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Lucélia Gonçalves Vieira, Fabiano Campos Lima, Sônia Helena Santesso Teixeira de Mendonça, Lorena Tannús Menezes Dos Reis, Líria Queiroz Luz Hirano, André Luiz Quagliatto Santos
This study proposes the description of the development of the post-cranial axial skeleton, including vertebrae, gastralium, ribs, sternum and interclavicle, in Melanosuchus niger. Six nests were marked and two eggs removed from each nest at 24-hour intervals until hatching. For post-hatching evaluation, 30 hatchlings were kept in captivity and one exemplar was euthanized at three-day intervals. Samples were diaphanized using potassium hydroxide (KOH), alizarin red S and Alcian blue. A routinely generally used method was applied for histological evaluation...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Eric W Recktenwald, Elizabeth A Dudkin, Laura K Skorina, William M Saidel, Edward R Gruberg
The amphibian retina projects to two discrete regions of neuropil in the anterior thalamus: the neuropil of Bellonci and the corpus geniculatum. These retinorecipient areas are encompassed within a larger zone of surrounding neuropil we call the NCZ (for neuropil of Bellonci/corpus geniculatum zone). The NCZ is characterized electrophysiologically by a distinctive tonic oscillatory response to blue light; it appears to be a visual module involved in processing the stationary visual environment. Using horseradish peroxidase (HRP), we mapped the connections of the NCZ...
November 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Nicole C L Noel, W Ted Allison
The connectivity amongst photoreceptors is critical to their function, as it underpins lateral inhibition and effective translation of stimuli into neural signals. Despite much work characterizing second-order interneurons in the outer retina, the synapses directly connecting photoreceptors have often been overlooked. Telodendria are fine processes that connect photoreceptor pedicles. They have been observed in diverse vertebrate groups, yet their roles in vision remain speculative. Here, we visualize telodendria via fluorescent protein expression in photoreceptor subtypes...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Ewa B Śliwińska, Rafał Martyka, Mirosław Martyka, Mariusz Cichoń, Piotr Tryjanowski
Interactions between ecological communities of herbivores and microbes are commonly mediated by a shared plant. A tripartite interaction between a pathogenic fungus-host plant-herbivorous insect is an example of such mutual influences. In such a system a fungal pathogen commonly has a negative influence on the morphology and biochemistry of the host plant, with consequences for insect herbivore performance. Here we studied whether the biotrophic fungus Podosphaera ferruginea, attacking the great burnet Sanguisorba officinalis, affects caterpillar performance of the endangered scarce large blue butterfly Phengaris teleius...
November 7, 2017: Insect Science
Francesco Spelta, A M Fratta Pasini, L Cazzoletti, M Ferrari
The positive association between overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality is well established, even though this relation is typically U shaped with an increased risk also in low-weight subjects. However, being overweight or obese has been associated with a better prognosis in subjects suffering from chronic diseases, id est the "obesity paradox". In both community-dwelling and hospitalized patients with COPD, several studies have reported a significant protective effect of obesity on all-cause mortality, indicating that also in obstructive pulmonary diseases, an obesity paradox may be present...
November 6, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
R R Mota, P Mayeres, C Bastin, G Glorieux, C Bertozzi, S Vanderick, H Hammami, F G Colinet, N Gengler
The segregation of the causal mutation () in the muscular hypertrophy gene in dual-purpose Belgian Blue (dpBB) cattle is considered to result in greater calving difficulty (dystocia). Establishing adapted genetic evaluations might overcome this situation through efficient selection. However, the heterogeneity of dpBB populations at the locus implies separating the major gene and other polygenic effects in complex modeling. The use of mixed inheritance models may be an interesting option because they simultaneously assume both influences...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Maira Gaspar Tosato, Patricia Schilardi, Mónica Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Andrés H Thomas, Alejandro Miñan, Carolina Lorente
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an efficient tool to eradicate microorganisms, due to the capacity of these species to damage almost all types of biomolecules and to kill cells. The increment in the resistance mechanisms to antibiotics leads to the exploration of new strategies to eliminate microorganisms that involves production of ROS, such as superoxide anion (O2(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). ROS are produced during several antimicrobial treatments, including antibiotic and photodynamic therapies...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Yanli An, Qiusha Tang, Rui Yang, Dongfang Liu, Dongsheng Zhang
PURPOSE: To assess the ability of magnetic albumin nanospheres conjugated with folate (FA-MAN) to provide FR-specific enhancement of C6 glioblastoma on magnetic resonance (MR) images. PROCEDURES: Active targeting effect of magnetic albumin nanospheres conjugated with folate (FA-MAN) was evaluated based on MR images and histopathological analysis. MR imaging of subcutaneously transplanted C6 glioblastomas was performed after intravenous injection of FA-MAN, non-targeted (magnetic albumin nanospheres, MAN) and FA-inhibited (magnetic albumin nanospheres conjugated with folate plus folate, FA-MAN + FA) agents at designated time points...
November 5, 2017: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
Semhar Ghirmai, Leif Bülow, Hiromi Sakai
Earlier studies have clarified that NADH and NADPH, re-energized repeatedly by red blood cell (RBC) glycolysis, can be used in extracellular chemical reactions, where electron energies are extracted by electron mediators, such as methylene blue (MB). The electron mediators, which are reduced by NAD(P)H, permeate both the membranes of RBC and phospholipid bilayer of liposomes encapsulating haemoglobin (Hb-vesicles, HbV) and reduce autoxidized ferric methemoglobin (metHb) in HbV to ferrous Hb. Moreover, in vitro screening study clarified some other potential electron mediators with comparable capacity to reduce metHb...
November 6, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Katarzyna Palus, Michał Bulc, Jarosław Całka
The aim of the present study was to define changes in the expression of somatostatin (SOM) in the sympathetic perikarya innervating the porcine stomach prepyloric area during acetylsalicylic-acid-induced gastritis (ASA) and experimentally induced hyperacidity (HCL) and following partial stomach resection (RES). On day 1, the stomachs were injected with neuronal retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB). Animals in the ASA group were given acetylsalicylic acid orally for 21 days. On the 22nd day after FB injection, partial stomach resection was performed in RES animals...
2017: BioMed Research International
Mary Figgatt, James Hyde, David Dziewulski, Eric Wiegert, Scott Kishbaugh, Grant Zelin, Lloyd Wilson
Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, are photosynthetic, aquatic organisms found in fresh, brackish, and marine water around the world (1). Rapid proliferation and accumulation of potentially toxin-producing cyanobacteria characterize one type of harmful algal bloom (HAB). HABs have the potential to cause illness in humans and animals (2,3); however, the epidemiology of these illnesses has not been well characterized. Statewide in 2015, a total of 139 HABs were identified in New York, 97 (70%) of which were confirmed through laboratory analysis; 77 independent beach closures were ordered at 37 beaches on 20 different bodies of water...
November 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Alessandro Catenazzi, Alex Ttito, M Isabel Diaz, Alexander Shepack
A new species of Bryophryne from the humid montane forest of the Department of Cusco, Peru, is described. Specimens were collected at 2795-2850 m a.s.l. in the Área de Conservación Privada Ukumari Llaqta, Quispillomayo valley, in the province of Paucartambo. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Bryophryne by having green coloration on dorsum, and blue flecks on flanks and ventral parts. Specimens are characterized by lacking a distinct tympanic annulus, tympanic membrane, and dentigerous processes of vomers, and by having dorsal skin shagreen, discontinuous dorsolateral folds, skin tuberculate on flanks, skin areolate on ventral surfaces of the body, and fingers and toes without lateral fringes or webbing...
2017: ZooKeys
Helin Xing, Xing Wang, Saisong Xiao, Guilan Zhang, Meng Li, Peihuan Wang, Quan Shi, Pengyan Qiao, Lingling E, Hongchen Liu
PURPOSE: Titanium implant is a widely used method for dental prosthesis restoration. Nevertheless, in patients with systemic diseases, including osteoporosis, diabetes, and cancer, the success rate of the implant is greatly reduced. This study investigates a new implant material loaded with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), which could potentially improve the implant success rate, accelerate the occurrence of osseointegration, and provide a new strategy for implant treatment in osteoporotic patients...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Pooja K Gajaria, Ujwala M Maheshwari, D B Borkar, Reeta Dhar, Varsha Pancholi
Thalassemics require regular blood transfusion therapy leading to iron overload in the body tissues, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. We hereby attempted to measure this iron overload by means of exfoliative cytology, a non-invasive and inexpensive technique. The aims and objectives of our study were: 1. To detect iron overload by oral exfoliative cytology using Perl's Prussian blue stain in β-thalassemia major patients. 2. To correlate staining positivity with serum ferritin levels...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Xiao-Min Zhong, Kai Zhao, Hua Liu, Xiao-Wei Wang, Yong Feng, Qin Zhong, Yi-Yuan Wan, Kai-Lin Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of P2X7R antagonist brilliant blue G (BBG) on aGVDH of mice after allo-HSCT. METHODS: aGVHD mouse model after HSCT was established and treated with the P2X7R antagonist BBG of different dosages (50 mg/kg and 75 mg/kg). After treatment, the survival, body weight, pathological and liver function of aGVDH mice were abserved, and the expression levels of P2X7, NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18 mRNA and protein were evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blot...
October 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Xiaoyan Wang, Ting Yang, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Mingli Chen, Jianhua Wang
Mercury poses a serious threat to human health and the ecosystem. Its pollution is still prevalent in developing areas, which calls for the development of a simple on-site method for Hg(2+) detection. Plasmonic nanosensors for mercury, especially those based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), have been increasingly developed due to the flourish of nanotechnology in the last decade. However, the limitation on either selectivity or stability hindered their practical applications. Herein, by taking advantage of the unique optical properties of AuNPs and the versatility of M13 phages, a novel Hg(2+) sensing strategy is proposed...
November 9, 2017: Nanoscale
Mohamed Ibrahim, Jennifer Bond, Manuel A Medina, Lei Chen, Carlos Quiles, George Kokosis, Latif Bashirov, Bruce Klitzman, Howard Levinson
BACKGROUND: Implanted biomaterials are subject to a significant reaction from the host, known as the foreign body response (FBR). We quantified the FBR to five materials following subcutaneous implantation in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and silicone sheets are considered highly biocompatible biomaterials and were cut into 8mm-diameter disks. Expanded PTFE (ePTFE)and polypropylene are also widely used biocompatible biomaterials and were cut into 2cm-long cylinders...
November 2017: European Journal of Plastic Surgery
Gladimir V G Baranoski, Spencer R Van Leeuwen, Tenn F Chen
The purple or blue coloration of hands and feet, known as peripheral cyanosis, can represent one of the initial signs of potentially life threatening medical conditions. Consequently, procedures aimed at its early detection and interpretation can help health-care professionals to select the appropriate treatment for these conditions. The effectiveness of such procedures, in turn, depends on the correct assessment of the biophysical processes responsible for eliciting this abnormal skin appearance. However, despite the diverse body of existing clinical research involving cyanosis, the interplay between physiological changes and the optical phenomena leading to cyanotic responses remains not fully understood...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Elie Nkwabong, Joseph Nelson Fomulu
BACKGROUND: Urethrovaginal fistulas are usually secondary to a foreign body in the vagina or to vaginal gynecologic surgeries. We present a case of an urethrovaginal fistula secondary to vaginal prolapse of a huge pedunculated submucosal uterine myoma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old black African woman with a past history of huge uterine fibroids and an uncomplicated vaginal delivery 5 weeks prior to presentation consulted for a difficult micturition that occurred 2 days earlier...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Y Hisanaga, E Suzuki, H Aoki, M Sato, A Saito, A Saito, T Azuma
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a candidate cell source in periodontal regenerative therapy. Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) has been shown to regenerate periodontal tissues, and atelocollagen sponge (ACS) is considered a suitable scaffold or carrier for growth factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of combined use of EMD and an ACS scaffold on cell behaviors and differentiation of mouse iPSCs (miPSCs) in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Following embryonic body formation from miPSCs, dissociated cells (miPS-EB-derived cells) were seeded onto ACS with or without EMD, and cultured in osteoblast differentiation medium...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
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