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Beatriz Parra, Jairo Lizarazo, Jorge A Jiménez-Arango, Andrés F Zea-Vera, Guillermo González-Manrique, José Vargas, Jorge A Angarita, Gonzalo Zuñiga, Reydmar Lopez-Gonzalez, Cindy L Beltran, Karen H Rizcala, Maria T Morales, Oscar Pacheco, Martha L Ospina, Anupama Kumar, David R Cornblath, Laura S Muñoz, Lyda Osorio, Paula Barreras, Carlos A Pardo
Background Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been linked to the Guillain-Barré syndrome. From November 2015 through March 2016, clusters of cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome were observed during the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Colombia. We characterized the clinical features of cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome in the context of this ZIKV infection outbreak and investigated their relationship with ZIKV infection. Methods A total of 68 patients with the Guillain-Barré syndrome at six Colombian hospitals were evaluated clinically, and virologic studies were completed for 42 of the patients...
October 5, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Jin Cai, Shan Wang, Tao Li, Guorong Zhang, Guihua Bai
Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a devastating disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Use of host resistance is one of the most effective strategies to minimize the disease damage. Haiyanzhong (HYZ) is a Chinese wheat landrace that shows a high level of resistance to FHB spread within a spike (type II resistance). To map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in HYZ and identify markers tightly linked to the QTLs for FHB resistance, a population of 172 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between HYZ and Wheaton (FHB susceptible) was genotyped using simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and evaluated for percentage of symptomatic spikelets (PSSs) per spike in three greenhouse experiments...
2016: PloS One
Christina Clarke, Louise O'Connor, Heather Carré-Skinner, Olaf Piepenburg, Terry J Smith
BACKGROUND: Despite the implementation of prevention guidelines, group B Streptococcal (GBS) infection remains a leading cause of sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis, resulting in significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Preventive approaches that identify women at risk of transmitting GBS have reduced the incidence of neonatal GBS disease, and dramatically decreased the associated mortality rates. However, there is an on-going requirement for a near-patient diagnostic test for GBS that can be carried out at the time of delivery, ideally in the labour ward setting, particularly for women of unknown GBS colonisation status at the time of delivery...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Seyed Masoud Mousavi, Mona Nasaj, Seyed Mostafa Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Arabestani
Aim: The aims of the present study were to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profils with particular emphasis on susceptible or resistant strains to macrolides and lincosamids antibiotics and to determine possible antibiotic resistance mechanisms occurring in group B streptococci (GBS) strains using PCR assay and disk diffusion method. Methods: A total of 62 clinical GBS strains were investigated. Antibacterial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method and inducible resistance test for clindamycin by standard double disk diffusion or D-zone test for all isolates to differentiate macrolide resistance phenotype (M), constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype (cMLSB) and induced macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype (iMLSB)...
2016: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Cristiane N Soares, Patrícia Brasil, Raquel Medialdea Carrera, Patricia Sequeira, Ana Bispo de Filippis, Vitor A Borges, Fernando Theophilo, Mark A Ellul, Tom Solomon
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) was first identified in the Americas in 2015, when an outbreak of an exanthematous illness occurred in Brazil. Subsequentely, there was an increase of microcephaly cases, suggesting an association between ZIKV and this neurological complication. Currently, ZIKV has been recognised as causing a wide range of neurological complications including Guillain Barré syndrome, and myelitis. OBJECTIVES: In this report, we describe the first fatal case of encephalitis in a 47 years old non pregnant woman, infected during the Brazilian zika epidemic of 2016...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
N K Kharwar, K N Prasad, K Singh, V K Paliwal, D R Modi
PURPOSE: Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory, autoimmune disorder of peripheral nervous system (PNS). Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) polymorphisms with higher expression levels have already been studied in many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, the possible role of IL-17 and ICAM-1 polymorphisms in GBS remains unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated IL-17 (His161Arg, Glu126Gly) and ICAM-1 (Gly241Arg) polymorphisms...
September 5, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Kazuki Miyaji, Jun-Ichi Furukawa, Youichi Suzuki, Naoki Yamamoto, Yasuro Shinohara, Nobuhiro Yuki
There is a case report of a patient with overlapping Guillain-Barré syndrome and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis after infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), who carried high titers of serum anti-GQ1b IgG antibodies. Several studies have linked viral infection to the modulation of ganglioside expression such as human T-lymphotropic virus to GD2 and simian virus 40 to GM3. Also, enhancement of the expression of GM2 on the cell membrane after cytomegalovirus infection has been reported. The objective of this study was to unveil the relationship between HSV-1 infection and the alteration of cellular ganglioside expression in neuronal and glial cell lines...
August 18, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Nicholas J Andreas, Asmaa Al-Khalidi, Mustapha Jaiteh, Edward Clarke, Matthew J Hyde, Neena Modi, Elaine Holmes, Beate Kampmann, Kirsty Mehring Le Doare
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. The major risk factor for GBS disease is maternal and subsequent infant colonisation. It is unknown whether human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) protect against GBS colonisation. HMO production is genetically determined and linked to the Lewis antigen system. We aimed to investigate the association between HMOs and infant GBS colonisation between birth and postnatal day 90. Rectovaginal swabs were collected at delivery, as well as colostrum/breast milk, infant nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs at birth, 6 days and days 60-89 postpartum from 183 Gambian mother/infant pairs...
August 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Rachael M Burke, James P McKenna, Ciara Cox, Peter V Coyle, Michael D Shields, Derek J Fairley
Sub-optimal recovery of bacterial DNA from whole blood samples can limit the sensitivity of molecular assays to detect pathogenic bacteria. We compared 3 different pre-lysis protocols (none, mechanical pre-lysis and achromopeptidase pre-lysis) and 5 commercially available DNA extraction platforms for direct detection of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in spiked whole blood samples, without enrichment culture. DNA was extracted using the QIAamp Blood Mini kit (Qiagen), UCP Pathogen Mini kit (Qiagen), QuickGene DNA Whole Blood kit S (Fuji), Speed Xtract Nucleic Acid Kit 200 (Qiagen) and MagNA Pure Compact Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I (Roche Diagnostics Corp)...
October 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Patrice Bourée
Zika virus is a flavivirus isolated in non human primates in 1647, then in humans 1954 (Uganda). It emerged on Micronesia (island af Yap) in 2007, then in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, in South America (mostly in Brazil and Colombia) in 2015 and in French West Indies in 2016. It is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Zika virus infection is symptomatic in only 20% of cases and clinical presentation is associated with mild illness. But several neurological complications are reported (as Guillain-Barré syndrome: 48 cases in French Polynesia) and congenital malformations (microcephaly)...
June 2016: La Revue du Praticien
P W M C S B Wijekoon, K A S Bandara, A Kailainathan, N S Chandrasiri, C T Hapuarachchi
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis caused by Burkholderia pseudomellei is an infection with protean clinical manifestations. Guillain-Barré syndrome [GBS] associated with melioidosis is very rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old woman with diabetes presented with abdominal pain, vomiting and intermittent fever for one month. Six months before presentation she had recurrent skin abscesses. Three months before presentation she had multiple liver abscesses which were aspirated in a local hospital...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Laura Adams, Melissa Bello-Pagan, Matthew Lozier, Kyle R Ryff, Carla Espinet, Jomil Torres, Janice Perez-Padilla, Mitchelle Flores Febo, Emilio Dirlikov, Alma Martinez, Jorge Munoz-Jordan, Myriam Garcia, Marangely Olivero Segarra, Graciela Malave, Aidsa Rivera, Carrie Shapiro-Mendoza, Asher Rosinger, Matthew J Kuehnert, Koo-Whang Chung, Lisa L Pate, Angela Harris, Ryan R Hemme, Audrey Lenhart, Gustavo Aquino, Sherif Zaki, Jennifer S Read, Stephen H Waterman, Luisa I Alvarado, Francisco Alvarado-Ramy, Miguel Valencia-Prado, Dana Thomas, Tyler M Sharp, Brenda Rivera-Garcia
Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, and infection can be asymptomatic or result in an acute febrile illness with rash (1). Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe birth defects (2). Infection has also been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) (3) and severe thrombocytopenia (4,5). In December 2015, the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired case of Zika virus infection...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Chishih Chu, Pei-Yu Huang, Hung-Ming Chen, Ying-Hsiang Wang, I-An Tsai, Chih-Cheng Lu, Che-Chun Chen
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a common pathogen to infect newborn, woman, the elderly, and immuno-compromised human and fish. 37 fish isolates and 554 human isolates of the GBS in 2007-2012 were investigated in serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility, genetic difference and pathogenicity to tilapia. RESULTS: PCR serotyping determined serotype Ia for all fish GBS isolates and only in 3.2 % (3-4.2 %) human isolates. For fish isolates, all consisted a plasmid less than 6 kb and belonged to ST7 type, which includes mainly pulsotypes I and Ia, with a difference in a deletion at the largest DNA fragment...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Yuzhong Yan, Hua Hu, Tingyan Lu, Huiqing Fan, Yan Hu, Gang Li, Xianhua Zhang, Yi Shi, Rong Xia
We surveyed the group B Streptococcus (GBS) strains isolated from four teaching hospitals during 1-year period to investigate the current serotypes and antimicrobial resistance status of these strains. A total of 231 non-duplicate colonizing GBS isolates were collected from pregnant women. Antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates was tested by the disk diffusion method. Serotype was performed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Analysis of the resistance mechanisms was performed by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing...
September 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
J Raignoux, M Benard, S Huo Yung Kai, O Dicky, A Berrebi, L Bibet, A-S Chetouani, N Marty, L Cavalie, C Casper, C Assouline-Azogui
INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common infectious agent responsible for early-onset bacterial sepsis (EOS) in term newborns. French prevention of perinatal GBS disease guidelines recommend screening for maternal vaginal GBS colonization at the 9th month of pregnancy, and use of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) in case of detected GBS vaginal colonization. Peripheral bacterial sampling (gastric aspiration, ear, or meconium) and measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) are performed in asymptomatic newborns in case of infectious risk factors and/or incomplete IAP...
September 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Paolo Tini, Pierpaolo Pastina, Valerio Nardone, Lucio Sebaste, Marzia Toscano, Clelia Miracco, Alfonso Cerase, Luigi Pirtoli
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the combined prognostic value of the EGFR expression level and the MGMT promoter methylation status in Glioblastoma (GB). METHODS: We assessed the EGFR protein expression level by immune-histochemical (IHC) evaluation and the MGMT promoter methylation status by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in 169 patients affected by GB. We assessed the prognostic significance of combined MGMT methylation status and EGFR expression level in terms of Overall Survival (OS) with univariate and multivariate analysis, and validated this finding using an external data set of GB patient...
October 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Mathilde Guerbois, Ildefonso Fernandez-Salas, Sasha R Azar, Rogelio Danis-Lozano, Celia M Alpuche-Aranda, Grace Leal, Iliana R Garcia-Malo, Esteban E Diaz-Gonzalez, Mauricio Casas-Martinez, Shannan L Rossi, Samanta L Del Río-Galván, Rosa M Sanchez-Casas, Christopher M Roundy, Thomas G Wood, Steven G Widen, Nikos Vasilakis, Scott C Weaver
BACKGROUND:  After decades of obscurity, Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread through the Americas since 2015 accompanied by congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Although these epidemics presumably involve transmission by Aedes aegypti, no direct evidence of vector involvement has been reported, prompting speculation that other mosquitoes such as Culex quinquefasciatus could be involved. METHODS:  We detected an outbreak of ZIKV infection in southern Mexico in late 2015...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
M Defez, F Khizar, M Maurin, F Biot, J-C Pons, F Sergent
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid real-time PCR assay at the onset of labor with those of the current antenatal culture-based test at 34-38 weeks gestation for group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study including all pregnant women admitted for delivery after a 34-week gestation period was conducted in October 2012 at the Grenoble University Hospital Centre. A first culture-based GBS screening test was performed between 34 and 38 weeks of gestation followed by a second screening test at the onset of labor, using a real-time PCR Assay and a culture-based method (gold standard) in order to calculate the diagnostic accuracy...
July 1, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
Myrna C Bonaldo, Ieda P Ribeiro, Noemia S Lima, Alexandre A C Dos Santos, Lidiane S R Menezes, Stephanie O D da Cruz, Iasmim S de Mello, Nathália D Furtado, Elaine E de Moura, Luana Damasceno, Kely A B da Silva, Marcia G de Castro, Alexandra L Gerber, Luiz G P de Almeida, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ana Tereza R Vasconcelos, Patrícia Brasil
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emergent threat provoking a worldwide explosive outbreak. Since January 2015, 41 countries reported autochthonous cases. In Brazil, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly cases was linked to ZIKV infections. A recent report describing low experimental transmission efficiency of its main putative vector, Ae. aegypti, in conjunction with apparent sexual transmission notifications, prompted the investigation of other potential sources of viral dissemination...
June 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jessica L Preston, Ariel E Royall, Melissa A Randel, Kristin L Sikkink, Patrick C Phillips, Eric A Johnson
BACKGROUND: Polymorphic loci exist throughout the genomes of a population and provide the raw genetic material needed for a species to adapt to changes in the environment. The minor allele frequencies of rare Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) within a population have been difficult to track with Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), due to the high error rate of standard methods such as Illumina sequencing. RESULTS: We have developed a wet-lab protocol and variant-calling method that identifies both sequencing and PCR errors, called Paired-End Low Error Sequencing (PELE-Seq)...
2016: BMC Genomics
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