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Fat mass and obesity associated gene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103813/fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-fto-gene-influences-skeletal-muscle-phenotypes-in-non-resistance-trained-males-and-elite-rugby-playing-position
#1
S M Heffernan, G K Stebbings, L P Kilduff, R M Erskine, S H Day, C I Morse, J S McPhee, C J Cook, B Vance, W J Ribbans, S M Raleigh, C Roberts, M A Bennett, G Wang, M Collins, Y P Pitsiladis, A G Williams
BACKGROUND: FTO gene variants have been associated with obesity phenotypes in sedentary and obese populations, but rarely with skeletal muscle and elite athlete phenotypes. METHODS: In 1089 participants, comprising 530 elite rugby athletes and 559 non-athletes, DNA was collected and genotyped for the FTO rs9939609 variant using real-time PCR. In a subgroup of non-resistance trained individuals (NT; n = 120), we also assessed structural and functional skeletal muscle phenotypes using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, ultrasound and isokinetic dynamometry...
January 19, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088658/exposure-to-chronic-early-life-stress-lastingly-alters-the-adipose-tissue-the-leptin-system-and-changes-the-vulnerability-to-western-style-diet-later-in-life-in-mice
#2
K Y Yam, E F G Naninck, M R Abbink, S E la Fleur, L Schipper, J C van den Beukel, A Grefhorst, A Oosting, E M van der Beek, P J Lucassen, A Korosi
Early-life stress (ES) increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline in adulthood. Interestingly, this is often comorbid with metabolic disorders, such as obesity. However, it is unclear whether ES leads to lasting metabolic changes and to what extent this is associated with the ES-induced cognitive impairments. Here, we used an established chronic ES mouse model (from postnatal day (P) 2 to P9) to investigate the short- and long-term effects of ES exposure on parameters of the adipose tissue and the leptin system (i...
December 23, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074253/c-abl-inhibition-mitigates-diet-induced-obesity-through-improving-insulin-sensitivity-of-subcutaneous-fat-in-mice
#3
Rong Wu, Jian-Guang Sun, Ji-Qiu Wang, Binhua Li, Qingsong Liu, Guang Ning, Wanzhu Jin, Zengqiang Yuan
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: High-energy diets are among the main causes of the global epidemic of metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms of high-energy-diet-induced metabolic disorders are complex and largely unknown. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl plays an important role in adipogenesis in vitro but its role in vivo in the regulation of metabolism is still elusive. Hence, we sought to address the role of c-Abl in diet-induced obesity and obesity-associated insulin resistance...
January 10, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065722/peripheral-endocannabinoid-signaling-controls-hyperphagia-in-western-diet-induced-obesity
#4
Donovan A Argueta, Nicholas V DiPatrizio
The endocannabinoid system in the brain and periphery plays a major role in controlling food intake and energy balance. We reported that tasting dietary fats was met with increased levels of the endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, in the rat upper small intestine, and pharmacological inhibition of this local signaling event dose-dependently blocked sham feeding of fats. We now investigated the contribution of peripheral endocannabinoid signaling in hyperphagia associated with chronic consumption of a western-style diet in mice ([WD] i...
January 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064279/the-rs1862513-variant-in-resistin-gene-modified-insulin-resistance-and-insulin-levels-after-weight-loss-secondary-to-hypocaloric-diet
#5
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, David Primo, Beatriz de la Fuente, Ines Mulero, Rocío Aller
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Polymorphisms of a single nucleotide in RETN have been associated with indexes of insulin resistance. Our aim was to analyze the effects of the rs1862513 RETN gene polymorphism on insulin resistance, insulin levels, and resistin levels changes after 3 months of a low-fat hypocaloric diet. DESIGN: A Caucasian population of 133 obese patients was analyzed before and after 3 months on a low-fat hypocaloric diet. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients (42...
January 7, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009527/reg2-expression-is-required-for-pancreatic-islet-compensation-in-response-to-aging-and-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#6
Qing Li, Bing Li, Xiaoliang Miao, Christopher Ramgattie, Zu-Hua Gao, Jun-Li Liu
Maintaining pancreatic β-cell mass and function is essential for normal insulin production and glucose homeostasis. Regenerating islet-derived 2 (Reg2, Reg II, human orthologue Reg1B) gene is normally expressed in pancreatic acinar cells and significantly induced in responses to diabetes, pancreatitis, high-fat diet and during pancreatic regeneration. In order to evaluate the role of endogenous Reg2 production in normal β-cell function, we characterized Reg2 gene deficient mice normally and when subjected to several pathological challenges...
December 23, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005939/muscle-arnt-hif1%C3%AE-is-dispensable-in-myofiber-type-determination-vascularization-and-insulin-sensitivity
#7
Pierre-Marie Badin, Danesh H Sopariwala, Sabina Lorca, Vihang A Narkar
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator/ hypoxia-inducible factor 1 beta (ARNT/ HIF1β), a member of bHLH-PAS family of transcriptional factors, plays a critical role in metabolic homeostasis, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. The contributions of ARNT in pancreas, liver and adipose tissue to energy balance through gene regulation have been described. Surprisingly, the impact of ARNT signaling in the skeletal muscles, one of the major organs involved in glucose disposal, has not been investigated, especially in type II diabetes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991966/genotypic-carriers-of-the-obesity-associated-fto-polymorphism-exhibit-different-cardiometabolic-profiles-after-an-intervention
#8
Greice G Moraes, Cézane P Reuter, Jane D P Renner, Elisa I Klinger, Michele B Ferreira, Elza D DE Mello, Andréia DE M Valim, Miria S Burgos
Background: Children and adolescents with at-risk genotypes (AA/AT) of the rs9939609 polymorphism in FTO, a fat mass and obesity-associated gene, may exhibit different cardiometabolic profile responses than subjects with the TT genotype after an interdisciplinary intervention. Methods: The sample consisted of 36 school children from southern Brazil. We used DNA quantitation and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for polymorphism genotyping. We measured anthropometric parameters (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, body fat percentage and skinfold sum), biochemical parameters (glucose, lipid profile, ultra-sensitive C-reactive protein, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, insulin and adiponectin) and blood pressure...
October 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987997/enhanced-anti-obesity-effects-of-complex-of-resistant-starch-and-chitosan-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#9
Xu Si, Padraig Strappe, Chris Blanchard, Zhongkai Zhou
This study investigated the interventional effect of resistant starch (RS), chitosan (CS) and chitosan-starch complexes (CL) on blood glucose, lipid composition and oxidative stress in high-fat diet fed rats. Compared with RS or CS alone, CL administration performed more efficiently in controlling body weight and adipose tissue mass, together with an increase in HDL-C concentration, oxidative stress suppression by increasing body antioxidant capacity. Gene expression analysis demonstrated the fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis and metabolism gene SREBP-1, adipocyte differentiation gene PPARγ, cholesterol synthesis gene HMGCR, gluconeogenesis gene GAPDH, were significantly down-regulated, whilst lipid oxidation gene Acox1 and liver functional genes Gstm2, Gclc were up-regulated following CL consumption compared with single RS or CS treatment...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933755/maternal-pre-pregnancy-bmi-downregulates-neonatal-cord-blood-lep-methylation
#10
R Kadakia, Y Zheng, Z Zhang, W Zhang, L Hou, J L Josefson
BACKGROUND: Neonatal adiposity has many determinants and may be a risk factor for future obesity. Epigenetic regulation of metabolically important genes is a potential contributor. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to determine whether methylation changes in the LEP gene in cord blood DNA are impacted by the maternal environment or affect neonatal adiposity measures. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 114 full-term neonates born to healthy mothers with normal glucose tolerance was performed...
December 8, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930556/the-fto-rs9939609-and-lepr-rs1137101-mothers-newborns-gene-polymorphisms-and-maternal-fat-mass-index-effects-on-anthropometric-characteristics-in-newborns-a-cross-sectional-study-on-mothers-newborns-gene-polymorphisms-the-fto-lepr-study-strobe-compliant-article
#11
Claudiu Mărginean, Cristina Oana Mărginean, Mihaela Iancu, Lorena Elena Meliţ, Florin Tripon, Claudia Bănescu
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of mothers' and newborns' fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs9939609 and leptin receptor (LEPR) rs1137101 gene polymorphisms on neonatal anthropometric parameters in order to identify a potential risk for developing obesity.We performed a cross-sectional study on 355 mother-newborn couples in an Obstetrics Gynecology Tertiary Hospital from Romania, evaluated with regard to anthropometric parameters, clinical and laboratory parameters besides 2 genetic polymorphisms (FTO rs9939609 and LEPR rs1137101)...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915341/rs1501299-polymorphism-in-the-adiponectin-gene-and-their-association-with-total-adiponectin-levels-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-subjects
#12
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, Beatriz de la Fuente, David Primo, Hilda Fernandez Ovalle, Enrique Romero
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the association of single nucleotide polymorphism rs1501299 in the ADIPOQ gene with body weight, insulin resistance, serum adipokine levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: The study involved a population of 1,007 adult obese subjects. Parameters like body weight, fat mass, waist circumferences, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, C-reactive protein, insulin concentration, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile and adipocytokines levels (leptin, adiponectin and resistin) were all measured...
December 3, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914922/negative-regulation-of-hepatic-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-fto-gene-expression-by-insulin
#13
Tooru M Mizuno, Pei San Lew, Yanming Luo, Arnold Leckstrom
AIMS: To investigate the role of glucose and insulin in the regulation of hepatic fat mass and obesity associated (Fto) gene expression and the role of hepatic Fto in the regulation of gluconeogenic gene expression. MAIN METHODS: To determine the effect of hyperglycemia on hepatic Fto expression, levels of Fto mRNA in liver were compared between normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic, hypereglycemic/hyperinsulinemic, and hyperglycemic/hypoinsulinemic mice. To determine the direct effect of insulin on Fto expression, levels of Fto, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) mRNA levels were compared between control and insulin-treated mouse liver tissues cultured ex vivo and immortalized mouse hepatocytes AML12...
November 30, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899146/impact-of-visceral-fat-on-gene-expression-profile-in-peripheral-blood-cells-in-obese-japanese-subjects
#14
Yoshinari Obata, Norikazu Maeda, Yuya Yamada, Koji Yamamoto, Seiji Nakamura, Masaya Yamaoka, Yoshimitsu Tanaka, Shigeki Masuda, Hirofumi Nagao, Shiro Fukuda, Yuya Fujishima, Shunbun Kita, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Tohru Funahashi, Ken-Ichi Matsubara, Yuji Matsuzawa, Iichiro Shimomura
BACKGROUND: Visceral fat plays a central role in the development of metabolic syndrome and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The association of visceral fat accumulation with cardio-metabolic diseases has been reported, but the impact of visceral fat on the gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) on the gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells of obese subjects...
November 29, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895698/combinations-of-bio-active-dietary-constituents-affect-human-white-adipocyte-function-in-vitro
#15
Ines Warnke, Johan W E Jocken, Rotraut Schoop, Christine Toepfer, Regina Goralczyk, Joseph Schwager
BACKGROUND: Specific bio-active dietary compounds modulate numerous metabolic processes in adipose tissue (AT), including pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. AT dysfunction, rather than an increased fat mass per se, is strongly associated with the development of insulin resistance and is characterized by impaired adipogenesis, hypertrophic adipocytes, inflammation, and impairments in substrate metabolism. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying AT dysfunction may provide new strategies for the treatment of obesity-associated metabolic diseases...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864687/omega-3-fatty-acid-epa-improves-regenerative-capacity-of-mouse-skeletal-muscle-cells-exposed-to-saturated-fat-and-inflammation
#16
Amarjit Saini, Adam P Sharples, Nasser Al-Shanti, Claire E Stewart
Sarcopenic obesity is characterised by high fat mass, low muscle mass and an elevated inflammatory environmental milieu. We therefore investigated the effects of elevated inflammatory cytokine TNF-α (aging/obesity) and saturated fatty acid, palmitate (obesity) on skeletal muscle cells in the presence/absence of EPA, a-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with proposed anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity activities. In the present study we show that palmitate was lipotoxic, inducing high levels of cell death and blocking myotube formation...
November 18, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858139/lactobacillus-plantarum-hac01-regulates-gut-microbiota-and-adipose-tissue-accumulation-in-a-diet-induced-obesity-murine-model
#17
Soyoung Park, Yosep Ji, Hoe-Yune Jung, Hyunjoon Park, Jihee Kang, Sang-Haeng Choi, Heuynkil Shin, Chang-Kee Hyun, Kyong-Tai Kim, Wilhelm H Holzapfel
The functional features of Lactobacillus plantarum HAC01 (HAC01), isolated from fermented Korean kimchi, were studied with regard to the fat mass, immunometabolic biomarkers and dysbiosis in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) murine model. L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) served as reference strain and a PBS-treated group as control. The administration of L. plantarum HAC01 resulted in reduction of the mesenteric adipose depot, the conjunctive tissue closely associated with the gastrointestinal tract, where lipid oxidative gene expression was upregulated compared to the control group...
November 17, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843076/evolution-of-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-fibrosis-after-bariatric-surgery
#18
K Chabot, M-S Gauthier, P Y Garneau, R Rabasa-Lhoret
AIM: Obesity is associated with the development of metabolic complications such as insulin resistance (IR). The mechanisms leading to IR remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue fibrosis and IR in obese patients before and after bariatric surgery. METHODS: Thirty-five obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery (12 with type 2 diabetes) were included in the study. Non-diabetic patients were classified as either insulin-sensitive (n=11) or insulin-resistant (n=12), based on the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISIMatsuda)...
November 11, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829468/fat-mass-obesity-associated-fto-rs9939609-and-melanocortin-4-receptor-mc4r-rs17782313-snp-are-positively-associated-with-obesity-and-blood-pressure-in-mexican-school-aged-children
#19
Pablo García-Solís, Marissa Reyes-Bastidas, Karla Flores, Olga P García, Jorge L Rosado, Lorena Méndez-Villa, Carlota Garcia-G, David García-Gutiérrez, Aarón Kuri-García, Hebert L Hernández-Montiel, Ofelia Soriano-Leon, Maria Elena Villagrán-Herrera, Juan C Solis-Sainz
Childhood overweight and obesity are worldwide public health problems and risk factors for chronic diseases. The presence of SNP in several genes has been associated with the presence of obesity. A total of 580 children (8-13 years old) from Queretaro, Mexico, participated in this cross-sectional study, which evaluated the associations of rs9939609 (fat mass obesity-associated (FTO)), rs17782313 (melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R)) and rs6548238 (transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18)) SNP with obesity and metabolic risk factors...
November 10, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827997/fto-deficiency-affects-the-gene-and-microrna-expression-involved-in-brown-adipogenesis-and-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-in-mice
#20
Justiina Ronkainen, Eleonora Mondini, Francesca Cinti, Saverio Cinti, Sylvain Sebért, Markku J Savolainen, Tuire Salonurmi
Genetic variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated gene Fto are linked to the onset of obesity in humans. The causal role of the FTO protein in obesity is supported by evidence obtained from transgenic mice; however, the underlying molecular pathways pertaining to the role of FTO in obesity have yet to be established. In this study, we investigate the Fto gene in mouse brown adipose tissue and in the browning process of white adipose tissue. We analyze distinct structural and molecular factors in brown and white fat depots of Fto-deficient mice under normal and obesogenic conditions...
November 7, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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