalysts, in welding, and making steel alloys. Over the years, vanadium compounds have been generating interests due to their use as therapeutic agents in the control of diabetes, tuberculosis, and some neoplasms. However, the toxicity of vanadium compounds is well documented in literature with occupational exposure of workers in vanadium allied industries, environmental pollution from combustion of fossil fuels and industrial exhausts receiving concerns as major sources of toxicity and a likely predisposing factor in the aetiopathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases...
March 22, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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