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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820797/postoperative-renal-dysfunction-after-noncardiac-surgery
#1
Suvi T Vaara, Rinaldo Bellomo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The narrative review aims to discuss recent results and important knowledge gaps regarding acute kidney injury (AKI) in postoperative patients undergone major noncardiac surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Postoperative AKI affects approximately one-fifth of patients after major surgery, but the incidence varies according to the type of surgery. Preexisting chronic kidney disease is a major risk factor for postoperative AKI. It carries a substantial risk for postoperative adverse outcomes, as well as long-term mortality and morbidity...
August 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820502/oligonucleotides-targeting-periostin-ameliorates-pulmonary-fibrosis
#2
A Tomaru, T Kobayashi, J A Hinneh, P B Tonto, C N D' Alessandro-Gabazza, H Fujimoto, K Fujiwara, Y Takahashi, M Ohnishi, T Yasuma, K Nishihama, M Yoshino, K Takao, M Toda, T Totoki, Y Takei, K Yoshikawa, O Taguchi, E C Gabazza
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disease with a median survival of 3 to 4 years after diagnosis. It is the most frequent form of a group of interstitial pneumonias of unknown etiology. Current available therapies prevent deterioration of lung function but no therapy has shown to improve survival. Periostin is a matricellular protein of the fasciclin 1 family. There is increased deposition of periostin in lung fibrotic tissues. Here, we evaluated whether small interfering RNA or antisense oligonucleotide against periostin inhibit lung fibrosis by direct administration into the lung by intranasal route...
August 18, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820067/a-comprehensive-review-on-ebola-ebov-virus-future-prospects
#3
Dr Abdru Rauf, Muhammad, Abdur Rauf, Ahsan Khan, Muhammad Rizwan, Seema Patel, Haroon Khan, Adel Mahasneh, Mohammad S Mubarak
Ebola virus (EBOV) was discovered for the first time in 1976. It belongs to the family Filoviridae, which causes hemorrhagic fever that could lead to death in a few days. West Africa faced a major outbreak where symptoms appeared in the form of chills, myalgia, fever, diarrhea, and vomiting, and the disease finally reached a severe state as a result of hemorrhagic complications and failure of multiple organs. EBOV spreads by contact with body fluids of an infected person such as blood, saliva, urine, and seminal fluid, and also spreads by a contact with contaminated surfaces...
August 16, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819670/mimicking-wettability-alterations-using-temperature-gradients-for-water-nanodroplets
#4
Chirodeep Bakli, Sree Hari P D, Suman Chakraborty
A sessile droplet or a film usually moves from hotter regions to colder regions, due to variations in interfacial tension. This, known as the so-called Marangoni effect, is true for most pure liquids like water for which the surface tension decreases with an increase in temperature. In stark contrast to this existing understanding, we bring forth the coupled effect of wettability and temperature gradients on the dynamics of the three-phase contact line. By simultaneously tracking the dynamic evolution of the three-phase contact line due to the evaporation and diffusion of molecules through molecular dynamics simulations, we explore the coterminous effects of the change of surface tension coefficients and wetting parameters with temperature on sessile droplets residing on surfaces with different wettabilities...
August 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818586/a-rare-presentation-of-the-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-in-a-12-year-old-female-as-the-initial-presentation-of-an-immature-ovarian-teratoma
#5
Anoop Mohamed Iqbal, W Frederick Schwenk
BACKGROUND: Immature ovarian teratoma is very rare in childhood. We are reporting 12 yo female with immature ovarian teratoma who presented initially with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone. CASE: A 12 yo female presented with acute abdomen and distention. Initial laboratory tests showed hyponatremia (sodium -123 mmol/L), that did not respond to fluid management. Computerized tomography showed a 15 cm x 9 cm x 20 cm mass in the right ovary with multifocal internal fat, and dystrophic calcifications...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818234/the-dutch-lymphedema-guidelines-based-on-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-and-the-chronic-care-model
#6
Robert J Damstra, Anne-Berth Halk
Lymphedema is a chronic and progressive condition due to an imbalance between lymphatic filtration and transport capacity. A relative overload of fluid is caused by lymphatic impairment (afterload impairment); an absolute overload is caused by increased filtration (preload raised). Lymphedema can result in considerable disability and loss of quality of life. The Dutch Society of Dermatology organized a task force to create guidelines using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health...
September 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817221/neuroprotective-effects-of-honokiol-from-chemistry-to-medicine
#7
REVIEW
Sylwia Talarek, Joanna Listos, Davide Barreca, Ester Tellone, Antoni Sureda, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Nady Braidy, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
The incidence of neurological disorders is growing in developed countries together with increased lifespan. Nowadays, there are still no effective treatments for neurodegenerative pathologies, which make necessary to search for new therapeutic agents. Natural products, most of them used in traditional medicine, are considered promising alternatives for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Honokiol is a natural bioactive phenylpropanoid compound, belonging to the class of neolignan, found in notable amounts in the bark of Magnolia tree, and has been reported to exert diverse pharmacological properties including neuroprotective activities...
August 17, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816297/-perirenal-cystic-lymphangioma-in-an-adult-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
W He, Y C Hao, H Z Xia, R Z Ma, B Yang, J Lu
Lymphangioma is a rare, benign mesenchymal neoplasm, which is characterized by numerous intercommunicating cystic spaces containing lymphatic fluid. It is considered a congenital disease resulting from the obstruction of regional lymph drainage during the developmental period. Lymphangioma frequently occurs in the cervical neck and axilla, also in the retroperitoneum, mediastinum, mesentery, omentum, colon, and pelvis, rarely in the perirenal space. These tumors usually present in childhood, but infrequently, these also present in adults...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815972/assessing-the-ideal-microwave-duration-for-disinfection-of-sinus-irrigation-bottles-a-quantitative-study
#9
E Nikolaou, E Mitsi, D M Ferreira, A Bartolo, S C Leong
OBJECTIVES: Saline irrigation of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses by one-way valved sinus containers has a recognised role in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis. However, bacterial recontamination of irrigation bottles through backflow from the sinonasal cavity is a concern in recurrent sinus cavity infections. While patients are encouraged to clean the irrigation bottles regularly, there remains significant concern that the use of contaminated bottles may perpetuate chronic rhinosinusitis...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815430/clinical-evaluation-of-the-antifungal-effect-of-sertraline-in-the-treatment-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-hiv-patients-a-single-mexican-center-experience
#10
Hiram Villanueva-Lozano, Rogelio de J Treviño-Rangel, Gloria M González, Pedro A Hernández-Rodríguez, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Luis Castillo-Reyna, Sandra G Galindo-Alvarado, Michel F Martínez-Reséndez
PURPOSE: Cryptococcal meningitis is a potentially fatal fungal infection associated with a significant attributable morbidity and mortality, especially among HIV/AIDS patients. The first-line therapy for the treatment of this clinical entity is the combinatory therapy of amphotericin B plus flucytosine. However, the high cost, toxic effects, and limited repertoire of effective antifungal drugs have led to the investigation of novel molecules. This is a prospective, double-blinded, and randomized study performed in a Mexican tertiary care center to evaluate the antifungal activity of sertraline in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV patients...
August 16, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815066/anaesthesia-during-oesophagectomy
#11
REVIEW
Denise P Veelo, Bart F Geerts
In this review, we will provide an overview of the current state of the art of perioperative practices for open and laparoscopic oesophagus surgery from the anaesthetist's perspective. Morbidity and mortality after oesophagectomy is still high despite multidisciplinary and enhanced recovery pathways showing promising results. The anaesthetist has an important role in the complex care of the oesophageal cancer patient. Minimizing unnecessary fluid administration, adequate pain management, hypotension, and protective lung ventilation are examples of proven strategies that can improve outcome after this high-risk surgery...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814258/management-of-complicated-pneumonia-in-childhood-a-review-of-recent-literature
#12
John B Darby, Amrita Singh, Ricardo Quinonez
BACKGROUND: Despite declining rates of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children, complicated pneumonia has been on the rise in the last two decades. The management of complicated pneumonia is challenging and continues to be an area of investigation. Despite recently published guidelines, many gaps exist and recent studies attempt to answer challenging questions. OBJECTIVE: To review recently published literature to inform the clinician on the most up to date management of complicated pneumonia in children...
August 16, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814256/current-issues-in-intravenous-fluid-use-in-hospitalized-children
#13
Jennifer Fuchs, Sarah T Adams, Julie Byerley
BACKGROUND: Fluid and electrolyte therapy is an important component in the care of the hospitalized child. Previous pediatric guidelines have followed the Holliday-Segar method of calculating and delivering maintenance IV fluids, using hypotonic fluids in maintenance therapy. However, research demonstrates that hypotonic fluids can lead to iatrogenic hyponatremia and that isotonic fluid is a safer alternative. OBJECTIVE: To provide the ideal approach to intravenous (IV) fluid use in the hospitalized child and determine the safety and effectiveness of isotonic maintenance fluid therapy...
August 16, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814248/pediatric-abdominal-trauma
#14
Tim Lynch
Abdominal trauma is present in approximately 25% of pediatric patients with major trauma and is the most common cause of unrecognized fatal injury in children. Pediatric abdominal trauma is typically blunt in nature with the spleen being the most common organ injured. Non-operative management is employed in over 95% of patients. Penetrating injuries are less common but often require operative management. Knowledge of specific mechanisms of injury aids the clinician in the diagnosis of specific injuries. Computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard in the identification of intra-abdominal injury...
August 14, 2017: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812114/-thoracic-and-abdominal-imaging-in-immunocompromised-patients
#15
REVIEW
J R Kroeger, D Maintz, D-H Chang
The number of patients with immunosuppression is rising worldwide. The spectrum of diseases and pathogens in these patients differs widely from that of immunocompetent patients due to frequent opportunistic infections. Symptoms are sometimes unspecific, and imaging plays a key role in the management of these patients. The lungs are a frequent site of infection in immunosuppressed patients. Chest X‑ray is the starting point for radiological diagnostics, but shows only limited sensitivity and specificity for infections with atypical pathogens...
August 15, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810281/-hyponatremia-differential-diagnosis-and-treatment
#16
Heiner Mönig, Alexander Arlt
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality seen in hospitalized patients, with up to 30 % having a plasma sodium concentration below 135 mmol/l. It is now clear that the clinical problem extends beyond the neurological symptoms, which can be explained by intracerebral osmotic fluid shifts and brain edema. Instead, chronic hyponatremia is associated with impaired gait stability and an increased risk of bone fragility fractures. Moreover, hyponatremia has been demonstrated to be an indicator of poor prognosis in a variety of conditions...
August 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809670/cardio-pulmonary-stethoscope-clinical-validation-with-heart-failure-and-hemodialysis-patients
#17
Magdy F Iskander, Todd B Seto, Ruthsenne Rg Perron, Eunjung Lim, Farhan Qazi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of a noninvasive radiofrequency-based device, the Cardio-Pulmonary Stethoscope (CPS), to monitor heart and respiration rates and detect changes in lung water content in human experiments and clinical trials. METHODS: Three human populations (healthy subjects (n=4), heart failure (n=12) and hemodialysis (n=13) patients) were enrolled in this study. The study was conducted at the University of Hawaii and The Queen's Medical Center in Honolulu, HI...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809612/a-retrospective-study-evaluating-the-efficacy-of-identification-and-management-of-sepsis-at-a-district-level-hospital-internal-medicine-department-in-the-western-cape-province-south-africa-in-comparison-with-the-guidelines-stipulated-in-the-2012-survivi
#18
Raisa Bhikoo, Sarah Versfeld, M M De V Basson, Almero H Oosthuizen
BACKGROUND: Currently there is little information on the identification, management and outcomes of patients with sepsis in developing countries. Simple cost-effective measures such as accurate identification of patients with sepsis and early antibiotic administration are achievable targets, within reach without having to make use of unsustainable protocols constructed in developed countries. OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of clinicians at a district-level hospital to identify and manage sepsis, and to assess patient outcome in terms of in-hospital mortality and length of hospital stay given the above management...
July 28, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808933/cardiovascular-disease-in-clozapine-treated-patients-evidence-mechanisms-and-management
#19
REVIEW
Kathlyn J Ronaldson
Myocarditis occurs in about 3% of those initiated on clozapine but monitoring reduces the risk of serious outcome. Cardiomyopathy may develop after myocarditis, or from prolonged tachycardia. Monitoring using echocardiography is not deemed cost effective. Tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension and reduced heart rate variability are a group of clozapine-related adverse effects associated with autonomic dysfunction and may have serious consequences in the long term. Elevated heart rate and poor heart rate variability can be treated with a β-blocker or a non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, while orthostatic hypotension can be alleviated by increased fluid intake and abdominal binding, but may require pharmacological intervention...
August 14, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807798/clinically-undetected-retinal-breaks-causing-retinal-detachment-options-for-management
#20
REVIEW
Deepak Gupta, Jared Ching, Paul E Tornambe
The successful detection of retinal breaks is a critical step in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) surgery in order to prevent persistent/recurrent RRDs. Not all retinal breaks causing retinal detachments are obvious. Retinal breaks may be obscured due to opacities that are either anterior-segment related, lens related or posterior-segment related. Rules to identify breaks based on sub-retinal fluid (SRF) configuration are more difficult to apply in pseudophakic, aphakic, encircled eyes, and eyes with repeat detachments and those with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR)...
August 11, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
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