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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098239/immunoglobulin-light-chain-igl-genes-in-torafugu-genomic-organization-and-identification-of-a-third-teleost-igl-isotype
#1
Xi Fu, Fengjun Zhang, Shugo Watabe, Shuichi Asakawa
Here, we report a genome-wide survey of immunoglobulin light chain (IGL) genes of torafugu (Takifugu rubripes) revealing multi-clusters spanning three separate chromosomes (v5 assembly) and 45 scaffolds (v4 assembly). Conventional sequence similarity searches and motif scanning approaches based on recombination signal sequence (RSS) motifs were used. We found that three IGL isotypes (L1, L2, and L3) exist in torafugu and that several loci for each isotype are present. The transcriptional orientations of the variable IGL (VL) segments were found to be either the same (in the L2 isotype) or opposite (in the L1 and L3 isotypes) to the IGL joining (JL) and constant (CL) segments, suggesting they can undergo rearrangement by deletion or inversion when expressed...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097431/placental-dapk1-and-autophagy-marker-lc3b-ii-are-dysregulated-by-tnf-%C3%AE-in-a-gestational-age-dependent-manner
#2
Andreas Prokesch, Astrid Blaschitz, Tamara Bauer, Gerit Moser, Ursula Hiden, Julianna Zadora, Ralf Dechend, Florian Herse, Martin Gauster
Autophagy, a cell-survival process responsible for degradation of protein aggregates and damaged organelles, is increasingly recognized as another mechanism essential for human placentation. A substantial body of experiments suggests inflammation and oxidative stress as the underlying stimuli for altered placental autophagy, giving rise to placenta dysfunction and pregnancy pathologies. Here, the hypothesis is tested whether or not pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are able to influence the expression profile of autophagy genes in human first-trimester villous placenta...
January 17, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096473/vimentin-intermediate-filaments-control-actin-stress-fiber-assembly-through-gef-h1-and-rhoa
#3
Yaming Jiu, Johan Peränen, Niccole Schaible, Fang Cheng, John E Eriksson, Ramaswamy Krishnan, Pekka Lappalainen
The actin and intermediate filament cytoskeleltons contribute to numerous cellular processes, including morphogenesis, cytokinesis, and migration. These two cytoskeletal systems associate with each other, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here,we show that inactivation of vimentin leads to increased actin stress fiber assembly and contractility, and consequent elevation of myosin light chain phosphorylation and stabilization of tropomyosin-4.2. The vimentin knockout phenotypes can be rescued by re-expression of wild-type vimentin, but not by the non-filamentous 'unit length form' vimentin, demonstrating that intact vimentin intermediate filaments are required to facilitate the effects on the actin cytoskeleton...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096374/phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-human-antibody-repertoire-reveals-quantitative-signatures-of-immune-senescence-and-aging
#4
Charles F A de Bourcy, Cesar J Lopez Angel, Christopher Vollmers, Cornelia L Dekker, Mark M Davis, Stephen R Quake
The elderly have reduced humoral immunity, as manifested by increased susceptibility to infections and impaired vaccine responses. To investigate the effects of aging on B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoire evolution during an immunological challenge, we used a phylogenetic distance metric to analyze Ig heavy-chain transcript sequences in both young and elderly individuals before and after influenza vaccination. We determined that BCR repertoires become increasingly specialized over a span of decades, but less plastic...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096233/role-of-the-constant-region-domain-in-the-structural-diversity-of-human-antibody-light-chains
#5
Emi Hifumi, Hiroaki Taguchi, Ryuichi Kato, Taizo Uda
Issues regarding the structural diversity (heterogeneity) of an antibody molecule have been the subject of discussion along with the development of antibody drugs. Research on heterogeneity has been extensive in recent years, but no clear solution has been reached. Heterogeneity is also observed in catalytic antibody κ light chains (CLs). In this study, we investigated how the constant region domain of CLs concerns structural diversity because it is a simple and good example for elucidating heterogeneity. By means of cation-exchange chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and 2-dimensional electrophoresis for the CL, multimolecular forms consisting of different electrical charges and molecular sizes coexisted in the solution, resulting in the similar heterogeneity of the full length of CLs...
January 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095113/quantitative-analysis-of-cell-surface-antigen-antibody-interaction-using-gaussia-princeps-luciferase-antibody-fusion-proteins
#6
Juliane Kums, Johannes Nelke, Benedikt Rüth, Viktoria Schäfer, Daniela Siegmund, Harald Wajant
Cell surface antigen-specific antibodies are of substantial diagnostic and therapeutic importance. The binding properties of such antibodies are usually evaluated by cell-free assays, in particular surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis, or flow cytometry. SPR analyses allow the detailed quantitative and dynamic evaluation of the binding properties of antibodies, but need purified, typically recombinantly produced antigens. It can, however, be difficult to produce the required antigen. Furthermore, cellular factors influencing the antigen-antibody interaction are not considered by this method...
January 17, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094989/-bitter-sweet-polymeric-micelles-formed-by-block-copolymers-from-glucosamine-and-cholic-acid
#7
Kun Zhang, Yongguang Jia, I-Huang Tsai, Satu Strandman, Li Ren, Liangzhi Hong, Guangzhao Zhang, Ying Guan, Yongjun Zhang, Julian X X Zhu
Natural compounds glucosamine and cholic acid have been used to make acrylic monomers which are subsequently used to prepare amphiphilic block copolymers by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Despite the striking difference in polarity and solubility, three diblock copolymers consisting of glucosamine and cholic acid pendants with different hydrophilic and hydrophobic chain lengths have been synthesized without the use of protecting groups. They are shown to self-assemble into polymeric micelles with a "bitter" bile acid core and "sweet" sugar shell in aqueous solutions as evidenced by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy...
January 17, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094376/cyclopentadithiophene-organic-core-in-small-molecule-organic-solar-cells-morphological-control-of-carrier-recombination
#8
Rocío Domínguez, Núria F Montcada, Pilar de la Cruz, Emilio Palomares, Fernando Langa
Two new planar and symmetrical A-D-A (electron acceptor-electron donor-electron acceptor) small molecules based on a commercial cyclopentadithiophene derivative have been synthesized for solution processed small molecule organic solar cells. The aim was to synthesise the molecules to be energetically identical (similar HOMO-LUMO energy levels) in order to assign the differences observed to changes in the film morphology or to differences in the interfacial recombination kinetics or both. Devices were electrically characterized under one sun simulated (1...
January 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093364/fabrication-of-nanofibrous-electrospun-scaffolds-from-a-heterogeneous-library-of-co-and-self-assembling-peptides
#9
Mahboubeh Maleki, Antonino Natalello, Raffaele Pugliese, Fabrizio Gelain
: Self-assembling (SAPs) and co-assembling peptides (CAPs) are driving increasing enthusiasm as synthetic but biologically inspired biomaterials amenable of easy functionalization for regenerative medicine. On the other hand, electrospinning (ES) is a versatile technique useful for tailoring the nanostructures of various biomaterials into scaffolds resembling the extracellular matrices found in organs and tissues. The synergistic merging of these two approaches is a long-awaited advance in nanomedicine that has not been deeply documented so far...
January 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093255/nlrp3-gene-knockout-blocks-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-signaling-pathway-in-cums-induced-depression-mouse-model
#10
Wen-Jun Su, Yi Zhang, Ying Chen, Hong Gong, Yong-Jie Lian, Wei Peng, Yun-Zi Liu, Yun-Xia Wang, Zi-Li You, Shi-Jie Feng, Ying Zong, Guo-Cai Lu, Chun-Lei Jiang
BACKGROUND: Abundant researches indicate that neuroinflammation has important roles in the pathophysiology of depression. Our previous study found that the NLRP3 inflammasome mediated stress-induced depression-like behavior in mice via regulating neuroinflammation. However, it still remains unclear that how the NLRP3 inflammasome influences related inflammatory signaling pathway to contribute to neuroinflammation in depression. METHODS: We used wild-type mice and NLRP3 gene knockout mice to explore the role of NLRP3 inflammasome and related inflammatory signaling pathways in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depression mouse model...
January 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092704/x-ray-reflectivity-study-of-interaction-of-an-imidazolium-based-ionic-liquid-with-soft-supported-lipid-membrane
#11
Gourav Bhattacharya, Rajendra P Giri, Himani Saxena, Ved Varun Agrawal, Ashish Gupta, Mrinmay Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Sajal Kumar Ghosh
Ionic liquids (ILs) are important for their antimicrobial activity and are found to be toxic to some of the micro-organisms. To shed light on the mechanism of their activities, the interaction of an imidazolium-based IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrfluroborate ([BMIM][BF4]) with E-coli bacteria and cell membrane mimicking lipid mono- and bi-layers have been studied. The survival of the bacteria and corresponding growth inhibition are observed to be a function of concentration of the IL. The IL alters the pressure area isotherm of the monolayer formed at air-water interface by the lipid 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC)...
January 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089397/challenges-for-critical-raw-material-recovery-from-weee-the-case-study-of-gallium
#12
Maximilian Ueberschaar, Sarah Julie Otto, Vera Susanne Rotter
Gallium and gallium compounds are more frequently used in future oriented technologies such as photovoltaics, light diodes and semiconductor technology. In the long term the supply risk is estimated to be critical. Germany is one of the major primary gallium producer, recycler of gallium from new scrap and GaAs wafer producer. Therefore, new concepts for a resource saving handling of gallium and appropriate recycling strategies have to be designed. This study focus on options for a possible recycling of gallium from waste electric and electronic equipment...
January 12, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088783/%C3%AE-asarone-blocks-7%C3%AE-hydroxycholesterol-exposed-macrophage-injury-through-blocking-elf2%C3%AE-phosphorylation-and-prompting-beclin-1-dependent-autophagy
#13
Sin-Hye Park, Min-Kyung Kang, Yean-Jung Choi, Yun-Ho Kim, Lucia Dwi Antika, Dong Yeon Kim, Eun-Jung Lee, Soon Sung Lim, Young-Hee Kang
Macrophage apoptosis is salient in advanced atherosclerotic lesions and is induced by several stimuli including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This study examined that α-asarone present in purple perilla abrogated macrophage injury caused by oxysterols via ER stress- and autophagy-mediated mechanisms. Nontoxic α-asarone at 1-20 μM attenuated 7β-hydroxycholesterol-induced activation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in macrophages leading to C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression and apoptosis due to sustained ER stress...
January 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088518/s100a8-protein-attenuates-airway-hyperresponsiveness-by-suppressing-the-contraction-of-airway-smooth-muscle
#14
Yu-Dong Xu, Yu Wang, Lei-Miao Yin, Gyoung-Hee Park, Luis Ulloa, Yong-Qing Yang
Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a major clinical problem in allergic asthma mainly caused by the hypercontractility of airway smooth muscles (ASM). S100A8 is an important member of the S100 calcium-binding protein family with a potential to regulate cell contractility. Here, we analyze the potential of S100A8 to regulate allergen-induced AHR and ASM contraction. Treatment with recombinant S100A8 (rS100A8) diminished airway hyperresponsiveness in OVA-sensitized rats. ASM contraction assays showed that rS100A8 reduced hypercontractility in both isolated tracheal rings and primary ASM cells treated by acetylcholine...
January 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087006/new-insights-into-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-heavy-chain-deposition-disease
#15
Jonathan J Hogan, Glen S Markowitz
Heavy chain deposition disease is defined by the presence of tissue deposits of truncated monoclonal Ig heavy chains, usually associated with an underlying plasma cell clone. In this issue of Kidney International, Bridoux et al. described the clinical, histologic, and molecular characterization of 15 patients with heavy chain deposition disease, which is the largest case series to date. Notable findings included the frequent presence of C3 deposits and hypocomplementemia, the uniform finding of truncated heavy chains with the deletion in the heavy chain constant region 1, and the common occurrence of an abnormal serum-free κ:λ ratio, despite the absence of light-chain tissue deposition...
February 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081199/mesons-from-laser-induced-processes-in-ultra-dense-hydrogen-h-0
#16
Leif Holmlid
Large signals of charged light mesons are observed in the laser-induced particle flux from ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) layers. The mesons are formed in such layers on metal surfaces using < 200 mJ laser pulse-energy. The time variation of the signal to metal foil collectors and the magnetic deflection to a movable pin collector are now studied. Relativistic charged particles with velocity up to 500 MeV u-1 thus 0.75 c are observed. Characteristic decay time constants for meson decay are observed, for charged and neutral kaons and also for charged pions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080032/heteroprotein-complex-formation-of-bovine-lactoferrin-and-pea-protein-isolate-a-multiscale-structural-analysis
#17
Eda Adal, Amin Sadeghpour, Simon D A Connell, Michael Rappolt, Esra Ibanoglu, Anwesha Sarkar
Associative electrostatic interactions between two oppositely charged globular proteins, lactoferrin (LF) and pea protein isolate (PPI), the latter being a mixture of vicilin, legumin and convicilin, was studied with a specific PPI/ LF molar ratio at room temperature. Structural aspects of the electrostatic complexes probed at different length scales were investigated as a function of pH by means of different complementary techniques, namely with dynamic light scattering, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), turbidity measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM)...
January 12, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079969/molecular-polygons-probe-the-role-of-intramolecular-strain-in-the-photophysics-of-%C3%AF-conjugated-chromophores
#18
Philipp Wilhelm, Jan Vogelsang, Georgiy Poluektov, Nina Schönfelder, Tristan J Keller, Stefan-Sven Jester, Sigurd Höger, John M Lupton
π-Conjugated segments, chromophores, are the electronically active units of polymer materials used in organic electronics. To elucidate the effect of the bending of these linear moieties on elementary electronic properties, such as luminescence color and radiative rate, we introduce a series of molecular polygons. The π-system in these molecules becomes so distorted in bichromophores (digons) that these absorb and emit light of arbitrary polarization: any part of the chain absorbs and emits radiation with equal probability...
January 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078845/effect-of-low-energy-light-irradiation-by-light-emitting-diode-on-u937-cells
#19
G Spoto, V De Iuliis, M Petrini, V Flati, J Di Gregorio, D Vitale, M Caruso, V Dadorante, M Ciarmoli, I Robuffo, S Martinotti, E Toniato
Photobiomodulation (PBM) can induce a set of different biological modulators either in vitro or in vivo. Experimental evidence has highlighted the role of light effects on the mechanisms related to inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy. The goal of this project was the evaluation of PBM on U937, an established cell line of histiocytic lymphoma origin. Several aspects of modulation of proinflammatory pathways were analyzed and autophagic and proapoptotic mechanisms related to low laser light exposure of cells were studied...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078418/absolute-quantification-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-by-selected-reaction-monitoring-can-underscore-skeletal-muscle-changes-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#20
Caterina Peggion, Maria Lina Massimino, Giancarlo Biancotto, Roberto Angeletti, Carlo Reggiani, Maria Catia Sorgato, Alessandro Bertoli, Roberto Stella
Skeletal muscle fibers contain different isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) that define distinctive contractile properties. In light of the muscle capacity to adapt MyHC expression to pathophysiological conditions, a rapid and quantitative assessment of MyHC isoforms in small muscle tissue quantities would represent a valuable diagnostic tool for (neuro)muscular diseases. As past protocols did not meet these requirements, in the present study we applied a targeted proteomic approach based on selected reaction monitoring that allowed the absolute quantification of slow and fast MyHC isoforms in different mouse skeletal muscles with high reproducibility...
January 11, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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