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Fernanda Cristina Carvalho Mattos Magno, Helena Chrispim Guaraná, Ana Carolina Proença Fonseca, Giselda Maria Kalil Cabello, João Régis Ivar Carneiro, Aline Pereira Pedrosa, Ana Carolina Ximenes, Eliane Lopes Rosado
Background: The fat mass and obesity-related ( FTO ) gene has a strong relationship with obesity, extreme obesity and inflammatory state, and may also be associated with food intake regulation. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism of the FTO gene on appetite, ghrelin, leptin, interleukin 6 (IL6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) levels and food intake of morbidly obese women. Materials and methods: The study comprised 70 women, aged between 20 and 48 years, from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Ana Maria Obregón Rivas, Jose L Santos, Macarena A Valladares, Jameson Cameron, Gary Goldfield
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609 in the FTO gene and homeostatic/non-homeostatic eating behavior patterns in Chilean children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 258 children (44% female; 8-14 y of age). Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, Z-score of height, body mass index, and waist circumference) were performed. Eating behavior was assessed using the Eating in Absence of Hunger Questionnaire; the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire; the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, and the Food Reinforcement Value Questionnaire...
March 27, 2018: Nutrition
Kelsie J Faulds, Jennifer N Egelston, Laura J Sedivy, Matthew K Mitchell, Sanjana Garimella, Hanna Kozlowski, Angelo D'Alessandro, Kirk C Hansen, Jeremy L Balsbaugh, Christopher J Phiel
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (Gsk-3) activity regulates multiple signal transduction pathways, and is also a key component of the network responsible for maintaining stem cell pluripotency. Genetic deletion of Gsk-3α and Gsk-3β or inhibition of Gsk-3 activity via small molecules promotes stem cell pluripotency, yet the mechanism underlying the role for Gsk-3 in this process remains ambiguous. Another cellular process that has been shown to affect stem cell pluripotency is mRNA methylation (m6 A). Here, we describe an intersection between these components - the regulation of m6 A by Gsk-3...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shu-Jing Liu, Hui-Ling Tang, Qian He, Ping Lu, Tao Fu, Xu-Ling Xu, Tao Su, Mei-Mei Gao, Shumin Duan, Yan Luo, Yue-Sheng Long
Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) protein is a ferrous ion (Fe2+)/2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent demethylase preferentially catalyzing m6A sites in RNA. The FTO gene is highly expressed in the hypothalamus with fluctuation in response to various nutritional conditions, which is believed to be involved in the control of whole body metabolism. However, the underlying mechanism in response to different nutritional cues remains poorly understood. Here we show that ketogenic diet-derived ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) transiently increases FTO expression in both mouse hypothalamus and cultured cells...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
S Shishodia, D Zhang, A H El-Sagheer, T Brown, T D W Claridge, C J Schofield, R J Hopkinson
Formaldehyde is produced in cells by enzyme-catalysed demethylation reactions, including those occurring on N-methylated nucleic acids. Formaldehyde reacts with nucleobases to form N-hydroxymethylated adducts that may contribute to its toxicity/carcinogenicity when added exogenously, but the chemistry of these reactions has been incompletely defined. We report NMR studies on the reactions of formaldehyde with canonical/modified nucleobases. The results reveal that hydroxymethyl hemiaminals on endocyclic nitrogens, as observed with thymidine and uridine monophosphates, are faster to form than equivalent hemiaminals on exocyclic nitrogens; however, the exocyclic adducts, as formed with adenine, guanine and cytosine, are more stable in solution...
May 16, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Fei Sun, Rongjian Tu, Jun Hong Xia, Xiao Jun Liu, Gen Hua Yue
Polymorphisms in the FTO gene are associated with obesity and body mass index in humans and livestock. Little information of whether FTO plays an important role in aquaculture fish species is available. We cloned and characterized the FTO gene in an economically important food fish species: Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). The full-length cDNA of the gene is 3679 bp, containing an ORF of 1935 bp encoding 644 amino acids, a 216 bp 5' UTR and a 1538 bp 3' UTR. The gene consisted of nine exons and eight introns and was 117,679 bp in length...
May 16, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Kristy Iskandar, Suryono Yudha Patria, Emy Huriyati, Harry Freitag Luglio, Madarina Julia, Rina Susilowati
OBJECTIVES: FTO rs9939609 variant has been shown to be associated with insulin resistance in Caucasian children. However, studies in Asia show inconsistent findings. We investigated the association between FTO rs9939609 polymorphisms and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents in Indonesia, a genetically distinct group within Asia. RESULTS: A total of 78 obese female adolescents participated in this study. The risk allele (A) frequency of FTO rs9939609 variant in Indonesian obese female adolescence was 44...
May 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Meng-Dan Lan, Jun Xiong, Xue-Jiao You, Xiao-Cheng Weng, Xiang Zhou, Bi-Feng Yuan, Yu-Qi Feng
RNA contains diverse modifications that exert important influences in a variety of cellular processes. So far more than 150 modifications have been identified in various RNA species, mainly in ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and messenger RNA (mRNA). In contrast to rRNA, tRNA and mRNA, the known modifications in small RNAs have been primarily limited to 2'-O-ribose methylations in plants and inosine in mammals. Methylation of small RNAs in mammals is still unclear. Current methods widely used in the characterization of small RNAs are mainly based on the strategy of nucleic acid hybridization and sequencing, which cannot characterize modifications in small RNAs...
May 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jan Mauer, Samie R Jaffrey
The fate of mRNA is regulated by epitranscriptomic nucleotide modifications, the most abundant of which is N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A). Although the pattern and distribution of m6 A in mRNA is mediated by specific methyltransferases, a recent hypothesis is that specific demethylases or "erasers" allow m6 A to be dynamically reversed by signaling pathways. In this Review, we discuss the data in support and against this model. New insights into the function of FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated protein), the original enzyme thought to be an m6 A eraser, reveal that its physiologic target is not m6 A, but instead is N6 ,2'-O-dimethyladenosine (m6 Am )...
May 12, 2018: FEBS Letters
Natália Luiza Kops, Manoela A Vivan, Jaqueline D C Horvath, Mariana L D de Castro, Rogério Friedman
PURPOSE: Differences in weight loss outcomes after bariatric surgery may be related to individual preoperative characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of fatty acid binding protein-2 (rs1799883), leptin receptor (LEP223, rs1137101 and LEP656, rs1805094), and fat mass and obesity-related (rs9939609) genotypes on weight loss 2 years after bariatric surgery in Brazilian patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective observational study involving 105 patients (lost to follow-up, 25...
May 9, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Chuan Yi Foo, Hong Ngee Lim, Mohd Adzir Mahdi, Mohd Haniff Wahid, Nay Ming Huang
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology provides a novel approach to material fabrication for various applications because of its ability to create low-cost 3D printed platforms. In this study, a printable graphene-based conductive filament was employed to create a range of 3D printed electrodes (3DEs) using a commercial 3D printer. This printing technology provides a simplistic and low-cost approach, which eliminates the need for the ex-situ modification and post-treatment of the product. The conductive nature of the 3DEs provides numerous deposition platforms for electrochemical active nanomaterials such as graphene, polypyrrole, and cadmium sulfide, either through electrochemical or physical approaches...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lung-Chien Chen, Kuan-Lin Lee, Wen-Ti Wu, Chien-Feng Hsu, Zong-Liang Tseng, Xiao Hong Sun, Yu-Ting Kao
In this study, the perovskite layers were prepared by two-step wet process with different CH3 NH3 I (MAI) concentrations. The cell structure was glass/FTO/TiO2 -mesoporous/CH3 NH3 PbI3 (MAPbI3 )/spiro-OMeTAD/Ag. The MAPbI3 perovskite films were prepared using high and low MAI concentrations in a two-step process. The perovskite films were optimized at different spin coating speed and different annealing temperatures to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells. The PCE of the resulting device based on the different perovskite morphologies was discussed...
May 8, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Myles Robinson, Palak Shah, Yanhong Cui, Yu-Ying He
N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) is the most abundant internal RNA modification among numerous post-transcriptional modifications identified in eukaryotic mRNA. m6 A modification of RNA is catalyzed by the "writer" m6 A methyltransferase enzyme complex, consisting of METTL3, METTL14, WTAP, and KIAA1429. The m6 A modification is reversible, and can be removed by "eraser" m6 A demethylase enzymes, namely, FTO and ALKBH5. The biological function of m6 A modification on RNA is carried out by RNA-binding effector proteins called "readers"...
May 4, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Hana Krýsová, Josef Krýsa, Ladislav Kavan
For proper function of the negative electrode of dye-sensitized and perovskite solar cells, the deposition of a nonporous blocking film is required on the surface of F-doped SnO2 (FTO) glass substrates. Such a blocking film can minimise undesirable parasitic processes, for example, the back reaction of photoinjected electrons with the oxidized form of the redox mediator or with the hole-transporting medium can be avoided. In the present work, thin, transparent, blocking TiO2 films are prepared by semi-automatic spray pyrolysis of precursors consisting of titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetylacetonate) as the main component...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Shouli Bai, Jingchao Liu, Meng Cui, Ruixian Luo, Jing He, Aifan Chen
A Cu2O/BiVO4 p-n heterojunction based photoanode in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is fabricated by a two-step electrodeposition method on an FTO substrate followed by annealing treatment. The structures and properties of the samples are characterized by XRD, FESEM, HRTEM, XPS and UV-visible spectra. The photoelectrochemical activity of the photoanode in water oxidation has been investigated and measured in a three electrode quartz cell system; the obtained maximum photocurrent density of 1.72 mA cm-2 at 1...
May 2, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Wael Osman, Guan K Tay, Habiba Alsafar
BACKGROUND: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is one of the countries most threatened with obesity. Here we investigated associations between hundreds of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the following obesity indicators: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and height. We also investigated the associations between obesity-related genes with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: We tested 87, 58, and 586 SNPs in a previous genome-wide significance level for associations with BMI (n = 880), WC (n = 455), and height (n = 897), respectively...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Zupeng Chen, Hongqiang Wang, Jingsan Xu, Jian Liu
Graphitic carbon nitride (CN) has been widely regarded as a promising photocatalyst since the discovery of its capability for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Herein, we developed a functional CN film on conductive fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode by microprinting-based direct growth method. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical performance of the derived CN@FTO film was demonstrated to be enhanced by incorporating molecular cobalt species. The reduced charge transport resistance in the cobalt modified CN@FTO films is suggested to accelerate the charge carriers transfer rate and thus improve the performance in photoelectrochemical application...
April 25, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Isaac Holmes-Gentle, Harsh Agarwal, Faye Alhersh, Klaus Hellgardt
When scaling up photo-electrochemical processes to larger areas than conventionally studied in the laboratory, substrate performance must be taken into consideration and in this work, a methodology to assess this via an uncomplicated 2 dimensional model is outlined. It highlights that for F-doped SnO2 (FTO), which is ubiquitously used for metal oxide photoanodes, substrate performance becomes significant for moderately sized electrodes (5 cm) under no solar concentration for state of the art Fe2O3 thin films...
April 26, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Nathan R West, James Dorling, Alice E Thackray, Nicola C Hanson, Samantha E Decombel, David J Stensel, Stuart J Grice
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fat mass and obesity-associated ( FTO ) locus are associated with obesity, but lifestyle factors may modulate the obesity risk related to FTO . This study examined the physical activity and dietary patterns of 528 physically active white men and women (mean (SD): 34.9 (9.5) years, 26.6 (4.3) kg·m-2 ) carrying different risk variants of FTO SNP rs9939609. Sex, age, and anthropometric measurements (stature, body mass, and waist circumference) were self-reported using an online questionnaire, and body mass index and waist-to-height ratio were calculated...
2018: Journal of Obesity
Xiaolan Deng, Rui Su, Hengyou Weng, Huilin Huang, Zejuan Li, Jianjun Chen
N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A), the most abundant internal modification in eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs), has been shown to play critical roles in various normal bioprocesses such as tissue development, stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, heat shock or DNA damage response, and maternal-to-zygotic transition. The m6 A modification is deposited by the m6 A methyltransferase complex (MTC; i.e., writer) composed of METTL3, METTL14 and WTAP, and probably also VIRMA and RBM15, and can be removed by m6 A demethylases (i...
April 23, 2018: Cell Research
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