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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320079/ketamine-reduces-the-need-for-intubation-in-patients-with-acute-severe-mental-illness-and-agitation-requiring-transport-to-definitive-care-an-observational-study
#1
Cathrin S Parsch, Adrianne Boonstra, David Teubner, Wade Emmerton, Brian McKenny, Daniel Y Ellis
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review mental health patients transported by a dedicated statewide critical care retrieval team before and after the implementation of a ketamine sedation guideline. METHODS: This is a a retrospective cohort study of mental health patients with acute behavioural disturbance, transported between January 2010 and December 2015. RESULTS: A total of 78 patients were transported in the study period, 50 before and 28 after implementation of the ketamine guideline in June 2013...
March 20, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319179/biophysical-comparison-of-atp-driven-proton-pumping-mechanisms-suggests-a-kinetic-advantage-for-the-rotary-process-depending-on-coupling-ratio
#2
Ramu Anandakrishnan, Daniel M Zuckerman
ATP-driven proton pumps, which are critical to the operation of a cell, maintain cytosolic and organellar pH levels within a narrow functional range. These pumps employ two very different mechanisms: an elaborate rotary mechanism used by V-ATPase H+ pumps, and a simpler alternating access mechanism used by P-ATPase H+ pumps. Why are two different mechanisms used to perform the same function? Systematic analysis, without parameter fitting, of kinetic models of the rotary, alternating access and other possible mechanisms suggest that, when the ratio of protons transported per ATP hydrolyzed exceeds one, the one-at-a-time proton transport by the rotary mechanism is faster than other possible mechanisms across a wide range of driving conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318906/analysis-of-molecular-mechanisms-of-atp-synthesis-from-the-standpoint-of-the-principle-of-electrical-neutrality
#3
REVIEW
Sunil Nath
Theories of biological energy coupling in oxidative phosphorylation (OX PHOS) and photophosphorylation (PHOTO PHOS) are reviewed and applied to ATP synthesis by an experimental system containing purified ATP synthase reconstituted into liposomes. The theories are critically evaluated from the standpoint of the principle of electrical neutrality. It is shown that the obligatory requirement to maintain overall electroneutrality of bulk aqueous phases imposes strong constraints on possible theories of energy coupling and molecular mechanisms of ATP synthesis...
March 8, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315756/interleukin-4-is-a-participant-in-the-regulation-of-depressive-like-behavior
#4
Simone Wachholz, Alexandra Knorr, Leonie Mengert, Jennifer Plümper, Rainer Sommer, Georg Juckel, Astrid Friebe
Inflammatory immune activation has been frequently associated with the development of major depression. Microglia might serve as an important interface in this immune system-to-brain communication. Interleukin-4, the major Th2 type cytokine, might be protective against depression due to its ability to counter-regulate inflammation and to inhibit serotonin transporter activity. By using an Interferon-α mouse model, we show that a decreased IL-4 responsiveness of microglia was specifically related to the development of depressive-like behavior...
March 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315693/central-glp-1-receptor-activation-modulates-cocaine-evoked-phasic-dopamine-signaling-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#5
Samantha M Fortin, Mitchell F Roitman
Drugs of abuse increase the frequency and magnitude of brief (1-3s), high concentration (phasic) dopamine release events in terminal regions. These are thought to be a critical part of drug reinforcement and ultimately the development of addiction. Recently, metabolic regulatory peptides, including the satiety signal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have been shown to modulate cocaine reward-driven behavior and sustained dopamine levels after cocaine administration. Here, we use fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to explore GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) modulation of dynamic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) during cocaine administration...
March 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315682/n-terminal-domain-of-the-cholesterol-transporter-niemann-pick-c1-like-1-npc1l1-is-essential-for-%C3%AE-tocopherol-transport
#6
Jun Kamishikiryo, Misaki Haraguchi, Shunsuke Nakashima, Yuka Tasaka, Hiroe Narahara, Narumi Sugihara, Tetsuya Nakamura, Tetsuo Morita
Both cholesterol and α-tocopherol are essential lipophilic nutrients for humans and animals. Although cholesterol in excess causes severe problems such as coronary heart disease, it is a necessary component of cell membranes and is the precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones and bile acids. Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) is a cholesterol transporter that is highly expressed in the small intestine and liver in humans and plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol promotes NPC1L1 endocytosis, which is an early step in cholesterol uptake...
March 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314825/increased-plasma-exposures-of-conjugated-metabolites-of-morinidazole-in-renal-failure-patients-a-critical-role-of-uremic-toxins
#7
Fandi Kong, Xiaoyan Pang, Kan Zhong, Zitao Guo, Xiuli Li, Dafang Zhong, Xiaoyan Chen
Morinidazole is a 5-nitroimidazole drug. Its sulfate conjugate M7 was a sensitive substrate of organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) and OAT3, whereas N+-glucuronides M8-1 and M8-2 were only OAT3 substrates. In chronic renal failure (CRF) patients, plasma exposures of the three conjugates increased by 15-fold, which were also found in 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6 Nx) rats in this study. Although the transcriptions of Oat1 and Oat3 in 5/6 Nx rat kidneys decreased by 50%, no difference was observed on the three conjugate uptakes between control and 5/6 Nx rat kidney slices...
March 17, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314816/characterization-of-a-human-point-mutation-of-vglut3-p-a211v-in-the-rodent-brain-suggests-a-non-uniform-distribution-of-the-transporter-in-synaptic-vesicles
#8
Lauriane Ramet, Johannes Zimmermann, Tiphaine Bersot, Odile Poirel, Stéphanie De Gois, Katlin Silm, Diana Yae Sakae, Nina Mansouri-Guilani, Marie-Josée Bourque, Louis-Eric Trudeau, Nicolas Pietrancosta, Stéphanie Daumas, Véronique Bernard, Christian Rosenmund, Salah El Mestikawy
The atypical vesicular glutamate transporter type 3 (VGLUT3) is expressed by sub-populations of neurons using acetylcholine, GABA or serotonin as neurotransmitters. In addition, VGLUT3 is expressed in the inner hair cells of the auditory system. A mutation (p.A211V) in the gene that encodes VGLUT3 is responsible for progressive deafness in two unrelated families. In this study, we investigated the consequences of the p.A211V mutation in cell cultures and in the central nervous system (CNS) of a mutant mouse...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306503/phase-separation-of-c9orf72-dipeptide-repeats-perturbs-stress-granule-dynamics
#9
Steven Boeynaems, Elke Bogaert, Denes Kovacs, Albert Konijnenberg, Evy Timmerman, Alex Volkov, Mainak Guharoy, Mathias De Decker, Tom Jaspers, Veronica H Ryan, Abigail M Janke, Pieter Baatsen, Thomas Vercruysse, Regina-Maria Kolaitis, Dirk Daelemans, J Paul Taylor, Nancy Kedersha, Paul Anderson, Francis Impens, Frank Sobott, Joost Schymkowitz, Frederic Rousseau, Nicolas L Fawzi, Wim Robberecht, Philip Van Damme, Peter Tompa, Ludo Van Den Bosch
Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of RNA-binding proteins plays an important role in the formation of multiple membrane-less organelles involved in RNA metabolism, including stress granules. Defects in stress granule homeostasis constitute a cornerstone of ALS/FTLD pathogenesis. Polar residues (tyrosine and glutamine) have been previously demonstrated to be critical for phase separation of ALS-linked stress granule proteins. We now identify an active role for arginine-rich domains in these phase separations...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306291/new-paradigm-for-turbulent-transport-across-a-steep-gradient-in-toroidal-plasmas
#10
H S Xie, Y Xiao, Z Lin
First principles gyrokinetic simulation of the edge turbulent transport in toroidal plasmas finds a reverse trend in the turbulent transport coefficients under strong gradients. It is found that there exist both linear and nonlinear critical gradients for the nonmonotonicity of transport characteristics. The discontinuity of the transport flux slope around the turning gradient shows features of a second order phase transition. Under a strong gradient the most unstable modes are in nonground eigenstates with unconventional mode structures, which significantly reduces the effective correlation length and thus reverse the transport trend...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306212/tracheal-extubation-practices-following-adenotonsillectomy-in-children-effects-on-operating-room-efficiency-between-two-institutions
#11
Hiromi Kako, Marco Corridore, Sarah Seo, Charles Elmaraghy, Meredith Lind, Joseph D Tobias
BACKGROUND: Adenotonsillectomy is one of the most commonly performed operative procedures in children. It is imperative to find the most efficient and cost-effective methods of practice to facilitate operating room management while maintaining patient safety. We investigated the efficiency of two different approaches of tracheal extubation in pediatric patients following adenotonsillectomy at two tertiary care pediatric hospitals with large surgical volumes. The primary aim of the study was to determine the difference in the operating room time according to the institutional practice of tracheal extubation in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) as compared to the operating room...
March 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304360/traffic-related-air-pollution-and-childhood-asthma-recent-advances-and-remaining-gaps-in-the-exposure-assessment-methods
#12
REVIEW
Haneen Khreis, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen
Background: Current levels of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) are associated with the development of childhood asthma, although some inconsistencies and heterogeneity remain. An important part of the uncertainty in studies of TRAP-associated asthma originates from uncertainties in the TRAP exposure assessment and assignment methods. In this work, we aim to systematically review the exposure assessment methods used in the epidemiology of TRAP and childhood asthma, highlight recent advances, remaining research gaps and make suggestions for further research...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304141/evidence-connecting-old-new-and-neglected-glucose-lowering-drugs-to-bile-acid-induced-glp-1-secretion-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Martin L Kårhus, Andreas Brønden, David P Sonne, Tina Vilsbøll, Fillip K Knop
Bile acids are amphipathic water-soluble steroid-based molecules best known for their important lipid-solubilizing role in the assimilation of fat. Recently, bile acids have emerged as metabolic integrators with glucose-lowering potential. Among a variety of gluco-metabolic effects, bile acids have been demonstrated to modulate the secretion of the gut-derived incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), possibly via the transmembrane receptor Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) and the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR), in intestinal L cell...
March 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303805/strong-coupling-theory-of-heavy-fermion-criticality-ii
#14
Peter Wölfle, Jörg Schmalian, Elihu Abrahams
We present a theory of the scaling behavior of the thermodynamic, transport and dynamical properties of a three-dimensional metal governed by d-dimensional fluctuations at a quantum critical point, where the electron quasiparticle effective mass diverges. We determine how the critical bosonic order parameter fluctuations are affected by the effective mass divergence. The coupled system of fermions and bosons is found to be governed by two stable fixed points: the conventional weak-coupling fixed point and a new strong-coupling fixed point, provided the boson-boson interaction is irrelevant...
April 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303408/methylene-blue-decreases-mitochondrial-lysine-acetylation-in-the-diabetic-heart
#15
Jessica M Berthiaume, Chia-Heng Hsiung, Alison B Austin, Sean P McBrayer, Mikayla M Depuydt, Margaret P Chandler, Masaru Miyagi, Mariana G Rosca
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is preceded by mitochondrial alterations, and progresses to heart failure. We studied whether treatment with methylene blue (MB), a compound that was reported to serve as an alternate electron carrier within the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), improves mitochondrial metabolism and cardiac function in type 1 diabetes. MB was administered at 10 mg/kg/day to control and diabetic rats. Both echocardiography and hemodynamic studies were performed to assess cardiac function...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299773/trafficking-and-other-regulatory-mechanisms-for-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptides-oatps-and-organic-anion-transporters-oats-that-modulate-cellular-drug-and-xenobiotic-influx-and-that-are-dysregulated-in-disease
#16
REVIEW
Michael Murray, Fanfan Zhou
Organic anion transporters (OATs) and organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs), encoded by a number of SLC22A and SLCO genes, mediate the absorption and distribution of drugs and other xenobiotics. The regulation of OATs and OATPs is complex, comprising both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Plasma membrane expression is required for cellular substrate influx by OATs/OATPs. Thus, interest in post-translational regulatory processes, including membrane targeting, endocytosis, recycling and degradation of transporter proteins, is increasing because these are critical for plasma membrane expression...
March 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297949/criticality-and-turbulence-in-a-resistive-magnetohydrodynamic-current-sheet
#17
Alexander J Klimas, Vadim M Uritsky
Scaling properties of a two-dimensional (2d) plasma physical current-sheet simulation model involving a full set of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with current-dependent resistivity are investigated. The current sheet supports a spatial magnetic field reversal that is forced through loading of magnetic flux containing plasma at boundaries of the simulation domain. A balance is reached between loading and annihilation of the magnetic flux through reconnection at the current sheet; the transport of magnetic flux from boundaries to current sheet is realized in the form of spatiotemporal avalanches exhibiting power-law statistics of lifetimes and sizes...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297643/effects-of-polymer-length-and-salt-concentration-on-the-transport-of-ssdna-in-nanofluidic-channels
#18
Weixin Qian, Kentaro Doi, Satoyuki Kawano
Electrokinetic phenomena in micro/nanofluidic channels have attracted considerable attention because precise control of molecular transport in liquids is required to optically and electrically capture the behavior of single molecules. However, the detailed mechanisms of polymer transport influenced by electroosmotic flows and electric fields in micro/nanofluidic channels have not yet been elucidated. In this study, a Langevin dynamics simulation was used to investigate the electrokinetic transport of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in a cylindrical nanochannel, employing a coarse-grained bead-spring model that quantitatively reproduced the radius of gyration, diffusion coefficient, and electrophoretic mobility of the polymer...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296287/bio-inspired-nanomedicine-strategies-for-artificial-blood-components
#19
REVIEW
Anirban Sen Gupta
Blood is a fluid connective tissue where living cells are suspended in noncellular liquid matrix. The cellular components of blood render gas exchange (RBCs), immune surveillance (WBCs) and hemostatic responses (platelets), and the noncellular components (salts, proteins, etc.) provide nutrition to various tissues in the body. Dysfunction and deficiencies in these blood components can lead to significant tissue morbidity and mortality. Consequently, transfusion of whole blood or its components is a clinical mainstay in the management of trauma, surgery, myelosuppression, and congenital blood disorders...
March 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293419/cilia-before-and-after
#20
REVIEW
Peter Satir
This is a history of cilia research before and after the discovery of intraflagellar transport (IFT) and the link between primary cilia ciliogenesis and polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Before IFT, ca. the beginning of the new millennium, although sensory and primary cilia were well described, research was largely focused on motile cilia, their structure, movement, and biogenesis. After IFT and the link to PKD, although work on motile cilia has continued to progress, research on primary cilia has exploded, leading to new insights into the role of cilia in cell signaling and development...
2017: Cilia
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