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Lin Teng, Xian Wang, Xiaojun Wang, Honglei Gou, Lihui Ren, Tingting Wang, Yun Wang, Yuetong Ji, Wei E Huang, Jian Xu
Rapid profiling of stress-response at single-cell resolution yet in a label-free, non-disruptive and mechanism-specific manner can lead to many new applications. We propose a single-cell-level biochemical fingerprinting approach named "ramanome", which is the collection of Single-cell Raman Spectra (SCRS) from a number of cells randomly selected from an isogenic population at a given time and condition, to rapidly and quantitatively detect and characterize stress responses of cellular population. SCRS of Escherichia coli cells are sensitive to both exposure time (eight time points) and dosage (six doses) of ethanol, with detection time as early as 5 min and discrimination rate of either factor over 80%...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Adrian Low, Charmaine Ng, Jianzhong He
Urban watersheds from point sources are potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, few studies have investigated urban watersheds of non-point sources. To understand the type of ARGs and bacteria that might carry such genes, we investigated two non-point source urban watersheds with different land-use profiles. Antibiotic resistance levels of two watersheds (R1, R3) were examined using heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) as a culturing method to obtain counts of bacteria resistant to seven antibiotics belonging to different classes (erythromycin, kanamycin, lincomycin, norfloxacin, sulfanilamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim)...
September 20, 2016: Water Research
Khawaja Muhammad Imran Bashir, Man-Gi Cho
Antibiotics are routinely used in microalgae culture screening, stock culture maintenance, and genetic transformation. By studying the effect of antibiotics on microalgae growth, we can estimate the least value to inhibit growth of undesired pathogens in algal culture. We studied the effect of kanamycin and tetracycline on the growth and photosynthetic activity of two chlorophyte microalgae, Dictyosphaerium pulchellum and Micractinium pusillum. We measured CFU mL(-1) on agar plates, optical density, fluorescence yields, and photosynthetic inhibition...
2016: BioMed Research International
Suporn Pholwat, Suzanne Stroup, Scott Heysell, Oleg Ogarkov, Svetlana Zhdanova, Girija Ramakrishnan, Eric Houpt
We studied the significance of particular eis mutations on M. tuberculosis drug resistance by using a specialized transduction strategy. Recombinant strains harboring eis mutations C-14T C-12T, and G-10A exhibited kanamycin resistance with MICs of 40, 10, and 20 μg/ml respectively, while recombinant strains harboring C-14G and C-15G were kanamycin susceptible (MIC 2.5-5 μg/ml). All of the tested eis mutants remained amikacin susceptible (MIC 0.5-4 μg/ml). The identification of specific eis mutations is needed for accurate genotypic susceptibility testing for kanamycin...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Gouranga Santra, Rudrajit Paul, Avik Karak, Somnath Mukhopadhay
A 22 year-old lady with multi-drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis was on Kanamycin, Cycloserine, Ethionamide, Pyrazinamide and Moxifloxacin since more than two months. She presented with muscle cramps and carpopedal spasm. Investigation revealed hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. She also had hypomagnesemia, hypochloremia and hypocalciuria. Serum urea and creatinine levels were normal. Patient was treated with intravenous and oral potassium chloride. Kanamycin was stopped. Metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia improved gradually over one month...
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Sanaul Mustafa, V Kusum Devi, Roopa S Pai
Kanamycin sulphate (KS) is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein synthesis inhibitor. KS is polycationic, a property responsible for KS poor oral absorption half-life (2.5 h), and rapid renal clearance, which results in serious nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity. The current study aimed to develop KS-loaded PLGA-Vitamin-E-TPGS microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) to reduce the dosing frequency and dose related adverse effect. In vitro release was sustained up to 10 days for KS PLGA-TPGS MPs and 13 days for KS PLGA-TPGS NPs in PBS pH 7...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Microencapsulation
Douglas E Berg
This paper recounts some of my fond memories of a collaboration between Julian Davies and myself that started in 1974 in Geneva and that led to our serendipitous discovery of the bacterial kanamycin resistance transposon Tn5, and aspects of the lasting positive impact of our interaction and discovery on me and the community. Tn5 was one of the first antibiotic resistance transposons to be found. Its analysis over the ensuing decades provided valuable insights into mechanisms and control of transposition, and led to its use as a much-valued tool in diverse areas of molecular genetics, as also will be discussed here...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Qian Zhang, Madher N Alfindee, Jaya P Shrestha, Vincent de Paul Nzuwah Nziko, Yukie Kawasaki, Xinrui Peng, Jon Y Takemoto, Cheng-Wei Tom Chang
A concise and novel method for site-selective alkylation of 1,3,6',3″-tetraazidokanamycin has been developed that leads to the divergent synthesis of three classes of kanamycin A derivatives. These new amphiphilic kanamycin derivatives bearing alkyl chains length of 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14 and 16 have been tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. The antibacterial effect of the synthesized kanamycin derivatives decline or disappear compared to the original kanamycin A, Several compounds, especially those with octyl chain at O-4″ and/or O-6″ positions on the ring III of kanamycin A show very strong activity as antifungal agents...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Hong Feng, Hai-Yan Wang, Hong-Yan Zhao
Directed evolution is a powerful strategy for gene mutagenesis, and has been used for protein engineering both in scientific research and in the biotechnology industry. The routine method for directed evolution was developed by Stemmer in 1994 (Stemmer, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 10747-10751, 1994; Stemmer, Nature 370, 389-391, 1994). Since then, various methods have been introduced, each of which has advantages and limitations depending upon the targeted genes and procedure. In this chapter, a novel alternative directed evolution method which combines mutagenesis PCR with dITP and fragmentation by endonuclease V is described...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
A Nowakiewicz, G Ziółkowska, A Trościańczyk, P Zięba, S Gnat
The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance of E. faecalis and E. faecium strains isolated from poultry and to carry out genotypic characterization thereof with the ADSRRS-fingerprinting method (amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites) and analysis of the genetic relatedness between the isolates with different resistance and virulence determinants. Samples were collected from 70 4-week-old chickens and tested for Enterococcus Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 11 antimicrobials were determined using the broth microdilution method...
October 4, 2016: Poultry Science
Jayanta Kumar Patra, Kwang-Hyun Baek
The aim of this study was to compare the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) generated using the aqueous extracts of outer oriental melon peel (OMP) and peach. The synthesized OMP-AuNPs and peach extract (PE)-AuNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra were obtained at 545 nm and 540 nm for OMP-AuNPs and PE-AuNPs, respectively...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Ira Shah, Forum Shah
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis (TB) in children is increasing. Although, in India, multi-drug-resistant (MDR) TB rates have been relatively stable, the number of children with pre-extensively drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB is increasing. AIM: To determine whether the prevalence of DR TB in children in Mumbai is changing and to study the evolving patterns of resistance. METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken in 1311 paediatric patients referred between April 2007 and March 2013 to the Paediatric TB clinic at B...
August 9, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
T V Shevchuk, N S Zakharchenko, S V Tarlachkov, O V Furs, O V Dyachenko, Y I Buryanov
Transgenic kalanchoe plants (Kalanchoe pinnata L.) expressing the antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 gene (cecP1) under the control of the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter and the selective neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene under the control of the nopaline synthase gene promoter were studied. The 35S promoter methylation and the cecropin P1 biosynthesis levels were compared in plants growing on media with and without kanamycin. The low level of active 35S promoter methylation further decreases upon cultivation on kanamycin-containing medium, while cecropin P1 synthesis increases...
September 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
G Smirnova, K Bezmaternykh, O Oktyabrsky
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) on the susceptibility of growing Escherichia coli to antibiotics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Susceptibility of E. coli to antibiotics in the presence of 20E was estimated by determination of the colony-forming ability and the specific growth rate. Pretreatment with 20E decreased the bactericidal effect of ciprofloxacin (0.3 and 3.0 μg ml(-1) ), streptomycin (10 and 40 μg ml(-1) ) and kanamycin (10 μg ml(-1) ) and increased the bactericidal action of 0...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Jayanta Kumar Patra, Kwang-Hyun Baek
This paper investigated the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous extract of silky hairs of corn (Zea mays L.) which is a waste material of the crop, as both a reducing and stabilising/capping agent. The AgNPs were characterised by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The average size of AgNPs was found to be 249...
October 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
Etinosa O Igbinosa, Abeni Beshiru, Lucy U Akporehe, Faith E Oviasogie, Owen O Igbinosa
The present study was designed to characterize methicillin-resistant staphylococci from raw meat. A total of 126 meat samples were obtained from open markets between February and April, 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the disc diffusion method. Molecular profiling was conducted using 16S rRNA, mecA, nuc, and PVL gene signatures were detected by polymerase chain reaction assay. Fifty isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 26 (52%) pork, 14 (28%) beef and 10 (20%) chicken samples...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Manabu Furushita, Hiroshi Akagi, Azusa Kaneoka, Toshimichi Maeda, Tsubasa Fukuda, Ryohei Tatsuno, Tsuneo Shiba
Structure analysis was performed on the antibiotic-resistance-gene region of conjugative plasmids of four fish farm bacteria.The kanamycin resistance gene, IS26, and tetracycline resistance gene (tetA(D)) were flanked by two IS26s in opposite orientation in Citrobacter sp. TA3 and TA6, and Alteromonas sp. TA55 from fish farm A. IS26-Inner was disrupted with ISRSB101. The chloramphenicol resistance gene, IS26 and tetA (D) were flanked by two IS26s in direct orientation in Salmonella sp. TC67 from farm C. Structures of tetA (D) and IS26 were identical among the four bacteria, but there was no insertion within the IS26-Inner of Salmonella sp...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Kiman Bang, Jae-Uk An, Woohyun Kim, Hee-Jin Dong, Junhyung Kim, Seongbeom Cho
Enterococcus spp. are normally present in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans, but can cause opportunistic infections that can be transmitted to other animals or humans with integrated antibiotic resistance. To investigate whether this is a potential risk in military working dogs (MWDs), we analyzed antibiotic resistance patterns and genetic relatedness of Enterococcus spp. Isolated from fecal samples of MWDs of four different age groups. The isolation rates of Enterococcus spp., and specifically of E...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Science
Yong Chen, Zhengan Yuan, Xin Shen, Jie Wu, Zheyuan Wu, Biao Xu
Introduction. Second-line antituberculosis drugs (SLDs) are used for treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Prolonged delays before confirming MDR-TB with drug susceptibility testing (DST) could result in transmission of drug-resistant strains and inappropriate use of SLDs, thereby increasing the risk of resistance to SLDs. This study investigated the diagnostic delay in DST and prevalence of baseline SLD resistance in Shanghai and described the distribution of SLD resistance with varied delays to DST...
2016: BioMed Research International
Anuradha Rajaram, Vijayalakshmi S Kotrashetti, Pradeep D Somannavar, Preeti Ingalagi, Kishore Bhat
Background. The most common species isolated from primary endodontic infections are black-pigmented bacteria. These species are implicated in apical abscess formation due to their proteolytic activity and are fastidious in nature. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the presence and identification of various pigmented Porphyromonas and Prevotella species in the infected root canal through culture-based techniques. Methods. Thirty-one patients with primary endodontic infections were selected...
2016: Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects
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