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Fat mass and obesity associated gene

C Cortes-Oliveira, C F Nicoletti, M A de Souza Pinhel, B A P de Oliveira, D C G Quinhoneiro, N Y Noronha, J S Marchini, W A da Silva Júnior, W S Júnior, C B Nonino
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although energy restriction contributes to weight loss, it may also reduce energy expenditure, limiting the success of weight loss in the long term. Studies have described how genetics contributes to the development of obesity, and uncoupling proteins 1 and 2 (UCP1 and UCP2) and beta-3-adrenoceptor (ADRB3) have been implicated in the metabolic pathways that culminate in this condition. This study aimed to evaluate how the UCP1, UCP2 and ADRB3 genes influence weight loss in severely obese women submitted to hypocaloric dietary intervention...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Stefan Z Lutz, Andreas Peter, Fausto Machicao, Apostolia Lamprinou, Jürgen Machann, Fritz Schick, Ingmar Königsrainer, Alfred Königsrainer, Andreas Fritsche, Harald Staiger, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan, Konstantinos Kantartzis
CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Acute pharmacological inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1), which converts cortisone into the much more potent cortisol in peripheral tissues, results in reduction of total-, visceral- and liver fat, but not of insulin resistance. We now investigated whether lifelong alterations of 11β-HSD1 activity similarly affect these cardiometabolic risk parameters, by studying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 11β-HSD1-coding gene (HSD11B1)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Cuizhe Wang, Xiaodan Ha, Wei Li, Peng Xu, Yajuan Gu, Tingting Wang, Yan Wang, Jianxin Xie, Jun Zhang
Objective Recent studies have revealed a link between toll-like receptors (TLRs), Kruppel-like factors (KLFs), and the adipose tissue inflammation associated with obesity. TLR4 is associated with chronic inflammation in obesity. KLF7 is known to play an important role in the differentiation of adipocytes, but its role in visceral adipose tissue inflammation has not yet been investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the correlation of TLR4 and KLF7 in inflammation induced by obesity. Methods A total of 32 Wistar male rat subjects were fed in the center for experimental animals of Shihezi University...
October 6, 2016: Inflammation
Hong Wang, Yongping Wang, Matthew D Taussig, Robert H Eckel
OBJECTIVE: Compared to men, postmenopausal women suffer from a disproportionate burden of many co-morbidities associated with obesity, e.g. cardiovascular disease, cancer, and dementia. The underlying mechanism for this sex difference is not well understood but is believed to relate to absence of the protective effect of estrogen through the action of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the central nervous system. With the recently developed neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase deficient mice (NEXLPL-/-) (Wang et al...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Zulaykho Shamansurova, Paul Tan, Basma Ahmed, Emilie Pepin, Ondrej Seda, Julie L Lavoie
OBJECTIVE: We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(P)RR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (P)RR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. METHODS: An adipose tissue-specific (P)RR knockout (KO) mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (P)RR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND) diet compared to heterozygous KO females...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Gregory Lacraz, Volatiana Rakotoarivelo, Sebastien M Labbé, Mathieu Vernier, Christophe Noll, Marian Mayhue, Jana Stankova, Adel Schwertani, Guillaume Grenier, André Carpentier, Denis Richard, Gerardo Ferbeyre, Julie Fradette, Marek Rola-Pleszczynski, Alfredo Menendez, Marie-France Langlois, Subburaj Ilangumaran, Sheela Ramanathan
OBJECTIVE: IL-15 is an inflammatory cytokine secreted by many cell types. IL-15 is also produced during physical exercise by skeletal muscle and has been reported to reduce weight gain in mice. Contrarily, our findings on IL-15 knockout (KO) mice indicate that IL-15 promotes obesity. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the pro-obesity role of IL-15 in adipose tissues. METHODS: Control and IL-15 KO mice were maintained on high fat diet (HFD) or normal control diet...
2016: PloS One
Ana María Leal-Díaz, Lilia G Noriega, Ivan Torre-Villalvazo, Nimbe Torres, Gabriela Alemán-Escondrillas, Patricia López-Romero, Mónica Sánchez-Tapia, Miriam Aguilar-López, Janette Furuzawa-Carballeda, Laura A Velázquez-Villegas, Azalia Avila-Nava, Guillermo Ordáz, Janet A Gutiérrez-Uribe, Sergio O Serna-Saldivar, Armando R Tovar
Obesity and its comorbidities are a severe public health problem worldwide. The use of bioactive compounds found in some foods has been demonstrated to ameliorate the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the bioactive compounds present in aguamiel concentrate (AC) from Agave salmiana could attenuate glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high fat (HF) diet. HPLC-ELSD analysis showed that AC contained several saponins. The consumption of an AC extract rich in saponins reduced weight gain and fat mass and lowered serum glucose, insulin and LDL-cholesterol levels in mice fed a HF diet...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Guanlin Wang, John R Speakman
The "thrifty gene hypothesis" suggests genetic susceptibility to obesity arises because of positive selection for alleles that favored fat deposition and survival during famines. We used public domain data to locate signatures of positive selection based on derived allele frequency, genetic diversity, long haplotypes, and differences between populations at SNPs identified in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for BMI. We used SNPs near the lactase (LCT), SLC24A5, and SLC45A2 genes as positive controls and 120 randomly selected SNPs as negative controls...
October 11, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Michelle Beaumont, Julia K Goodrich, Matthew A Jackson, Idil Yet, Emily R Davenport, Sara Vieira-Silva, Justine Debelius, Tess Pallister, Massimo Mangino, Jeroen Raes, Rob Knight, Andrew G Clark, Ruth E Ley, Tim D Spector, Jordana T Bell
BACKGROUND: Variation in the human fecal microbiota has previously been associated with body mass index (BMI). Although obesity is a global health burden, the accumulation of abdominal visceral fat is the specific cardio-metabolic disease risk factor. Here, we explore links between the fecal microbiota and abdominal adiposity using body composition as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a large sample of twins from the TwinsUK cohort, comparing fecal 16S rRNA diversity profiles with six adiposity measures...
2016: Genome Biology
Tun-Jen Hsiao, Eugene Lin
It is a key challenge to conduct reproducibility in genetic research, especially association studies in obesity. While susceptibility of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene to obesity has been reported in various populations, data from Asians is less conclusive. This replication study was carried out to test whether the FTO rs9939609 SNP is a predictive factor for obesity and obesity-related metabolic traits in a Taiwanese population. A total of 1188 Taiwanese subjects were recruited for this study...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
Andrea Lim, Jin Zhou, Rohit A Sinha, Brijesh K Singh, Sujoy Ghosh, Kiat-Hon Lim, Pierce Kah-Hoe Chow, Esther C Y Woon, Paul M Yen
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common causes of liver failure worldwide. It is characterized by excess fat accumulation, inflammation, and increased lipotoxicity in hepatocytes. Currently, there are limited treatment options for NASH due to lack of understanding of its molecular etiology. In the present study, we demonstrate that the expression of fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) is significantly increased in the livers of NASH patients and in a rodent model of NASH. Furthermore, using human hepatic cells, we show that genetic silencing of FTO protects against palmitate-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress, and apoptosis in vitro...
October 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
P F Todendi, L G Possuelo, E I Klinger, C P Reuter, M S Burgos, D J Moura, M Fiegenbaum, Andréia Rosane de Moura Valim
Overweight and obesity are associated with chronic and subclinical inflammation due to an imbalance of inflammatory mediators. However, the association with gene polymorphism has been rarely studied in children. The aim of this study was to determine if serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are related to the IL6 rs1800795, IL6 rs2069845 and CRP rs1205 polymorphisms (SNPs) according to body mass index (BMI) in a sample of children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study in 470 students between 7 and 17yearsof age of anthropometric characteristics, high sensitivity-CRP (Hs-CRP) and IL-6 levels and three SNPs genotyped...
December 2016: Cytokine
Eun-Young Hwang, Mi-Hee Yu, Yeon-Seop Jung, Sam-Pin Lee, Jin Han Shon, Syng-Ook Lee
In the present study, we hypothesized that defatted safflower seed which is known to be rich in polyphenols might influence adipogenesis and obesity-related disorders, and therefore the anti-adipogenic and hypolipidemic effects of ethanol extract from defatted safflower (Cathamus tinctorius L.) seeds (CSE) were investigated both in cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and in C57BL/6J ob/ob mice fed a high-fat diet. CSE inhibited adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreased expression of the adipogenic transcription factors, SREBP1c and PPARγ, and their target genes...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Fei Zhao, Li-Hong Gao, Shan-Shan Li, Zhan-Ying Wei, Wen-Zhen Fu, Jin-Wei He, Yu-Juan Liu, Yun-Qiu Hu, Jing Dong, Zhen-Lin Zhang
The methyltransferase-like 21C gene (METTL21C), which is mainly expressed in muscle, can promote the differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes and reduce glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of osteocytes. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of METTL21C and peak bone mineral density (BMD), body mass index, total fat mass (TFM), and total lean mass (TLM) in Chinese young men. Fifteen tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped, and haplotype blocks were derived in 400 Chinese male nuclear families...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Shannon L Glisan, Caroline Ryan, Andrew P Neilson, Joshua D Lambert
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) consumption has been associated with health beneficial effects. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a comorbidity of obesity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a polyphenol-rich cranberry extract (CBE) on hepatic inflammation in high fat (HF)-fed obese C57BL/6J mice. Following dietary treatment with 0.8% CBE for 10 weeks, we observed no change in body weight or visceral fat mass in CBE-supplemented mice compared to HF-fed control mice. We did observe a significant decrease in plasma alanine aminotransferase (31%) and histological severity of NAFLD (33% decrease in area of involvement, 29% decrease in lipid droplet size) compared to HF-fed controls...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Fei Xiao, Ying Du, Ziquan Lv, Shanghai Chen, Jianmin Zhu, Hongguang Sheng, Feifan Guo
Eight amino acids are considered essential for human nutrition, and three of them, including leucine, isoleucine and valine, are called as branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). We recently discovered that dietary deficiency of any BCAA for 7 days rapidly reduces the abdominal fat mass in mice. The goal of this study was to investigate (1) whether dietary deficiency of the other five essential amino acids (EAAs), including phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine and lysine, would produce similar effects and (2) whether an association between serum AAs and obesity was observed in humans in Chinese Han population...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Alexander I Young, Fabian Wauthier, Peter Donnelly
Genetic studies have shown that obesity risk is heritable and that, of the many common variants now associated with body mass index, those in an intron of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have the largest effect. The size of the UK Biobank, and its joint measurement of genetic, anthropometric and lifestyle variables, offers an unprecedented opportunity to assess gene-by-environment interactions in a way that accounts for the dependence between different factors. We jointly examine the evidence for interactions between FTO (rs1421085) and various lifestyle and environmental factors...
2016: Nature Communications
Janice E Drew, Andrew J Farquharson, Graham W Horgan, Lynda M Williams
The sirtuin (SIRT)/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) system is implicated in development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diet-induced obesity, a major risk factor for T2D. Mechanistic links have not yet been defined. SIRT/NAD system gene expression and NAD/NADH levels were measured in liver, white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle from mice fed either a low-fat diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 days up to 16 weeks. An in-house custom-designed multiplex gene expression assay assessed all 7 mouse SIRTs (SIRT1-7) and 16 enzymes involved in conversion of tryptophan, niacin, nicotinamide riboside and metabolic precursors to NAD...
August 14, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Ye Jin Kim, Ji-Young Choi, Ri Ryu, Jeonghyeon Lee, Su-Jung Cho, Eun-Young Kwon, Mi-Kyung Lee, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Yu Rina, Mi-Kyung Sung, Myung-Sook Choi
The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE), which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males) were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat), and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w) PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1), that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and energy expenditure...
2016: Nutrients
Laurence B Lindenmaier, Kenneth A Philbrick, Adam J Branscum, Satya P Kalra, Russell T Turner, Urszula T Iwaniec
Low bone mass is often associated with elevated bone marrow adiposity. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitor, adipocyte formation may increase at the expense of osteoblast formation. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone known to regulate energy and bone metabolism. Leptin deficiency and high-fat diet-induced obesity are associated with increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and reduced bone formation. Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice fed a regular diet...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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