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David Sweet, Julian Marsden, Kendall Ho, Christina Krause, James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: BC medical journal: BCMJ
Hendrik Berth, Philipp Matthias Rohleder
INTRODUCTION: The emergency service is a challenging field of activity. The Effort-Reward Imbalance model explains on the basis of the ratio between reward/effort the appearance of occupational stress. For the first time, this study examines the extent of Effort-Reward Imbalance in rescue services in Germany. METHODS: Full-time emergency service employees of a German Red Cross District Association were consulted. N=82 employees (78.8%) participated (M age=37.78 years, 73...
July 19, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Margarita Jiménez-Tototzintle, Izabel Jales Ferreira, Sheila da Silva Duque, Paulo Rubens Guimarães Barrocas, Enrico Mendes Saggioro
The dispersion of pollutants and proliferation of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the aquatic environment are an emerging health concern worldwide. In this sense, it is essential to develop new technologies to increase the quality of wastewater treatment, which is spread throughout the environment. The present study has demonstrated evidence of the existence of antibiotic and mercury-resistant bacteria in the aquatic environment. The application of heterogeneous photocatalysis with UVA/TiO2 P25 slurry (200 mg L-1 ), UVA/TiO2 -immobilized, and UVA/TiO2 -immobilized/H2 O2 were evaluated for the simultaneous elimination of a mixture of contaminants of emerging concern (acetamiprid (ACP), imazalil (IMZ) and bisphenol A (BPA)) and inactivation of antibiotic and mercury-resistant bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis)...
July 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Simone Berardozzi, Flavia Bernardi, Paola Infante, Cinzia Ingallina, Sara Toscano, Elisa De Paolis, Romina Alfonsi, Miriam Caimano, Bruno Botta, Mattia Mori, Lucia Di Marcotullio, Francesca Ghirga
Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is responsible for the onset and progression of several malignancies. Small molecules able to block the pathway at the upstream receptor Smoothened (Smo) or the downstream effector Gli1 have thus emerged recently as valuable anticancer agents. Here, we have designed, synthesized, and tested new Hh inhibitors taking advantage by the highly versatile and privileged isoflavone scaffold. The introduction of specific substitutions on the isoflavone's ring B allowed the identification of molecules targeting preferentially Smo or Gli1...
July 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Leichang Cao, Iris K M Yu, Daniel C W Tsang, Shicheng Zhang, Yong Sik Ok, Eilhann E Kwon, Hocheol Song, Chi Sun Poon
The catalytic activity of engineered biochar was scrutinized for generation of glucose and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from starch-rich food waste (bread, rice, and spaghetti). The biochar catalysts were synthesized by chemical activation of pinewood sawdust with phosphoric acid at 400-600 °C. Higher activation temperatures enhanced the development of porosity and acidity (characterized by COPO3 and CPO3 surface groups), which imparted higher catalytic activity of H3 PO4 -activated biochar towards starch hydrolysis and fructose dehydration...
July 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
J Berdeja, F Palandri, M R Baer, D Quick, J J Kiladjian, G Martinelli, A Verma, O Hamid, R Walgren, C Pitou, P L Li, A T Gerds
BACKGROUND: The Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are associated with increases in janus kinase 2 (JAK2) signaling, often resulting from the JAK2 V617F mutation. LY2784544 (gandotinib) is a potent, selective, small-molecule inhibitor of JAK2 that has potential dose-dependent selectivity for the JAK2 V617F mutation and may inhibit additional JAK2 mutant isoforms in nonclinical testing. METHODS: A multicenter, single-arm, outpatient phase 2 study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of gandotinib administered to patients (120 mg once daily) with MPNs, including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and myelofibrosis (MF)...
June 30, 2018: Leukemia Research
Sang-Yoon Kim, Woochang Lim
We consider the Watts-Strogatz small-world network (SWN) consisting of inhibitory fast spiking Izhikevich interneurons. This inhibitory neuronal population has adaptive dynamic synaptic strengths governed by the inhibitory spike-timing-dependent plasticity (iSTDP). In previous works without iSTDP, fast sparsely synchronized rhythms, associated with diverse cognitive functions, were found to appear in a range of large noise intensities for fixed strong synaptic inhibition strengths. Here, we investigate the effect of iSTDP on fast sparse synchronization (FSS) by varying the noise intensity D...
July 2, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Luria Leslie Founou, Raspail Carrel Founou, Sabiha Yusuf Essack, Cyrille Finyom Djoko
Food animals can be reservoirs of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) and are involved in their zoonotic transmission through the food chain. In Africa, there is a dearth of information about the food safety issues associated with their dissemination in the farm-to-plate continuum. This study sought to determine and compare the carriage, antimicrobial resistance profiles and clonal relatedness of circulating MRS strains among pigs and exposed workers in Cameroon and South Africa. A total of 288 nasal and rectal pooled samples collected from 432 pigs as well as nasal and hand swabs from 82 humans were cultured on mannitol salt agar supplemented with 6 mg/l cefoxitin...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Mathieu Lalande, Clothilde Comby-Zerbino, Mathilde Bouakil, Philippe Dugourd, Fabien Chirot, Jean-Christophe Poully
The origin of the triple-helix structure and high stability of collagen has been debated for many years. As models of the triple helix and building blocks for new biomaterials, collagen mimetic peptide (CMP) assemblies have been deeply studied in the condensed phase. In particular, it was found that hydroxylation of proline, an abundant post-translational modification in collagen, increases its stability. Two main hypotheses emerged to account for this behavior: 1) intra-helix stereoelectronic effects, and 2) the role of water molecules H-bound to hydroxyproline side-chains...
July 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Philip J Sanders, Benjamin Thompson, Paul M Corballis, Michael Maslin, Grant D Searchfield
Long-term potentiation is a form of synaptic plasticity thought to play an important role in learning and memory. Recently non-invasive methods have been developed to induce and measure activity similar to long-term potentiation in humans. Sensory tetani (trains of quickly repeating auditory or visual stimuli) alter the electroencephalogram in a manner similar to electrical stimulation that results in long-term potentiation. This review briefly covers the development of long-term potentiation research before focusing on in vivo human studies that produce long-term potentiation-like effects using auditory and visual stimulation...
July 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Tara Neubrand, Natasha Cabrera, Stacey Coss, Anthony Watkins, Michael DiStefano
Each year, an average of 16,000 children require cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for cardiopulmonary arrest in the United States, and their survival is largely dependent on the provision of optimal and timely resuscitation in concordance with current professional guidelines.1,2 As a profession, emergency department (ED) providers regularly perform inadequate resuscitation for children with cardiopulmonary arrest, and the quality of CPR provided for these patients is not in accordance with accepted standards of care...
July 19, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Wahid Bouida, Kaouthar Beltaief, Mohamed Amine Msolli, Noussaiba Azaiez, Houda Ben Soltane, Adel Sekma, Imen Trabelsi, Hamdi Boubaker, Mohamed Habib Grissa, Mehdi Methemem, Riadh Boukef, Zohra Dridi, Asma Belguith, Semir Nouira
OBJECTIVES: We aim to determine the benefit of two different doses magnesium sulfate (MgS) compared to placebo in rate control of rapid atrial fibrillation (AF) managed in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: We undertook a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial in 3 university hospital EDs between August 2009 and December 2014. Patients >18years with rapid AF (>120 bpm) were enrolled and randomized to 9g intravenous MgS (High dose group, n=153), 4...
July 19, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Sheng Kai Pong, Monika Gullerova
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory non-coding RNAs that are generated in the canonical RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Drosha, DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 (DGCR8) and Dicer are key players in miRNA biogenesis. Argonaute (Ago) proteins bind to miRNAs and are guided by them to find messenger RNA targets and carry out posttranscriptional silencing of protein-coding genes. Recently, emerging evidence suggests that RNAi factors have a range of non-canonical functions that are beyond miRNA biogenesis...
July 19, 2018: FEBS Letters
Cody R Fisher, Deborah A Ferrington
AMD is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries. The dry form of AMD, also known as atrophic AMD, is characterized by the death of RPE and photoreceptors. Currently, there are no treatments for this form of the disease due in part to our incomplete understanding of the mechanism causing AMD. Strong experimental evidence from studies of human donors with AMD supports the emerging hypothesis that defects in RPE mitochondria drive AMD pathology. These studies, using different experimental methods, have shown disrupted RPE mitochondrial architecture and decreased mitochondrial number and mass, altered content of multiple mitochondrial proteins, increased mitochondrial DNA damage that correlates with disease severity, and defects in bioenergetics for primary RPE cultures from AMD donors...
March 20, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Mulusew Fikere, Denise M Barbulescu, Michelle M Malmberg, Fan Shi, Joshua C O Koh, Anthony T Slater, Iona M MacLeod, Phillip J Bowman, Phillip A Salisbury, German C Spangenberg, Noel O I Cogan, Hans D Daetwyler
Genomic prediction is becoming a popular plant breeding method to predict the genetic merit of lines. While some genomic prediction results have been reported in canola, none have been evaluated for blackleg disease. Here, we report genomic prediction for seedling emergence, survival rate, and internal infection), using 532 Spring and Winter canola lines. These lines were phenotyped in two replicated blackleg disease nurseries grown at Wickliffe and Green Lake, Victoria, Australia. A transcriptome genotyping-by-sequencing approach revealed 98,054 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after quality control...
July 2018: Plant Genome
Bartosz Nizynski, Hanna Nieznanska, Robert Dec, Solomiia Boyko, Wojciech Dzwolak, Krzysztof Nieznanski
Amyloid aggregates of Tau protein have been implicated in etiology of many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). When amyloid growth is induced by seeding with preformed fibrils assembled from the same protein, structural characteristics of the seed are usually imprinted in daughter generations of fibrils. This so-called conformational memory effect may be compromised when the seeding involves proteins with non-identical sequences leading to the emergence of distinct structural variants of fibrils (amyloid 'strains')...
2018: PloS One
Sudheesh Manalil, Hafiz Haider Ali, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
In Australia, turnip weed has been rapidly emerging as one of the major weeds in conservation agricultural systems. Germination and emergence of turnip weed were examined for two populations collected from Gatton and St George regions of Australia; two locations with high and low rainfall, respectively. The seeds of turnip weed germinated at all the tested temperatures, but germination was the lowest at 15/5°C, intermediate at 20/10°C and highest at 25/15°C and 30/20°C. The results indicated a high adaptability of turnip weed to warm environmental conditions, although it is a major problem in the winter season...
2018: PloS One
Molly Duman-Scheel, Kathleen K Eggleson, Nicole L Achee, John P Grieco, Limb K Hapairai
The tourist-based economy of Belize, a tropical hub for eco-tourism, is at high risk to be disproportionately impacted by established and emerging mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika. An online survey was used to probe economic stakeholders working in the Belize tourism industry about their mosquito control practices and perceptions. Responses demonstrated that the respondents have good working knowledge of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne illnesses. Most businesses surveyed engage in some means of mosquito control, either through larval source reduction or use of insecticides on the premises...
2018: PloS One
Richard L Mah, John F Connolly
Generally, prognostication of coma outcome currently combines behavioral, reflex, and possibly neuroimaging tests that are interpreted by an attending physician. Electroencephalography, particularly, event-related brain potentials (ERP) have received attention due to evidence demonstrating the positive predictive value of certain ERP including the mismatch negativity (MMN) and the P3a, for coma emergence. We describe a set of ERP paradigms designed to require and reflect increasing levels of cognitive processing with the added objective of determining the influence of each paradigm's context strength on its ability to elicit ERPs...
2018: PloS One
Rueshandra Roosenhoff, Erhard van der Vries, Anne van der Linden, Geert van Amerongen, Koert J Stittelaar, Saskia L Smits, Martin Schutten, Ron A M Fouchier
Influenza viruses can cause severe life threatening infections in high-risk patients, including young children, the elderly and patients with compromised immunity due to underlying medical conditions or immunosuppressive treatment. The impaired immunity of these patients causes prolonged virus infection and combined with antiviral treatment facilitates the emergence of viruses with resistance mutations. The diverse nature of their immune status makes them a challenging group to study the impact of influenza virus infection and the efficacy of antiviral therapy...
2018: PloS One
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