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Alex R Hardisty, Finn Bacall, Niall Beard, Maria-Paula Balcázar-Vargas, Bachir Balech, Zoltán Barcza, Sarah J Bourlat, Renato De Giovanni, Yde de Jong, Francesca De Leo, Laura Dobor, Giacinto Donvito, Donal Fellows, Antonio Fernandez Guerra, Nuno Ferreira, Yuliya Fetyukova, Bruno Fosso, Jonathan Giddy, Carole Goble, Anton Güntsch, Robert Haines, Vera Hernández Ernst, Hannes Hettling, Dóra Hidy, Ferenc Horváth, Dóra Ittzés, Péter Ittzés, Andrew Jones, Renzo Kottmann, Robert Kulawik, Sonja Leidenberger, Päivi Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Cherian Mathew, Norman Morrison, Aleksandra Nenadic, Abraham Nieva de la Hidalga, Matthias Obst, Gerard Oostermeijer, Elisabeth Paymal, Graziano Pesole, Salvatore Pinto, Axel Poigné, Francisco Quevedo Fernandez, Monica Santamaria, Hannu Saarenmaa, Gergely Sipos, Karl-Heinz Sylla, Marko Tähtinen, Saverio Vicario, Rutger Aldo Vos, Alan R Williams, Pelin Yilmaz
BACKGROUND: Making forecasts about biodiversity and giving support to policy relies increasingly on large collections of data held electronically, and on substantial computational capability and capacity to analyse, model, simulate and predict using such data. However, the physically distributed nature of data resources and of expertise in advanced analytical tools creates many challenges for the modern scientist. Across the wider biological sciences, presenting such capabilities on the Internet (as "Web services") and using scientific workflow systems to compose them for particular tasks is a practical way to carry out robust "in silico" science...
October 20, 2016: BMC Ecology
Meena Patil, Manjiri Karandikar
Pineal tumors comprise 0.4 - 1.0% of intracranial space-occupying lesions in adults. Papillary tumor of pineal region (PTPR) is a very rare entity. It has been newly described in WHO 2007 classification of brain tumors. Only a few case reports are available in the literature. We report a case of a 60 year-old female presenting with headache, giddiness and reduced vision. Imaging studies showed a pineal mass with areas of hemorrhage. All ventricles were normal. There was a past history of a pineal gland tumor excised 2 years ago...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Ovidiu Popa, Giddy Landan, Tal Dagan
Bacteriophages are recognized DNA vectors and transduction is considered as a common mechanism of lateral gene transfer (LGT) during microbial evolution. Anecdotal events of phage-mediated gene transfer were studied extensively, however, a coherent evolutionary viewpoint of LGT by transduction, its extent and characteristics, is still lacking. Here we report a large-scale evolutionary reconstruction of transduction events in 3982 genomes. We inferred 17 158 recent transduction events linking donors, phages and recipients into a phylogenomic transduction network view...
September 20, 2016: ISME Journal
Ingrid V Bassett, Sharon M Coleman, Janet Giddy, Laura M Bogart, Christine E Chaisson, Douglas Ross, Margo M Jacobsen, Marion Robine, Tessa Govender, Kenneth A Freedberg, Jeffrey N Katz, Rochelle P Walensky, Elena Losina
BACKGROUND: A fraction of HIV-diagnosed individuals promptly initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART). We evaluated the efficacy of health system navigators for improving linkage to HIV and tuberculosis (TB) care among newly diagnosed HIV-infected outpatients in Durban, South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial (Sizanani Trial, NCT01188941) among adults (≥18 years) at 4 sites. Participants underwent TB screening and randomization into a health system navigator intervention or usual care...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Sriram Pothapregada, Banupriya Kamalakannan, Mahalaskhmy Thulasingham, Srinivasan Sampath
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical profile and outcome of dengue fever in children at a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All children (0-12 years of age) diagnosed and confirmed as dengue fever from August 2012 to January 2015 were reviewed retrospectively from hospital case records as per the revised World Health Organization guidelines for dengue fever. The diagnosis was confirmed by NS1 antigen-based ELISA test or dengue serology for IgM and IgG antibodies, and the data were analyzed using SPSS 16...
July 2016: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Dawie Du Plessis, Paul Alfred Kapp, Louis S Jenkins, Laurel Giddy
BACKGROUND: Since 2007, the postgraduate training of family physicians for South African district hospitals has been formalised. This training differs from European and North American programmes as up to 30% of the skills needed rely on district hospital surgical, obstetrics and anaesthetics procedures, particularly in rural areas, as outlined in the national unit standards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness and sufficiency of learning opportunities for these skills in a rural district hospital...
2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
Michael Schomaker, Valeriane Leroy, Tom Wolfs, Karl-Günter Technau, Lorna Renner, Ali Judd, Shobna Sawry, Madeleine Amorissani-Folquet, Antoni Noguera-Julian, Frank Tanser, François Eboua, Maria Luisa Navarro, Cleophas Chimbetete, Clarisse Amani-Bosse, Josiane Warszawski, Sam Phiri, Sylvie N'Gbeche, Vivian Cox, Fla Koueta, Janet Giddy, Haby Sygnaté-Sy, Dorthe Raben, Geneviève Chêne, Mary-Ann Davies
BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge about the optimal timing of antiretroviral treatment initiation in older children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 20 576 antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve patients, aged 1-16 years at enrolment, from 19 cohorts in Europe, Southern Africa and West Africa, were included. We compared mortality and growth outcomes for different ART initiation criteria, aligned with previous and recent World Health Organization criteria, for 5 years of follow-up, adjusting for all measured baseline and time-dependent confounders using the g-formula...
June 24, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
A Samer Kadibalban, David Bogumil, Giddy Landan, Tal Dagan
Many proteins depend on an interaction with molecular chaperones in order to fold into a functional tertiary structure. Previous studies showed that protein interaction with the GroEL/GroES chaperonine and Hsp90 chaperone can buffer the impact of slightly deleterious mutations in the protein sequence. This capacity of GroEL/GroES to prevent protein misfolding has been shown to accelerate the evolution of its client proteins. Whether other bacterial chaperones have a similar effect on their client proteins is currently unknown...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Kumaran Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnaraj Geetha
INTRODUCTION: The present study was conducted to find one year prevalence and risk factors of tinnitus in the children (below 18 years) who reported with the ear or hearing related complaint to All India Institute of Speech and hearing, Mysore. METHODS: A retrospective case analysis was carried out by reviewing the case files of those who visited the institute during the above period. RESULTS: The results shown that the tinnitus prevalence was 5...
2015: International Tinnitus Journal
Mazvita Sengayi, Adrian Spoerri, Matthias Egger, Danuta Kielkowski, Tamaryn Crankshaw, Christie Cloete, Janet Giddy, Julia Bohlius
The surveillance of HIV-related cancers in South Africa is hampered by the lack of systematic collection of cancer diagnoses in HIV cohorts and the absence of HIV status in cancer registries. To improve cancer ascertainment and estimate cancer incidence, we linked records of adults (aged ≥ 16 years) on antiretroviral treatment (ART) enrolled at Sinikithemba HIV clinic, McCord Hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) with the cancer records of public laboratories in KZN province using probabilistic record linkage (PRL) methods...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Harshil Chimanlal Shah, Kapil Jain, Jaimin Kiran Shah
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infestation of the central nervous system. NCC parasitic infestation can be misdiagnosed as hydatid cyst or intraventricular epidermoid cyst that can cause a diagnostic dilemma. A 23-year-old male patient presented with headache and vomiting for 3-4 days and giddiness for 4-5 days. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast was suggestive of a rim-enhancing lesion at the level of the foramen of Monro. Endoscopic excision of the lesion was done, and the patient had relief of a headache and vomiting immediately after the procedure...
April 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Erna Morden, Karl-Günter Technau, Janet Giddy, Nicola Maxwell, Olivia Keiser, Mary-Ann Davies
BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are a growing population in sub-Saharan Africa especially with the increasing coverage of more effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) antiretroviral therapy regimens. This study describes the characteristics of South African HEU infants, investigates factors impacting birth weight and assesses their growth within the first 28 weeks of life. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort based on routine clinical data from two South African PMTCT programmes...
2016: PloS One
Audry S Y Lee, Damian Z Q Lee, Farhad F Vasanwala
BACKGROUND: We present a case of amyloid light-chain amyloidosis with occult plasma cell dyscrasia, with the rare initial presentation of gastroparesis. While amyloidosis is known to affect the gastrointestinal system, rarely do patients present with gastrointestinal symptoms as their first symptom. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case reported with a definitive diagnosis made on gastroscopy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old Malay man with abdominal bloating, early satiety, and weight loss was found to have significant gastroparesis...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Bal Kishan Gupta, Anjli Gupta, Hardev Ram Nehra, Heera Ram Balotia, Shyam Lal Meena, Surendra Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Severe malaria remains a major cause of death and morbidity among adults in the Asiatic tropics. This study was planned to evaluate clinical profile and prognostic indicators of severe malaria in adults so as to improve insight into this highly prevalent disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted on 60 confirmed cases of malaria. Cases were divided into two groups: (a) study group: suffering from severe malaria and (b) control group: no severe manifestations...
2015: Infectious Diseases
Zübeyde N Özkurt, Eda Aypar, Serpil Sarifakiogullari, Gülten Taçoy, Murat Özdag, Seda Kahraman, Atiye Çengel
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has one of the most favorable prognoses among other leukemia subtypes. However, the major cause of mortality in APL is disseminated intravascular coagulation at the presentation. We present a case of acute myocardial infarction (MI) at the time of APL diagnosis before treatment. The patient suffered from chest pain, sweating and giddiness. He was hypoxic, hypotensive and bradycardic. ECG showed inferior MI. Unfractioned heparin infusion (850 U/h) was started and 5 min after the previous ECG showed total ST resolution...
December 2015: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
Michael Schomaker, Mary-Ann Davies, Karen Malateste, Lorna Renner, Shobna Sawry, Sylvie N'Gbeche, Karl-Günter Technau, François Eboua, Frank Tanser, Haby Sygnaté-Sy, Sam Phiri, Madeleine Amorissani-Folquet, Vivian Cox, Fla Koueta, Cleophas Chimbete, Annette Lawson-Evi, Janet Giddy, Clarisse Amani-Bosse, Robin Wood, Matthias Egger, Valeriane Leroy
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence regarding the optimal timing of initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children. We conducted a causal modeling analysis in children ages 1-5 years from the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS West/Southern-Africa collaboration to determine growth and mortality differences related to different CD4-based treatment initiation criteria, age groups, and regions. METHODS: ART-naïve children of ages 12-59 months at enrollment with at least one visit before ART initiation and one follow-up visit were included...
March 2016: Epidemiology
Manuel Koller, Geoffrey Fatti, Benjamin H Chi, Olivia Keiser, Christopher J Hoffmann, Robin Wood, Hans Prozesky, Kathryn Stinson, Janet Giddy, Portia Mutevedzi, Matthew P Fox, Matthew Law, Andrew Boulle, Matthias Egger
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) testing is recommended to monitor antiretroviral therapy (ART) but not available in many resource-limited settings. We developed and validated CD4-based risk charts to guide targeted VL testing. METHODS: We modeled the probability of virologic failure up to 5 years of ART based on current and baseline CD4 counts, developed decision rules for targeted VL testing of 10%, 20%, or 40% of patients in 7 cohorts of patients starting ART in South Africa, and plotted cutoffs for VL testing on colour-coded risk charts...
November 1, 2015: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
J C Mohan, Rishi Jain, Vijay Chamle, Amit Bhargava
OBJECTIVE: To assess the short term safety and tolerability of a fixed dose combination (FDC) of olmesartan, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide (OAH) in real-world clinical setting in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Physicians were requested to provide eight weeks observational clinical event data of the patients prescribed with FDC of Olmesartan (20/40mg), Amlodipine (5mg) and hydrochlorothiazide (12.5mg) in the prescription event monitoring (PEM) forms. Data on patients' demographics, indication for FDC, concomitant medication and other relevant history was also collected and was analysed with descriptive statistics...
August 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Morna Cornell, Leigh F Johnson, Michael Schomaker, Frank Tanser, Mhairi Maskew, Robin Wood, Hans Prozesky, Janet Giddy, Kathryn Stinson, Matthias Egger, Andrew Boulle, Landon Myer
BACKGROUND: As access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) expands, increasing numbers of older patients will start treatment and need specialised long-term care. However, the effect of age in ART programmes in resource-constrained settings is poorly understood. The HIV epidemic is ageing rapidly and South Africa has one of the highest HIV population prevalences worldwide. We explored the effect of age on mortality of patients on ART in South Africa and whether this effect is mediated by baseline immunological status...
September 2015: Lancet HIV
Purushothaman Ganesan, Priya Sankaran, Purushothaman Pavanjur Kothandaraman
Schwannoma of the trigeminal nerve is a rare condition. Even rarer is hearing loss occurring as a result of this lesion. The aim of this study is to highlight this rare cause of hearing impairment. Here we report the clinical features and findings of the imaging and audiological investigations of a case of trigeminal schwannoma diagnosed at our institution. Our patient presented with headache, giddiness, tinnitus, left-sided facial weakness, left-sided hearing loss, right-sided hemiplegia, and unintelligible speech...
August 2015: Journal of International Advanced Otology
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