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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088626/characterization-and-source-apportionment-of-pm2-5-based-on-error-estimation-from-epa-pmf-5-0-model-at-a-medium-city-in-china
#1
Baoshuang Liu, Jianhui Wu, Jiaying Zhang, Lu Wang, Jiamei Yang, Danni Liang, Qili Dai, Xiaohui Bi, Yinchang Feng, Yufen Zhang, Qinxun Zhang
Heze city, a medium-size city in Shandong province, Eastern China. Ambient PM2.5 samples were collected in urban area of Heze from August 2015 to April 2016, and chemical species and sources of PM2.5 were investigated in this paper. The results indicated that the average concentration of PM2.5 was 100.9 μg/m(3) during the sampling period, and the water-soluble ions, carbonaceous species included elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), as well as elements contributed 32.7-51.7%, 16.3% and 12.5%, respectively, to PM2...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088504/novel-insights-into-the-transport-mechanism-of-the-human-amino-acid-transporter-lat1-slc7a5-probing-critical-residues-for-substrate-translocation
#2
Lara Napolitano, Michele Galluccio, Mariafrancesca Scalise, Chiara Parravicini, Luca Palazzolo, Ivano Eberini, Cesare Indiveri
BACKGROUND: LAT1 (SLC7A5) is the transport competent unit of the heterodimer formed with the glycoprotein CD98 (SLC3A2). It catalyzes antiport of His and some neutral amino acids such as Ile, Leu, Val, Cys, Met, Gln and Phe thus being involved in amino acid metabolism. Interestingly, LAT1 is over-expressed in many human cancers that are characterized by increased demand of amino acids. Therefore LAT1 was recently acknowledged as a novel target for cancer therapy. However, knowledge on molecular mechanism of LAT1 transport is still scarce...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088333/mitochondrial-uncoupling-in-cancer-cells-liabilities-and-opportunities
#3
REVIEW
Gyorgy Baffy
Acquisition of the endosymbiotic ancestor of mitochondria was a critical event in eukaryote evolution. Mitochondria offered an unparalleled source of metabolic energy through oxidative phosphorylation and allowed the development of multicellular life. However, as molecular oxygen had become the terminal electron acceptor in most eukaryotic cells, the electron transport chain proved to be the largest intracellular source of superoxide, contributing to macromolecular injury, aging, and cancer. Hence, the 'contract of endosymbiosis' represents a compromise between the possibilities and perils of multicellular life...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086760/education-of-pediatric-subspecialty-fellows-in-transport-medicine-a-national-survey
#4
Geoffrey E Mickells, Denise M Goodman, Ranna A Rozenfeld
BACKGROUND: The transport of critically ill patients to children's hospitals is essential to current practice. The AAP Section on Transport Medicine has raised concerns about future leadership in the field as trainees receive less exposure to transport medicine. This study identifies the priorities of pediatric subspecialty fellows, fellowship directors and nursing directors in transport medicine education. METHODS: Internet based surveys were distributed to fellows, fellowship directors and nursing directors of transport teams affiliated with ACGME-approved fellowships in Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine (NPM), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine (PCCM), and Pediatric Emergency Medicine (PEM)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081433/what-s-the-law-got-to-do-with-it-legislation-regarding-in-vehicle-technology-use-and-its-impact-on-driver-distraction
#5
Katie J Parnell, Neville A Stanton, Katherine L Plant
Legislation in the road transport domain aims to control safety on the roads. Despite this, a critical issue affecting road safety is that of driver distraction. Although poorly defined, distraction is a significant road safety issue which, in part, is caused by the prevalence of technology within vehicles. Legislation surrounding the use of in-vehicle technologies are explored in this paper from a socio-technical system perspective. This reveals the wider context of the road transport system operating under the current laws using an Accimap analysis...
January 9, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079897/tsc1-expression-by-dendritic-cells-is-required-to-preserve-t-cell-homeostasis-and-response
#6
Yuechen Luo, Wenwen Li, Gang Yu, Juan Yu, Ling Han, Ting Xue, Zhina Sun, Song Chen, Chunming Fang, Chunxiao Zhao, Qing Niu, Fei Yang, Zhongchao Han, Tao Cheng, Yun Zeng, Fang Liao, Guogang Xu, Xiaoming Feng
Dendritic cells (DCs) are pivotal to the induction of adaptive T-cell immune responses. Recent evidence highlights a critical role of tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (Tsc1), a primarily upstream negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), in DC development, but whether and how Tsc1 directly regulate mature DC function in vivo remains elusive. Here we show that selective disruption of Tsc1 in DCs results in a lymphoproliferative disorder with the spontaneous activation of T cells. Tsc1 deficiency results in the activation of mTORC1-PPARγ pathway, which leads to the upregulation of neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) expression on DCs to stimulate naive T-cell proliferation...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079117/high-field-transport-properties-of-a-p-doped-bafe2as2-film-on-technical-substrate
#7
Kazumasa Iida, Hikaru Sato, Chiara Tarantini, Jens Hänisch, Jan Jaroszynski, Hidenori Hiramatsu, Bernhard Holzapfel, Hideo Hosono
High temperature (high-Tc) superconductors like cuprates have superior critical current properties in magnetic fields over other superconductors. However, superconducting wires for high-field-magnet applications are still dominated by low-Tc Nb3Sn due probably to cost and processing issues. The recent discovery of a second class of high-Tc materials, Fe-based superconductors, may provide another option for high-field-magnet wires. In particular, AEFe2As2 (AE: Alkali earth elements, AE-122) is one of the best candidates for high-field-magnet applications because of its high upper critical field, Hc2, moderate Hc2 anisotropy, and intermediate Tc...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077870/the-role-of-interfacial-lipids-in-stabilizing-membrane-protein-oligomers
#8
Kallol Gupta, Joseph A C Donlan, Jonathan T S Hopper, Povilas Uzdavinys, Michael Landreh, Weston B Struwe, David Drew, Andrew J Baldwin, Phillip J Stansfeld, Carol V Robinson
Oligomerization of membrane proteins in response to lipid binding has a critical role in many cell-signalling pathways but is often difficult to define or predict. Here we report the development of a mass spectrometry platform to determine simultaneously the presence of interfacial lipids and oligomeric stability and to uncover how lipids act as key regulators of membrane-protein association. Evaluation of oligomeric strength for a dataset of 125 α-helical oligomeric membrane proteins reveals an absence of interfacial lipids in the mass spectra of 12 membrane proteins with high oligomeric stability...
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076998/phosphate-phytate-and-phytases-in-plants-from-fundamental-knowledge-gained-in-arabidopsis-to-potential-biotechnological-applications-in-wheat
#9
David Secco, Nadia Bouain, Aida Rouached, Chanakan Prom-U-Thai, Moez Hanin, Ajay K Pandey, Hatem Rouached
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms. In plants, P is taken up from the rhizosphere by the roots mainly as inorganic phosphate (Pi), which is required in large and sufficient quantities to maximize crop yields. In today's agricultural society, crop yield is mostly ensured by the excessive use of Pi fertilizers, a costly practice neither eco-friendly or sustainable. Therefore, generating plants with improved P use efficiency (PUE) is of major interest. Among the various strategies employed to date, attempts to engineer genetically modified crops with improved capacity to utilize phytate (PA), the largest soil P form and unfortunately not taken up by plants, remains a key challenge...
January 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073448/modeling-the-transport-pathways-of-harmful-algal-blooms-in-the-iberian-coast
#10
L Pinto, M Mateus, A Silva
The prediction of the path of harmful algal blooms (HABs) along the coast can be achieved using numerical models of ocean circulation in order to reproduce the hydrodynamics of the study area. With this setting, our work aimed at the (1) study of key past events to evaluate the model ability to reproduce the transport pathways of blooms along the Iberian coast, and (2) to assess the relevance of such strictly physical approach. The simulations described here rely on the advection of lagrangian elements after a point release in a hypothetical location for bloom initiation, and the subsequent assessment of the influence of the surface currents transport on the extent of the bloom...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073432/common-urologic-diseases-in-older-men-and-their-treatment-how-they-impact-fertility
#11
REVIEW
Gabriella Avellino, Didi Theva, Robert D Oates
As men age, medical and surgical diseases involving the genitourinary tract become more common. The conditions themselves, if not their treatments, can negatively impact the fertility potential of an affected man. Many older men maintain the desire to father children, so it is critical to understand the disturbed anatomy and physiology involved to properly counsel that individual. Should this or that treatment regimen be employed? Should sperm banking be undertaken before institution of a permanently ablative/suppressive therapy? What are the long-term consequences of one therapy over another vis-à-vis sperm production, sperm quality, and/or sperm transport? In this context, some of the more common genitourinary afflictions of the older male and the treatment options that are available will be discussed...
January 7, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071685/mesoscopic-superconductivity-and-high-spin-polarization-coexisting-at-metallic-point-contacts-on-weyl-semimetal-taas
#12
Leena Aggarwal, Sirshendu Gayen, Shekhar Das, Ritesh Kumar, Vicky Süß, Claudia Felser, Chandra Shekhar, Goutam Sheet
A Weyl semimetal is a topologically non-trivial phase of matter that hosts mass-less Weyl fermions, the particles that remained elusive for more than 80 years since their theoretical discovery. The Weyl semimetals exhibit unique transport properties and remarkably high surface spin polarization. Here we show that a mesoscopic superconducting phase with critical temperature Tc=7 K can be realized by forming metallic point contacts with silver (Ag) on single crystals of TaAs, while neither Ag nor TaAs are superconductors...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070879/a-review-of-pharmacogenetics-of-antimalarials-and-associated-clinical-implications
#13
REVIEW
Hazem Elewa, Kyle John Wilby
Genetic variability in drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters is known to influence the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. Antimalarial drugs are a class of agents known to utilize metabolic and elimination pathways prone to genetic variation. This paper aims to review the genetic variants affecting antimalarial medications and discuss their clinical implications. Data were identified for the genes coding for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes: CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2B6, and the P-glycoprotein drug transporter...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069291/antagonizing-cytokine-mediated-jak-stat-signaling-by-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#14
REVIEW
Liping Yang, Yan-Jin Zhang
Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is activated by myriad cytokines, which are involved in regulation of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, immunity and inflammatory response. Because of its significance in immune response, JAK-STAT pathway is often targeted by pathogens, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). PRRSV causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages...
December 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068477/spatial-variability-and-uncertainty-of-water-use-impacts-from-us-feed-and-milk-production
#15
Andrew D Henderson, Anne Claire Asselin-Balençon, Martin C Heller, Lindsay Lessard, Samuel Vionnet, Olivier Jolliet
This paper addresses water use impacts of agriculture, developing a spatially-explicit approach tracing the location of water use and water scarcity related to feed production, transport, and livestock, tracking uncertainties and illustrating the approach with a case study on dairy production in the United States. This approach was developed as a step to bring spatially-variable production and impacts into a process-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) context. As water resources and demands are spatially variable, it is critical to take into account the location of activities to properly understand the impacts of water use, accounting for each of the main feeds for milk production...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067619/analyzing-native-membrane-protein-assembly-in-nanodiscs-by-combined-non-covalent-mass-spectrometry-and-synthetic-biology
#16
Erik Henrich, Oliver Peetz, Christopher Hein, Aisha Laguerre, Beate Hoffmann, Jan Hoffmann, Volker Dötsch, Frank Bernhard, Nina Morgner
Membrane proteins frequently assemble into higher order homo- or hetero-oligomers within their natural lipid environment. This complex formation can modulate their folding, activity as well as substrate selectivity. Non-disruptive methods avoiding critical steps such as membrane disintegration, transfer into artificial environments or chemical modifications are therefore essential to analyze molecular mechanisms of native membrane protein assemblies. The combination of cell-free synthetic biology, nanodisc-technology and non-covalent mass spectrometry provides excellent synergies for the analysis of membrane protein oligomerization within defined membranes...
January 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067265/laser-printed-nano-gratings-orientation-and-period-peculiarities
#17
Valdemar Stankevič, Gediminas Račiukaitis, Francesca Bragheri, Xuewen Wang, Eugene G Gamaly, Roberto Osellame, Saulius Juodkazis
Understanding of material behaviour at nanoscale under intense laser excitation is becoming critical for future application of nanotechnologies. Nanograting formation by linearly polarised ultra-short laser pulses has been studied systematically in fused silica for various pulse energies at 3D laser printing/writing conditions, typically used for the industrial fabrication of optical elements. The period of the nanogratings revealed a dependence on the orientation of the scanning direction. A tilt of the nanograting wave vector at a fixed laser polarisation was also observed...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067262/sec16a-is-critical-for-both-conventional-and-unconventional-secretion-of-cftr
#18
He Piao, Jiyoon Kim, Shin Hye Noh, Hee-Seok Kweon, Joo Young Kim, Min Goo Lee
CFTR is a transmembrane protein that reaches the cell surface via the conventional Golgi mediated secretion pathway. Interestingly, ER-to-Golgi blockade or ER stress induces alternative GRASP-mediated, Golgi-bypassing unconventional trafficking of wild-type CFTR and the disease-causing ΔF508-CFTR, which has folding and trafficking defects. Here, we show that Sec16A, the key regulator of conventional ER-to-Golgi transport, plays a critical role in the ER exit of protein cargos during unconventional secretion...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065545/geochemical-isotopic-composition-in-the-loess-plateau-and-corresponding-source-analyses-a-case-study-of-china-s-yangjuangou-catchment
#19
Yafeng Wang, Liding Chen, Yang Gao, Shibo Chen, Weiliang Chen, Zhuo Hao, Junjie Jia, Ning Han
Isotopic fractionation technology is widely used in identifying sources and the speciation of geochemical isotopic elements. With the increase in human activity, geochemical element transport by soil erosion has become the most critical environmental problem in the Loess Plateau, so tracing the geochemical element source would help in the identification and management of local soil erosion. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), and hydrogen (H) isotopes in water and then further analyzed (13)C and (15)N in soil and vegetation to better understand the C and N sources and their biogeochemical cycling function in the Loess Plateau...
January 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065471/mutations-in-atp6v1e1-or-atp6v1a-cause-autosomal-recessive-cutis-laxa
#20
Tim Van Damme, Thatjana Gardeitchik, Miski Mohamed, Sergio Guerrero-Castillo, Peter Freisinger, Brecht Guillemyn, Ariana Kariminejad, Daisy Dalloyaux, Sanne van Kraaij, Dirk J Lefeber, Delfien Syx, Wouter Steyaert, Riet De Rycke, Alexander Hoischen, Erik-Jan Kamsteeg, Sunnie Y Wong, Monique van Scherpenzeel, Payman Jamali, Ulrich Brandt, Leo Nijtmans, G Christoph Korenke, Brian H Y Chung, Christopher C Y Mak, Ingrid Hausser, Uwe Kornak, Björn Fischer-Zirnsak, Tim M Strom, Thomas Meitinger, Yasemin Alanay, Gulen E Utine, Peter K C Leung, Siavash Ghaderi-Sohi, Paul Coucke, Sofie Symoens, Anne De Paepe, Christian Thiel, Tobias B Haack, Fransiska Malfait, Eva Morava, Bert Callewaert, Ron A Wevers
Defects of the V-type proton (H(+)) ATPase (V-ATPase) impair acidification and intracellular trafficking of membrane-enclosed compartments, including secretory granules, endosomes, and lysosomes. Whole-exome sequencing in five families affected by mild to severe cutis laxa, dysmorphic facial features, and cardiopulmonary involvement identified biallelic missense mutations in ATP6V1E1 and ATP6V1A, which encode the E1 and A subunits, respectively, of the V1 domain of the heteromultimeric V-ATPase complex. Structural modeling indicated that all substitutions affect critical residues and inter- or intrasubunit interactions...
December 29, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
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