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Fat mass and obesity associated gene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126384/population-differentiation-in-allele-frequencies-of-obesity-associated-snps
#1
Linyong Mao, Yayin Fang, Michael Campbell, William M Southerland
BACKGROUND: Obesity is emerging as a global health problem, with more than one-third of the world's adult population being overweight or obese. In this study, we investigated worldwide population differentiation in allele frequencies of obesity-associated SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms). RESULTS: We collected a total of 225 obesity-associated SNPs from a public database. Their population-level allele frequencies were derived based on the genotype data from 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3)...
November 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122708/combinatory-effects-of-phytoestrogens-and-exercise-on-body-fat-mass-and-lipid-metabolism-in-ovariectomized-female-rats
#2
Wenya Zheng, Jana Rogoschin, Anja Niehoff, Kristina Oden, Sabine E Kulling, Mingyong Xie, Patrick Diel
The purpose of this study was to investigate the combinatory effects of an isoflavone (ISO)-rich diet and exercise on fat mass and lipid metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Therefore the female Wistar rats were sedentary, performed an intense treadmill uphill running, received ISOs, or a combination of ISOs and running after ovariectomy. The exercise reduced visceral fat mass, adipocyte size and serum leptin in Sham animals and antagonized the increases of these parameters induced by OVX. ISOs reduced OVX induced increase of serum leptin...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121940/plasma-irisin-is-elevated-in-type-2-diabetes-and-is-associated-with-increased-e-selectin-levels
#3
Karan S Rana, Chathyan Pararasa, Islam Afzal, David A Nagel, Eric J Hill, Clifford J Bailey, Helen R Griffiths, Ioannis Kyrou, Harpal S Randeva, Srikanth Bellary, James E Brown
BACKGROUND: Irisin is a hormone released mainly from skeletal muscle after exercise which increases adipose tissue energy expenditure. Adipocytes can also release irisin after exercise, acting as a local adipokine to induce white adipose tissue to take on a brown adipose tissue-like phenotype, suggesting that irisin and its receptor may represent a novel molecular target for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diabetes. Previous reports provide conflicting evidence regarding circulating irisin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM)...
November 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107524/a-polyphenol-rich-cranberry-extract-reverses-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-steatosis-independently-of-body-weight-loss
#4
Fernando F Anhê, Renato T Nachbar, Thibault V Varin, Vanessa Vilela, Stéphanie Dudonné, Geneviève Pilon, Maryse Fournier, Marc-André Lecours, Yves Desjardins, Denis Roy, Emile Levy, André Marette
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported that polyphenol-rich extracts from various sources can prevent obesity and associated gastro-hepatic and metabolic disorders in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. However, whether such extracts can reverse obesity-linked metabolic alterations remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential of a polyphenol-rich extract from cranberry (CE) to reverse obesity and associated metabolic disorders in DIO-mice. METHODS: Mice were pre-fed either a Chow or a High Fat-High Sucrose (HFHS) diet for 13 weeks to induce obesity and then treated either with CE (200 mg/kg, Chow + CE, HFHS + CE) or vehicle (Chow, HFHS) for 8 additional weeks...
October 18, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103907/myeloid-atg16l1-does-not-affect-adipose-tissue-inflammation-or-body-mass-in-mice-fed-high-fat-diet
#5
Evelyn M S Litwinoff, Merav Y Gold, Karan Singh, Jiyuan Hu, Huilin Li, Ken Cadwell, Ann Marie Schmidt
BACKGROUND: An influx of lipid-loaded macrophages characterizes visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation, which is an important factor in the development of insulin resistance (IR) in obesity. Depletion of macrophage lipids accompanies increased whole body insulin sensitivity, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Deficiency of autophagy protein ATG16L1 is associated with increases in inflammatory diseases and lipid metabolism, but the connection between ATG16L1, IR, and obesity remains elusive...
November 2, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101298/loss-of-microrna-22-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-dyslipidemia-and-increases-energy-expenditure-without-affecting-cardiac-hypertrophy
#6
Gabriela Placoná Diniz, Zhan-Peng Huang, Jianming Liu, Jinghai Chen, Jian Ding, Renata Inzinna Fonseca, Maria Luiza Barreto-Chaves, Jose Donato, Xiaoyun Hu, Da-Zhi Wang
Obesity is associated with development of diverse diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and dyslipidemia. MiRNA-22 (miR-22) is a critical regulator of cardiac function and targets genes involved in metabolic processes. Previously we generated miR-22 null mice and we showed that loss of miR-22 blunted cardiac hypertrophy induced by mechanohormornal stress. In this study, we examined the role of miR-22 in the cardiac and metabolic alterations promoted by high fat (HF) diet. We found that loss of miR-22 attenuated the gain of fat mass and prevented dyslipidemia induced by HF diet, although the body weight gain, or glucose intolerance and insulin resistance did not seem to be affected...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093028/genome-wide-meta-analysis-unravels-interactions-between-magnesium-homeostasis-and-metabolic-phenotypes
#7
Tanguy Corre, Francisco J Arjona, Caroline Hayward, Sonia Youhanna, Jeroen H F de Baaij, Hendrica Belge, Nadine Nägele, Huguette Debaix, Maxime G Blanchard, Michela Traglia, Sarah E Harris, Sheila Ulivi, Rico Rueedi, David Lamparter, Aurélien Macé, Cinzia Sala, Stefania Lenarduzzi, Belen Ponte, Menno Pruijm, Daniel Ackermann, Georg Ehret, Daniela Baptista, Ozren Polasek, Igor Rudan, Toby W Hurd, Nicholas D Hastie, Veronique Vitart, Geràrd Waeber, Zoltán Kutalik, Sven Bergmann, Rosa Vargas-Poussou, Martin Konrad, Paolo Gasparini, Ian J Deary, John M Starr, Daniela Toniolo, Peter Vollenweider, Joost G J Hoenderop, René J M Bindels, Murielle Bochud, Olivier Devuyst
Magnesium (Mg(2+)) homeostasis is critical for metabolism. However, the genetic determinants of the renal handling of Mg(2+), which is crucial for Mg(2+) homeostasis, and the potential influence on metabolic traits in the general population are unknown. We obtained plasma and urine parameters from 9099 individuals from seven cohorts, and conducted a genome-wide meta-analysis of Mg(2+) homeostasis. We identified two loci associated with urinary magnesium (uMg), rs3824347 (P=4.4×10(-13)) near TRPM6, which encodes an epithelial Mg(2+) channel, and rs35929 (P=2...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090233/common-variations-in-perilipin-rs1052700-and-fto-rs3751812-gene-variants-and-risk-for-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#8
Ramin Saravani, Hamid Reza Galavi, Nafiseh Noorzehi, Nasrin Ranjbar, Fatemeh Mollashahee-Kohkan
BACKGROUND: Perilipins are proteins that coat lipid globules in adipocytes, which are steroid-generating cells that play a central role in lipid storage and breakdown. The FTO gene is associated with type-2 diabetes (T2D) and increased fat mass. In this work the association of perilipin and FTO gene polymorphisms in T2D was investigated. METHODS: One hundred eighty-three Iranian men and women with T2D, and 174 healthy controls with no known metabolic diseases, participated in the study...
October 2017: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075643/association-between-nicotinamide-n-methyltransferase-gene-polymorphisms-and-obesity-in-chinese-han-male-college-students
#9
Qiong Zhou, Xiao-Juan Zhu, Jiang-Hua Li
Some reports have shown that nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is associated with the body mass index (BMI) and energy metabolism. Here we explored the association between NNMT gene polymorphisms and obesity. The subjects were recruited from male Chinese Han college student. 289 of them (19 ≤ body fat percentage (BF%)) were selected as the high body fat group (HBFG), 494 of them (3 ≤ BF% < 13.5) were selected as the low body fat group (LBFG), and then a case-control study (fat versus thin) was carried out to explore the association between the NNMT gene polymorphism and the body composition using tagSNPs method...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074394/n-6-adenine-dna-methylation-demystified-in-eukaryotic-genome-from-biology-to-pathology
#10
REVIEW
Nidarshana Chaturvedi Parashar, Gaurav Parashar, Harsh Nayyar, Rajat Sandhir
N(6)-methyl-2'-deoxyadenosine (m6dA) is a well characterized DNA modification in prokaryotes. Its existence in eukaryotic DNA remained doubtful until recently. Evidence suggests that the m6dA levels decrease with the increasing complexity of eukaryotic genomes. Analysis of m6dA levels in genome of lower eukaryotes reveals its role in gene regulation, nucleosome positioning and early development. In higher eukaryotes m6dA is enriched in nongenic region compared to genic region, preferentially in chromosome X and 13 suggesting a chromosome bias...
October 23, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045349/male-specific-association-between-fat-free-mass-index-and-faecal-microbiota-in-2-to-3-year-old-australian-children
#11
Paula Smith-Brown, Mark Morrison, Lutz Krause, Peter S W Davies
OBJECTIVES: Maturation of the gut microbiota has been shown to influence childhood growth while alterations in microbiota composition are proposed to be causally related to the development of overweight and obesity. The objective of this study is to explore the association between microbiota profile, body size and body composition in young children. METHODS: Faecal microbiota was examined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing while body composition was assessed using the deuterium oxide dilution technique in a cohort of 37 well-nourished 2 to 3 year old Australian children...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034152/association-of-fatty-acid-binding-protein-2-and-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-gene-polymorphism-with-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#12
Shania Abbas, Syed Tasleem Raza, Anu Chandra, Luxmi Singh, Farzana Mahdi
PURPOSE: The present study was carried out to investigate the association of fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) and fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene polymorphism with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cases and controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study includes 122 POAG cases and 112 controls. FABP2 and FTO gene polymorphisms in cases and controls were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. RESULTS: The mean ages were 49...
July 2017: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032145/genetic-association-analysis-of-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-and-obesity-related-phenotypes
#13
Correa-Rodríguez María, Jose Antonio Carrillo-Ávila, Schmidt-RioValle Jacqueline, González-Jiménez Emilio, Vargas Sofia, Martin Javier, Rueda-Medina Blanca
Vitamin D has been established as a key factor in the development of obesity through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the VDR gene to obesity-related phenotypes in a population of Caucasian young adults. The study population consisted of 701 healthy Spanish young adults (mean age 20.41±2.48). Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of VDR (TaqI, BsmI and FokI) were selected as genetic markers. Body composition measurements including weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), percentage of fat mass (PFM), fat-free mass (FFM) and visceral fat level (VFL) were analysed...
January 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988247/distinct-penetrance-of-obesity-associated-susceptibility-alleles-in-the-hungarian-general-and-roma-populations
#14
Károly Nagy, Szilvia Fiatal, János Sándor, Róza Ádány
AIMS: The aim of our study was to explore differences in genetic predisposition to obesity between the Hungarian general and Roma populations. METHODS: A total of 1,152 samples from the Hungarian Roma population and 1,743 samples from the Hungarian general population were genotyped for 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of obesity. Two types of multilocus genetic risk scores were constructed to estimate the combined effect of selected SNPs...
October 7, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986399/objectively-measured-physical-activity-sedentary-behavior-and-genetic-predisposition-to-obesity-in-us-hispanics-latinos-results-from-the-hispanic-community-health-study-study-of-latinos-hchs-sol
#15
Jee-Young Moon, Tao Wang, Tamar Sofer, Kari E North, Carmen R Isasi, Jianwen Cai, Marc D Gellman, Ashley E Moncrieft, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Maria Argos, Robert C Kaplan, Qibin Qi
Studies using self-reported data suggest gene-physical activity interaction on obesity, yet the influence of sedentary behavior, distinct from lack of physical activity, on genetic associations with obesity remains unclear. We analyzed interactions of accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time with genetic variants on obesity among 9,645 US Hispanics/Latinos. An overall genetic risk score (GRS), central nervous system (CNS)-related GRS, and non-CNS GRS were calculated based on 97 BMI-associated SNPs...
October 6, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972119/loss-of-fatty-acid-binding-protein-1-alters-the-hepatic-endocannabinoid-system-response-to-a-high-fat-diet
#16
Gregory G Martin, Danilo Landrock, Sarah Chung, Lawrence J Dangott, Avery L McIntosh, John T Mackie, Ann B Kier, Friedhelm Schroeder
Upregulation of the hepatic endocannabinoid (EC) receptor [cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1)] and arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Male mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum also exhibit NAFLD, increased hepatic AEA, and obesity. But, preference for HFD complicates interpretation and almost nothing is known about these effects in females. These issues were addressed by pair-feeding HFD. Similarly to ad libitum-fed HFD, pair-fed HFD also increased WT male and female mouse fat tissue mass (FTM), but preferentially at the expense of lean tissue mass...
November 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958218/effects-of-obesity-energy-restriction-and-neutering-on-the-faecal-microbiota-of-cats
#17
Manuela M Fischer, Alexandre M Kessler, Dorothy A Kieffer, Trina A Knotts, Kyoungmi Kim, Alfreda Wei, Jon J Ramsey, Andrea J Fascetti
Surveys report that 25-57 % of cats are overweight or obese. The most evinced cause is neutering. Weight loss often fails; thus, new strategies are needed. Obesity has been associated with altered gut bacterial populations and increases in microbial dietary energy extraction, body weight and adiposity. This study aimed to determine whether alterations in intestinal bacteria were associated with obesity, energy restriction and neutering by characterising faecal microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in eight lean intact, eight lean neutered and eight obese neutered cats before and after 6 weeks of energy restriction...
October 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925409/metabolic-and-genomic-adaptations-to-winter-fattening-in-a-primate-species-the-grey-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#18
J Terrien, M Gaudubois, D Champeval, V Zaninotto, L Roger, J F Riou, F Aujard
AIM: To understand the mechanisms underlying the development of metabolic changes leading to obesity remains a major world health issue. Among such mechanisms, seasonality is quite underestimated although it corresponds to the manifestation of extreme metabolic flexibility in response to a changing environment. Nevertheless, the changes induced by such flexibility are far to be understood, especially at the level of insulin signaling, genomic stability or inflammation. METHODS: Here, we investigated the metabolic regulations displayed by a seasonal primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) that exhibits pronounced changes in body mass during the 6-month winter season: a fattening period followed by a spontaneous fat loss, without ever reaching pathological stages...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921462/bifidobacterium-pseudocatenulatum-cect-7765-ameliorates-neuroendocrine-alterations-associated-with-an-exaggerated-stress-response-and-anhedonia-in-obese-mice
#19
Ana Agusti, A Moya-Pérez, I Campillo, S Montserrat-de la Paz, V Cerrudo, A Perez-Villalba, Yolanda Sanz
Obesity, besides being a problem of metabolic dysfunction, constitutes a risk factor for psychological disorders. Experimental models of diet-induced obesity have revealed that obese animals are prone to anxious and depressive-like behaviors. The present study aimed to evaluate whether Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 could reverse the neurobehavioral consequences of obesity in a high-fat diet (HFD) fed mouse model via regulation of the gut-brain axis. Adult male wild-type C57BL-6 mice were fed a standard diet or HFD, supplemented with either placebo or the bifidobacterial strain for 13 weeks...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919064/genetics-of-obesity-what-genetic-association-studies-have-taught-us-about-the-biology-of-obesity-and-its-complications
#20
REVIEW
Mark O Goodarzi
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and other adiposity traits have identified more than 300 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Although there is reason to hope that these discoveries will eventually lead to new preventive and therapeutic agents for obesity, this will take time because such developments require detailed mechanistic understanding of how an SNP influences phenotype (and this information is largely unavailable). Fortunately, absence of functional information has not prevented GWAS findings from providing insights into the biology of obesity...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
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