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Working memory impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440817/effects-of-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-antagonism-on-human-planning-and-spatial-working-memory
#1
M Naef, U Müller, A Linssen, L Clark, T W Robbins, C Eisenegger
Psychopharmacological studies in humans suggest important roles for dopamine (DA) D2 receptors in human executive functions, such as cognitive planning and spatial working memory (SWM). However, studies that investigate an impairment of such functions using the selective DA D2/3 receptor antagonist sulpiride have yielded inconsistent results, perhaps because relatively low doses were used. We believe we report for the first time, the effects of a higher (800 mg p.o.) single dose of sulpiride as well as of genetic variation in the DA receptor D2 gene (DA receptor D2 Taq1A polymorphism), on planning and working memory...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439227/requirement-of-nf-kappa-b-activation-in-different-mice-brain-areas-during-long-term-memory-consolidation-in-two-contextual-one-trial-tasks-with-opposing-valences
#2
Angeles Salles, Maria Del C Krawczyk, Mariano Blake, Arturo Romano, Mariano M Boccia, Ramiro Freudenthal
NF-kappa B is a transcription factor whose activation has been shown to be necessary for long-term memory consolidation in several species. NF-kappa B is activated and translocates to the nucleus of cells in a specific temporal window during consolidation. Our work focuses on a one trial learning tasks associated to the inhibitory avoidance (IA) setting. Mice were trained either receiving or not a footshock when entering a dark compartment (aversive vs. appetitive learning). Regardless of training condition (appetitive or aversive), latencies to step-through during testing were significantly different to those measured during training...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437666/attentional-control-of-emotional-interference-in-children-with-adhd-and-typically-developing-children-an-emotional-n-back-study
#3
Thomas Villemonteix, Ivo Marx, Mathilde Septier, Christoph Berger, Thomas Hacker, Sara Bahadori, Eric Acquaviva, Isabelle Massat
Emotional interference control refers to the ability to remain focused on goal-oriented processes when confronted with disrupting but irrelevant emotional stimuli, a process that may be impaired in children and adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, emotional interference levels are known to be associated with trait anxiety, and patients with ADHD often display elevated levels of trait anxiety, such as these may have confounded previous findings of decreased emotional interference control in this population...
April 18, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435972/-glp-1-gip-gcg-receptor-triagonist-improves-the-cognitive-behaviors-in-triple-transgenic-mice-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Juan-Juan Jiao, Christian Hölscher, Tian Li, Xue-Fan Dong, Xue-Song Qu, Yue Cao, Mei-Na Wu, Zhao-Jun Wang, Jin-Shun Qi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively neurodegenerative disorder, which seriously affects human health but is still irreversible up to now. Recent studies indicate that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important risk factor for AD, and the drugs used for treatment of T2DM have shown some neuroprotective effects in the treatment of AD. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/ glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)/glucagon (Gcg) receptor Triagonist is a new monomeric polypeptide equally activating the GLP-1/GIP/Gcg receptors, which is built on the basis of GLP-1/Gcg receptor coagonist core sequence, and incorporated with partial amino acids of GIP...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434949/maternal-immune-activation-during-pregnancy-in-rats-impairs-working-memory-capacity-of-the-offspring
#5
Brendan G Murray, Don A Davies, Joel J Molder, John G Howland
Maternal immune activation during pregnancy is an environmental risk factor for psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia in the offspring. Patients with schizophrenia display an array of cognitive symptoms, including impaired working memory capacity. Rodent models have been developed to understand the relationship between maternal immune activation and the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. The present experiment was designed to test whether maternal immune activation with the viral mimetic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) during pregnancy affects working memory capacity of the offspring...
April 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434800/medial-entorhinal-cortex-selectively-supports-temporal-coding-by-hippocampal-neurons
#6
Nick T M Robinson, James B Priestley, Jon W Rueckemann, Aaron D Garcia, Vittoria A Smeglin, Francesca A Marino, Howard Eichenbaum
Recent studies have shown that hippocampal "time cells" code for sequential moments in temporally organized experiences. However, it is currently unknown whether these temporal firing patterns critically rely on upstream cortical input. Here we employ an optogenetic approach to explore the effect of large-scale inactivation of the medial entorhinal cortex on temporal, as well as spatial and object, coding by hippocampal CA1 neurons. Medial entorhinal inactivation produced a specific deficit in temporal coding in CA1 and resulted in significant impairment in memory across a temporal delay...
April 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434616/impaired-tuning-of-neural-ensembles-and-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia-a-translational-and-computational-neuroscience-perspective
#7
REVIEW
John H Krystal, Alan Anticevic, Genevieve J Yang, George Dragoi, Naomi R Driesen, Xiao-Jing Wang, John D Murray
The functional optimization of neural ensembles is central to human higher cognitive functions. When the functions through which neural activity is tuned fail to develop or break down, symptoms and cognitive impairments arise. This review considers ways in which disturbances in the balance of excitation and inhibition might develop and be expressed in cortical networks in association with schizophrenia. This presentation is framed within a developmental perspective that begins with disturbances in glutamate synaptic development in utero...
May 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432779/nmdar-independent-hippocampal-long-term-depression-impairment-after-status-epilepticus-in-a-lithium-pilocarpine-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#8
Andrey D Ivanov, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Temporal lobe epilepsy is usually associated with cognitive decline and memory deficits. Despite numerous existing studies on various animal models, the mechanisms of these deficits remain largely unclear. A specific form of long-term synaptic efficacy changes - long-term depression (LTD) - is thought to play an important role in memory formation and learning. However, extremely little is known about the possible alteration of LTD induction and dynamics after a status epilepticus (SE). In the present work we investigated the acute and delayed effects of lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE on NMDAR-dependent and NMDAR-independent hippocampal LTD in vitro...
April 22, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428145/prior-treadmill-exercise-promotes-resilience-to-vicarious-trauma-in-rats
#9
Camila Kochi, Hesong Liu, Safiyya Zaidi, Fatin Atrooz, Phoebe Dantoin, Samina Salim
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious psychological condition, which can develop both from physically experiencing and also from witnessing traumatic events. There is evidence that physical exercise can have a positive impact on the symptoms of PTSD. Relevant to this, in our previous pre-clinical work, beneficial effects of treadmill exercise were reported on PTSD-like behaviors in a social defeat paradigm, a rat model of direct physical trauma. However, the role of exercise on vicariously acquired PTSD-like phenotype was not examined...
April 17, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427989/egocentric-and-allocentric-visuospatial-working-memory-in-premotor-huntington-s-disease-a-double-dissociation-with-caudate-and-hippocampal-volumes
#10
Katherine L Possin, Hosung Kim, Michael D Geschwind, Tacie Moskowitz, Erica T Johnson, Sharon J Sha, Alexandra Apple, Duan Xu, Bruce L Miller, Steven Finkbeiner, Christopher P Hess, Joel H Kramer
Our brains represent spatial information in egocentric (self-based) or allocentric (landmark-based) coordinates. Rodent studies have demonstrated a critical role for the caudate in egocentric navigation and the hippocampus in allocentric navigation. We administered tests of egocentric and allocentric working memory to individuals with premotor Huntington's disease (pmHD), which is associated with early caudate nucleus atrophy, and controls. Each test had 80 trials during which subjects were asked to remember 2 locations over 1-sec delays...
April 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427329/cross-disorder-comparative-analysis-of-comorbid-conditions-reveals-novel-autism-candidate-genes
#11
Leticia Diaz-Beltran, Francisco J Esteban, Maya Varma, Alp Ortuzk, Maude David, Dennis P Wall
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have highlighted the elevated degree of comorbidity associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These comorbid conditions may add further impairments to individuals with autism and are substantially more prevalent compared to neurotypical populations. These high rates of comorbidity are not surprising taking into account the overlap of symptoms that ASD shares with other pathologies. From a research perspective, this suggests common molecular mechanisms involved in these conditions...
April 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424597/working-memory-after-traumatic-brain-injury-the-neural-basis-of-improved-performance-with-methylphenidate
#12
Anne E Manktelow, David K Menon, Barbara J Sahakian, Emmanuel A Stamatakis
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in cognitive impairments for patients. The aim of this proof of concept study was to establish the nature of abnormalities, in terms of activity and connectivity, in the working memory network of TBI patients and how these relate to compromised behavioral outcomes. Further, this study examined the neural correlates of working memory improvement following the administration of methylphenidate. We report behavioral, functional and structural MRI data from a group of 15 Healthy Controls (HC) and a group of 15 TBI patients, acquired during the execution of the N-back task...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421537/satb2-ablation-impairs-hippocampus-based-long-term-spatial-memory-and-short-term-working-memory-and-immediate-early-genes-iegs-mediated-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#13
Ying Li, Qiang-Long You, Sheng-Rong Zhang, Wei-Yuan Huang, Wen-Jun Zou, Wei Jie, Shu-Ji Li, Ji-Hong Liu, Chuang-Ye Lv, Jin Cong, Yu-Ying Hu, Tian-Ming Gao, Jian-Ming Li
Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (Satb2) is a protein binding to the matrix attachment regions of DNA and important for gene regulation. Patients with SATB2 mutation usually suffer moderate to severe mental retardation. However, the mechanisms for the defects of intellectual activities in patients with SATB2 mutation are largely unclear. Here we established the heterozygous Satb2 mutant mice and Satb2 conditional knockout mice to mimic the patients with SATB2 mutation and figured out the role of Satb2 in mental activities...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420646/associations-between-left-ventricular-dysfunction-and-brain-structure-and-function-findings-from-the-sabre-southall-and-brent-revisited-study
#14
Chloe M Park, Emily D Williams, Nish Chaturvedi, Therese Tillin, Robert J Stewart, Marcus Richards, Dean Shibata, Jamil Mayet, Alun D Hughes
BACKGROUND: Subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction has been inconsistently associated with early cognitive impairment, and mechanistic pathways have been poorly considered. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between LV dysfunction and structural/functional measures of the brain and explored the role of potential mechanisms. METHOD AND RESULTS: A total of 1338 individuals (69±6 years) from the Southall and Brent Revisited study underwent echocardiography for systolic (tissue Doppler imaging peak systolic wave) and diastolic (left atrial diameter) assessment...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419918/internal-shifting-impairments-in-response-to-emotional-information-in-dysphoric-adolescents
#15
Laura Wante, Sven C Mueller, Ineke Demeyer, Tiffany Naets, Caroline Braet
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested that internal cognitive control impairments may play an important role in the development of depression. Despite a growing body of research in adults, the ability to shift internal attention between mental representations in working memory has received little attention in younger populations. This study investigated internal shifting capacity between emotional and non-emotional information in dysphoric and non-dysphoric adolescents...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419772/visual-memory-uniquely-predicts-anhedonia-in-schizophrenia-but-not-bipolar-disorder
#16
Anjuli S Bodapati, Lisanne M Jenkins, Rajiv P Sharma, Cherise Rosen
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in memory have been suggested as an influential mechanism of anhedonia, because while pleasant experiences may be enjoyed in-the-moment, the cognitive processes involved in reporting anticipated or remembered enjoyable experiences is thought to be impaired. This study will determine whether any aspects of memory, including visual memory, verbal memory or working memory, are significantly predictive of anhedonia in a sample of schizophrenia, psychotic bipolar disorder and healthy controls...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418523/neurocognitive-trajectory-of-boys-who-received-a-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-at-an-early-stage-of-childhood-cerebral-adrenoleukodystrophy
#17
Elizabeth I Pierpont, Julie B Eisengart, Ryan Shanley, David Nascene, Gerald V Raymond, Elsa G Shapiro, Rich S Ziegler, Paul J Orchard, Weston P Miller
Importance: Untreated childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (cALD) is a fatal disease associated with progressive cerebral demyelination and rapid, devastating neurologic decline. The standard of care to enhance long-term survival and stabilize cerebral disease is a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Neurologic outcomes are better when HSCT occurs at an earlier stage of cALD, yet there is limited understanding of the neurocognitive trajectory of patients who undergo HSCT. Objectives: To characterize neurocognitive outcomes of boys with cALD and early-stage cerebral disease who were treated with an allogeneic HSCT and to identify disease- and treatment-related factors associated with long-term functioning...
April 17, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418400/short-telomere-length-is-associated-with-impaired-cognitive-performance-in-european-ancestry-cohorts
#18
S Hägg, Y Zhan, R Karlsson, L Gerritsen, A Ploner, S J van der Lee, L Broer, J Deelen, R E Marioni, A Wong, A Lundquist, G Zhu, N K Hansell, E Sillanpää, I O Fedko, N A Amin, M Beekman, A J M de Craen, S Degerman, S E Harris, K-J Kan, C M Martin-Ruiz, G W Montgomery, A N Adolfsson, C A Reynolds, N J Samani, H E D Suchiman, A Viljanen, T von Zglinicki, M J Wright, J-J Hottenga, D I Boomsma, T Rantanen, J A Kaprio, D R Nyholt, N G Martin, L Nyberg, R Adolfsson, D Kuh, J M Starr, I J Deary, P E Slagboom, C M van Duijn, V Codd, N L Pedersen
The association between telomere length (TL) dynamics on cognitive performance over the life-course is not well understood. This study meta-analyses observational and causal associations between TL and six cognitive traits, with stratifications on APOE genotype, in a Mendelian Randomization (MR) framework. Twelve European cohorts (N=17 052; mean age=59.2±8.8 years) provided results for associations between qPCR-measured TL (T/S-ratio scale) and general cognitive function, mini-mental state exam (MMSE), processing speed by digit symbol substitution test (DSST), visuospatial functioning, memory and executive functioning (STROOP)...
April 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417319/cognitive-function-and-vascular-risk-factors-among-older-african-american-adults
#19
Ishan C Williams, Moon Ho Park, Siny Tsang, Scott A Sperling, Carol Manning
To evaluate the association between vascular risk factors and cognitive impairment among older African American (AA) adults in a primary care clinic. Participants included 96 AA adults aged 60 years or older who were evaluated for global and domain-specific cognition. Participants were interviewed using the Computerized Assessment of Memory and Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI). The relationship between CAMCI cognitive domain scores and vascular risk factors were examined using hierarchical regression models. Patients who smoked, those with higher SBP/DBP values had lower accuracy rates on CAMCI cognitive domains (attention, executive, memory)...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416631/mutation-of-neuron-specific-chromatin-remodeling-subunit-baf53b-rescue-of-plasticity-and-memory-by-manipulating-actin-remodeling
#20
Annie Vogel Ciernia, Enikö A Kramár, Dina P Matheos, Robbert Havekes, Thekla J Hemstedt, Christophe N Magnan, Keith Sakata, Ashley Tran, Soraya Azzawi, Alberto Lopez, Richard Dang, Weisheng Wang, Brian Trieu, Joyce Tong, Ruth M Barrett, Rebecca J Post, Pierre Baldi, Ted Abel, Gary Lynch, Marcelo A Wood
Recent human exome-sequencing studies have implicated polymorphic Brg1-associated factor (BAF) complexes (mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes) in several intellectual disabilities and cognitive disorders, including autism. However, it remains unclear how mutations in BAF complexes result in impaired cognitive function. Post-mitotic neurons express a neuron-specific assembly, nBAF, characterized by the neuron-specific subunit BAF53b. Subdomain 2 of BAF53b is essential for the differentiation of neuronal precursor cells into neurons...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
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