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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634109/cannabis-associated-psychosis-neural-substrate-and-clinical-impact
#1
REVIEW
R M Murray, A Englund, A Abi-Dargham, D Lewis, M Di Forti, C Davies, M Sherif, P McGuire, C D'Souza
Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that cannabis use is associated with an increased subsequent risk of both psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia-like psychoses. Early onset of use, daily use of high-potency cannabis, and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. The risk-increasing effects are not explained by shared genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and cannabis use. Experimental studies in healthy humans show that cannabis and its active ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can produce transient, dose-dependent, psychotic symptoms, as well as an array of psychosis-relevant behavioral, cognitive and psychophysiological effects; the psychotogenic effects can be ameliorated by cannabidiol (CBD)...
June 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623386/the-antipsychotic-agent-quetiapine-is-increasingly-not-used-as-such-dispensed-prescriptions-in-norway-2004-2015
#2
Pål Gjerden, Jørgen G Bramness, Ingunn Fride Tvete, Lars Slørdal
PURPOSE: The antipsychotic agent quetiapine was introduced in Norway in 2003. We have assessed changes in dispensed prescriptions, including dosing, of quetiapine in Norway from 2004 to 2015. METHODS: Data on the sales of antipsychotics and antidepressants were drawn from the Norwegian Prescription Database. A total of 47,474 outpatients filled 195,622 prescriptions of quetiapine. Reimbursement codes, use of antipsychotics or antidepressants 12 months prior to the first prescription of quetiapine and estimated mean volume used measured as defined daily doses (DDDs) per day were used as proxies for diagnoses...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586480/lifetime-prevalence-and-correlates-of-schizophrenia-spectrum-affective-and-other-non-affective-psychotic-disorders-in-the-chinese-adult-population
#3
Wing Chung Chang, Corine Sau Man Wong, Eric Yu Hai Chen, Linda Chiu Wa Lam, Wai Chi Chan, Roger Man Kin Ng, Se Fong Hung, Eric Fuk Chi Cheung, Pak Chung Sham, Helen Fung Kum Chiu, Ming Lam, Edwin Ho Ming Lee, Tin Po Chiang, Lap Kei Chan, Gary Kar Wai Lau, Allen Ting Chun Lee, Grace Tak Yu Leung, Joey Shuk Yan Leung, Joseph Tak Fai Lau, Jim van Os, Glyn Lewis, Paul Bebbington
Lifetime prevalence of psychotic disorders varies widely across studies. Epidemiological surveys have rarely examined prevalences of specific psychotic disorders other than schizophrenia, and the majority used a single-phase design without employing clinical reappraisal interview for diagnostic verification. The current study investigated lifetime prevalence, correlates and service utilization of schizophrenia-spectrum, affective, and other non-affective psychotic disorders in a representative sample of community-dwelling Chinese adult population aged 16-75 years (N = 5719) based on a territory-wide, population-based household survey for mental disorders in Hong Kong...
June 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560261/brain-structure-function-and-neurochemistry-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-the-magnetic-resonance-neuroimaging-literature
#4
Badari Birur, Nina Vanessa Kraguljac, Richard C Shelton, Adrienne Carol Lahti
Since Emil Kraepelin's conceptualization of endogenous psychoses as dementia praecox and manic depression, the separation between primary psychotic disorders and primary affective disorders has been much debated. We conducted a systematic review of case-control studies contrasting magnetic resonance imaging studies in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A literature search in PubMed of studies published between January 2005 and December 2016 was conducted, and 50 structural, 29 functional, 7 magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and 8 combined imaging and genetic studies were deemed eligible for systematic review...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544350/association-between-the-zinc-finger-protein-804a-znf804a-gene-and-the-risk-of-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-i-disorder-across-diagnostic-boundaries
#5
Ji Hyun Baek, Kyooseob Ha, Yongkang Kim, So Yung Yang, Eun-Young Cho, Yujin Choi, Seunghyong Ryu, Yu-Sang Lee, Taesung Park, Kyung Sue Hong
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to determine the role of genetic variations within the zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) gene, a candidate for a psychosis risk-conferring gene, in the development of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) in the Korean population. METHODS: A total of 921 patients with SZ, bipolar I (BP-I) and II (BP-II) disorder, and 502 control subjects participated in the study. Twenty-one tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the genomic region of ZNF804A and seven reference SNPs based on previous reports were genotyped...
May 22, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538982/association-of-late-adolescent-personality-with-risk-for-subsequent-serious-mental-illness-among-men-in-a-swedish-nationwide-cohort-study
#6
Joseph F Hayes, David P J Osborn, Glyn Lewis, Christina Dalman, Andreas Lundin
Importance: Understanding of personality as an independent risk factor for serious mental illness (SMI) remains limited. Recently, overlap between the polygenic basis for specific personality traits and specific SMIs has been identified. Objective: To determine the association of the adolescent personality domains of social maturity, mental energy, and emotional stability with later diagnosis of SMI. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal cohort study enrolled Swedish male military conscripts aged 18 or 19 years from January 1, 1974, through December 31, 1997...
May 24, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529363/treatment-compliance-and-noncompliance-in-psychoses
#7
K Nagaraja Rao, Jitty George, C Y Sudarshan, Shamshad Begum
BACKGROUND: Compliance or noncompliance with treatment significantly influences course and outcome of psychiatric disorders. While noncompliance has been extensively researched, compliance has received less attention. The current study was conducted to elicit reasons for compliance and noncompliance in patients having psychoses attending psychiatric clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 196 compliant and 150 noncompliant patients were interviewed using self-designed tools to elicit sociodemographic data, details of illness, and treatment...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511206/antipsychotic-treatment-of-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-related-psychoses
#8
Elias Angelopoulos, Christos Theleritis, Marina Economou, Korina Georgatou, Charalambos C Papageorgiou, Eleftheria Tsaltas
In the recent study by Verhoeven and Egger, 2015 and the recent letter to the editor by Boot et al. 2015 an emphasis is given to the best possible pharmacological treatment of 22q11-2 Deletion-Syndrome related psychoses. We would like to present the case of a 23-year old Cypriot patient with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome who fulfilled criteria for treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS). He was sequentially treated with aripiprazole, risperidone, olanzapine, haloperidol and a combination treatment with olanzapine and haloperidol...
May 16, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499768/mortality-in-people-with-psychotic-disorders-in-finland-a-population-based-13-year-follow-up-study
#9
Jaakko Keinänen, Outi Mantere, Niina Markkula, Krista Partti, Jonna Perälä, Samuli I Saarni, Tommi Härkänen, Jaana Suvisaari
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a population based study aiming at finding predictors of mortality in psychotic disorders and evaluating the extent to which sociodemographic, lifestyle and health-related factors explain the excess mortality. METHODS: In a nationally representative sample of Finns aged 30-70years (n=5642), psychotic disorders were diagnosed using structured interviews and medical records in 2000-2001. Information on mortality and causes of death was obtained of those who died by the end of year 2013...
May 9, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495492/the-complex-relationship-between-self-reported-personal-recovery-and-clinical-recovery-in-schizophrenia
#10
Alessandro Rossi, Mario Amore, Silvana Galderisi, Paola Rocca, Alessandro Bertolino, Eugenio Aguglia, Giovanni Amodeo, Antonello Bellomo, Paola Bucci, Antonino Buzzanca, Bernardo Carpiniello, Anna Comparelli, Liliana Dell'Osso, Massimo di Giannantonio, Marina Mancini, Carlo Marchesi, Palmiero Monteleone, Cristiana Montemagni, Lucio Oldani, Rita Roncone, Alberto Siracusano, Paolo Stratta, Elena Tenconi, Annarita Vignapiano, Antonio Vita, Patrizia Zeppegno, Mario Maj
Self-reported 'personal recovery' and clinical recovery in schizophrenia (SRPR and CR, respectively) reflect different perspectives in schizophrenia outcome, not necessarily concordant with each other and usually representing the consumer's or the therapist's point of view. By means of a cluster analysis on SRPR-related variables, we identified three clusters. The first and third cluster included subjects with the best and the poorest clinical outcome respectively. The second cluster was characterized by better insight, higher levels of depression and stigma, lowest self-esteem and personal strength, and highest emotional coping...
May 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493551/utilization-of-a-sobering-center-for-acute-alcohol-intoxication
#11
Shannon Smith-Bernardin, Adam Carrico, Wendy Max, Susan Chapman
OBJECTIVE: To describe the population utilizing a sobering center for public alcohol intoxication, and compare between single-visit users, repeat users, and high users. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of 1,271 adults cared for in the Sobering Center from July 2014 to June 2015. We divided the population into three groups: single-use (1 visit), repeat users (2-5 visits) and high (6+) users, and evaluated demographics, lifetime health diagnoses utilizing the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index, rates of public service utilization including ambulance and emergency department, and related costs...
May 11, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484821/-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
W H Jost
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease that affects the peripheral and central nervous system. In addition to the motor symptoms, a large number of nonmotor symptoms, which are of high clinical relevance, occur in all disease stages. Particular attention has been paid to neuropsychiatric and autonomic disorders in recent years. Among the neuropsychiatric disorders are depression, cognitive loss as well as psychoses and impulsive control disorders. Regarding autonomic function, all areas can be affected, with cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and urogenital disorders and symptoms being the most common...
May 8, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483172/-environment-trauma-and-technical-innovations-three-links-between-donald-w-winnicott-and-s%C3%A3-ndor-ferenczi
#13
Miguel Gutiérrez-Peláez, Emilio Herrera-Pardo
Throughout this paper, the theoretical and clinical approaches of D.W. Winnicott are reviewed in order to reread the written production of Sándor Ferenczi. Winnicott's clinical and theoretical concepts allow returning to Ferenczi and rescuing aspects of his work that had been silenced in the psychoanalytic community. Ferenczi, in turn, is one that holds his presence in Winnicott's thought. Even though there are few times in which he cites Ferenczi in his work, it is possible to draw clear relationships between both theories...
April 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483166/risk-factors-for-nonelective-30-day-readmission-in-pediatric-assault-victims
#14
Jessica L Buicko, Joshua Parreco, Brent A Willobee, Amy E Wagenaar, Juan E Sola
PURPOSE: Hospital readmission in trauma patients is associated with significant morbidity and increased healthcare costs. There is limited published data on early hospital readmission in pediatric trauma patients. As presently in healthcare outcomes and readmissions rates are increasingly used as hospital quality indicators, it is paramount to recognize risk factors for readmission. We sought to identify national readmission rates in pediatric assault victims and identify the most common readmission diagnoses among these patients...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471826/chronic-comorbidities-associated-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-prevalence-and-impact-on-healthcare-costs-in-switzerland
#15
Caroline Bähler, Alain M Schoepfer, Stephan R Vavricka, Beat Brüngger, Oliver Reich
OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was shown to be associated with a variety of chronic comorbidities. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of 21 chronic conditions and compared frequencies in IBD and non-IBD populations. Further, healthcare costs of those (additional) chronic conditions were calculated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 4791 IBD patients, who were insured at Helsana Insurance Group in 2014, were compared with 1 114 638 individuals without IBD...
May 3, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468563/-developmental-aspects-in-the-early-detection-and-intervention-in-clinical-high-risk-states-for-psychosis
#16
Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Stefanie J Schmidt, Petra Walger, Benno G Schimmelmann
Developmental Aspects in the Early Detection and Intervention in Clinical High Risk States for Psychosis The early detection and intervention in psychoses, which are a main source of disability-adjusted life years already in children and adolescents, have made good progress within the past years. In particular the attenuated and transient positive symptoms of the ultra-high risk criteria and the basic symptom criterion "Cognitive Disturbances" open promising routes to an indicated prevention and have recently been considered as diagnostic criteria of a psychosis-risk syndrome by the European Psychiatric Association (EPA)...
May 2017: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441976/diversity-or-disarray-a-systematic-review-of-decision-making-capacity-for-treatment-and-research-in-schizophrenia-and-other-non-affective-psychoses
#17
B W J Spencer, G Shields, T Gergel, M Hotopf, G S Owen
BACKGROUND: Valid consent for treatment or research participation requires that an individual has decision-making capacity (DMC), which is the ability to make a specific decision. There is evidence that the psychopathology of schizophrenia can compromise DMC. The objective of this review was to examine the presence or absence of DMC in schizophrenia and the socio-demographic/psychopathological factors associated. METHODS: We searched three databases Embase, Ovid MEDLINE(R), and PsycINFO for studies reporting data on the proportion of DMC for treatment and research (DMC-T and DMC-R), and/or socio-demographic/psychopathological associations with ability to make such decisions, in people with schizophrenia and related illnesses...
April 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429899/neurotransmitter-systems-neuroanatomical-pathology-and-cell-death-in-schizophrenia-update-and-perspectives
#18
Hazael Avila-Rojas, Hugo Sandoval-Zamora, Iván Pérez-Neri
Schizophrenia is a thought disorder characterized by delusional thinking which may be accompanied by hallucinations involving any sensory modality. Schizophrenia may be associated with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Also, it may be induced by drugs. In spite of the similarity in psychoses symptomatology, it is unknown if it involves the same underlying neurobiologic mechanisms in those cases. Schizophrenic patients exhibit not only neuroanatomical alterations, but also, distortion of several neurotransmitter systems...
June 2016: Investigación Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427286/incomes-and-outcomes-social-security-disability-benefits-in-first-episode-psychosis
#19
Robert A Rosenheck, Sue E Estroff, Kyaw Sint, Haiqun Lin, Kim T Mueser, Delbert G Robinson, Nina R Schooler, Patricia Marcy, John M Kane
OBJECTIVE: Social Security Administration (SSA) disability benefits are an important source of income for people with psychoses and confer eligibility for health insurance. The authors examined the impact of coordinated specialty care on receipt of such benefits in first-episode psychosis, along with the correlates and consequences of receiving them. METHOD: The Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode-Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP) study, a 34-site cluster-randomized trial, compared NAVIGATE, a coordinated specialty care program, to usual community care over 2 years...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416594/new-repeat-polymorphism-in-the-akt1-gene-predicts-striatal-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability-and-stimulant-induced-dopamine-release-in-the-healthy-human-brain
#20
Elena Shumay, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Sung Won Kim, Colin A Hodgkinson, Hui Sun, Dardo Tomasi, Christopher T Wong, Daniel R Weinberger, Gene-Jack Wang, Joanna S Fowler, Nora D Volkow
The role of the protein kinase Akt1 in dopamine neurotransmission is well recognized and has been implicated in schizophrenia and psychosis. However, the extent to which variants in the AKT1 gene influence dopamine neurotransmission is not well understood. Here we investigated the effect of a newly characterized variant number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in AKT1 [major alleles: L- (eight repeats) and H- (nine repeats)] on striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (DRD2) availability and on dopamine release in healthy volunteers...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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