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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443084/gene-expression-profiling-of-transcription-factors-of-helicobacter-pylori-under-different-environmental-conditions
#1
Miguel A De la Cruz, Miguel A Ares, Kristine von Bargen, Leonardo G Panunzi, Jessica Martínez-Cruz, Hilda A Valdez-Salazar, César Jiménez-Galicia, Javier Torres
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human gastric mucosa and causes peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma. H. pylori strain 26695 has a small genome (1.67 Mb), which codes for few known transcriptional regulators that control bacterial metabolism and virulence. We analyzed by qRT-PCR the expression of 16 transcriptional regulators in H. pylori 26695, including the three sigma factors under different environmental conditions. When bacteria were exposed to acidic pH, urea, nickel, or iron, the sigma factors were differentially expressed with a particularly strong induction of fliA...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414941/endo-symbiont-mediated-synthesis-of-gold-nanobactericides-and-their-activity-against-human-pathogenic-bacteria
#2
Baker Syed, Nagendra Prasad M N, Mohan Kumar K, Dhananjaya B L, Sreedharamurthy Satish
Synthesis of gold nanobactericides (AuNBs) were achieved by treating 1mM chloroaurate with cell free supernatant of Aneurinibacillus migulanus. Formation of AuNBs was initially was monitored with change in colour to ruby red. Further confirmation was assessed with UV-visible spectra with maximum absorption occurring at 510nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed the polydispersity of AuNBs with size distribution ranging from 10 to 60nm with an average size of 30nm. Crystalline nature was studied using X-ray diffraction which exhibited characteristic peaks indexed to Bragg's reflection at 2θ angle which confers (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes suggesting AuNBs were face-centred cubic...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408267/population-pharmacokinetics-of-moxifloxacin-cycloserine-p-aminosalicylic-acid-and-kanamycin-for-the-treatment-of-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#3
Min Jung Chang, Byunghak Jin, Jung-Woo Chae, Hwi-Yeol Yun, Eun Sun Kim, Yeon Joo Lee, Young-Jae Cho, Ho Il Yoon, Choon-Taek Lee, Kyoung Un Park, Junghan Song, Jae-Ho Lee, Jong Sun Park
Control of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) requires extensive, supervised chemotherapy because second-line anti-TB drugs have a narrower therapeutic range than first-line drugs. This study aimed to develop population pharmacokinetic (PK) models for second-line drugs in patients with MDR-TB, evaluate the recommended dosage regimens and, if necessary, suggest new dosage regimens. A prospective, single-centre PK study was performed on second-line anti-TB drugs in patients with MDR-TB. Moxifloxacin, cycloserine, p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), kanamycin and other second-line drugs were administered to the patients...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404672/increased-tuberculosis-patient-mortality-associated-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mutations-conferring-resistance-to-second-line-antituberculous-drugs
#4
Sophia B Georghiou, Marva Seifert, Donald G Catanzaro, Richard S Garfein, Timothy C Rodwell
Rapid molecular diagnostics have great potential to limit the spread of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB). These technologies detect mutations in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome that confer phenotypic drug resistance. However, there is little data published regarding the relationships between the detected Mtb resistance mutations and M/XDR-TB treatment outcomes, limiting our current ability to exploit the full potential of molecular diagnostics. We analyzed clinical, microbiological and sequencing data for 451 patients and their clinical isolates collected in a multinational, observational cohort study to determine if there was an association between Mtb resistance mutations and patient mortality...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404233/molecular-detection-of-drug-resistance-to-ofloxacin-and-kanamycin-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-using-multiplex-allele-specific-pcr
#5
Richa Kumari, Tuhina Banerjee, Shampa Anupurba
Drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB) is the biggest global health challenge as it hinders the tuberculosis control program and makes the disease more worsen. Molecular methods interrupt the spread of drug resistance by facilitating the appropriate anti- tuberculosis therapy at correct time through rapid diagnosis of multi drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). In this study we standardized and evaluated the diagnostic utility of multiplex allele specific PCR (MAS-PCR) targeting gyrA D94G and rrs A1401G mutations for detection of resistance against two key drugs (ofloxacin and kanamycin) of second line anti tuberculosis treatment...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400757/streptococcus-agalactiae-causing-neonatal-infections-in-portugal-2005-2015-diversification-and-emergence-of-a-cc17-pi-2b-multidrug-resistant-sublineage
#6
Elisabete R Martins, Cristiano Pedroso-Roussado, José Melo-Cristino, Mário Ramirez
The molecular characterization of 218 GBS isolates recovered from neonatal invasive infections in Portugal in 2005-2015 revealed the existence of a small number of genetically distinct lineages that were present over a significant time-span. Serotypes III and Ia were dominant in the population, together accounting for >80% of the isolates. Clonal complex 17 included 50% of all isolates, highlighting the importance of the hypervirulent genetic lineage represented by serotype III ST17/rib/PI-1+PI-2b. Serotype Ia was represented mainly by ST23, previously reported as dominant among invasive disease in non-pregnant adults in Portugal, but also by ST24, showing an increased frequency among late-onset disease...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392781/a-cassette-containing-thiostrepton-gentamicin-resistance-genes-and-dif-sequences-is-effective-in-construction-of-recombinant-mycobacteria
#7
Julius Mugweru, Gaelle Makafe, Yuanyuan Cao, Yang Zhang, Bangxing Wang, Shaobo Huang, Moses Njire, Chiranjibi Chhotaray, Yaoju Tan, Xinjie Li, Jianxiong Liu, Shouyong Tan, Jiaoyu Deng, Tianyu Zhang
The genetic manipulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is limited by the availability of selection markers. Spontaneous resistance mutation rate of M. tuberculosis to the widely used kanamycin is relatively high which often leads to some false positive transformants. Due to the few available markers, we have created a cassette containing thiostrepton resistance gene (tsr) for selection in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG, and gentamicin resistance gene (aacC1) for Escherichia coli and M. smegmatis mc(2)155, flanked with dif sequences recognized by the Xer system of mycobacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392528/colorimetric-microtiter-plate-assay-of-polycationic-aminoglycoside-antibiotics-in-culture-broth-using-amaranth
#8
Hajime Katano, Yasuhiro Kuroda, Shu Taira, Chitose Maruyama, Yoshimitsu Hamano
We present a colorimetric method for the detection of aminoglycoside antibiotics such as neomycin (NEO) using a reddish anionic dye, amaranth (AR(3-)). Under acidic conditions, at which NEO exists in fully protonated form (NEOH(6+)), the AR(3-) anion associates with the NEOH(6+) cation to form a precipitate, NEOH(AR)2. The precipitate was soluble in a buffer solution of pH 8.5, yielding a reddish solution with an absorption maximum at around 520 nm. Tobramycin and gentamycin, which exist as pentavalent cations under acidic conditions, gave almost the same results...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392413/isolation-and-identification-of-multiple-drug-resistant-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-from-organs-of-cattle-produced-typical-granuloma-lesions
#9
Guangyu Cheng, Donglei Xu, Jinling Wang, Chunfa Liu, Yang Zhou, Yongyong Cui, Hancan Liu, Kanglin Wan, Xiangmei Zhou
Nontuberculosis mycobacteria are widespread in the environment and some are zoonotic. 320 tissue samples with visible lesions were obtained from dairy cows and examined by histopathology. Eleven samples showed typical granulomatous lesions and a total of 8 strains were cultured. Three genes (16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB) were sequenced for species identification. All mycobacterial isolates were tested for rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin, capreomycin, kanamycin, para-aminosalicylic acid susceptibility...
April 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387737/synthesis-and-antibacterial-evaluation-of-novel-3-substituted-ocotillol-type-derivatives-as-leads
#10
Yi Bi, Xian-Xuan Liu, Heng-Yuan Zhang, Xiao Yang, Ze-Yun Liu, Jing Lu, Peter John Lewis, Chong-Zhi Wang, Jin-Yi Xu, Qing-Guo Meng, Cong Ma, Chun-Su Yuan
Due to the rapidly growing bacterial antibiotic-resistance and the scarcity of novel agents in development, bacterial infection is still a global problem. Therefore, new types of antibacterial agents, which are effective both alone and in combination with traditional antibiotics, are urgently needed. In this paper, a series of antibacterial ocotillol-type C-24 epimers modified from natural 20(S)-protopanaxadiol were synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. According to the screening results of Gram-positive bacteria (B...
April 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382472/omp31-plays-an-important-role-on-outer-membrane-properties-and-intracellular-survival-of-brucella-melitensis-in-murine-macrophages-and-hela-cells
#11
L Verdiguel-Fernández, R Oropeza-Navarro, Francisco J Basurto-Alcántara, A Castañeda-Ramírez, Antonio Verdugo-Rodríguez
Brucellosis is an infectious disease that affects practically all species of mammals, including human, and is a major zoonosis worldwide. Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that have the ability to survive and multiply in phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells such as trophoblast and epithelial cells. Among the six recognized species of the genus Brucella, Brucella melitensis is the main etiological agent involved in goat brucellosis and is also the most pathogenic for human. It causes significant losses in livestock production as a result of abortions, metritis, infertility, and birth of weak animals...
April 5, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368664/pyranocarbazoles-from-murraya-koenigii-l-spreng-as-antimicrobial-agents
#12
Trapti Joshi, Tushar Jain, Rohit Mahar, Sumit K Singh, Piush Srivastava, Sanjeev K Shukla, Dipak K Mishra, R S Bhatta, Dibyendu Banerjee, Sanjeev Kanojiya
The bioassay guided fractionation of methanolic extract of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. leaves resulted in the isolation of seven pyranocarbazoles. These were evaluated against four bacterial strains and ten Candida sp. including two matched pair of fluconazole sensitive/resistant clinical isolates. Out of seven, three i.e. Koenine (mk279), Koenigine (mk309) and Mahanine (mk347) exhibited significant antibacterial activity MIC90 3.12-12.5 μg/mL against bacterial strains Streptococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia compared with standard drug Kanamycin MIC90 12...
April 3, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367145/safety-evaluation-of-a-novel-strain-of-bacteroides-fragilis
#13
Ye Wang, Huimin Deng, Zhengchao Li, Yafang Tan, Yanping Han, Xiaoyi Wang, Zongmin Du, Yangyang Liu, Ruifu Yang, Yang Bai, Yujing Bi, Fachao Zhi
Commensal non-toxigenic Bacteroides fragilis confers powerful health benefits to the host, and has recently been identified as a promising probiotic candidate. We previously isolated B. fragilis strain ZY-312 and identified it as a novel strain based on 16S rRNA sequencing and morphological analyses. We also determined that ZY-312 displayed desirable probiotic properties, including tolerance to simulated digestive fluid, adherence, and in vitro safety. In this study, we aim to investigate whether ZY-312 meets the safety criteria required for probiotic bacteria through comprehensive and systematic evaluation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365028/sequence-modified-antibiotic-resistance-genes-provide-sustained-plasmid-mediated-transgene-expression-in-mammals
#14
Jiamiao Lu, Feijie Zhang, Andrew Z Fire, Mark A Kay
Conventional plasmid vectors are incapable of achieving sustained levels of transgene expression in vivo even in quiescent mammalian tissues because the transgene expression cassette is silenced. Transcriptional silencing results from the presence of the bacterial plasmid backbone or virtually any DNA sequence of >1 kb in length placed outside of the expression cassette. Here, we show that transcriptional silencing can be substantially forestalled by increasing the An/Tn sequence composition in the plasmid bacterial backbone...
March 30, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364732/effects-of-antibiotic-concentration-and-nutrient-medium-composition-on-escherichia-coli-biofilm-formation-and-green-fluorescent-protein-expression
#15
Luciana C Gomes, Filipe J Mergulhão
Recombinant protein production processes have to maximise yield while minimising cost, which involves balancing plasmid maintenance with cell growth and protein expression. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of two factors on heterologous protein production in Escherichia coli biofilm cells-the concentration of antibiotic used to maintain the selective pressure and the nutrient medium composition. Escherichia coli JM109(DE3) cells transformed with plasmid pFM23 for enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) expression and containing a kanamycin resistance gene were used...
March 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359833/first-report-in-africa-of-two-clinical-isolates-of-proteus-mirabilis-carrying-salmonella-genomic-island-sgi1-variants-sgi1-pmabb-and-sgi1-w
#16
Ahmed M Soliman, Ashraf M Ahmed, Toshi Shimamoto, Ramadan A El-Domany, Hirofumi Nariya, Tadashi Shimamoto
Two Proteus mirabilis strains, designated PmTAN59 and PmKAF126, were isolated from two different Egyptian cities in 2014 and 2015, respectively. PmTAN59 was isolated from a sputum swab from a pneumonia patient in Tanta University Teaching Hospital. PmKAF126 was isolated from a patient with a diabetic foot infection in a hospital in the city of Kafr El-Sheikh. The two isolates were identified with bacterial small ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene amplification and sequencing and tested for antimicrobial sensitivity with a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay...
March 28, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356113/killing-of-serratia-marcescens-biofilms-with-chloramphenicol
#17
Christopher Ray, Anukul T Shenoy, Carlos J Orihuela, Norberto González-Juarbe
Serratia marcescens is a Gram-negative bacterium with proven resistance to multiple antibiotics and causative of catheter-associated infections. Bacterial colonization of catheters mainly involves the formation of biofilm. The objectives of this study were to explore the susceptibility of S. marcescens biofilms to high doses of common antibiotics and non-antimicrobial agents. Biofilms formed by a clinical isolate of S. marcescens were treated with ceftriaxone, kanamycin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol at doses corresponding to 10, 100 and 1000 times their planktonic minimum inhibitory concentration...
March 29, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352475/kanamycin-sulphate-loaded-plga-vitamin-e-tpgs-long-circulating-nanoparticles-using-combined-coating-of-peg-and-water-soluble-chitosan
#18
Sanaul Mustafa, V Kusum Devi, Roopa S Pai
Kanamycin sulphate (KS) is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein synthesis inhibitor. Due to its intense hydrophilicity, KS is cleared from the body within 8 h. KS has a very short plasma half-life (2.5 h). KS is used in high concentrations to reach the therapeutic levels in plasma, which results in serious nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity. To overcome aforementioned limitations, the current study aimed to develop KS loaded PLGA-Vitamin-E-TPGS nanoparticles (KS-PLGA-TPGS NPs), to act as an efficient carrier for controlled delivery of KS...
2017: Journal of Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348791/successful-treatment-of-recurrent-helicobacter-fennelliae-bacteraemia-by-selective-digestive-decontamination-with-kanamycin-in-a-lung-cancer-patient-receiving-chemotherapy
#19
Yoshihiro Fujiya, Maki Nagamatsu, Junko Tomida, Yoshiaki Kawamura, Kei Yamamoto, Momoko Mawatari, Satoshi Kutsuna, Nozomi Takeshita, Kayoko Hayakawa, Shuzo Kanagawa, Kazuhisa Mezaki, Masao Hashimoto, Satoru Ishii, Norio Ohmagari
INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter fennelliae is an enterohepatic Helicobacter species causing bacteraemia in immunocompromised hosts. Only a few cases of recurrent H. fennelliae bacteraemia have been reported in Japan and there are no guidelines regarding antimicrobial treatment for H. fennelliae infection. CASE PRESENTATION: H. fennelliae bacteraemia was observed in a patient receiving platinum-based chemotherapy for lung cancer. To prevent recurrence, the patient received antibiotic therapy with cefepime, amoxicillin and doxycycline for 6 weeks, which is similar to the therapy for Helicobactercinaedi bacteraemia...
October 2016: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343755/covalently-linked-kanamycin-ciprofloxacin-hybrid-antibiotics-as-a-tool-to-fight-bacterial-resistance
#20
Michal Shavit, Varvara Pokrovskaya, Valery Belakhov, Timor Baasov
To address the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, a set of 12 hybrid compounds that covalently link fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin) and aminoglycoside (kanamycin A) antibiotics were synthesized, and their activity was determined against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including resistant strains. The hybrids were antagonistic relative to the ciprofloxacin, but were substantially more potent than the parent kanamycin against Gram-negative bacteria, and overcame most dominant resistance mechanisms to aminoglycosides...
March 16, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
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