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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634238/electron-transport-chain-is-biochemically-linked-to-pilus-assembly-required-for-polymicrobial-interactions-and-biofilm-formation-in-the-gram-positive-actinobacterium-actinomyces-oris
#1
Belkys C Sanchez, Chungyu Chang, Chenggang Wu, Bryan Tran, Hung Ton-That
The Gram-positive actinobacteria Actinomyces spp. are key colonizers in the development of oral biofilms due to the inherent ability of Actinomyces to adhere to receptor polysaccharides on the surface of oral streptococci and host cells. This receptor-dependent bacterial interaction, or coaggregation, requires a unique sortase-catalyzed pilus consisting of the pilus shaft FimA and the coaggregation factor CafA forming the pilus tip. While the essential role of the sortase machine SrtC2 in pilus assembly, biofilm formation, and coaggregation has been established, little is known about trans-acting factors contributing to these processes...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632382/manipulation-of-chain-conformation-for-optimum-charge-transport-pathway-in-conjugated-polymers
#2
Seolhee Jeon, Jung Hun Lee, Jai Il Park, Bonghyun Jo, Dong Ryeol Whang, Tae Kyu Ahn, Hui Joon Park, Sung Dong Kim, Wi Hyoung Lee, Bong-Gi Kim
Two different diketopyrrolopyrrole-based conjugated polymers (CPs) were designed and synthesized to investigate the effect of chain conformation on their molecular assembly. Conformation management was achieved by the incorporation of different linkers during polymerization. Using computational calculations and UV-vis absorption measurements, the resulting CPs were found to exhibit partly modulated chain geometry. Grazing incident X-ray diffraction experiment with a 2-dimensional detector revealed that PDPP-T having a planar chain conformation exhibited an edge-on type molecular arrangement, which evolved to a face-on type chain assembly when the planar geometry was altered to a slightly twisted one as in PDPP-BT...
June 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631942/a-systematic-review-of-factors-affecting-driving-and-public-transportation-among-youth-and-young-adults-with-acquired-brain-injury
#3
Sally Lindsay, Andrei Stoica
PURPOSE: Although many people with an acquired brain injury (ABI) encounter difficulties with executive functioning and memory which could negatively affect driving, few people are assessed for fitness to drive after injury. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the literature on factors affecting driving and public transportation among youth and young adults with ABI, post injury. METHOD: Seven databases were systematically searched for articles from 1980 to 2016...
June 20, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631485/suppression-of-magnetoresistance-in-thin-wte2-flakes-by-surface-oxidation
#4
John M Woods, Jie Shen, Piranavan Kumaravadivel, Yuan Pang, Yujun Xie, Grace A Pan, Min Li, Eric I Altman, Li Lu, Judy J Cha
Recent renewed interest in layered transition metal dichalcogenides stems from the exotic electronic phases predicted and observed in the single- and few-layer limit. Realizing these electronic phases requires preserving the desired transport properties down to a monolayer, which is challenging. Surface oxides are known to impart Fermi level pinning or degrade the mobility on a number of different systems, including transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. Semimetallic WTe2 exhibits large magnetoresistance due to electron-hole compensation, thus Fermi level pinning in thin WTe2 flakes could break the electron-hole balance and suppress the large magnetoresistance...
June 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630743/comparison-of-five-video-assisted-intubation-devices-by-novice-and-expert-laryngoscopists-for-use-in-the-aeromedical-evacuation-environment
#5
Matthew C Wallace, SSgt Tyler Britton, Robbie Meek, Sharon Walsh-Hart, Col Todd E Carter, Steven J Lisco
BACKGROUND: The critically ill or injured patient undergoing military medical evacuation may require emergent intubation. Intubation may be life-saving, but it carries risks. The novice or infrequent laryngoscopist has a distinct disadvantage because experience is critical for the rapid and safe establishment of a secured airway. This challenge is compounded by the austere environment of the back of an aircraft under blackout conditions. This study determined which of five different video-assisted intubation devices (VAIDs) was best suited for in-flight use by U...
2017: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630465/changes-in-pore-structure-of-coal-caused-by-coal-to-gas-bioconversion
#6
Rui Zhang, Shimin Liu, Jitendra Bahadur, Derek Elsworth, Yi Wang, Guanglong Hu, Yanna Liang
Microbial enhanced coalbed methane (ME-CBM) recovery is critically examined as a viable technology for natural gas recovery from coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs. Since the majority of gas-in-place (GIP) is stored as an adsorbed phase in fine pores of coal matrix, the nano-pore structure directly influences gas storage and transport properties. Only limited studies have quantified the alteration of the nano-pore structure due to ME-CBM treatment. This study examines the evolution of the pore structure using a combination of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), low-pressure N2 and CO2 adsorption (LPGA) and high-pressure methane adsorption methods...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630154/design-of-self-assembling-transmembrane-helical-bundles-to-elucidate-principles-required-for-membrane-protein-folding-and-ion-transport
#7
REVIEW
Nathan H Joh, Gevorg Grigoryan, Yibing Wu, William F DeGrado
Ion transporters and channels are able to identify and act on specific substrates among myriads of ions and molecules critical to cellular processes, such as homeostasis, cell signalling, nutrient influx and drug efflux. Recently, we designed Rocker, a minimalist model for Zn(2+)/H(+) co-transport. The success of this effort suggests that de novo membrane protein design has now come of age so as to serve a key approach towards probing the determinants of membrane protein folding, assembly and function. Here, we review general principles that can be used to design membrane proteins, with particular reference to helical assemblies with transport function...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629894/enhanced-nutrient-transport-improves-the-depth-dependent-properties-of-tri-layered-engineered-cartilage-constructs-with-zonal-co-culture-of-chondrocytes-and-mscs
#8
Minwook Kim, Megan J Farrell, David R Steinberg, Jason A Burdick, Robert L Mauck
Biomimetic design in cartilage tissue engineering is a challenge given the complexity of the native tissue. While numerous studies have generated constructs with near-native bulk properties, recapitulating the depth-dependent features of native tissue remains a challenge. Furthermore, limitations in nutrient transport and matrix accumulation in engineered constructs hinders maturation within the central core of large constructs. To overcome these limitations, we fabricated tri-layered constructs that recapitulate the depth-dependent cellular organization and functional properties of native tissue using zonally derived chondrocytes co-cultured with MSCs...
June 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628655/moend3-regulates-appressorium-formation-and-virulence-through-mediating-endocytosis-in-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#9
Xiao Li, Chuyun Gao, Lianwei Li, Muxing Liu, Ziyi Yin, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang
Eukaryotic cells respond to environmental stimuli when cell surface receptors are bound by environmental ligands. The binding initiates a signal transduction cascade that results in the appropriate intracellular responses. Studies have shown that endocytosis is critical for receptor internalization and signaling activation. In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, a non-canonical G-protein coupled receptor, Pth11, and membrane sensors MoMsb2 and MoSho1 are thought to function upstream of G-protein/cAMP signaling and the Pmk1 MAPK pathway to regulate appressorium formation and pathogenesis...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627704/matrix-metalloproteinase-2-and-9-contribute-to-functional-integrity-and-noise%C3%A2-induced-damage-to-the-blood-labyrinth-barrier
#10
Jun Wu, Weiju Han, Xingrui Chen, Weiwei Guo, Ke Liu, Ruoya Wang, Jishuai Zhang, Na Sai
The cochlear blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB), located in the stria vascularis, is critical for the homeostasis of cochlear solutes and ion transport. Significant disruption to the BLB occurs early during noise‑induced hearing loss. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2 and ‑9 are important molecules known to be capable of degrading tight junction (TJ) proteins. The TJ proteins are important components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), required to maintain BLB integrity and permeability. Previous studies have demonstrated that MMP‑2 and ‑9, rich in healthy cochlea, serve an essential role in regulating the cochlear response to acoustic trauma...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627338/-problems-of-flying-medical-treatment-and-transport-in-critically-ill-patients-are-worthy-of-attention-and-research
#11
Xiukun Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627178/turning-the-page-advancing-paper-based-microfluidics-for-broad-diagnostic-application
#12
Max M Gong, David Sinton
Infectious diseases are a major global health issue. Diagnosis is a critical first step in effectively managing their spread. Paper-based microfluidic diagnostics first emerged in 2007 as a low-cost alternative to conventional laboratory testing, with the goal of improving accessibility to medical diagnostics in developing countries. In this review, we examine the advances in paper-based microfluidic diagnostics for medical diagnosis in the context of global health from 2007 to 2016. The theory of fluid transport in paper is first presented...
June 19, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625859/harmine-produces-antidepressant-like-effects-via-restoration-of-astrocytic-functions
#13
Fengguo Liu, Jingjing Wu, Yu Gong, Peng Wang, Lei Zhu, Li-Juan Tong, Xiangfan Chen, Yong Ling, Chao Huang
Depression is a world-wide disease with no effective therapeutic methods. Increasing evidence indicates that astrocytic pathology contributes to the formation of depression. In this study, we investigated the effects of harmine, a natural β-carboline alkaloid and potent hallucinogen, known to modulate astrocytic glutamate transporters, on chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced depressive-like behaviors and astrocytic dysfunctions. Results showed that harmine treatment (10, 20mg/kg) protected the mice against the CUS-induced increases in the immobile time in the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST), and also reversed the reduction in sucrose intake in the sucrose preference experiment...
June 15, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625595/dctn1-related-neurodegeneration-perry-syndrome-and-beyond
#14
REVIEW
Takuya Konno, Owen A Ross, Hélio A G Teive, Jarosław Sławek, Dennis W Dickson, Zbigniew K Wszolek
Perry syndrome (PS) is a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disease characterized by autosomal dominant parkinsonism, psychiatric symptoms, weight loss, central hypoventilation, and distinct TDP-43 pathology. The mutated causative gene for PS is DCTN1, which encodes the dynactin subunit p150(Glued). Dynactin is a motor protein involved in axonal transport; the p150(Glued) subunit has a critical role in the overall function. Since the discovery of DCTN1 in PS, it has been increasingly recognized that DCTN1 mutations can exhibit more diverse phenotypes than previously thought...
June 12, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624885/cardiac-rehabilitation-following-acute-coronary-syndrome-in-women
#15
REVIEW
Amanda L Bennett, Carl J Lavie, Sherry L Grace
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is among the leading burdens of disease among women. It is a significant driver of morbidity and chronically undermines their quality of life. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is indicated for ACS patients in clinical practice guidelines, including those specifically for women. CR is a multi-component model of care, proven to reduce mortality and morbidity, including in women. However, women are significantly less likely to be referred to CR by providers, and if they are referred, to enroll and adhere to programs...
August 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624493/expression-of-the-c-terminal-domain-of-human-apolipoprotein-a-i-using-a-chimeric-apolipoprotein
#16
Daniel E Sallee, James V C Horn, Lukas A Fuentes, Paul M M Weers
Human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the most abundant protein in high-density lipoprotein, an anti-atherogenic lipid-protein complex responsible for reverse cholesterol transport. The protein is composed of an N-terminal helix bundle domain, and a small C-terminal (CT) domain. To facilitate study of CT-apoA-I, a novel strategy was employed to produce this small domain in a bacterial expression system. A protein construct was designed of insect apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) and residues 179-243 of apoA-I, with a unique a methionine residue positioned between the two proteins and an N-terminal His-tag to facilitate purification...
June 14, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624282/effect-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-on-metabolic-and-stress-signaling-and-kidney-specific-functions-in-madin-darby-bovine-kidney-cells
#17
E Chiappisi, R Ringseis, K Eder, D K Gessner
Recent studies demonstrated induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in tissues of cows after parturition, but knowledge about the effect of ER stress on important cellular processes, such as critical signaling and metabolic pathways, in cattle is scarce. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of ER stress induction on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBF1) pathway in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, a widely used in vitro model in ruminant research...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623970/localization-of-the-placental-bcrp-abcg2-transporter-to-lipid-rafts-role-for-cholesterol-in-mediating-efflux-activity
#18
John T Szilagyi, Anna M Vetrano, Jeffrey D Laskin, Lauren M Aleksunes
INTRODUCTION: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is an efflux transporter in the placental barrier. By transporting chemicals from the fetal to the maternal circulation, BCRP limits fetal exposure to a range of drugs, toxicants, and endobiotics such as bile acids and hormones. The purpose of the present studies was to 1) determine whether BCRP localizes to highly-ordered, cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains in placenta microvillous membranes, and 2) determine the impact of cholesterol on BCRP-mediated placental transport in vitro...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623359/allosteric-modulatory-effects-of-sri-20041-and-sri-30827-on-cocaine-and-hiv-1-tat-protein-binding-to-human-dopamine-transporter
#19
Wei-Lun Sun, Pamela M Quizon, Yaxia Yuan, Wei Zhang, Subramaniam Ananthan, Chang-Guo Zhan, Jun Zhu
Dopamine transporter (DAT) is the target of cocaine and HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein. Identifying allosteric modulatory molecules with potential attenuation of cocaine and Tat binding to DAT are of great scientific and clinical interest. We demonstrated that tyrosine 470 and 88 act as functional recognition residues in human DAT (hDAT) for Tat-induced inhibition of DA transport and transporter conformational transitions. Here we investigated the allosteric modulatory effects of two allosteric ligands, SRI-20041 and SRI-30827 on cocaine binding on wild type (WT) hDAT, Y470 H and Y88 F mutants...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623277/in-vivo-quantification-of-placental-insufficiency-by-bold-mri-a-human-study
#20
Jie Luo, Esra Abaci Turk, Carolina Bibbo, Borjan Gagoski, Drucilla J Roberts, Mark Vangel, Clare M Tempany-Afdhal, Carol Barnewolt, Judy Estroff, Arvind Palanisamy, William H Barth, Chloe Zera, Norberto Malpica, Polina Golland, Elfar Adalsteinsson, Julian N Robinson, Patricia Ellen Grant
Fetal health is critically dependent on placental function, especially placental transport of oxygen from mother to fetus. When fetal growth is compromised, placental insufficiency must be distinguished from modest genetic growth potential. If placental insufficiency is present, the physician must trade off the risk of prolonged fetal exposure to placental insufficiency against the risks of preterm delivery. Current ultrasound methods to evaluate the placenta are indirect and insensitive. We propose to use Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) MRI with maternal hyperoxia to quantitatively assess mismatch in placental function in seven monozygotic twin pairs naturally matched for genetic growth potential...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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