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Ziv Bell, Tiffany Shader, Carolyn Webster-Stratton, M Jamila Reid, Theodore P Beauchaine
Abnormal patterns of sympathetic- and parasympathetic- linked cardiac activity and reactivity are observed among externalizing children, and mark deficiencies in central nervous system regulation of behavior and emotion. Although changes in these biomarkers have been observed following treatment, mechanisms remain unexplored. We used MEMORE-a new approach to analyzing intervening variable effects-to evaluate improvements in parenting as mediators of changes in SNS- and PNS-linked cardiac activity and reactivity among 99 preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder who were treated using an empirically supported intervention...
2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Lindsay E Young, Kayo Fujimoto, John A Schneider
Online social networking sites (SNS)-the Internet-based platforms that enable connection and communication between users-are increasingly salient social environments for young adults and, consequently, offer tremendous opportunity for HIV behavioral research and intervention among vulnerable populations like young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing from a cohort of 525 young Black MSM (YBMSM) living in Chicago, IL, USA April 2014-May 2015, we conducted social network analysis, estimating an exponential random graph model (ERGM) to model YBMSM's group affiliations on Facebook in relation to their sex behaviors and HIV prevention traits...
March 13, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Valentina Prando, Francesca Da Broi, Mauro Franzoso, Anna Pia Plazzo, Nicola Pianca, Maura Francolini, Cristina Basso, Matthew W Kay, Tania Zaglia, Marco Mongillo
AIM: Cardiac sympathetic neurons (SNs) finely tune the rate and strength of heart contractions to match the blood demand, both at rest and during acute stresses, through the release of norepinephrine (NE). Junctional sites at the interface between the two cell types have been observed, but whether direct neuro-cardiac coupling has a role in heart physiology has not thus far been clearly demonstrated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the dynamics of SN/cardiomyocyte intercellular signalling, both by FRET-based imaging of cAMP in co-cultures, as a readout of cardiac β-AR activation, and in vivo, using optogenetics in transgenic mice with SN-specific expression of Channelrhodopsin-2...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Minsoo Jung
Active discussions are underway on whether or not the absence or insufficiency of communication is a decisive factor affecting hesitancy with regard to vaccines. Low-quality services such as insufficient communication can lead to an increase in the population postponing vaccinations in countries without deficiencies in vaccine procurement. This study examines the strategies and tasks of health communication in relation to vaccinations. Social networking services (SNSs) are major channels of health communication in responding to infectious diseases...
March 8, 2018: Health Care Manager
Jia-Dong Xia, Jie Chen, Bai-Bing Yang, Hai-Jian Sun, Guo-Qing Zhu, Yu-Tian Dai, Jie Yang, Zeng-Jun Wang
Differences in intravaginal ejaculation latency reflect normal biological variation, but the causes are poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether variation in ejaculation latency in an experimental rat model is related to altered sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and expression of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Male rats were classified as "sluggish," "normal," and "rapid" ejaculators on the basis of ejaculation frequency during copulatory behavioral testing...
March 6, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
Keishi Okubo, Yoshikazu Uenosono, Takaaki Arigami, Daisuke Matsushita, Shigehiro Yanagita, Takashi Kijima, Masahiko Amatatsu, Sumiya Ishigami, Kosei Maemura, Shoji Natsugoe
BACKGROUND: The sentinel node (SN) detection by dual tracer method using indocyanine green (ICG) and a radioisotope (RI) has been recommended for early gastric cancer. However, institutions are limited due to radioactivity in the RI method. The greatest advantage of the RI method is that it objectively assesses RI uptake as a numerical value. The aim of the present study was to verify the usefulness of ICG fluorescence intensity in SN. METHODS: Seventeen patients with early gastric cancer were enrolled in this study...
March 7, 2018: Gastric Cancer
Ana Paula Cavalcante de Oliveira, Mario Roberto Dal Poz, Isabel Craveiro, Mariana Gabriel, Gilles Dussault
This study aims to analyze whether the process by which policies for human resources for health that aim to improve the geographic distribution of physicians have been informed by scientific evidence in Brazil and Portugal. This was a multiple case study on a decision-making process for human resources for health in Brazil and Portugal. The respective case studies were based on Brazil's More Doctors Program (Programa Mais Médicos - PMM) and Portugal's strategy of hiring foreign physicians through bilateral agreements, to work in the country's National Health Service (SNS)...
March 1, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Andrew J Clayton, Cecile M E Charbonneau, Wing C Tsoi, Peter J Siderfin, Stuart J C Irvine
Thin film tin sulphide (SnS) films were produced with grain sizes greater than 1 μm using a one-step metal organic chemical vapour deposition process. Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) was used as the substrate, having a similar work function to molybdenum typically used as the back contact, but with potential use of its transparency for bifacial illumination. Tetraethyltin and ditertiarybutylsulphide were used as precursors with process temperatures 430-470 °C to promote film growth with large grains. The film stoichiometry was controlled by varying the precursor partial pressure ratios and characterised with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to optimise the SnS composition...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Richard P Nobrega, Eskinder Solomon, Julie Jenks, Tamsin Greenwell, Jeremy Ockrim
AIMS: To assess whether the urodynamic parameters of mean voided volume, peak detrusor overactivity (DO) pressure, bladder compliance, capacity, and volume at first detrusor overactivity during filling cystometry can predict a successful outcome at first stage tined lead placement (FSTLP). METHODS: Ninty-nine consecutive patients with urodynamically proven idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO) refractory to medical treatment and opting for Sacral Nerve Stimulation (SNS), were assessed pre and post FSTLP...
March 6, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Eleni Angeli, Terpsichori Korpa, Elizabeth O Johnson, Filia Apostolakou, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George P Chrousos, Panagiota Pervanidou
There is growing evidence for dysregulation of the stress system in individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The stress system includes neuroanatomical and functional components that function in concert to maintain homeostasis and its main effectors are the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic/adrenomedullary nervous system (SNS). As stress system activity demonstrates a distinct circadian variation, we aimed to describe simultaneously, diurnal rhythms of both the HPA axis and the SNS in children with ADHD and a comparison group...
February 23, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Jude K A des Bordes, Elsa Gonzalez, Maria A Lopez-Olivo, Maithili Shethia, Pratibha Nayak, Maria E Suarez-Almazor
To explore the information needs of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and their acceptance of online resources and Facebook in particular, as a source of information, interaction, and support among peers. Participants were adults with RA of ≤ 10 years duration, had ongoing or prior treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs or biologic agents, and internet access. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews using semi-structured interview guide to explore: (1) RA information needs, (2) use of self-management health behaviors, (3) use of internet resources for disease management, (4) role of peer support in health self-management, and (5) use of social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook in disease management...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Hyeongsu Choi, Jeongsu Lee, Seokyoon Shin, Juhyun Lee, Seungjin Lee, Hyunwoo Park, Sejin Kwon, Namgue Lee, Minwook Bang, Seung-Beck Lee, Hyeongtag Jeon
Representative tin sulfide compounds, tin monosulfide (SnS) and tin disulfide (SnS2) are strong candidates for future nanoelectronic devices, based on non-toxicity, low cost, unique structures and optoelectronic properties. However, it is insufficient for synthesizing of tin sulfide thin films using vapor phase deposition method which is capable of fabricating reproducible device and securing high quality films, and their device characteristics. In this study, we obtained highly crystalline SnS thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and obtained highly crystalline SnS2 thin films by phase transition of the SnS thin films...
March 2, 2018: Nanotechnology
Scott Falci, Charlotte Indeck, Dave Barnkow
OBJECTIVE Surgically created lesions of the spinal cord dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) to relieve central pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) have historically been performed at and cephalad to, but not below, the level of SCI. This study was initiated to investigate the validity of 3 proposed concepts regarding the DREZ in SCI central pain: 1) The spinal cord DREZ caudal to the level of SCI can be a primary generator of SCI below-level central pain. 2) Neuronal transmission from a DREZ that generates SCI below-level central pain to brain pain centers can be primarily through sympathetic nervous system (SNS) pathways...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Mark J Bucsek, Thejaswini Giridharan, Cameron R MacDonald, Bonnie L Hylander, Elizabeth A Repasky
Stress in patients and pre-clinical research animals plays a critical role in disease progression Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) by stress results in secretion of the catecholamines epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) from the adrenal gland and sympathetic nerve endings. Adrenergic receptors for catecholamines are present on immune cells and their activity is affected by stress and the accompanying changes in levels of these neurotransmitters. In this short review, we discuss how this adrenergic stress impacts two categories of immune responses, infections and autoimmune diseases...
March 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Yanli Zhou, Qi Wang, Xiaotao Zhu, Fuyi Jiang
The three-dimensional (3D) SnS decorated carbon nano-networks (SnS@C) were synthesized via a facile two-step method of freeze-drying combined with post-heat treatment. The lithium and sodium storage performances of above composites acting as anode materials were investigated. As anode materials for lithium ion batteries, a high reversible capacity of 780 mAh·g-1 for SnS@C composites can be obtained at 100 mA·g-1 after 100 cycles. Even cycled at a high current density of 2 A·g-1 , the reversible capacity of this composite can be maintained at 610 mAh·g-1 after 1000 cycles...
February 28, 2018: Nanomaterials
Liu Yang, Menghao Wu, Kailun Yao
We report the first-principles evidence of a series of hitherto unreported two-dimensional triferroics (ferromagnetic + ferroelectric + ferroelastic), which can be obtained by doping transition metal ions in group-IV monochalcogenide (SnS, SnSe, GeS, GeSe) monolayers, note that ferromagnetic Fe-doped SnS2 monolayer has recently been realized (Nature Communications 2017, 8, 1958). The ferroelectricity, ferroelasticity and ferromagnetism can be coupled and the magnetization direction may switch upon ferroelectric/ferroelastic switching, rendering electrical writing + magnetic reading possible...
March 1, 2018: Nanotechnology
Aliya Hisam, Iqra Safoor, Nawal Khurshid, Aakash Aslam, Farhan Zaid, Ayesha Muzaffar
Objective: To find out the association of psychological stress with political activism on social networking sites (SNS) in adults. To find association of psychological stress and political activism with age, gender and occupational status. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 8 months (Aug 2014 to March 2015) was conducted on young adults between age group of 20-40 years of different universities of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Closed ended standardized questionnaires (i...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Svetlana V Fedorenko, Svetlana L Grechkina, Alsu R Mukhametshina, Anastasiya O Solovieva, Tatiana N Pozmogova, Svetlana M Miroshnichenko, Alexander Y Alekseev, Michael A Shestopalov, Kirill V Kholin, Irek R Nizameev, Asiya R Mustafina
The present work introduces composite luminescent nanoparticles (Ag0 -Tb3+ -SNs), where ultra-small nanosilver (4 ± 2 nm) is deposited onto amino-modified silica nanoparticles (35±6 nm) doped by green luminescent Tb(III) complexes. Ag0 -Tb3+ -SNs are able to image cancer (Hep-2) cells in confocal microscopy measurements due to efficient cell internalization, which is confirmed by TEM images of the Hep-2 cells exposed by Ag0 -Tb3+ -SNs. Comparative analysis of the cytotoxicity of normal fibroblasts (DK-4) and cancer cells (Hep-2) incubated with various concentrations of Ag0 -Tb3+ -SNs revealed the concentration range where the toxic effect on the cancer cells is significant, while it is insignificant towards the nonmalignant fibroblasts cells...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Yongji Gong, Hongtao Yuan, Chun-Lan Wu, Peizhe Tang, Shi-Ze Yang, Ankun Yang, Guodong Li, Bofei Liu, Jorik van de Groep, Mark L Brongersma, Matthew F Chisholm, Shou-Cheng Zhang, Wu Zhou, Yi Cui
Doped semiconductors are the most important building elements for modern electronic devices1 . In silicon-based integrated circuits, facile and controllable fabrication and integration of these materials can be realized without introducing a high-resistance interface2,3 . Besides, the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) materials enables the realization of atomically thin integrated circuits4-9 . However, the 2D nature of these materials precludes the use of traditional ion implantation techniques for carrier doping and further hinders device development10 ...
February 26, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
María L Scala-Benuzzi, Julio Raba, Galo J A A Soler-Illia, Rudolf J Schneider, Germán A Messina
We report a novel and innovative electrochemical paper-based immunocapture assay (EPIA) to address the need for ultrasensitive detection of emerging pollutants without regulatory status and whose effects on environment and human health are not completely yet understood. In particular, we present the application of this system towards highly sensitive detection of the emerging pollutant ethinyl estradiol (EE2). The EPIA approach is based on the use of paper microzones modified with silica nanoparticles (SNs) and anti-EE2 specific antibodies for capture and pre-concentration of EE2 from river water samples...
February 23, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
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