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Evangelos Vassos, Marta Di Forti, Jonathan Coleman, Conrad Iyegbe, Diana Prata, Jack Euesden, Paul O'Reilly, Charles Curtis, Anna Kolliakou, Hamel Patel, Stephen Newhouse, Matthew Traylor, Olesya Ajnakina, Valeria Mondelli, Tiago Reis Marques, Poonam Gardner-Sood, Katherine J Aitchison, John Powell, Zerrin Atakan, Kathryn E Greenwood, Shubulade Smith, Khalida Ismail, Carmine Pariante, Fiona Gaughran, Paola Dazzan, Hugh S Markus, Anthony S David, Cathryn M Lewis, Robin M Murray, Gerome Breen
BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) have successfully summarized genome-wide effects of genetic variants in schizophrenia with significant predictive power. In a clinical sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, we estimated the ability of PRSs to discriminate case-control status and to predict the development of schizophrenia as opposed to other psychoses. METHODS: The sample (445 case and 265 control subjects) was genotyped on the Illumina HumanCore Exome BeadChip with an additional 828 control subjects of African ancestry genotyped on the Illumina Multi-Ethnic Genotyping Array...
August 6, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Ian Brockington
A study of several hundred recurrent puerperal psychoses shows that about half of those with known onset recur in the same phase of reproduction, and half have onsets in different phases. Onsets in the same phase are especially a feature of prepartum psychosis and are the strongest indication of a specific trigger operating during pregnancy. Onsets in different phases provide a prima facie case for links between 'puerperal psychosis' and other reproductive onsets. They suggest that the 'picture puzzle' is not just about early onset puerperal psychosis, but a group of related reproductive triggers...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Ola Söderström, Lilith Abrahamyan Empson, Zoé Codeluppi, Dag Söderström, Philipp S Baumann, Philippe Conus
Primarily on the basis of epidemiological studies, recent research in psychiatry has established a robust link between urban living and psychosis. This paper argues first, that an experienced-based approach, moving beyond epidemiology, is needed in order to enable more fine-grained understandings of the city/psychosis nexus. The second part of the paper presents preliminary fieldwork results based on video-elicitation sessions with first-episode patients with psychotic disorders. These results lead to the generation of a series of hypotheses for further research on the role of density, sensory overload and social interaction as factors in the onset of non-affective psychoses...
October 14, 2016: Health & Place
Zarnie Khadjesari, Sarah L Hardoon, Irene Petersen, Fiona L Hamilton, Irwin Nazareth
AIMS: Lack of financial incentive is a frequently cited barrier to alcohol screening in primary care. The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) pay for performance scheme has reimbursed UK primary care practices for alcohol screening in people with schizophrenia since April 2011. This study aimed to determine the impact of financial incentives on alcohol screening by comparing rates of alcohol recording in people with versus those without schizophrenia between 2000 and 2013. METHODS: Cross-sectional and retrospective cohort study...
October 13, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Ana M Sánchez-Torres, M Rosa Elosúa, Ruth Lorente-Omeñaca, Lucía Moreno-Izco, Victor Peralta, Manuel J Cuesta
Psychopathological symptoms and cognitive impairment are related to psychosocial functioning. However, the nature of the association of cognitive impairment with psychosocial functioning still remains under scrutiny. We aimed to examine the relationships of premorbid adjustment, lifetime psychopathological dimensions, and cognitive performance with the typical level of psychosocial functioning during the previous year. We assessed ninety patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders with psychotic symptoms to collect data on premorbid adjustment, lifetime psychopathological dimensions, cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning...
October 9, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Maurizio Pompili, Ross J Baldessarini, Alberto Forte, Denise Erbuto, Gianluca Serafini, Andrea Fiorillo, Mario Amore, Paolo Girardi
Modern antipsychotic drugs are employed increasingly in the treatment of mood disorders as well as psychoses, stimulating interest in their possible contributions to altering suicidal risk. Clozapine remains the only treatment with an FDA-recognized indication for reducing suicidal risk (in schizophrenia). We carried out a systematic, computerized search for reports of studies involving antipsychotic drug treatment and suicidal behaviors. A total of 19 reports provide data with preliminary support for potential suicide risk-reducing effects of olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, and asenapine in addition to clozapine, and provide some support for antipsychotic drug treatment in general...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ian Brockington
This article describes periodic monthly psychoses that develop during the early months of pregnancy. It is probable that these are a variety of menstrual psychosis.
October 8, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Ian Brockington
Bipolar disorders, and other psychoses, are known to be triggered by a number of agents apart from the reproductive process. In some women, pregnant or recently delivered, psychosis may be due to these alternative triggers. There are substantial numbers of mothers suffering from childbearing psychoses, who have been prescribed bromocriptine or steroids, have had surgical operations or developed thyrotoxicosis. It is best to eliminate these episodes and cases from study samples of puerperal psychosis.
October 8, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Ian Brockington
Donkin psychoses are eclamptic psychoses without seizures. As symptomatic psychoses resulting from cerebral endothelial damage, they may explain the lucid intervals that sometimes occur between eclampsia and the eruption of psychosis. They have the same features as eclamptic psychoses, with onset during pregnancy or the early puerperium, especially in first-time mothers, a short duration and full recovery in most. The clinical picture is usually delirium, but mania is also seen, and some patients have retrograde amnesia or other cognitive defects...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Ian Brockington
It has been known since the eighteenth century that postpartum psychoses can begin several weeks after childbirth, not during the first fortnight. There are almost 400 non-organic episodes in the literature, starting more than 3 weeks after the birth; some of them are recurrent. The distinction of this disorder from early onset puerperal psychosis is supported by the distribution of onsets (which shows a steep fall after 14-15 days), survey data and the association with later pregnancies, not the first. Marcé believed that these late onsets were related to the resumption of menstruation...
October 6, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Ian Brockington
A citation analysis of more than 2500 works on the childbearing and menstrual psychoses has shown that the average number of citations is 1 % of the literature or less; Anglo-Saxon authors have the lowest standards of scholarship. Many excellent works have received few of no citations. Attention is drawn to citation fraud and the pernicious effect of superficial "reviews."
October 6, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Antonio Del Casale, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Chiara Rapinesi, Serena Sorice, Nicoletta Girardi, Stefano Ferracuti, Paolo Girardi
BACKGROUND: The nature of the alteration of the response to cognitive tasks in first-episode psychosis (FEP) still awaits clarification. We used activation likelihood estimation, an increasingly used method in evaluating normal and pathological brain function, to identify activation changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of FEP during attentional and memory tasks. METHODS: We included 11 peer-reviewed fMRI studies assessing FEP patients versus healthy controls (HCs) during performance of attentional and memory tasks...
October 4, 2016: Neuropsychobiology
Nina Rautio, Jouko Miettunen, Erika Jääskeläinen, Tanja Nordström, Matti Isohanni, Jussi Seppälä
BACKGROUND: We examined mortality in schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) and non-schizophrenic psychosis (NSSD) compared to individuals without psychosis, and whether perinatal factors predict mortality. METHODS: Within Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n=10 933; 203 with SSD, 178 with NSSD), mortality was followed until end of 2011 by national register. Wantedness of pregnancy, mother's antenatal depression, smoking and age, parity, paternal socio-economic status (SES) and family type at birth were examined as predictors of mortality...
September 27, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Agnieszka Bratek, Krzysztof Krysta, Karolina Drzyzga, Justyna Barańska, Krzysztof Kucia
BACKGROUND: Gender differences in schizophrenia have been recognized for a long time and it has been widely accepted that sex steroid hormones, especially estradiol, are strongly attributed to this fact. Two hypotheses regarding estradiol action in psychoses gained special research attention - the estrogen protection hypothesis and hypoestrogenism hypothesis. A growing number of studies have shown benefits in augmenting antipsychotic treatment with estrogens or selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM)...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Alma Mihaljevic-Peles, Marina Sagud, Ivona Simunovic Filipcic, Vladimir Grosic, Ivana Pedisic, Robin Emsley
BACKGROUND: While numerous studies have confirmed the efficacy of risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) on many clinical outcomes in patients with schizophrenia, there is no data regarding its influence on employment status. SUBJECT AND METHODS: This was a 12-month observational study with flexible doses of RLAI on a Croatian population of patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses. Visits were at baseline and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. Treatment response was evaluated using Clinical Global Impression of Illness Severity (CGI-S) and Improvement (CGI-I) scales, while remission was defined by 8 items of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
P Rocca, S Galderisi, A Rossi, A Bertolino, P Rucci, D Gibertoni, C Montemagni, M Sigaudo, A Mucci, P Bucci, T Acciavatti, E Aguglia, M Amore, A Bellomo, D De Ronchi, L Dell'Osso, F Di Fabio, P Girardi, A Goracci, C Marchesi, P Monteleone, C Niolu, F Pinna, R Roncone, E Sacchetti, P Santonastaso, P Zeppegno, M Maj
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to subtype patients with schizophrenia on the basis of social cognition (SC), and to identify cut-offs that best discriminate among subtypes in 809 out-patients recruited in the context of the Italian Network for Research on Psychoses. METHOD: A two-step cluster analysis of The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT), the Facial Emotion Identification Test and Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test scores was performed. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to identify the cut-offs of variables that best discriminated among clusters...
October 2016: Psychological Medicine
Simon Gilbody, Anne-Marie Bagnall, Lorna Duggan, Arja Tuunainen
BACKGROUND: Risperidone is one of a number of 'atypical antipsychotics' which are currently being marketed for the treatment of those with schizophrenia, largely on the basis of claims of improved tolerability and effectiveness compared to much cheaper conventional antipsychotics. The efficacy of risperidone has already been compared to conventional drugs, but it remains unclear how risperidone compares with other atypical antipsychotic drugs such as clozapine. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of risperidone compared with other atypical antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia...
September 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Stephen A Metcalf, Peter B Jones, Tanja Nordstrom, Markku Timonen, Pirjo Mäki, Jouko Miettunen, Erika Jääskeläinen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Jan Stochl, Graham K Murray, Juha Veijola, Golam M Khandaker
OBJECTIVE: Meta-analyses of cross-sectional studies confirm an increase in circulating inflammatory markers during acute psychosis. Longitudinal studies are scarce but are needed to understand whether elevated inflammatory markers are a cause or consequence of illness. We report a longitudinal study of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) in adolescence and subsequent risk of schizophrenia and related psychoses in adulthood in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. METHOD: Serum high-sensitivity CRP was measured at age 15/16 years in 6362 participants...
September 10, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Marco Atzori, Roberto Cuevas-Olguin, Eric Esquivel-Rendon, Francisco Garcia-Oscos, Roberto C Salgado-Delgado, Nadia Saderi, Marcela Miranda-Morales, Mario Treviño, Juan C Pineda, Humberto Salgado
Norepinephrine (NE) is synthesized in the Locus Coeruleus (LC) of the brainstem, from where it is released by axonal varicosities throughout the brain via volume transmission. A wealth of data from clinics and from animal models indicates that this catecholamine coordinates the activity of the central nervous system (CNS) and of the whole organism by modulating cell function in a vast number of brain areas in a coordinated manner. The ubiquity of NE receptors, the daunting number of cerebral areas regulated by the catecholamine, as well as the variety of cellular effects and of their timescales have contributed so far to defeat the attempts to integrate central adrenergic function into a unitary and coherent framework...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
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