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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724193/saline-irrigation-for-the-management-of-skin-extravasation-injury-in-neonates
#1
REVIEW
P N Gopalakrishnan, Nitin Goel, Sujoy Banerjee
BACKGROUND: Extravasation injury, a complication commonly seen in the neonatal intensive care unit, can result in scarring with cosmetic and functional sequelae. A wide variety of treatments are available, including subcutaneous irrigation with saline (with or without hyaluronidase), liposuction, use of specific antidotes, topical applications, and normal wound care with dry or wet dressings. All such treatments aim to prevent or reduce the severity of complications. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective To compare the efficacy and safety of saline irrigation or saline irrigation with prior hyaluronidase infiltration versus no intervention or normal wound care for tissue healing in neonates with extravasation injury...
July 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722512/in-silico-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-two-novel-oximes-k378-and-k727-in-comparison-to-k27-and-pralidoxime-against-paraoxon-ethyl-intoxication
#2
Maria Chaudhry, Muhammad Qaiser Fatmi, Kamil Musilek, Alamdar Hussain, Kamil Kuca, Georg Petroianu, Huba Kalasz, Syed Muhammad Nurulain
Organophosphate (OP) poisoning is a major global health issue; while compounds from this group have been used intensively over the last century, an effective antidote is still lacking. Oxime-type AChE reactivators are used to reactivate the OP inhibited AChE. Pralidoxime is the only US Food and Drug Administration, (FDA) approved oxime for therapeutic use but its efficacy has been disappointing. Two novel oximes (K378 and K727) were investigated in silico and in vitro and compared with an experimental oxime (kamiloxime; K-27) and pralidoxime...
July 19, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721679/phytochemicals-as-potential-antidotes-for-targeting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
REVIEW
R Kowshik Aravilli, S Laveen Vikram, V Kohila
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune destructive arthropathy prevalent among people in the age group of 40-70 years. RA induces severe pain, swelling and stiffness of joints resulting in bone damage. RA leads to reduced life expectancy when left untreated. RA is characterized by synovial hyperplasia, infiltration of inflammatory cells resulting in formation of pannus. Synovial hyperplasia is mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, notably IL-1 and TNF-α. NF-κB is a predominant transcription factor in amplifying the inflammatory response...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720833/competition-between-superconductor-ferromagnetic-stray-magnetic-fields-in-yba2cu3o7-x-films-pierced-with-co-nano-rods
#4
V Rouco, R Córdoba, J M De Teresa, L A Rodríguez, C Navau, N Del-Valle, G Via, A Sánchez, C Monton, F Kronast, X Obradors, T Puig, A Palau
Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are two antagonistic phenomena that combined can lead to a rich phenomenology of interactions, resulting in novel physical properties and unique functionalities. Here we propose an original hybrid system formed by a high-temperature superconducting film, patterned with antidots, and with ferromagnetic nano-rods grown inside them. This particular structure exhibits the synergic influence of superconductor (SC) - ferromagnetic (FM) stray fields, in both the superconducting behaviour of the film and the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic structure of nano-rods...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719484/amitraz-a-perpetual-silent-menace-among-children-in-developing-countries-a-case-report
#5
Sowmya Shashidhara, Suneel C Mundkur, Shrikiran A Hebbar, Ashwini Kumar, Vaisakh Sambasivan
Amitraz is an acaricide and insecticide used to treat ticks, which infest domestic animals in developing countries. Because of its widespread use, it is one of the common poisons unintentionally consumed by infants and children when left unsupervised. A 3-year-old boy was brought with unintentional consumption of Amitraz. On examination, he was found to be progressively drowsy, with an irregular pulse, bradycardia, and hypotension. He was treated with atropine, intravenous fluids, and dopamine infusion; hemodynamic stability was achieved within 36 hours after ingestion...
July 17, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718967/seeing-the-big-picture-broadening-attention-relieves-sadness-and-depressed-mood
#6
Li Gu, Xueling Yang, Liman Man Wai Li, Xinyue Zhou, Ding-Guo Gao
We examined whether the broadened attentional scope would affect people's sad or depressed mood with two experiments, enlightened by the meaning of "seeing the big picture" and the broaden-and-build model. Experiment 1 (n = 164) is a laboratory-based experiment, in which we manipulated the attentional scope by showing participants zoomed-out or zoomed-in scenes. In Experiment 2 (n = 44), we studied how depressed mood and positive and negative emotions were affected when participants watched distant versus proximal scenes for eight weeks in real life...
August 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718803/serum-albumin-binding-and-esterase-activity-mechanistic-interactions-with-organophosphates
#7
Nikolay V Goncharov, Daria A Belinskaia, Vladimir I Shmurak, Maxim A Terpilowski, Richard O Jenkins, Pavel V Avdonin
The albumin molecule, in contrast to many other plasma proteins, is not covered with a carbohydrate moiety and can bind and transport various molecules of endogenous and exogenous origin. The enzymatic activity of albumin, the existence of which many scientists perceive skeptically, is much less studied. In toxicology, understanding the mechanistic interactions of organophosphates with albumin is a special problem, and its solution could help in the development of new types of antidotes. In the present work, the history of the issue is briefly examined, then our in silico data on the interaction of human serum albumin with soman, as well as comparative in silico data of human and bovine serum albumin activities in relation to paraoxon, are presented...
July 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716647/earwax-a-clue-to-discover-fluoroacetate-intoxication-in-cattle
#8
Engy Shokry, Fabrício Carrião Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique Jorge da Cunha, Maria Clorinda Soares Fioravanti, Antônio Dionísio Feitosa Noronha Filho, Naiara Zedes Pereira, Nelson Roberto Antoniosi Filho
An innovative method was developed to detect fluoroacetate poisoning in cattle by headspace/gas chromatographic analysis of earwax samples of intoxicated cattle. Samples were collected from 2 groups of cattle subjected to induced fluoroacetate intoxication, each group receiving a different dose of acetamide (antidote). Monofluoroacetic acid was detected in samples of intoxicated cattle in concentrations inversely proportional to the dose of acetamide. Thus, earwax analysis represents a successful approach for detection and monitoring of fluoroacetate poisoning...
July 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715114/a-rare-case-of-obstructive-duodenal-phytobezoar-caused-by-two-lipomas
#9
Eunae Cho, Chung Hwan Jun, Eun Kyu Park, Chang Hwan Park, Hyun Soo Kim, Sung Kyu Choi, Jong Sun Rew
The word 'bezoar' comes from either the Persian word 'padzahr' or the Arabic word 'badzehr' both of which denote 'antidote.' This word meant a hard stone found in the stomach of the Syrian goat and believed to prevent poisoning(1) .
July 17, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711273/treatment-methods-following-suicidal-self-administration-of-iv-organophosphate-what-can-additional-lipid-administration-change
#10
Kenan Ahmet Turkdogan, Ali Duman, Mucahit Avcil, Ayhan Akoz, Selcuk Eren Canakcı, Burcak Kantekin
Organic phosphor compounds are highly toxic and life-threatening compounds that are widely used in agriculture, households and gardens worldwide. While oral intakes are observed frequently, toxic effects can also be seen through contract or inhalation. However, toxic cases through the parenteral route have rarely been reported. We had three main aims: first, to present a male patient who self-administered 2ml of monocrotophos intravenously to commit suicide. Our second goal was to present the current multiple treatment methods, such as fast general support, antidote treatment, lipid emulsion treatment, and plasmapheresis along with the literature...
July 8, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705416/availability-of-antidotes-in-70-hospitals-in-catalonia
#11
Antoni Broto-Sumalla, Manel Rabanal-Tornero, Milagros García-Peláez, Raquel Aguilar-Salmerón, Edurne Fernández de Gamarra-Martínez, Lídia Martínez-Sánchez, María-José Gaspar-Caro, Santiago Nogué-Xarau
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Antidotes may have a relevant role in acute intoxication management and the time until its administration can influence patient survival. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Study conducted by a questionnaire sent in early 2015 to 70 hospitals in Catalonia providing emergency services. Qualitative availability on each antidote was considered adequate when present in at least 80% of hospitals. The quantitative availability was considered adequate when at least 80% of hospitals had the number of units of antidote recommended...
July 10, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703024/safety-and-effectiveness-of-physostigmine-a-10-year-retrospective-review
#12
Ann M Arens, Krishna Shah, Suad Al-Abri, Kent R Olson, Tom Kearney
BACKGROUND: Physostigmine has long been recognized as an antidote to reverse anticholinergic delirium. However, its effectiveness, safety profile, and dosing have been disputed. OBJECTIVES: To describe effectiveness, adverse events, and dosing associated with the use of physostigmine to reverse anticholinergic delirium. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients reported to a regional poison center system between 2003 and 2012 who received physostigmine to reverse an anticholinergic toxidrome...
July 13, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694744/protective-effects-of-chrysin-against-drugs-and-toxic-agents
#13
REVIEW
Saeed Samarghandian, Tahereh Farkhondeh, Mohsen Azimi-Nezhad
ISSUES: Polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, are known as the most common chemical class of phytochemicals, which possess a multiple range of health-promoting effects. Flavonoids are ubiquitous in nature. They are also present in food, providing an essential link between diet and prevention of several diseases. APPROACH: Chrysin (CH), a natural flavonoid, was commonly found in propolis and honey and traditionally used in herbal medicine. A growing body of scientific evidence has shown that CH possesses protective effects against toxic agents in various animal tissues, including brain, heart, liver, kidney, and lung...
April 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693885/post-exposure-treatment-with-the-oxime-rs194b-rapidly-reverses-early-and-advanced-symptoms-in-macaques-exposed-to-sarin-vapor
#14
Yvonne J Rosenberg, Lingjun Mao, Xiaoming Jiang, Jonathan Lees, Limin Zhang, Zoran Radic, Palmer Taylor
Organophosphate (OP) nerve agents and pesticides trigger a common mechanism of neurotoxicity resulting from critical targeting and inhibition of acetylcholinesterases (AChE) in central and peripheral synapses in the cholinergic nervous system. Therapeutic countermeasures have thus focused on either administering an oxime post-exposure, that can rapidly reactivate OP-inhibited AChE, or by preventing OP poisoning through administering pre-exposure treatments that scavenge OPs before they inhibit their physiological AChE targets...
July 8, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691660/endoribonuclease-type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-systems-functional-or-selfish
#15
Bhaskar Chandra Mohan Ramisetty, Ramachandran Sarojini Santhosh
Most bacterial genomes have multiple type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) that encode two proteins which are referred to as a toxin and an antitoxin. Toxins inhibit a cellular process, while the interaction of the antitoxin with the toxin attenuates the toxin's activity. Endoribonuclease-encoding TAs cleave RNA in a sequence-dependent fashion, resulting in translational inhibition. To account for their prevalence and retention by bacterial genomes, TAs are credited with clinically significant phenomena, such as bacterial programmed cell death, persistence, biofilms and anti-addiction to plasmids...
July 8, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690887/prevention-of-%C3%AE-radiation-induced-dna-damage-in-human-lymphocytes-using-a-serine-magnesium-sulfate-mixture
#16
Vahid Changizi, Mona Bahrami, Mahbod Esfahani, Seyed V Shetab-Boushehri
OBJECTIVES: Ionising radiation has deleterious effects on human cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and cysteine, the active metabolite of NAC, are well-known radioprotective agents. Recently, a serine-magnesium sulfate combination was proposed as an antidote for organophosphate toxicity. This study aimed to investigate the use of a serine-magnesium sulfate mixture in the prevention of γ-radiation-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes as compared to NAC and cysteine. METHODS: This study was carried out at the Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between April and September 2016...
May 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682903/acute-abrin-poisoning-treated-with-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-and-hemoperfusion-successfully-a-case-report
#17
Jiliang Huang, Wenbin Zhang, Xin Li, Shufen Feng, Gang Ye, Hongcheng Wei, Xiaobing Gong
RATIONALE: Abrin is a highly toxic protein obtained from the seeds of Abrus precatorius, but poisoning due to ingestion of A precatorius is extremely rare in China. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 16-year-old girl, perfectly healthy before, was admitted to the department of gastroenterology owing to intentional ingestion of 10 crushed A precatorius seeds, with multiple episodes of somnolent and anxious mental status, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, hematochezia, and hematuria...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673500/-state-of-the-art-direct-oral-anticoagulants-and-transfusion
#18
A-C Martin, A Godier, D M Smadja, L Mauge, A-M Fischer
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are indicated for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism. As any anticoagulant, they are associated with a bleeding risk. Management of DOAC-induced bleeding is challenging. Idarucizumab, antidote for dabigatran, is currently available and is part of the therapeutic strategy, whereas antidotes for anti-Xa agents are under development. Activated or non-activated prothrombin concentrates are proposed, although their efficacy to reverse DOAC is uncertain...
June 30, 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669553/expert-consensus-guidelines-for-stocking-of-antidotes-in-hospitals-that-provide-emergency-care
#19
Richard C Dart, Lewis R Goldfrank, Brian L Erstad, David T Huang, Knox H Todd, Jeffrey Weitz, Vikhyat S Bebarta, E Martin Caravati, Fred M Henretig, Theodore R Delbridge, William Banner, Sandra M Schneider, Victoria E Anderson
We provide recommendations for stocking of antidotes used in emergency departments (EDs). An expert panel representing diverse perspectives (clinical pharmacology, medical toxicology, critical care medicine, hematology/oncology, hospital pharmacy, emergency medicine, emergency medical services, pediatric emergency medicine, pediatric critical care medicine, poison centers, hospital administration, and public health) was formed to create recommendations for antidote stocking. Using a standardized summary of the medical literature, the primary reviewer for each antidote proposed guidelines for antidote stocking to the full panel...
June 29, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668178/cholinergic-symptoms-and-qtc-prolongation-following-donepezil-overdose
#20
A Pourmand, C Shay, W Redha, A Aalam, M Mazer-Amirshahi
Donepezil is the most commonly prescribed acetylcholinesterase inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, an ailment that affects millions of older adult patients. By inhibiting the breakdown of acetylcholine in the central nervous system, donepezil has been shown to slow cognitive decline and improve patients' functional status. While donepezil is well-tolerated and generally considered safe at therapeutic doses, taking more than the prescribed dose could result in adverse cholinergic effects that range from mild gastrointestinal distress to serious cardiac dysrhythmias...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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