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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441976/diversity-or-disarray-a-systematic-review-of-decision-making-capacity-for-treatment-and-research-in-schizophrenia-and-other-non-affective-psychoses
#1
B W J Spencer, G Shields, T Gergel, M Hotopf, G S Owen
BACKGROUND: Valid consent for treatment or research participation requires that an individual has decision-making capacity (DMC), which is the ability to make a specific decision. There is evidence that the psychopathology of schizophrenia can compromise DMC. The objective of this review was to examine the presence or absence of DMC in schizophrenia and the socio-demographic/psychopathological factors associated. METHODS: We searched three databases Embase, Ovid MEDLINE(R), and PsycINFO for studies reporting data on the proportion of DMC for treatment and research (DMC-T and DMC-R), and/or socio-demographic/psychopathological associations with ability to make such decisions, in people with schizophrenia and related illnesses...
April 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429899/neurotransmitter-systems-neuroanatomical-pathology-and-cell-death-in-schizophrenia-update-and-perspectives
#2
Hazael Avila-Rojas, Hugo Sandoval-Zamora, Iván Pérez-Neri
Schizophrenia is a thought disorder characterized by delusional thinking which may be accompanied by hallucinations involving any sensory modality. Schizophrenia may be associated with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Also, it may be induced by drugs. In spite of the similarity in psychoses symptomatology, it is unknown if it involves the same underlying neurobiologic mechanisms in those cases. Schizophrenic patients exhibit not only neuroanatomical alterations, but also, distortion of several neurotransmitter systems...
June 2016: Investigación Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427286/incomes-and-outcomes-social-security-disability-benefits-in-first-episode-psychosis
#3
Robert A Rosenheck, Sue E Estroff, Kyaw Sint, Haiqun Lin, Kim T Mueser, Delbert G Robinson, Nina R Schooler, Patricia Marcy, John M Kane
OBJECTIVE: Social Security Administration (SSA) disability benefits are an important source of income for people with psychoses and confer eligibility for health insurance. The authors examined the impact of coordinated specialty care on receipt of such benefits in first-episode psychosis, along with the correlates and consequences of receiving them. METHOD: The Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode-Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP) study, a 34-site cluster-randomized trial, compared NAVIGATE, a coordinated specialty care program, to usual community care over 2 years...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416594/new-repeat-polymorphism-in-the-akt1-gene-predicts-striatal-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability-and-stimulant-induced-dopamine-release-in-the-healthy-human-brain
#4
Elena Shumay, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Sung Won Kim, Colin A Hodgkinson, Hui Sun, Dardo Tomasi, Christopher T Wong, Daniel R Weinberger, Gene-Jack Wang, Joanna S Fowler, Nora D Volkow
The role of the protein kinase Akt1 in dopamine neurotransmission is well recognized and has been implicated in schizophrenia and psychosis. However, the extent to which variants in the AKT1 gene influence dopamine neurotransmission is not well understood.Here we investigated the effect of a newly characterized variant number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in AKT1 (major alleles: L- (8 repeats) and H- (9 repeats)) on striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (DRD2) availability and on dopamine release in healthy volunteers...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415414/bionanocomposite-systems-based-on-montmorillonite-and-biopolymers-for-the-controlled-release-of-olanzapine
#5
Artur S Oliveira, Ana C S Alcântara, Sibele B C Pergher
Olanzapine (OLZ) is a drug that is used in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychoses, and it belongs to the thienobenzodiazepine class. The OLZ molecule has low solubility decreasing bioavailability, but has high permeability in membrane biological being classified as a Class II drug substance according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. It was reported many side effects of administering OLZ orally. So, in order to increase the bioavailability of drug and possibly reducing some of side effects, this paper proposes a new material able to controllably release the drug in the body...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407198/chlorpromazine-dose-for-people-with-schizophrenia
#6
REVIEW
Katharine Dudley, Xiaomeng Liu, Saskia De Haan
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) Model Lists of Essential Medicines lists chlorpromazine as one of its five medicines used in psychotic disorders. OBJECTIVES: To determine chlorpromazine dose response and dose side-effect relationships for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (December 2008; 2 October 2014; 19 December 2016)...
April 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406840/association-between-vitamin-d-status-and-schizophrenia-a-first-psychotic-episode-study
#7
José Salavert, Dolors Grados, Nuria Ramiro, Maria Isabel Carrión, Christian Fadeuilhe, Felipe Palma, Laura López, Alba Erra, Nicolás Ramírez
Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with schizophrenia. We aimed to determine whether patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) had lower vitamin D levels compared with controls considering their final diagnosis. We conducted a cross-sectional study determining 25-hydroxyvitamin D blood levels. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels were considered optimum at 20 ng/mL or greater. A group of 45 adult patients with FEP and a group of 22 healthy controls matched for age were recruited. The patient group was subdivided in two final diagnosis groups (schizophrenia versus other psychoses) after a 6-month follow-up...
May 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400260/prevention-of-the-adverse-effects-of-olanzapine-on-lipid-metabolism-with-the-antiepileptic-zonisamide
#8
Aneta Stefanidis, Matthew J Watt, Michael A Cowley, Brian J Oldfield
BACKGROUND: Atypical antipsychotic drugs, particularly olanzapine, represent a mainstay in the treatment of psychoses; however, their use is commonly associated with weight gain and diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether combined administration of olanzapine and zonisamide can be used to prevent olanzapine-induced metabolic disturbances. METHODS AND RESULTS: These experiments involved female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 6-8/group) that were administered olanzapine, either acutely (6 mg/kg, s...
April 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390849/cognitive-burden-of-anticholinergic-medications-in-psychotic-disorders
#9
Seenae Eum, S Kristian Hill, Leah H Rubin, Ryan M Carnahan, James L Reilly, Elena I Ivleva, Sarah K Keedy, Carol A Tamminga, Godfrey D Pearlson, Brett A Clementz, Elliot S Gershon, Matcheri S Keshavan, Richard S E Keefe, John A Sweeney, Jeffrey R Bishop
BACKGROUND: Patients with psychotic disorders are often treated with numerous medications, many of which have anticholinergic activity. We assessed cognition in relation to the cumulative anticholinergic burden of multiple drugs included in treatment regimens of participants from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) study. METHOD: Clinically stable participants with schizophrenia (n=206), schizoaffective disorder (n=131), and psychotic bipolar disorder (n=146) were examined...
April 5, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385625/alpha-oscillations-underlie-working-memory-abnormalities-in-the-psychosis-high-risk-state
#10
Avinash Ramyead, Michael Kometer, Erich Studerus, Denise Baumeler, Robin von Rotz, Anita Riecher-Rössler
Working memory (WM) functioning, known to be modulated by neural oscillations, is impaired in schizophrenic psychoses. It remains unclear whether in the psychosis high-risk state, WM encoding is altered or whether patients are impaired at shielding their WM against distractors. We employed single-trial analyses of neurophysiological and behavioral data recorded during a WM paradigm, designed to include predictable distractors, on 18 patients with an at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS, 26.1±5.45 years) and 21 healthy controls (HCs, 25...
April 3, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381332/the-impact-of-current-cannabis-use-on-general-cognitive-function-in-people-with-psychotic-illness
#11
Anna Waterreus, Johanna C Badcock, Patsy Di Prinzio, Mathew Martin-Iverson, Vera A Morgan
BACKGROUND: Despite growing research, it remains unclear if cannabis use is associated with additive cognitive impairment in people with psychotic illness and whether exposure in early adolescence is associated with poorer cognitive performance in adulthood. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of 1199 adults with psychotic illness compared current cognition (digit symbol coding) of 297 current users of cannabis (used in the past year), 460 past users (used previously but not in the past year) and 442 non-users (never used)...
April 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378559/mortality-in-schizophrenia-and-other-psychoses-data-from-the-south-korea-national-health-insurance-cohort-2002-2013
#12
Woorim Kim, Suk Yong Jang, Sung Youn Chun, Tae Hoon Lee, Kyu Tae Han, Eun Cheol Park
Individuals with psychoses show excess mortality, which is a major public health concern. This study examined all-cause and suicide mortality rates in Korean patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, mood disorder, or mental and behavioral disorder due to psychoactive substance use and to compare this with that of the general population. Data were from the National Health Insurance cohort, 2002 to 2013. A total of 107,190 cases aged 15 years or over were included. Mortality rates per 100,000 person years (PY) were obtained...
May 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378228/inflammatory-processes-and-schizophrenia-two-independent-lines-of-evidence-from-a-study-of-twins-discordant-and-concordant-for-schizophrenic-disorders
#13
Silke Braun, René Bridler, Norbert Müller, Markus J Schwarz, Erich Seifritz, Matthias Weisbrod, Alexandra Zgraggen, Hans H Stassen
The concept of twin concordance involves quantifying the resemblance between co-twins in an "objective" and reproducible way. Yet, quantifying resemblance in the case of complex psychiatric traits like schizophrenic disorders leads to methodological problems, as the yes-no dichotomy of diagnostic schemata does not allow one to assess between-subject differences in psychopathology patterns sufficiently accurately. Therefore, we relied on a multidimensional, quantitative concordance measure that provided a high resolution and differentiation when assessing the resemblance of psychopathology patterns...
April 4, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374697/-a-differential-approach-to-the-improvement-of-prevention-and-correction-of-neuroleptic-side-extrapyramidal-disorders-with-pantogam-activ-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#14
A S Tiganov, G P Panteleeva, L I Abramova, P V Bologov, P S Kananovich, M A Omel'chenko, I Yu Nikiforova
AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of pantogam active (PA) in prevention and correction of neurological side-effects during the course neuroleptic treatment of acute endogenous psychoses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty schizophrenic patients (mean age 33 years) with acute psychosis were examined. All patients received 28-day course treatment with typical and atypical neuroleptics. Two equal groups were studied: patients of the first group were treated with trihexyphenidyl (THP) in dose of 0,002-0,012 mg and patients of the second group received in addition PA in dose 0,9 mg/day...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373235/emdr-therapy-for-schizophrenia-and-other-psychoses
#15
Vishal Bhavsar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363765/investigating-the-link-between-drug-naive-first-episode-psychoses-feps-weight-gain-abnormalities-and-brain-structural-damages-relevance-and-implications-for-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Amedeo Minichino, Agata Ando', Marta Francesconi, Adriana Salatino, Roberto Delle Chiaie, Kristin Cadenhead
Evidence suggests that obesity and overweight may be associated with severe brain structural abnormalities and poor cognitive and functional outcomes in the general population. Despite these observations and the high prevalence of weight gain abnormalities in patients with psychosis spectrum disorders (PSDs), no studies have investigated the impact that these metabolic disturbances may have on brain structures and development in the earliest stages of PSDs. In the present review we shed light on the association between weight gain and brain structural abnormalities that may affect the course of illness in drug-naïve FEPs...
March 29, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357132/subclinical-psychotic-experiences-and-subsequent-contact-with-mental-health-services
#17
Vishal Bhavsar, James H Maccabe, Stephani L Hatch, Matthew Hotopf, Jane Boydell, Philip McGuire
BACKGROUND: Although psychotic experiences in people without diagnosed mental health problems are associated with mental health service use, few studies have assessed this prospectively or measured service use by real-world clinical data. AIMS: To describe and investigate the association between psychotic experiences and later mental health service use, and to assess the role of symptoms of common mental health disorders in this association. METHOD: We linked a representative survey of south-east London (SELCoH-1, n=1698) with health records from the local mental healthcare provider...
March 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347521/-detection-and-early-treatment-of-subjects-at-high-risk-of-clinical-psychosis-definitions-and-recommendations
#18
C Michel, E Toffel, S J Schmidt, S Eliez, M Armando, A Solida-Tozzi, F Schultze-Lutter, M Debbané
In children and adolescents, psychotic disorders already represent one of the leading causes of disability-adjusted life years. During the past two decades, early detection of risk for psychosis has been intensively investigated, and in particular, predictive power for early signs of risk has been initiated and translated into clinical practice. In particular, the attenuated and transient positive symptoms of the ultra-high risk criteria, and the basic symptom criterion "cognitive disturbances", open promising routes to an indicated prevention and have recently been considered by the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) as diagnostic criteria of a psychosis-risk syndrome...
March 24, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326745/evaluation-of-the-psychometric-properties-of-the-brief-internalized-stigma-of-mental-illness-scale-ismi-10
#19
Marie Ociskova, Jan Prasko, Dana Kamaradova, Marketa Marackova, Michaela Holubova
OBJECTIVES: A significant number of psychiatric patients stigmatize themselves because of their mental struggles. Such self-stigmatization has an adverse impact on patients' well-being and effectiveness of the treatment of mental disorders. The goal of this study was to standardize the brief Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMI-10), which could be used in studies targeting the self-stigma among the psychiatric patients. METHOD: 354 psychiatric patients participated in the study between the years 2012 and 2014...
December 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282734/psychiatric-disorders-among-older-prisoners-a-systematic-review-and-comparison-study-against-older-people-in-the-community
#20
Claudio Di Lorito, Birgit Vӧllm, Tom Dening
OBJECTIVES: Despite emerging evidence that older prisoners experience poor mental health, literature in this area is still limited. In the present systematic review and meta-analysis, we report on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among older prisoners and compare our findings against community studies on older people. METHODS: We searched on Assia, PsycInfo, MedLine, Embase, Web of Science, Google and Gov.uk. We carried out bias assessments, rated studies for quality and ran a heterogeneity test...
February 7, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
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