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Fat mass and obesity associated gene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899146/impact-of-visceral-fat-on-gene-expression-profile-in-peripheral-blood-cells-in-obese-japanese-subjects
#1
Yoshinari Obata, Norikazu Maeda, Yuya Yamada, Koji Yamamoto, Seiji Nakamura, Masaya Yamaoka, Yoshimitsu Tanaka, Shigeki Masuda, Hirofumi Nagao, Shiro Fukuda, Yuya Fujishima, Shunbun Kita, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Tohru Funahashi, Ken-Ichi Matsubara, Yuji Matsuzawa, Iichiro Shimomura
BACKGROUND: Visceral fat plays a central role in the development of metabolic syndrome and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The association of visceral fat accumulation with cardio-metabolic diseases has been reported, but the impact of visceral fat on the gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) on the gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells of obese subjects...
November 29, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895698/combinations-of-bio-active-dietary-constituents-affect-human-white-adipocyte-function-in-vitro
#2
Ines Warnke, Johan W E Jocken, Rotraut Schoop, Christine Toepfer, Regina Goralczyk, Joseph Schwager
BACKGROUND: Specific bio-active dietary compounds modulate numerous metabolic processes in adipose tissue (AT), including pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. AT dysfunction, rather than an increased fat mass per se, is strongly associated with the development of insulin resistance and is characterized by impaired adipogenesis, hypertrophic adipocytes, inflammation, and impairments in substrate metabolism. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying AT dysfunction may provide new strategies for the treatment of obesity-associated metabolic diseases...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864687/omega-3-fatty-acid-epa-improves-regenerative-capacity-of-mouse-skeletal-muscle-cells-exposed-to-saturated-fat-and-inflammation
#3
Amarjit Saini, Adam P Sharples, Nasser Al-Shanti, Claire E Stewart
Sarcopenic obesity is characterised by high fat mass, low muscle mass and an elevated inflammatory environmental milieu. We therefore investigated the effects of elevated inflammatory cytokine TNF-α (aging/obesity) and saturated fatty acid, palmitate (obesity) on skeletal muscle cells in the presence/absence of EPA, a-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with proposed anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity activities. In the present study we show that palmitate was lipotoxic, inducing high levels of cell death and blocking myotube formation...
November 18, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858139/lactobacillus-plantarum-hac01-regulates-gut-microbiota-and-adipose-tissue-accumulation-in-a-diet-induced-obesity-murine-model
#4
Soyoung Park, Yosep Ji, Hoe-Yune Jung, Hyunjoon Park, Jihee Kang, Sang-Haeng Choi, Heuynkil Shin, Chang-Kee Hyun, Kyong-Tai Kim, Wilhelm H Holzapfel
The functional features of Lactobacillus plantarum HAC01 (HAC01), isolated from fermented Korean kimchi, were studied with regard to the fat mass, immunometabolic biomarkers and dysbiosis in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) murine model. L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) served as reference strain and a PBS-treated group as control. The administration of L. plantarum HAC01 resulted in reduction of the mesenteric adipose depot, the conjunctive tissue closely associated with the gastrointestinal tract, where lipid oxidative gene expression was upregulated compared to the control group...
November 17, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843076/evolution-of-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-fibrosis-after-bariatric-surgery
#5
K Chabot, M-S Gauthier, P Y Garneau, R Rabasa-Lhoret
AIM: Obesity is associated with the development of metabolic complications such as insulin resistance (IR). The mechanisms leading to IR remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue fibrosis and IR in obese patients before and after bariatric surgery. METHODS: Thirty-five obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery (12 with type 2 diabetes) were included in the study. Non-diabetic patients were classified as either insulin-sensitive (n=11) or insulin-resistant (n=12), based on the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISIMatsuda)...
November 11, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829468/fat-mass-obesity-associated-fto-rs9939609-and-melanocortin-4-receptor-mc4r-rs17782313-snp-are-positively-associated-with-obesity-and-blood-pressure-in-mexican-school-aged-children
#6
Pablo García-Solís, Marissa Reyes-Bastidas, Karla Flores, Olga P García, Jorge L Rosado, Lorena Méndez-Villa, Carlota Garcia-G, David García-Gutiérrez, Aarón Kuri-García, Hebert L Hernández-Montiel, Ofelia Soriano-Leon, Maria Elena Villagrán-Herrera, Juan C Solis-Sainz
Childhood overweight and obesity are worldwide public health problems and risk factors for chronic diseases. The presence of SNP in several genes has been associated with the presence of obesity. A total of 580 children (8-13 years old) from Queretaro, Mexico, participated in this cross-sectional study, which evaluated the associations of rs9939609 (fat mass obesity-associated (FTO)), rs17782313 (melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R)) and rs6548238 (transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18)) SNP with obesity and metabolic risk factors...
November 10, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827997/fto-deficiency-affects-the-gene-and-microrna-expression-involved-in-brown-adipogenesis-and-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-in-mice
#7
Justiina Ronkainen, Eleonora Mondini, Francesca Cinti, Saverio Cinti, Sylvain Sebért, Markku J Savolainen, Tuire Salonurmi
Genetic variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated gene Fto are linked to the onset of obesity in humans. The causal role of the FTO protein in obesity is supported by evidence obtained from transgenic mice; however, the underlying molecular pathways pertaining to the role of FTO in obesity have yet to be established. In this study, we investigate the Fto gene in mouse brown adipose tissue and in the browning process of white adipose tissue. We analyze distinct structural and molecular factors in brown and white fat depots of Fto-deficient mice under normal and obesogenic conditions...
November 7, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820839/fto-gene-polymorphism-is-associated-with-type-2-diabetes-through-its-effect-on-increasing-the-maximum-bmi-in-japanese-men
#8
Yutaka Kamura, Minoru Iwata, Shiro Maeda, Satomi Shinmura, Yukiko Koshimizu, Hisae Honoki, Kazuhito Fukuda, Manabu Ishiki, Isao Usui, Yasuo Fukushima, Atsuko Takano, Hiromi Kato, Shihou Murakami, Kiyohiro Higuchi, Chikaaki Kobashi, Kazuyuki Tobe
AIM: Several studies have demonstrated that polymorphisms within the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, whether the effects of the FTO locus on T2D susceptibility are independent of fat-mass increases remains controversial. To investigate this issue, we examined the association of FTO variants with T2D and various aspects of BMI history during adult life in a Japanese population. METHODS: We genotyped SNPs within FTO (rs1121980 and rs1558902) in 760 Japanese patients with T2D who had reached a lifetime maximum BMI (BMImax) before or at the time of diagnosis and 693 control individuals with information regarding their BMImax...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818936/suppressing-hyperinsulinemia-prevents-obesity-but-causes-rapid-onset-of-diabetes-in-leptin-deficient-lep-ob-ob-mice
#9
Anna M D'souza, James D Johnson, Susanne M Clee, Timothy J Kieffer
OBJECTIVE: Hyperinsulinemia is commonly associated with obesity. Mice deficient in the adipose-derived hormone leptin (Lep(ob/ob)) develop hyperinsulinemia prior to onset of obesity and glucose intolerance. Whether the excess of circulating insulin is a major contributor to obesity and impaired glucose homeostasis in Lep(ob/ob) mice is unclear. It has been reported previously that diet-induced obesity in mice can be prevented by reducing insulin gene dosage. In the present study, we examined the effects of genetic insulin reduction in Lep(ob/ob) mice on circulating insulin, body composition, and glucose homeostasis...
November 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788523/association-of-neuropeptide-y-gene-rs16147-polymorphism-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors-adipokines-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-obesity
#10
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, Beatriz de la Fuente, David Primo, Rocio Aller
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The NPY gene has 4 exons, and it is located at 7p15.1. The main genetic variant described in this gene is rs16147. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of NPY rs16147 with body weight, insulin resistance, serum adipokine levels, and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: A population of 1,005 obese patients was analyzed in a cross-sectional survey. Weight, fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, basal glucose, C-reactive protein, insulin, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]), lipid profile, and adipocytokine (leptin, adiponectin, and resistin) levels were measured...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780362/waist-circumference-to-height-ratio-predicts-inflammatory-risk-in-children
#11
Edmar Lacerda Mendes, Alynne Christian Ribeiro Andaki, Ciro José Brito, Juliano Magalhães Guedes, Maria Paula Maia Santos, Jorge Mota
BACKGROUND: The increase in obesity, especially the increase of visceral fat, has been directly associated with health risk. Additionally, a waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) (0.5) has been proposed as an indicator of early health risk. AIMS: To test the association between anthropometric measurements and inflammatory mRNA expression and to evaluate the effectiveness of WHtR to predict inflammatory risk in children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were collected in 94 Brazilian children (46 boys) aged 9-11 years...
October 26, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759071/ucp2-expression-is-associated-with-weight-loss-after-hypocaloric-diet-intervention
#12
C Cortes-Oliveira, C F Nicoletti, M A de Souza Pinhel, B A P de Oliveira, D C G Quinhoneiro, N Y Noronha, J S Marchini, W A da Silva Júnior, W S Júnior, C B Nonino
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although energy restriction contributes to weight loss, it may also reduce energy expenditure, limiting the success of weight loss in the long term. Studies have described how genetics contributes to the development of obesity, and uncoupling proteins 1 and 2 (UCP1 and UCP2) and beta-3-adrenoceptor (ADRB3) have been implicated in the metabolic pathways that culminate in this condition. This study aimed to evaluate how the UCP1, UCP2 and ADRB3 genes influence weight loss in severely obese women submitted to hypocaloric dietary intervention...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715400/genetic-variation-in-the-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-gene-determines-nafld-and-visceral-obesity
#13
Stefan Z Lutz, Andreas Peter, Fausto Machicao, Apostolia Lamprinou, Jürgen Machann, Fritz Schick, Ingmar Königsrainer, Alfred Königsrainer, Andreas Fritsche, Harald Staiger, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan, Konstantinos Kantartzis
CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Acute pharmacological inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1), which converts cortisone into the much more potent cortisol in peripheral tissues, results in reduction of total-, visceral- and liver fat, but not of insulin resistance. We now investigated whether lifelong alterations of 11β-HSD1 activity similarly affect these cardiometabolic risk parameters, by studying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 11β-HSD1-coding gene (HSD11B1)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714571/correlation-of-tlr4-and-klf7-in-inflammation-induced-by-obesity
#14
Cuizhe Wang, Xiaodan Ha, Wei Li, Peng Xu, Yajuan Gu, Tingting Wang, Yan Wang, Jianxin Xie, Jun Zhang
Objective Recent studies have revealed a link between toll-like receptors (TLRs), Kruppel-like factors (KLFs), and the adipose tissue inflammation associated with obesity. TLR4 is associated with chronic inflammation in obesity. KLF7 is known to play an important role in the differentiation of adipocytes, but its role in visceral adipose tissue inflammation has not yet been investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the correlation of TLR4 and KLF7 in inflammation induced by obesity. Methods A total of 32 Wistar male rat subjects were fed in the center for experimental animals of Shihezi University...
October 6, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689015/sex-differences-in-obesity-development-in-pair-fed-neuronal-lipoprotein-lipase-deficient-mice
#15
Hong Wang, Yongping Wang, Matthew D Taussig, Robert H Eckel
OBJECTIVE: Compared to men, postmenopausal women suffer from a disproportionate burden of many co-morbidities associated with obesity, e.g. cardiovascular disease, cancer, and dementia. The underlying mechanism for this sex difference is not well understood but is believed to relate to absence of the protective effect of estrogen through the action of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the central nervous system. With the recently developed neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase deficient mice (NEXLPL-/-) (Wang et al...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689008/adipose-tissue-p-rr-regulates-insulin-sensitivity-fat-mass-and-body-weight
#16
Zulaykho Shamansurova, Paul Tan, Basma Ahmed, Emilie Pepin, Ondrej Seda, Julie L Lavoie
OBJECTIVE: We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(P)RR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (P)RR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. METHODS: An adipose tissue-specific (P)RR knockout (KO) mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (P)RR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND) diet compared to heterozygous KO females...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684068/deficiency-of-interleukin-15-confers-resistance-to-obesity-by-diminishing-inflammation-and-enhancing-the-thermogenic-function-of-adipose-tissues
#17
Gregory Lacraz, Volatiana Rakotoarivelo, Sebastien M Labbé, Mathieu Vernier, Christophe Noll, Marian Mayhue, Jana Stankova, Adel Schwertani, Guillaume Grenier, André Carpentier, Denis Richard, Gerardo Ferbeyre, Julie Fradette, Marek Rola-Pleszczynski, Alfredo Menendez, Marie-France Langlois, Subburaj Ilangumaran, Sheela Ramanathan
OBJECTIVE: IL-15 is an inflammatory cytokine secreted by many cell types. IL-15 is also produced during physical exercise by skeletal muscle and has been reported to reduce weight gain in mice. Contrarily, our findings on IL-15 knockout (KO) mice indicate that IL-15 promotes obesity. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the pro-obesity role of IL-15 in adipose tissues. METHODS: Control and IL-15 KO mice were maintained on high fat diet (HFD) or normal control diet...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678062/aguamiel-concentrate-from-agave-salmiana-and-its-extracted-saponins-attenuated-obesity-and-hepatic-steatosis-and-increased-akkermansia-muciniphila-in-c57bl6-mice
#18
Ana María Leal-Díaz, Lilia G Noriega, Ivan Torre-Villalvazo, Nimbe Torres, Gabriela Alemán-Escondrillas, Patricia López-Romero, Mónica Sánchez-Tapia, Miriam Aguilar-López, Janette Furuzawa-Carballeda, Laura A Velázquez-Villegas, Azalia Avila-Nava, Guillermo Ordáz, Janet A Gutiérrez-Uribe, Sergio O Serna-Saldivar, Armando R Tovar
Obesity and its comorbidities are a severe public health problem worldwide. The use of bioactive compounds found in some foods has been demonstrated to ameliorate the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the bioactive compounds present in aguamiel concentrate (AC) from Agave salmiana could attenuate glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high fat (HF) diet. HPLC-ELSD analysis showed that AC contained several saponins. The consumption of an AC extract rich in saponins reduced weight gain and fat mass and lowered serum glucose, insulin and LDL-cholesterol levels in mice fed a HF diet...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667669/analysis-of-positive-selection-at-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-associated-with-body-mass-index-does-not-support-the-thrifty-gene-hypothesis
#19
Guanlin Wang, John R Speakman
The "thrifty gene hypothesis" suggests genetic susceptibility to obesity arises because of positive selection for alleles that favored fat deposition and survival during famines. We used public domain data to locate signatures of positive selection based on derived allele frequency, genetic diversity, long haplotypes, and differences between populations at SNPs identified in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for BMI. We used SNPs near the lactase (LCT), SLC24A5, and SLC45A2 genes as positive controls and 120 randomly selected SNPs as negative controls...
October 11, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666579/heritable-components-of-the-human-fecal-microbiome-are-associated-with-visceral-fat
#20
Michelle Beaumont, Julia K Goodrich, Matthew A Jackson, Idil Yet, Emily R Davenport, Sara Vieira-Silva, Justine Debelius, Tess Pallister, Massimo Mangino, Jeroen Raes, Rob Knight, Andrew G Clark, Ruth E Ley, Tim D Spector, Jordana T Bell
BACKGROUND: Variation in the human fecal microbiota has previously been associated with body mass index (BMI). Although obesity is a global health burden, the accumulation of abdominal visceral fat is the specific cardio-metabolic disease risk factor. Here, we explore links between the fecal microbiota and abdominal adiposity using body composition as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a large sample of twins from the TwinsUK cohort, comparing fecal 16S rRNA diversity profiles with six adiposity measures...
September 26, 2016: Genome Biology
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