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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944308/titanium-dioxide-nanoparticle-ingestion-alters-nutrient-absorption-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-the-small-intestine
#1
Zhongyuan Guo, Nicole J Martucci, Fabiola Moreno-Olivas, Elad Tako, Gretchen J Mahler
Ingestion of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles from products such as agricultural chemicals, processed food, and nutritional supplements is nearly unavoidable. The gastrointestinal tract serves as a critical interface between the body and the external environment, and is the site of essential nutrient absorption. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of ingesting the 30 nm TiO2 nanoparticles with an in vitro cell culture model of the small intestinal epithelium, and to determine how acute or chronic exposure to nano-TiO2 influences intestinal barrier function, reactive oxygen species generation, proinflammatory signaling, nutrient absorption (iron, zinc, fatty acids), and brush border membrane enzyme function (intestinal alkaline phosphatase)...
January 2017: NanoImpact
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942199/metabolomic-findings-in-sepsis-as-a-damage-of-host-microbial-metabolism-integration
#2
REVIEW
Natalia V Beloborodova, Andrei Yu Olenin, Alisa K Pautova
Metabolomics globally evaluates the totality of the endogenous metabolites in patient's body, at the same time reflecting gene function, enzyme activity and degree of organ dysfunction in sepsis. The authors performed the analysis of the main chemical classes of low molecular weight compounds (amino acids, polyols, fatty acids, hydroxy acids, amines, nucleotides and their derivatives) that quantitatively distinguish patients with sepsis from healthy ones. The following keywords were used to find papers published in the Scopus and Web of Science databases from 2008 to 2015: (marker OR biomarker) AND (sepsis OR critical ill OR pneumonia OR hypoxia)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940479/activation-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-microglia-the-role-of-ceramide
#3
Hannah Scheiblich, Anna Schlütter, Douglas T Golenbock, Eicke Latz, Pilar Martinez-Martinez, Michael T Heneka
Inflammation within the CNS is a major component of many neurodegenerative diseases. A characteristic feature is the generation of microglia-derived factors that play an essential role in the immune response. IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine released by activated microglia, able to exacerbate injury at elevated levels. In the presence of caspase-1, pro-IL-1β is cleaved to the mature cytokine following NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Growing evidence suggests that ceramide plays a critical role in NLRP3 inflammasome assembly, however, the relationship between ceramide and inflammasome activation in microglia remains unknown...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939279/patient-safety-incidents-during-interhospital-transport-of-patients-a-prospective-analysis
#4
Cathelijne Lyphout, Jochen Bergs, Willem Stockman, Koen Deschilder, Christophe Duchatelet, Didier Desruelles, Koen Bronselaer
INTRODUCTION: Interhospital transport of critically ill patients is at risk of complications. The objective of the study was to prospectively record patient safety incidents that occurred during interhospital transports and to determine their risk factors. METHODS: We prospectively collected data during a fifteen-month period in 2 hospitals. Patient and transport characteristics were collected using a specifically designed tool. Patient safety incidents were appraised for health-care associated harm, and categorized as technical, operational, and communication problems...
September 19, 2017: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939126/integrated-gis-and-multivariate-statistical-analysis-for-regional-scale-assessment-of-heavy-metal-soil-contamination-a-critical-review
#5
REVIEW
Deyi Hou, David O'Connor, Paul Nathanail, Li Tian, Yan Ma
Heavy metal soil contamination is associated with potential toxicity to humans or ecotoxicity. Scholars have increasingly used a combination of geographical information science (GIS) with geostatistical and multivariate statistical analysis techniques to examine the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils at a regional scale. A review of such studies showed that most soil sampling programs were based on grid patterns and composite sampling methodologies. Many programs intended to characterize various soil types and land use types...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939108/differential-response-to-doxorubicin-in-breast-cancer-subtypes-simulated-by-a-microfluidic-tumor-model
#6
Altug Ozcelikkale, Kyeonggon Shin, Victoria Noe-Kim, Bennett D Elzey, Zizheng Dong, Jian-Ting Zhang, Kwangmeyung Kim, Ick Chan Kwon, Kinam Park, Bumsoo Han
Successful drug delivery and overcoming drug resistance are the primary clinical challenges for management and treatment of cancer. The ability to rapidly screen drugs and delivery systems within physiologically relevant environments is critically important; yet is currently limited due to lack of appropriate tumor models. To address this problem, we developed the Tumor-microenvironment-on-chip (T-MOC), a new microfluidic tumor model simulating the interstitial flow, plasma clearance, and transport of the drug within the tumor...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938866/the-interpretation-of-hair-analysis-for-drugs-and-drug-metabolites
#7
Eva Cuypers, Robert J Flanagan
INTRODUCTION: Head hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites has been used widely with the aim of detecting exposure in the weeks or months prior to sample collection. However, inappropriate interpretation of results has likely led to serious miscarriages of justice, especially in child custody cases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to assess critically what can, and perhaps more importantly, what cannot be claimed as regards the interpretation of hair test results in a given set of circumstances in order to inform future testing...
September 22, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938812/single-molecule-translocation-in-smectics-illustrates-the-challenge-for-time-mapping-in-simulations-on-multiple-scales
#8
Biswaroop Mukherjee, Christine Peter, Kurt Kremer
Understanding the connections between the characteristic dynamical time scales associated with a coarse-grained (CG) and a detailed representation is central to the applicability of the coarse-graining methods to understand molecular processes. The process of coarse graining leads to an accelerated dynamics, owing to the smoothening of the underlying free-energy landscapes. Often a single time-mapping factor is used to relate the time scales associated with the two representations. We critically examine this idea using a model system ideally suited for this purpose...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938430/role-of-the-bile-acid-transporter-slc10a1-in-liver-targeting-of-the-lipid-lowering-thyroid-hormone-analog-eprotirome
#9
Simone Kersseboom, Anja L M van Gucht, Alies van Mullem, Giulia Brigante, Stefania Farina, Bo Carlsson, Joanne M Donkers, Stan F J van de Graaf, Robin P Peeters, Theo J Visser
The thyroid hormone (TH) analog eprotirome (KB2115; 3-[[3,5-dibromo-4-[4-hydroxy-3-(1-methylethyl)-phenoxy]-phenyl]-amino]-3-oxopropanoic acid) was developed to lower cholesterol through selective activation of the T3 receptor isoform TRβ1 in the liver. Interestingly, eprotirome shows low uptake in non-hepatic tissues, explaining its lipid-lowering action without adverse extra-hepatic thyromimetic effects. Clinical trials have shown marked decreases in serum cholesterol levels.We explored the transport of eprotirome across the plasma membrane by members of three TH transporter families: monocarboxylate transporters MCT8 and 10, Na-independent organic anion transporters OATP1A2, 1B1, 1B3, 1C1, 2A1 and 2B1, and Na-dependent organic anion transporters SLC10A1-7...
August 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936001/characterization-of-airborne-float-coal-dust-emitted-during-continuous-mining-longwall-mining-and-belt-transport
#10
M R Shahan, C E Seaman, T W Beck, J F Colinet, S E Mischler
Float coal dust is produced by various mining methods, carried by ventilating air and deposited on the floor, roof and ribs of mine airways. If deposited, float dust is re-entrained during a methane explosion. Without sufficient inert rock dust quantities, this float coal dust can propagate an explosion throughout mining entries. Consequently, controlling float coal dust is of critical interest to mining operations. Rock dusting, which is the adding of inert material to airway surfaces, is the main control technique currently used by the coal mining industry to reduce the float coal dust explosion hazard...
September 2017: Mining Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935925/interference-of-stress-with-the-somatotropic-axis-in-pigs-lights-on-new-biomarkers
#11
Elisa Wirthgen, Martin Kunze, Sébastien Goumon, Christina Walz, Christine Höflich, Marion Spitschak, Julia Brenmoehl, Ellen Kanitz, Margret Tuchscherer, Winfried Otten, Ulrike Gimsa, Peter Schön, Christian Manteuffel, Armin Tuchscherer, Ralf Pfuhl, Cornelia C Metges, Bernd Stabenow, Sandra Erdmann, Kathleen Schluricke, Luigi Faucitano, Andreas Hoeflich
The acceptance of animal products is increasingly associated with standardized animal welfare, which relates to appropriate animal husbandry from birth to slaughter. In particular, shipment to the slaughterhouse is considered as a critical process exposing the animals to a number of, in part severe, stressors. New biomarkers may be useful for the assessment of animal welfare. The IGF-system has been assessed in a commercial pig transport in conjunction with established markers of stress response. Furthermore, the effect of repeated restraint as an experimental model for repeated acute stress was investigated...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935707/the-eutheria-specific-mir-290-mir-371-cluster-modulates-placental-growth-and-maternal-fetal-transport
#12
Alireza Paikari, Cassandra Belair, Danial Saw, Robert Blelloch
A family of vertebrate-specific microRNAs called the ESCC microRNAs arises from two genetic loci in mammals, the miR-290/miR-371 and miR-302 loci. While the miR-302 locus is found broadly among vertebrates, the miR-290/miR-371 locus is unique to eutheria (placental mammals), suggesting a role in placental development. Here, we evaluate that role. A knockin reporter for the mouse miR-290 cluster gene is expressed throughout the embryo until gastrulation at which time it becomes specifically expressed in extraembryonic tissues and the germline...
September 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935361/shading-and-simulated-grazing-increase-the-sulphide-pool-and-methane-emission-in-a-tropical-seagrass-meadow
#13
Liberatus D Lyimo, Martin Gullström, Thomas J Lyimo, Diana Deyanova, Martin Dahl, Mariam I Hamisi, Mats Björk
Though seagrass meadows are among the most productive habitats in the world, contributing substantially to long-term carbon storage, studies of the effects of critical disturbances on the fate of carbon sequestered in the sediment and biomass of these meadows are scarce. In a manipulative in situ experiment, we studied the effects of successive loss of seagrass biomass as a result of shading and simulated grazing at two intensity levels on sulphide (H2S) content and methane (CH4) emission in a tropical seagrass meadow in Zanzibar (Tanzania)...
September 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934985/factors-influencing-on-scene-time-in-a-rural-norwegian-helicopter-emergency-medical-service-a-retrospective-observational-study
#14
Øyvind Østerås, Jon-Kenneth Heltne, Bjørn-Christian Vikenes, Jörg Assmus, Guttorm Brattebø
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients need to be immediately identified, properly managed, and rapidly transported to definitive care. Extensive prehospital times may increase mortality in selected patient groups. The on-scene time is a part of the prehospital interval that can be decreased, as transport times are determined mostly by the distance to the hospital. Identifying factors that affect on-scene time can improve training, protocols, and decision making. Our objectives were to assess on-scene time in the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) in our region and selected factors that may affect it in specific and severe conditions...
September 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934416/transporter-engineering-in-biomass-utilization-by-yeast
#15
Kiyotaka Y Hara, Jyumpei Kobayashi, Ryosuke Yamada, Daisuke Sasaki, Yuki Kuriya, Yoko Hirono-Hara, Jun Ishii, Michihiro Araki, Akihiko Kondo
Biomass resources are attractive carbon sources for bioproduction because of their sustainability. Many studies have been performed using biomass resources to produce sugars as carbon sources for cell factories. Expression of biomass hydrolyzing enzymes in cell factories is an important approach for constructing biomass-utilizing bioprocesses because external addition of these enzymes is expensive. In particular, yeasts have been extensively engineered to be cell factories that directly utilize biomass because of their manageable responses to many genetic engineering tools, such as gene expression, deletion and editing...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934375/into-the-wild-parallel-transcriptomics-of-the-tsetse-wigglesworthia-mutualism-within-kenyan-populations
#16
Miguel Medina Munoz, Adam R Pollio, Hunter L White, Rita V M Rio
Tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) have medical significance as the obligate vectors of African trypanosomes. In addition, tsetse harbor a simple gut microbiota. A predominant gut microbiota member, the Gammaproteobacterium Wigglesworthia spp., has coevolved with tsetse for a significant portion of Glossina radiation proving critical to tsetse fitness. Although multiple roles have been described for Wigglesworthia within colony flies, little research has been dedicated towards functional characterization within wild tsetse...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934248/vps35-deficiency-impairs-slc4a11-trafficking-and-promotes-corneal-dystrophy
#17
Wei Liu, Fu-Lei Tang, Sen Lin, Kai Zhao, Lin Mei, Jian Ye, Wen-Cheng Xiong
Vps35 (vacuolar protein sorting 35) is a major component of retromer that selectively promotes endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of transmembrane proteins. Dysfunction of retromer is a risk factor for the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, Vps35/retromer's function in the eye or the contribution of Vps35-deficiency to eye degenerative disorders remains to be explored. Here we provide evidence for a critical role of Vps35 in mouse corneal dystrophy. Vps35 is expressed in mouse and human cornea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934133/understanding-the-mechanism-of-translocation-of-adenylate-cyclase-toxin-across-biological-membranes
#18
REVIEW
Helena Ostolaza, César Martín, David González-Bullón, Kepa B Uribe, Asier Etxaniz
Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is one of the principal virulence factors secreted by the whooping cough causative bacterium Bordetella pertussis, and it has a critical role in colonization of the respiratory tract and establishment of the disease. ACT targets phagocytes via binding to the CD11b/CD18 integrin and delivers its N-terminal adenylate cyclase (AC) domain directly to the cell cytosol, where it catalyzes unregulated conversion of cytosolic ATP into cAMP upon activation by binding to cellular calmodulin...
September 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933593/dynein-promotes-porcine-oocyte-meiotic-progression-by-maintaining-cytoskeletal-structures-and-cortical-granule-arrangement
#19
Yilong Miao, Changyin Zhou, Zhaokang Cui, Liansheng Tang, Xiayan ShiYang, Yajuan Lu, Mianqun Zhang, Xiaoxin Dai, Bo Xiong
Cytoplasmic dynein is a family of cytoskeletal motor proteins that move towards the minus-end of the microtubules to perform functions in a variety of mitotic processes such as cargo transport, organelle positioning, chromosome movement and centrosome assembly. However, its specific roles during mammalian oocyte meiosis have not been fully defined. Herein, we investigated the critical events during porcine oocyte meiotic maturation after inhibition of dynein by Ciliobrevin D treatment. We found that oocyte meiotic progression was arrested when inhibited of dynein by showing the poor expansion of cumulus cells and decreased rate of polar body extrusion...
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932622/high-throughput-nuclear-delivery-and-rapid-expression-of-dna-via-mechanical-and-electrical-cell-membrane-disruption
#20
Xiaoyun Ding, Martin Stewart, Armon Sharei, James C Weaver, Robert S Langer, Klavs F Jensen
Nuclear transfection of DNA into mammalian cells is challenging yet critical for many biological and medical studies. Here, by combining cell squeezing and electric-field-driven transport in a device that integrates microfluidic channels with constrictions and microelectrodes, we demonstrate nuclear delivery of plasmid DNA within 1 hour after treatment, the most rapid DNA expression in a high-throughput setting (up to millions of cells per minute per device). Passing cells at high speed through microfluidic constrictions smaller than the cell diameter mechanically disrupts the cell membrane, allowing a subsequent electric field to further disrupt the nuclear envelope and drive DNA molecules into the cytoplasm and nucleus...
2017: Nature biomedical engineering
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