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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935553/prevalence-risk-factors-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-test-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-bovine-cross-breed-mastitic-milk-in-and-around-asella-town-oromia-regional-state-southern-ethiopia
#1
Befikadu Seyoum, Hailemariam Kefyalew, Birhanu Abera, Nejash Abdela
A cross sectional study was undertaken from November 2016 to March 2017 in and around Asella town, Oromia regional state, southern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence, associated risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, in Bovine cross breed mastitis milk. A total of 384 lactating dairy cows were screened for mastitis based on clinical examinations and California mastitis test (CMT). Out of 230 lactating crossbred cows with either clinical or subclinical mastitis examined for the involvement of Staphylococcus aureus...
September 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933634/development-of-a-multiplexed-opsonophagocytic-killing-assay-mopa-for-group-b-streptococcus
#2
Min Joo Choi, Ji Yun Noh, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim, Shun-Mei Lin, Yong Zhi, Jae Hyang Lim, Sangyong Lim, Ho Seong Seo, Joon Young Song
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of sepsis in infants as well as chorioamnionitis in pregnant women. Opsonophagocytic killing assays (OPAs) are an essential technique in vaccine studies of encapsulated bacteria for estimating serotype-specific functional antibody levels in vitro. Here, we developed a three-fold multiplexed OPA (MOPA) to enable practical, large-scale assessment of GBS vaccine immunogenicity, including against serotypes Ia, III, and V. First, three target bacteria strains resistant to streptomycin, spectinomycin, or kanamycin were generated by natural selection through exposure to increasing antibiotic concentrations...
September 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931414/coagulase-gene-polymorphism-enterotoxigenecity-biofilm-production-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-bovine-raw-milk-in-north-west-india
#3
Vishnu Sharma, Sanjita Sharma, Dinesh Kumar Dahiya, Aarif Khan, Manisha Mathur, Aayushi Sharma
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant bacterium responsible for various diseases in animals and humans. Preventive strategies could be better implemented by understanding the prevalence, genetic patterns, and the presence of enterotoxin and biofilm-producing genes along with the antibiotic susceptibility of this organism. This study was conducted in Rajasthan, the northwestern state of India, holding the largest population of cattle that makes it the second largest milk producer in India and no such prior information is available on these aspects...
September 20, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922058/evolution-of-regions-containing-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-fii-2-fib-1-colv-colla-virulence-plasmids
#4
Robert A Moran, Ruth M Hall
Three ColV virulence plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance genes were assembled from draft genome sequences of commensal ST95, ST131, and ST2705 Escherichia coli isolates from healthy Australians. Plasmids pCERC4, pCERC5, and pCERC9 include almost identical backbones containing FII-2 and FIB-1 replicons and the conserved ColV virulence region with an additional ColIa determinant. Only pCERC5 includes a complete, uninterrupted F-like transfer region and was able to conjugate. pCERC5 and pCERC9 contain Tn1721, carrying the tet(A) tetracycline resistance determinant in the same location, with Tn2 (blaTEM; ampicillin resistance) interrupting the Tn1721 in pCERC5...
September 18, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915357/a-i-yigp-i-mutant-strain-is-a-small-colony-variant-of-i-e-coli-i-and-shows-pleiotropic-antibiotic-resistance
#5
Hui Xia, Qiongwei Tang, Jie Song, Jiang Ye, Haizhen Wu, Huizhan Zhang
Small colony variants (SCVs) are a commonly observed subpopulation of bacteria that have a small colony size and distinctive biochemical characteristics. SCVs are more resistant to some antibiotics than the wild-type, and usually cause persistent infections in the clinic. SCV studies have been very active during the past two decades, especially of <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>. However, fewer studies on <i>Escherichia coli </i>SCVs exist, so we studied an <i>E. coli </i>SCV during an experiment involving the deletion of the<i> yigP</i> locus...
September 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914802/phylogenetic-analysis-and-antimicrobial-profiles-of-cultured-emerging-opportunistic-pathogens-phyla-actinobacteria-and-proteobacteria-identified-in-hot-springs
#6
Jocelyn Leonie Jardine, Akebe Luther King Abia, Vuyo Mavumengwana, Eunice Ubomba-Jaswa
Hot spring water may harbour emerging waterborne opportunistic pathogens that can cause infections in humans. We have investigated the diversity and antimicrobial resistance of culturable emerging and opportunistic bacterial pathogens, in water and sediment of hot springs located in Limpopo, South Africa. Aerobic bacteria were cultured and identified using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. The presence of Legionella spp. was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Isolates were tested for resistance to ten antibiotics representing six different classes: β-lactam (carbenicillin), aminoglycosides (gentamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin), tetracycline, amphenicols (chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone), sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole) and quinolones (nalidixic acid, norfloxacin)...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914053/construction-of-functional-coating-with-durable-and-broad-spectrum-antibacterial-potential-based-on-mussel-inspired-dendritic-polyglycerol-and-in-situ-formed-copper-nanoparticles
#7
Mingjun Li, Lingyan Gao, Christoph Schlaich, Jianguang Zhang, Ievgen S Donskyi, Guozhi Yu, Wenzhong Li, Zhaoxu Tu, Jens Rolff, Tanja Schwerdtle, Rainer Haag, Nan Ma
A novel surface coating with durable broad-spectrum antibacterial ability was prepared based on mussel-inspired dendritic polyglycerol (MI-dPG) embedded with copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs). The functional surface coating is fabricated via a facile dip-coating process followed by in-situ reduction of copper ions with a MI-dPG coating to introduce Cu NPs into the coating matrix. This coating has been demonstrated efficient long term antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S...
September 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904565/class-1-integrons-and-plasmid-mediated-multiple-resistance-genes-of-the-campylobacter-species-from-pediatric-patient-of-a-university-hospital-in-taiwan
#8
Yi-Chih Chang, Ni Tien, Jai-Sing Yang, Chi-Cheng Lu, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Tsurng-Juhn Huang, I-Kuan Wang
BACKGROUND: The Campylobacter species usually causes infection between humans and livestock interaction via livestock breeding. The studies of the Campylobacter species thus far in all clinical isolates were to show the many kinds of antibiotic phenomenon that were produced. Their integrons cause the induction of antibiotic resistance between bacterial species in the Campylobacter species. RESULTS: The bacterial strains from the diarrhea of pediatric patient which isolated by China Medical University Hospital storage bank...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902596/evaluation-of-a-rapid-molecular-drug-susceptibility-test-for-tuberculosis
#9
MULTICENTER STUDY
Yingda L Xie, Soumitesh Chakravorty, Derek T Armstrong, Sandra L Hall, Laura E Via, Taeksun Song, Xing Yuan, Xiaoying Mo, Hong Zhu, Peng Xu, Qian Gao, Myungsun Lee, Jongseok Lee, Laura E Smith, Ray Y Chen, Joon Sung Joh, YoungSoo Cho, Xin Liu, Xianglin Ruan, Lili Liang, Nila Dharan, Sang-Nae Cho, Clifton E Barry, Jerrold J Ellner, Susan E Dorman, David Alland
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs are the backbone of treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and resistance to these drugs defines extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. We assessed the accuracy of an automated, cartridge-based molecular assay for the detection, directly from sputum specimens, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and isoniazid. METHODS: We conducted a prospective diagnostic accuracy study to compare the investigational assay against phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing and DNA sequencing among adults in China and South Korea who had symptoms of tuberculosis...
September 14, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886013/secondary-bacterial-infections-and-antibiotic-resistance-among-tungiasis-patients-in-western-kenya
#10
Ruth Monyenye Nyangacha, David Odongo, Florence Oyieke, Missiani Ochwoto, Richard Korir, Ronald Kiprotich Ngetich, Gladys Nginya, Olipher Makwaga, Christine Bii, Peter Mwitari, Festus Tolo
Tungiasis or jigger infestation is a parasitic disease caused by the female sand flea Tunga penetrans. Secondary infection of the lesions caused by this flea is common in endemic communities. This study sought to shed light on the bacterial pathogens causing secondary infections in tungiasis lesions and their susceptibility profiles to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Participants were recruited with the help of Community Health Workers. Swabs were taken from lesions which showed signs of secondary infection...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876898/structural-basis-of-the-selectivity-of-genn-an-aminoglycoside-n-methyltransferase-involved-in-gentamicin-biosynthesis
#11
Priscila Dos Santos Bury, Fanglu Huang, Sicong Li, Yuhui Sun, Peter F Leadlay, Marcio Vinicius Bertacine Dias
Gentamicins are heavily methylated, clinically valuable pseudotrisaccharide antibiotics produced by Micromonospora echinospora. GenN has been characterised as an S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase with low sequence similarity to other enzymes. It is responsible for the 3''-N-methylation of 3''-dehydro-3''-amino-gentamicin A2, an essential modification of ring III in the biosynthetic pathway to the gentamicin C complex. Purified recombinant GenN also efficiently catalyzes 3''-N-methylation of related aminoglycosides kanamycin B and tobramycin, which both contain an additional hydroxymethyl group at the C5'' position in ring III...
September 6, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875385/possible-probiotic-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-oysters-crassostrea-gigas
#12
Chang-Ho Kang, Takyong Gu, Jae-Seong So
We attempted to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from the marine oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and selected several environmental stress-resistant isolates for the development of a future probiotic adjuvant for marine aquaculture. Twenty-six presumptive LAB isolates were extracted from oysters and screened (by an agar diffusion assay) for antimicrobial activity toward various pathogens: Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Streptococcus iniae, and Edwardsiella tarda. Eight isolates had an antibacterial activity toward V...
September 5, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873001/toward-the-drug-factory-microbiome-microbial-community-variations-in-antibiotic-producing-clean-rooms
#13
Amal M Hamdy, Moamen El-Massry, Mona T Kashef, Magdy A Amin, Ramy K Aziz
Microbiome projects are currently booming around the globe, enabled by advances in culture-independent microbial community analysis and high-throughput sequencing. One emerging application of microbiome science involves exploring microbial diversity in built environments, and one unexplored built environment is the pharmaceutical factory, notably factories producing antibiotics, as they could be enriched in antibiotic-resistant microbes. To examine the drug factory microbiome, we launched this interdisciplinary hypothesis-generating study to benchmark culture-independent microbiome analysis in drug manufacturing units producing antibiotics and nonantibiotic drugs, against traditional microbial identification and quantification techniques...
September 5, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871265/expression-of-a-chimeric-gene-encoding-insecticidal-crystal-protein-cry1aabc-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-in-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-l-confers-resistance-to-gram-pod-borer-helicoverpa-armigera-hubner
#14
Alok Das, Subhojit Datta, Shallu Thakur, Alok Shukla, Jamal Ansari, G K Sujayanand, Sushil K Chaturvedi, P A Kumar, N P Singh
Domain swapping and generation of chimeric insecticidal crystal protein is an emerging area of insect pest management. The lepidopteran insect pest, gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera H.) wreaks havoc to chickpea crop affecting production. Lepidopteran insects were reported to be controlled by Bt (cryI) genes. We designed a plant codon optimized chimeric Bt gene (cry1Aabc) using three domains from three different cry1A genes (domains I, II, and III from cry1Aa, cry1Ab, and cry1Ac, respectively) and expressed it under the control of a constitutive promoter in chickpea (cv...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865851/prevalence-antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-molecular-characterization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-dairy-herds-in-northern-china
#15
Huimin Liu, Songli Li, Lu Meng, Lei Dong, Shengguo Zhao, Xinyi Lan, Jiaqi Wang, Nan Zheng
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main pathogens involved in dairy cow mastitis. Monitoring of antibiotic use would prove useful to assess the risk of Staph. aureus in raw milk. The objective of this work was to investigate the prevalence of Staph. aureus strains isolated from raw milk in northern China, and to characterize antimicrobial susceptibility of these strains and their key virulence genes. In total, 195 raw milk samples were collected from 195 dairy farms located in 4 cities of northern China from May to September 2015...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853642/the-ribosomal-protein-rply-is-required-for-pectobacterium-carotovorum-virulence-and-is-induced-by-zantedeschia-elliotiana-extract
#16
Huan Jiang, Mengyi Jiang, Liuke Yang, Peiyan Yao, Lin Ma, Chunting Wang, Huan Wang, Gouliang Qian, Baishi Hu, Jiaqin Fan
Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum strain PccS1, a bacterial pathogen causing soft rot disease of Zantedeschia elliotiana (colored calla), was investigated for virulence genes induced by the host plant. Using a promoter-trap transposon (mariner), we obtained 500 transposon mutants showing kanamycin resistance dependent on extract of Z. elliotiana. One of these mutants, PM86, exhibited attenuated virulence on both Z. elliotiana and Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis. The growth of PM86 was also reduced in minimal medium (MM), and the reduction was restored by adding plant extract to the MM...
August 30, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853077/modification-of-the-method-of-receiving-of-insertion-mutants-with-the-ez-tn5-system
#17
E F Avdyusheva, Ya A Lopasteyska, T N Sharov, N N Teteryatnikova, E V Molchanova
We demonstrated the possibility of obtaining insertion mutants by a modified technique using EZ::TN5 system during culturing of the recipient strain on a dense nutrient medium and exclusion of the centrifugation stage. The frequency of transposon mutants of E. coli 10979/EZ::TN5 was 2×10(-6). Genetically modified strains were characterized by kanamycin resistance, inability to L-malate assimilation, changes in the expression of individual proteins of protein mass-spectra (5096.3, 6252.9, and 9067.7 Da), and the presence of fragments in genomic DNA amplified by specific forward and reverse primers that were homologous to Tn5 transposon insertion sites...
August 29, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852476/resistance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-to-antimicrobial-agents-in-ethiopia-a-meta-analysis
#18
Serawit Deyno, Sintayehu Fekadu, Ayalew Astatkie
BACKGROUND: Emergence of antimicrobial resistance by Staphylococcus aureus has limited treatment options against its infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the pooled prevalence of resistance to different antimicrobial agents by S. aureus in Ethiopia. METHODS: Web-based search was conducted in the databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, Hinari, Scopus and the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) to identify potentially eligible published studies...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840093/nim-gene-independent-metronidazole-resistant-bacteroides-fragilis-in-surgical-site-infections
#19
Mohammad Taghi Akhi, Reza Ghotaslou, Naser Alizadeh, Mina Yekani, Samad Beheshtirouy, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Tahereh Pirzadeh, Mohammad Yousef Memar
Background:Bacteroides fragilis is the most common anaerobic pathogen isolated from surgical site infections (SSIs). Metronidazole resistance is increasing and the mechanisms of resistance are not clear in some isolates. The aim of the present study was to investigate the metronidazole susceptibility prevalence, and detect nim genes in B. fragilis isolates from SSIs. Methods: This study included 100 surgery patients with signs and symptoms indicative of SSIs. Syringe aspiration of the infected site was used to collect specimens...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831226/antibiotic-and-heavy-metal-resistance-of-aeromonas-hydrophila-and-edwardsiella-tarda-isolated-from-red-hybrid-tilapia-oreochromis-spp-coinfected-with-motile-aeromonas-septicemia-and-edwardsiellosis
#20
S W Lee, W Wendy
AIM: The aim of this study is to identify antibiogram and heavy metal resistance pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis in four commercial fish farms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A. hydrophila and E. tarda were isolated using glutamate starch phenol red and xylose lysine deoxycholate (Merck, Germany) as a selective medium, respectively. All the suspected bacterial colonies were identified using conventional biochemical tests and commercial identification kit (BBL Crystal, USA)...
July 2017: Veterinary World
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