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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786697/imaging-glutathione-depletion-in-the-rat-brain-using-ascorbate-derived-hyperpolarized-mr-and-pet-probes
#1
Hecong Qin, Valerie N Carroll, Renuka Sriram, Javier E Villanueva-Meyer, Cornelius von Morze, Zhen Jane Wang, Christopher A Mutch, Kayvan R Keshari, Robert R Flavell, John Kurhanewicz, David M Wilson
Oxidative stress is a critical feature of several common neurologic disorders. The brain is well adapted to neutralize oxidative injury by maintaining a high steady-state concentration of small-molecule intracellular antioxidants including glutathione in astrocytes and ascorbic acid in neurons. Ascorbate-derived imaging probes for hyperpolarized 13 C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography have been used to study redox changes (antioxidant depletion and reactive oxygen species accumulation) in vivo...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786653/role-for-cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-cse-in-an-ethanol-e-induced-lesion-in-fetal-brain-gsh-homeostasis
#2
Dhyanesh Patel, Marylatha Rathinam, Courtney Jarvis, Lenin Mahimainathan, George Henderson, Madhusudhanan Narasimhan
Earlier, we reported that gestational ethanol (E) can dysregulate neuron glutathione (GSH) homeostasis partially via impairing the EAAC1-mediated inward transport of Cysteine (Cys) and this can affect fetal brain development. In this study, we investigated if there is a role for the transulfuration pathway (TSP), a critical bio-synthetic point to supply Cys in E-induced dysregulation of GSH homeostasis. These studies utilized an in utero E binge model where the pregnant Sprague⁻Dawley (SD) rat dams received five doses of E at 3...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786602/microfluidic-system-for-modelling-3d-tumour-invasion-into-surrounding-stroma-and-drug-screening
#3
Zhichang Du, Shengli Mi, Xiaoman Yi, Yuanyuan Xu, Wei Sun
Tumour invasion into the surrounding stroma is a critical step in metastasis, and it is necessary to clarify the role of microenvironmental factors in tumour invasion. We present a microfluidic system that simulated and controlled multi-factors of the tumour microenvironment for three-dimensional (3D) assessment of tumour invasion into the stroma. The simultaneous, precise and continuous arrangement of two 3D matrices was visualised to observe the migration of cancer cell populations or single cells by transfecting cells with a fluorescent protein...
May 22, 2018: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786168/variation-in-electrode-redox-potential-selects-for-different-microorganisms-under-cathodic-current-flow-from-electrodes-in-marine-sediments
#4
Bonita R Lam, Annette R Rowe, Kenneth H Nealson
Extracellular electron transport (EET) is a microbial process that allows microorganisms to transport electrons to and from insoluble substrates outside of the cell. Although progress has been made in understanding how microbes transfer electrons to insoluble substrates, the process of receiving electrons has largely remained unexplored. We investigated redox potentials favorable for donating electrons to dissolved and insoluble components in Catalina Harbor marine sediment by combining electrochemical techniques with geochemistry and molecular methods...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784761/slc15a2-and-slc15a4-mediate-the-transport-of-bacterially-derived-di-tripeptides-to-enhance-the-nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain-dependent-immune-response-in-mouse-bone-marrow-derived-macrophages
#5
Yongjun Hu, Feifeng Song, Huidi Jiang, Gabriel Nuñez, David E Smith
There is increasing evidence that proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters (POTs) can transport bacterially derived chemotactic peptides and therefore reside at the critical interface of innate immune responses and regulation. However, there is substantial contention regarding how these bacterial peptides access the cytosol to exert their effects and which POTs are involved in facilitating this process. Thus, the current study proposed to determine the (sub)cellular expression and functional activity of POTs in macrophages derived from mouse bone marrow and to evaluate the effect of specific POT deletion on the production of inflammatory cytokines in wild-type, Pept2 knockout and Pht1 knockout mice...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784041/lipid-metabolism-reprogramming-and-its-potential-targets-in-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Chunming Cheng, Feng Geng, Xiang Cheng, Deliang Guo
Reprogramming of lipid metabolism is a newly recognized hallmark of malignancy. Increased lipid uptake, storage and lipogenesis occur in a variety of cancers and contribute to rapid tumor growth. Lipids constitute the basic structure of membranes and also function as signaling molecules and energy sources. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors in the endoplasmic reticulum, play a central role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Recent studies have revealed that SREBPs are highly up-regulated in various cancers and promote tumor growth...
May 21, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783177/evaluating-long-term-patterns-of-decreasing-groundwater-discharge-through-a-lake-bottom-permeable-reactive-barrier
#7
Timothy D McCobb, Martin A Briggs, Denis R LeBlanc, Frederick D Day-Lewis, Carole D Johnson
Identifying and quantifying groundwater exchange is critical when considering contaminant fate and transport at the groundwater/surface-water interface. In this paper, areally distributed temperature and point seepage measurements are used to efficiently assess spatial and temporal groundwater discharge patterns through a glacial-kettle lakebed area containing a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB). Concern was that the PRB was becoming less permeable with time owing to biogeochemical processes within the PRB...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782942/effects-of-light-and-dark-phase-testing-on-the-investigation-of-behavioural-paradigms-in-mice-relevance-for-behavioural-neuroscience
#8
Juliet Richetto, Marcello Polesel, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer
Different timing and light phases are critical factors in behavioural neuroscience, which can greatly affect the experimental outcomes of the performed tests. Despite the fact that time of testing is one of the most common factors that varies across behavioural laboratories, knowledge about the consequences of testing time on behavioural readouts is limited. Thus, in this study we systematically assessed the effect of this factor on the readout of a variety of elementary and recurrent behavioural paradigms in C57Bl/6 mice...
May 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782700/nonionic-dendritic-and-carbohydrate-based-amphiphiles-self-assembly-and-transport-behavior
#9
Suchita Prasad, Katharina Achazi, Boris Schade, Rainer Haag, Sunil K Sharma
Herein, a new series of non-ionic dendritic and carbohydrate based amphiphiles is synthesized employing biocompatible starting materials and studied for supramolecular aggregate formation in aqueous solution. The dendritic amphiphiles 12 and 13 possessing poly(glycerol) [G2.0] as hydrophilic unit and C-10 and C-18 hydrophobic alkyl chains, respectively, exhibit low critical aggregation concentration (CAC) in the order of 10-5 m and hydrodynamic diameters in the 8-10 nm range and supplemented by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy...
May 21, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782652/adenosine-methylation-as-a-molecular-imprint-defining-the-fate-of-rna
#10
REVIEW
Philip Knuckles, Marc Bühler
Multiple lines of evidence suggest the RNA modification N6 -methyladonsine (m6 A), which is installed in the nucleus co-transcriptionally and, thereafter, serves as a reversible chemical imprint that influences several steps of mRNA metabolism. This includes but is not limited to RNA folding, splicing, stability, transport, and translation. In this Review we focus on the current view of the nuclear installation of m6 A as well the molecular players involved, the so called m6 A writers. We also explore the effector proteins, or m6 A readers, that decode the imprint in different cellular contexts and compartments, and ultimately, the way the modification influences the lifecycle of an RNA molecule...
May 21, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782498/endoplasmic-reticulum-plasma-membrane-contact-sites-integrate-sterol-and-phospholipid-regulation
#11
Evan Quon, Yves Y Sere, Neha Chauhan, Jesper Johansen, David P Sullivan, Jeremy S Dittman, William J Rice, Robin B Chan, Gilbert di Paolo, Christopher T Beh, Anant K Menon
Tether proteins attach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to other cellular membranes, thereby creating contact sites that are proposed to form platforms for regulating lipid homeostasis and facilitating non-vesicular lipid exchange. Sterols are synthesized in the ER and transported by non-vesicular mechanisms to the plasma membrane (PM), where they represent almost half of all PM lipids and contribute critically to the barrier function of the PM. To determine whether contact sites are important for both sterol exchange between the ER and PM and intermembrane regulation of lipid metabolism, we generated Δ-super-tether (Δ-s-tether) yeast cells that lack six previously identified tethering proteins (yeast extended synatotagmin [E-Syt], vesicle-associated membrane protein [VAMP]-associated protein [VAP], and TMEM16-anoctamin homologues) as well as the presumptive tether Ice2...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782206/active-transport-of-cytoophidia-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#12
Hui Li, Fangfu Ye, Jing-Yi Ren, Peng-Ye Wang, Li-Lin Du, Ji-Long Liu
The metabolic enzyme cytidine triphosphate synthase has recently been found to form micron-sized filamentous structures termed cytoophidia, which are evolutionarily conserved across prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The cytoophidium represents a novel type of membraneless organelle and behaves dynamically inside the cell. The question of how cytoophidia transport is mediated, however, remains unanswered. For the first time, we detected in this study the active transport of cytoophidia, taking advantage of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as an excellent model for studying membraneless organelles...
May 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782014/identification-of-cyclin-dependent-kinase-1-specific-phosphorylation-sites-by-an-in-vitro-kinase-assay
#13
Heying Cui, Kyle M Loftus, Crystal R Noell, Sozanne R Solmaz
Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is a master controller for the cell cycle in all eukaryotes and phosphorylates an estimated 8 - 13% of the proteome; however, the number of identified targets for Cdk1, particularly in human cells is still low. The identification of Cdk1-specific phosphorylation sites is important, as they provide mechanistic insights into how Cdk1 controls the cell cycle. Cell cycle regulation is critical for faithful chromosome segregation, and defects in this complicated process lead to chromosomal aberrations and cancer...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781443/ion-beam-induced-bending-of-semiconductor-nanowires
#14
Imran Hanif, Osmane Camara, Matheus Araújo Tunes, Robert William Harrison, Graeme Greaves, Stephen E Donnelly, Jonathan A Hinks
The miniaturization of technology increasingly requires the development of both new structures as well as novel techniques for their manufacture and modification. Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are a prime example of this and as such have been the subject of intense scientific research for applications ranging from microelectronics to nano-electromechanical devices. Ion irradiation has long been a key processing step for semiconductors and the natural extension of this technique to the modification of semiconductor NWs has led to the discovery of ion-beam-induced deformation effects...
May 21, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781035/knockdown-of-kpna2-inhibits-autophagy-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cell-lines-by-blocking-p53-nuclear-translocation
#15
Feng Lin, Li Gao, Zhenyu Su, Xiaofang Cao, Yuanbo Zhan, Ying Li, Bin Zhang
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), one of the 10 most common types of neoplasms in the US, constitutes ~90% of all cases of oral malignancies. Chemoresistance and metastasis are difficult to avoid during the course of treatment, leading to a poor prognosis and a high mortality rate for patients with OSCC. Autophagy, a critical conserved cellular process, has been reported to be highly associated with the regulation of chemoresistance and metastasis of cancer cells. The present study investigated the role of karyopherin α2 (KPNA2), a member of the importin α family, which may serve an important role in p53 nucleocytoplasmic transport in the process of OSCC autophagy...
May 17, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779931/the-bicarbonate-transporter-slc4a7-plays-a-key-role-in-macrophage-phagosome-acidification
#16
Vitaly Sedlyarov, Ruth Eichner, Enrico Girardi, Patrick Essletzbichler, Ulrich Goldmann, Paula Nunes-Hasler, Ismet Srndic, Anna Moskovskich, Leonhard X Heinz, Felix Kartnig, Johannes W Bigenzahn, Manuele Rebsamen, Pavel Kovarik, Nicolas Demaurex, Giulio Superti-Furga
Macrophages represent the first line of immune defense against pathogens, and phagosome acidification is a necessary step in pathogen clearance. Here, we identified the bicarbonate transporter SLC4A7, which is strongly induced upon macrophage differentiation, as critical for phagosome acidification. Loss of SLC4A7 reduced acidification of phagocytosed beads or bacteria and impaired the intracellular microbicidal capacity in human macrophage cell lines. The phenotype was rescued by wild-type SLC4A7, but not by SLC4A7 mutants, affecting transport capacity or cell surface localization...
May 8, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776923/environmental-adaptability-for-quorum-sensing-regulating-iron-uptake-during-biofilm-formation-in-paracoccus-denitrificans
#17
Yang Zhang, Jie Gao, Lushan Wang, Shuangjiang Liu, Zhihui Bai, Xuliang Zhuang, Guoqiang Zhuang
Paracoccus denitrificans is a valuable model organism due to its versatile respiration capability and bioenergetic flexibility, both of which are critical to its survival in different environments. Quorum sensing (QS) plays a crucial role in the regulation of many cell functions; however, whether QS systems play a role in P. denitrificans is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that iron uptake systems in P. denitrificans were directly regulated by a newly identified QS system. Genes coding for TonB-dependent systems, which transport chelated iron, were transcribed at higher levels in the QS-defective mutants...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775961/antioxidant-response-elements-discovery-classes-regulation-and-potential-applications
#18
REVIEW
Azhwar Raghunath, Kiruthika Sundarraj, Raju Nagarajan, Frank Arfuso, Jinsong Bian, Alan P Kumar, Gautam Sethi, Ekambaram Perumal
Exposure to antioxidants and xenobiotics triggers the expression of a myriad of genes encoding antioxidant proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and xenobiotic transporters to offer protection against oxidative stress. This articulated universal mechanism is regulated through the cis-acting elements in an array of Nrf2 target genes called antioxidant response elements (AREs), which play a critical role in redox homeostasis. Though the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE system involves many players, AREs hold the key in transcriptional regulation of cytoprotective genes...
May 7, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775350/charge-fractionalization-in-the-two-channel-kondo-effect
#19
L Aviad Landau, Eyal Cornfeld, Eran Sela
The phenomenon of charge fractionalization describes the emergence of novel excitations with fractional quantum numbers, as predicted in strongly correlated systems such as spin liquids. We elucidate that precisely such an unusual effect may occur in the simplest possible non-Fermi liquid, the two-channel Kondo effect. To bring this concept down to experimental test, we study nonequilibrium transport through a device realizing the charge two-channel Kondo critical point in a recent experiment by Iftikhar et al...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774990/searching-for-a-mitochondrial-root-to-the-decline-in-muscle-function-with-ageing
#20
EDITORIAL
Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Fatemeh Adelnia, Ruin Moaddel, Luigi Ferrucci
Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is linked to a range of adverse outcomes, such as impaired physical performance, cognitive function, and mortality. Preventing sarcopenia may reduce the burden of functional decline with aging and its impact on physiological and economic well-being in older adults. Mitochondria in muscle cells lose their intrinsic efficiency and capacity to produce energy during aging, and it has been hypothesized that such a decline is the main driver of sarcopenia...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
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