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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107386/regulation-of-pi-2b-pilus-expression-in-hypervirulent-streptococcus-agalactiae-st-17-bm110
#1
Bruno Périchon, Noémi Szili, Laurence du Merle, Isabelle Rosinski-Chupin, Myriam Gominet, Samuel Bellais, Claire Poyart, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Shaynoor Dramsi
The widely spread Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as Group B Streptococcus, GBS) "hypervirulent" ST17 clone is strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. The PI-2b locus is mainly found in ST17 strains but is also present in a few non ST17 human isolates such as the ST-7 prototype strain A909. Here, we analysed the expression of the PI-2b pilus in the ST17 strain BM110 as compared to the non ST17 A909. Comparative genome analyses revealed the presence of a 43-base pair (bp) hairpin-like structure in the upstream region of PI-2b operon in all 26 ST17 genomes, which was absent in the 8 non-ST17 strains carrying the PI-2b locus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060047/genotype-characterization-of-group-b-streptococcus-isolated-from-infants-with-invasive-diseases-in-south-korea
#2
Hyun Mi Kang, Hoan Jong Lee, Hyunju Lee, Dae Sun Jo, Hye Soo Lee, Taek Soo Kim, Jeong Hwan Shin, Ki Wook Yun, Bongjin Lee, Eun Hwa Choi
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is one of the leading causes of invasive infections in infants. This study aimed to investigate the genotypic diversity of GBS causing invasive infections in infants and to observe the prevalence of the highly virulent clone in South Korea. METHODS: Invasive strains of GBS were collected prospectively from infants admitted at four hospitals during 1995 to 2015. Serotype and multilocus sequence typing was determined. All isolates underwent PCR amplification to detect the presence of the hypervirulent surface adhesin (hvgA) gene...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032541/molecular-characteristics-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-deficient-in-alpha-like-protein-encoding-genes
#3
Christina Gabrielsen, Johan Andreas Mæland, Randi Valsø Lyng, Randreas Radtke, Jan Egil Afset
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci; GBS) are important human and animal pathogens, which can be subdivided based on different capsular polysaccharides and surface-anchored alpha-like proteins (Alp), as well as other proteins. Nearly all GBS strains possess an Alp (Alp GBS), although Alp negative GBS (non-Alp GBS) do occur. In this study 10 (1.1%) of 932 clinical human GBS tested lacked an Alp encoding gene. All 10 strains were from patients with bloodstream infection, confirming that non-Alp GBS can be highly virulent...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934884/rapid-affordable-and-portable-medium-throughput-molecular-device-for-zika-virus
#4
Kamfai Chan, Scott C Weaver, Pui-Yan Wong, Sherly Lie, Eryu Wang, Mathilde Guerbois, Siva Praneeth Vayugundla, Season Wong
Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained global attention as an etiologic agent of fetal microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Existing immuno-based rapid tests often fail to distinguish between Zika and related flaviviruses that are common in affected regions of Central and South Americas and the Caribbean. The US CDC and qualified state health department laboratories can perform the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) ZIKV test using highly sophisticated instruments with long turnaround times...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927917/zika-virus-testing-considerations-lessons-learned-from-the-first-eighty-real-time-rt-pcr-positive-cases-diagnosed-in-new-york-state
#5
Kirsten St George, Inderbir S Sohi, Elizabeth M Dufort, Amy B Dean, Jennifer L White, Ronald Limberger, Jamie N Sommer, Stephanie Ostrowski, Susan J Wong, P Bryon Backenson, Daniel Kuhles, Debra Blog, Jill Taylor, Brad Hutton, Howard A Zucker
The performance and interpretation of laboratory tests for Zika virus (ZKV) continue to be evaluated. Serology is cross-reactive, laborious and frequently difficult to interpret and serum was initially solely recommended for molecular diagnosis. ZKV testing was initiated January 2016 in New York State for symptomatic patients, pregnant women, their infants, and patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome, who traveled to areas with ZKV transmission. Subsequently, eligibility was expanded to pregnant women with sexual partners with similar travel history...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919709/evaluation-of-anti-zika-virus-activities-of-broad-spectrum-antivirals-and-nih-clinical-collection-compounds-using-a-cell-based-high-throughput-screen-assay
#6
Robert S Adcock, Yong-Kyu Chu, Jennifer E Golden, Dong-Hoon Chung
Recent studies have clearly underscored the association between Zika virus (ZIKV) and severe neurological diseases such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Given the historical complacency surrounding this virus, however, no significant antiviral screenings have been performed to specifically target ZIKV. As a result, there is an urgent need for a validated screening method and strategy that is focused on highlighting potential anti-ZIKV inhibitors that can be further advanced via rigorous validation and optimization...
February 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910939/real-time-pcr-based-serotyping-of-streptococcus-agalactiae
#7
Kathleen M Breeding, Bhavana Ragipani, Kun-Uk David Lee, Martin Malik, Tara M Randis, Adam J Ratner
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an encapsulated, gram-positive pathogen that is an important cause of neonatal invasive infections, including sepsis and meningitis. There are ten known GBS serotypes based on distinct capsule compositions (Ia, Ib, II-IX), and current candidate capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines target only a subset of these. Serotyping of GBS isolates is important for understanding local epidemiology and for monitoring for serotype replacement or capsular switching. However, serotyping generally requires either latex agglutination, multiplex PCR with analysis of band sizes, or analysis of whole genome sequences-all techniques that are either expensive or not widely available...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893080/travel-associated-zika-virus-disease-acquired-in-the-americas-through-february-2016-a-geosentinel-analysis
#8
Davidson H Hamer, Kira A Barbre, Lin H Chen, Martin P Grobusch, Patricia Schlagenhauf, Abraham Goorhuis, Perry J J van Genderen, Israel Molina, Hilmir Asgeirsson, Phyllis E Kozarsky, Eric Caumes, Stefan H Hagmann, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Gilles Eperon, Elizabeth D Barnett, Emmanuel Bottieau, Andrea K Boggild, Philippe Gautret, Noreen A Hynes, Susan Kuhn, R Ryan Lash, Karin Leder, Michael Libman, Denis J M Malvy, Cecilia Perret, Camilla Rothe, Eli Schwartz, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Martin S Cetron, Douglas H Esposito
Background: Zika virus has spread rapidly in the Americas and has been imported into many nonendemic countries by travelers. Objective: To describe clinical manifestations and epidemiology of Zika virus disease in travelers exposed in the Americas. Design: Descriptive, using GeoSentinel records. Setting: 63 travel and tropical medicine clinics in 30 countries. Patients: Ill returned travelers with a confirmed, probable, or clinically suspected diagnosis of Zika virus disease seen between January 2013 and 29 February 2016...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862008/zika-virus-global-health-challenge-threat-and-current-situation
#9
REVIEW
Hafsa Aziz, Aadarash Zia, Amania Anwer, Muneeba Aziz, Shazia Fatima, Muhammad Faheem
ZIKV has emerged as grave global health issue in the past few years. ZIKV was firstly isolated in 1947 from a rhesus sentinel monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda. It is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes and infects skin fibroblasts, skin keratinocytes etc. ZIKV until now was under reported because of its clinical similarity with the dengue and chikungunya. It usually spread through the course of the sylvatic cycle. In this cycle, the virus or pathogen lifespan is spent between the wild animal and vectors...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836180/microrna-expression-profiling-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#10
Zhanyun Lv, Qiguang Shi, Wenhui Huang, Chunye Xing, Yanlei Hao, Xungang Feng, Yan Yang, Aimei Zhang, Qingxia Kong, Nobuhiro Yuki, Yuzhong Wang
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory autoimmune disease affecting the peripheral nervous system. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that play critical roles in the process of various diseases. The miRNAs in GBS were less studied. In this study, using microarray technology, we found two miRNAs including has-miR-4717-5p and has-miR-642b-5p were upregulated in patients with GBS, which were further confirmed by PCR analysis. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis suggested that the dysregulated miRNAs may be involved in the mechanism of GBS by affecting the cellular differentiation, cell survival and axonal outgrowth...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835759/zika-virus-epidemic-in-brazil-i-fatal-disease-in-adults-clinical-and-laboratorial-aspects
#11
Raimunda S S Azevedo, Marialva T Araujo, Arnaldo J Martins Filho, Consuelo S Oliveira, Bruno T D Nunes, Ana C R Cruz, Ana G P A C Nascimento, Rita C Medeiros, Cezar A M Caldas, Fernando C Araujo, Juarez A S Quaresma, Barbara C B Vasconcelos, Maria G L Queiroz, Elizabeth S Travassos da Rosa, Daniele F Henriques, Eliana V P Silva, Jannifer O Chiang, Lívia C Martins, Daniele B A Medeiros, Juliana A Lima, Márcio R T Nunes, Jedson F Cardoso, Sandro P Silva, Pei-Yong Shi, Robert B Tesh, Sueli G Rodrigues, Pedro F C Vasconcelos
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and the country experienced an explosive epidemic. However, recent studies indicate that the introduction of ZIKV occurred in late 2013. Cases of microcephaly and deaths associated with ZIKV infection were identified in Brazil in November, 2015. OBJECTIVES: To determine the etiology of three fatal adult cases. STUDY DESIGN: Here we report three fatal adult cases of ZIKV disease...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832051/incidence-of-zika-virus-disease-by-age-and-sex-puerto-rico-november-1-2015-october-20-2016
#12
Matthew Lozier, Laura Adams, Mitchelle Flores Febo, Jomil Torres-Aponte, Melissa Bello-Pagan, Kyle R Ryff, Jorge Munoz-Jordan, Myriam Garcia, Aidsa Rivera, Jennifer S Read, Stephen H Waterman, Tyler M Sharp, Brenda Rivera-Garcia
Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes; symptoms of infection include rash, arthralgia, fever, and conjunctivitis.*(,)(†) Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly and other serious brain anomalies (1), and in rare cases, Zika virus infection has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (2) and severe thrombocytopenia (3). This report describes the incidence of reported symptomatic Zika virus disease in the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico by age and sex...
November 11, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788180/genetic-characteristics-and-multiple-pcr-development-for-capsular-identification-of-specific-serotypes-of-campylobacter-jejuni
#13
Hao Liang, Aiyu Zhang, Yixin Gu, Yuanhai You, Jianzhong Zhang, Maojun Zhang
The polysaccharide capsule (CPS) of Campylobacter jejuni is a virulence factor linked to cell surface carbohydrate diversity which mainly determines the serotypes. Thirty-four CPS gene cluster structures have been published and some of them can be distinguished by multiple-PCR. Penner serotypes HS1/44c, HS2, HS4c, HS19, HS23/36c and HS41 are markers for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The capsules may contribute to GBS susceptibility. Analysis of 18 CPS loci revealed high gene content diversity and a mosaic nature of the capsule loci, which are possibly due to gene gain/loss events, and demonstrated a high degree of conservation of genes within serotypes/serotype complexes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705091/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-associated-with-zika-virus-infection-in-colombia
#14
Beatriz Parra, Jairo Lizarazo, Jorge A Jiménez-Arango, Andrés F Zea-Vera, Guillermo González-Manrique, José Vargas, Jorge A Angarita, Gonzalo Zuñiga, Reydmar Lopez-Gonzalez, Cindy L Beltran, Karen H Rizcala, Maria T Morales, Oscar Pacheco, Martha L Ospina, Anupama Kumar, David R Cornblath, Laura S Muñoz, Lyda Osorio, Paula Barreras, Carlos A Pardo
Background Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been linked to the Guillain-Barré syndrome. From November 2015 through March 2016, clusters of cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome were observed during the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Colombia. We characterized the clinical features of cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome in the context of this ZIKV infection outbreak and investigated their relationship with ZIKV infection. Methods A total of 68 patients with the Guillain-Barré syndrome at six Colombian hospitals were evaluated clinically, and virologic studies were completed for 42 of the patients...
October 20, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676181/multiple-minor-qtls-are-responsible-for-fusarium-head-blight-resistance-in-chinese-wheat-landrace-haiyanzhong
#15
Jin Cai, Shan Wang, Tao Li, Guorong Zhang, Guihua Bai
Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a devastating disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Use of host resistance is one of the most effective strategies to minimize the disease damage. Haiyanzhong (HYZ) is a Chinese wheat landrace that shows a high level of resistance to FHB spread within a spike (type II resistance). To map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in HYZ and identify markers tightly linked to the QTLs for FHB resistance, a population of 172 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between HYZ and Wheaton (FHB susceptible) was genotyped using simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and evaluated for percentage of symptomatic spikelets (PSSs) per spike in three greenhouse experiments...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658382/development-and-performance-evaluation-of-a-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-assay-for-the-rapid-detection-of-group-b-streptococcus
#16
Christina Clarke, Louise O'Connor, Heather Carré-Skinner, Olaf Piepenburg, Terry J Smith
BACKGROUND: Despite the implementation of prevention guidelines, group B Streptococcal (GBS) infection remains a leading cause of sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis, resulting in significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Preventive approaches that identify women at risk of transmitting GBS have reduced the incidence of neonatal GBS disease, and dramatically decreased the associated mortality rates. However, there is an on-going requirement for a near-patient diagnostic test for GBS that can be carried out at the time of delivery, ideally in the labour ward setting, particularly for women of unknown GBS colonisation status at the time of delivery...
2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648402/survey-of-strain-distribution-and-antibiotic-resistance-pattern-of-group-b-streptococci-streptococcus-agalactiae-isolated-from-clinical-specimens
#17
Seyed Masoud Mousavi, Mona Nasaj, Seyed Mostafa Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Arabestani
Aim: The aims of the present study were to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profils with particular emphasis on susceptible or resistant strains to macrolides and lincosamids antibiotics and to determine possible antibiotic resistance mechanisms occurring in group B streptococci (GBS) strains using PCR assay and disk diffusion method. Methods: A total of 62 clinical GBS strains were investigated. Antibacterial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method and inducible resistance test for clindamycin by standard double disk diffusion or D-zone test for all isolates to differentiate macrolide resistance phenotype (M), constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype (cMLSB) and induced macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype (iMLSB)...
2016: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598870/fatal-encephalitis-associated-with-zika-virus-infection-in-an-adult
#18
Cristiane N Soares, Patrícia Brasil, Raquel Medialdea Carrera, Patricia Sequeira, Ana Bispo de Filippis, Vitor A Borges, Fernando Theophilo, Mark A Ellul, Tom Solomon
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) was first identified in the Americas in 2015, when an outbreak of an exanthematous illness occurred in Brazil. Subsequentely, there was an increase of microcephaly cases, suggesting an association between ZIKV and this neurological complication. Currently, ZIKV has been recognised as causing a wide range of neurological complications including Guillain Barré syndrome, and myelitis. OBJECTIVES: In this report, we describe the first fatal case of encephalitis in a 47 years old non pregnant woman, infected during the Brazilian zika epidemic of 2016...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595159/polymorphisms-of-il-17-and-icam-1-and-their-expression-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#19
N K Kharwar, K N Prasad, K Singh, V K Paliwal, D R Modi
PURPOSE: Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory, autoimmune disorder of peripheral nervous system (PNS). Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) polymorphisms with higher expression levels have already been studied in many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, the possible role of IL-17 and ICAM-1 polymorphisms in GBS remains unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated IL-17 (His161Arg, Glu126Gly) and ICAM-1 (Gly241Arg) polymorphisms...
September 5, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588895/altered-gene-expression-of-glycosyltransferases-and-sialyltransferases-and-total-amount-of-glycosphingolipids-following-herpes-simplex-virus-infection
#20
Kazuki Miyaji, Jun-Ichi Furukawa, Youichi Suzuki, Naoki Yamamoto, Yasuro Shinohara, Nobuhiro Yuki
There is a case report of a patient with overlapping Guillain-Barré syndrome and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis after infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), who carried high titers of serum anti-GQ1b IgG antibodies. Several studies have linked viral infection to the modulation of ganglioside expression such as human T-lymphotropic virus to GD2 and simian virus 40 to GM3. Also, enhancement of the expression of GM2 on the cell membrane after cytomegalovirus infection has been reported. The objective of this study was to unveil the relationship between HSV-1 infection and the alteration of cellular ganglioside expression in neuronal and glial cell lines...
November 3, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
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