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Working memory impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334662/aqueous-extracts-of-two-tropical-ethnobotanicals-tetrapleura-tetraptera-and-quassia-undulata-improved-spatial-and-non-spatial-working-memories-in-scopolamine-induced-amnesic-rats-influence-of-neuronal-cholinergic-and-antioxidant-systems
#1
Veronica O Odubanjo, Emmanuel O Ibukun, Ganiyu Oboh, Stephen A Adefegha
BACKGROUND: Tetrapleura tetraptera (TT) and Quassia undulata (QU) are two predominant tropical ethnobotanicals with various medicinal values but are commonly used in folklore for the treatment of mental illness without justifiable mechanisms of action. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of aqueous extracts from TT fruits and QU leaves on the spatial and non-spatial working memory, antioxidant status and activities of neuronal marker enzymes of scopolamine-induced amnesic rats and thus, understand the possible mechanism of action of these plants...
January 11, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334651/effects-of-perinatal-fluoride-exposure-on-the-expressions-of-mir-124-and-mir-132-in-hippocampus-of-mouse-pups
#2
Jixiang Wang, Yuliang Zhang, Zhenzhen Guo, Rui Li, Xingchen Xue, Zilong Sun, Ruiyan Niu
To investigate the effects of perinatal fluoride exposure on learning and memory ability of mouse offspring, ICR female mice were received different doses of sodium fluoride (0, 25, 50, 100 mg/L NaF) from pregnant day 7 to lactational day 21. Pups were exposed to fluoride through the cord blood and breast milk. Open field test showed that compared to the control group, perinatal fluoride exposure significantly decreased the number of entries into the center zone in 100 mg/L NaF group. In the eight-arm maze test, the number of working memory errors, reference memory errors, and the total arm entries were significantly increased in fluoride treatment groups, compared to the control group...
January 8, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334566/deficiency-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-disrupts-memory-processes-in-rats
#3
Vladimir I Arkhipov, Ekaterina V Pershina, Sergey G Levin
Cytokines, in addition to their participation in immune and inflammatory processes, play an important role in synaptic plasticity, neoneurogenesis, and cognitive functions. In our work, we aimed to clarify the role of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which is recognized as a multifunctional cytokine, in memory processes. Behavioral experiments were carried out in rats using step-through passive avoidance test. The results obtained showed that the learning of animals after treatment with SB431542, a selective inhibitor of TGF-β receptors, was impaired, which indicated a significant memory deterioration...
January 12, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331440/the-effect-of-bilateral-eye-movements-versus-no-eye-movements-on-sexual-fantasies
#4
Ross M Bartels, Leigh Harkins, Samantha C Harrison, Nikki Beard, Anthony R Beech
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bilateral eye-movements (EMs) and visual mental imagery both require working memory resources. When performed together, they compete for these resources, which can cause various forms of mental imagery to become impaired (e.g., less vivid). This study aimed to examine whether EMs impair sexual fantasies (a form of mental imagery) in the same manner. METHODS: Eighty undergraduates (40 males, 40 females) took part in four counterbalanced conditions: (1) EMs and an experience-based sexual fantasy; (2) EMs and an imagination-based sexual fantasy; (3) experience-based sexual fantasy only; and (4) imagination-based sexual fantasy only...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330571/impact-of-motor-task-execution-on-an-individual-s-ability-to-mirror-forearm-positions
#5
Netta Gurari, Justin M Drogos, Shawn Lopez, Julius P A Dewald
This work is motivated by our goal of determining why individuals with stroke are impaired when locating their arms in space. We assessed the ability of individuals without neurological impairments to mirror their forearms during various motor tasks so that we could identify baseline performance in an unimpaired population. Nine right-hand dominant participants without neurological impairments mirrored forearm positions bi-directionally (i.e., right forearm mirrors left forearm, vice versa) for three motor tasks (i...
January 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329371/alcohol-use-in-adolescence-and-later-working-memory-findings-from-a-large-population-based-birth-cohort
#6
Liam Mahedy, Matt Field, Suzanne Gage, Gemma Hammerton, Jon Heron, Matt Hickman, Marcus R Munafò
Aims: The study aimed to examine the association between adolescent alcohol use and working memory (WM) using a large population sample. Methods: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used to investigate the association between alcohol use at age 15 years and WM 3 years later, assessed using the N-back task (N ~ 3300). A three-category ordinal variable captured mutually exclusive alcohol groupings ranging in order of severity (i.e. low alcohol users, frequent drinkers and frequent/binge drinkers)...
January 10, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329017/amiodarone-a-multi-channel-blocker-enhances-anticonvulsive-effect-of-carbamazepine-in-the-mouse-maximal-electroshock-model
#7
Monika Banach, Monika Popławska, Kinga K Borowicz-Reutt
Cardiac arrhythmia may occur in the course of epilepsy. Simultaneous therapy of the two diseases might be complicated by drug interactions since antiarrhythmic and antiepileptic agents share some molecular targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic drug working as a multi-channel blocker, on the protective activity of four classical antiepileptic drugs in the maximal electroshock test in mice. Amiodarone at doses up to 75 mg/kg did not affect the electroconvulsive threshold in mice...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326145/return-to-work-and-participation-in-society-after-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#8
Gisela Lilja, Niklas Nielsen, John Bro-Jeppesen, Hannah Dunford, Hans Friberg, Caisa Hofgren, Janneke Horn, Angelo Insorsi, Jesper Kjaergaard, Fredrik Nilsson, Paolo Pelosi, Tineke Winters, Matt P Wise, Tobias Cronberg
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors' ability to participate in activities of everyday life and society, including return to work. The specific aim was to evaluate potential effects of cognitive impairment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred eighty-seven OHCA survivors included in the TTM trial (Target Temperature Management) and 119 matched control patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction participated in a follow-up 180 days post-event that included assessments of participation, return to work, emotional problems, and cognitive impairment...
January 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325715/orexin-knockout-mice-exhibit-impaired-spatial-working-memory
#9
Ruozhi Dang, Qiuhan Chen, Jie Song, Chao He, Jun Zhang, Jianxia Xia, Zhian Hu
Orexins play a crucial role in the maintenance of arousal and are involved in the modulation of diverse physiological process, including cognitive function. Recent data have suggested that orexins are involved in learning and memory processes. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of orexin deficiency on working memory. A delayed non-matching-to-place T-maze task was used to evaluate spatial working memory in mice lacking orexin prepro-peptide (orexin knockout; KO) and wild-type controls. We demonstrated that the number of correct choices in the orexin KO mice became lower than that of the controls over training...
January 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324924/mobile-phone-use-for-5-minutes-can-cause-significant-memory-impairment-in-humans
#10
F Kalafatakis, D Bekiaridis-Moschou, Eirini Gkioka, Magda Tsolaki
INTRODUCTION: Concerns about the possible adverse health effects of mobile phones (MP) have increased along with the expansion of their use. A number of research papers have tried to address this issue. Although many investigations concluded that MP use does have negative consequences, in terms of cognitive function of the human brain, the results so far have been divisive. A number of studies reported impairment of cognitive function after exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field (MP EMF), while others observed no effect or improved performance...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324745/proof-of-concept-study-of-an-at-home-engaging-digital-intervention-for-pediatric-adhd
#11
Naomi O Davis, Jeffrey Bower, Scott H Kollins
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological and behavioral therapies have limited impact on the distinct neurocognitive impairments associated with ADHD, and existing cognitive training programs have shown limited efficacy. This proof-of-concept study assessed treatment acceptability and explored outcomes for a novel digital treatment targeting cognitive processes implicated in ADHD. METHOD: Participants included 40 children with ADHD and 40 children without ADHD. Following psychiatric screening, ADHD ratings, and baseline neuropsychological measures, participants completed 28-days of at-home treatment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321658/slower-time-estimation-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#12
Carmelo M Vicario, Kim L Felmingham
Cognitive deficits in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and dissociative symptoms suggest there may be an underlying and persistent problem with temporal processing in PTSD, but this question has not been systematically examined. We investigated the ability of a group of PTSD participants in estimating the duration of supra-second visual stimuli relative to healthy controls. The data of 59 participants with PTSD and 62 healthy controls, collected from the BRID database, have been examined. Overall, our results indicate that PTSD patients overestimate the duration of the displayed stimuli...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321584/the-critical-role-of-phase-difference-in-theta-oscillation-between-bilateral-parietal-cortices-for-visuospatial-working-memory
#13
Philip Tseng, Kai-Chi Iu, Chi-Hung Juan
Visual working memory (VWM) refers to people's ability to maintain and manipulate visual information on line. Its capacity varies between individuals, and neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between one's VWM capacity and theta power in the parietal cortex. However, it is unclear how the parietal cortices communicate with each other in order to support VWM processing. In two experiments we employed transcranial alternate current stimulation (tACS) to use frequency-specific (6 Hz) alternating current to modulate theta oscillation between the left and right parietal cortex with either in-phase (0° difference, Exp 1), anti-phase (180° difference, Exp 2), or sham sinusoidal current stimulation...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320933/gray-matter-networks-and-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Carolina M Rimkus, Menno M Schoonheim, Martijn D Steenwijk, Hugo Vrenken, Anand Jc Eijlers, Joep Killestein, Mike P Wattjes, Claudia C Leite, Frederik Barkhof, Betty M Tijms
BACKGROUND: Coordinated patterns of gray matter morphology can be represented as networks, and network disruptions may explain cognitive dysfunction related to multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether single-subject gray matter network properties are related to impaired cognition in MS. METHODS: We studied 148 MS patients (99 female) and 33 healthy controls (HC, 21 female). Seven network parameters were computed and compared within MS between cognitively normal and impaired subjects, and associated with performance on neuropsychological tests in six cognitive domains with regression models...
January 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318972/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-reverses-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-dysfunction-in-gamma-oscillation-during-working-memory
#15
Wenwen Bai, Tiaotiao Liu, Mengmeng Dou, Mi Xia, Jun Lu, Xin Tian
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that gradually induces cognitive deficits in the elderly and working memory impairment is typically observed in AD. Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is a causative factor for the cognitive impairments in AD. Gamma oscillations have been recognized to play important roles in various cognitive functions including working memory. Previous study reported that Aβ induces gamma oscillation dysfunction in working memory. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) represents a technique for noninvasive stimulation to induce cortical activity and excitability changes and has been accepted for increasing brain excitability and regulating cognitive behavior...
January 9, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318446/vitamin-d-improves-neurogenesis-and-cognition-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Maria Morello, Véréna Landel, Emmanuelle Lacassagne, Kevin Baranger, Cedric Annweiler, François Féron, Pascal Millet
The impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis at the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is believed to support early cognitive decline. Converging studies sustain the idea that vitamin D might be linked to the pathophysiology of AD and to hippocampal neurogenesis. Nothing being known about the effects of vitamin D on hippocampal neurogenesis in AD, we assessed them in a mouse model of AD. In a previous study, we observed that dietary vitamin D supplementation in female AD-like mice reduced cognitive decline only when delivered during the symptomatic phase...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317600/altered-avalanche-dynamics-in-a-developmental-nmdar-hypofunction-model-of-cognitive-impairment
#17
Saurav Seshadri, Andreas Klaus, Daniel E Winkowski, Patrick O Kanold, Dietmar Plenz
Disturbed activity patterns in cortical networks contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Several lines of evidence implicate NMDA receptor hypofunction in SZ, and blocking NMDA receptor signaling during early neurodevelopment produces cognitive deficits in rodent models that resemble those seen in schizophrenic patients. However, the altered network dynamics underlying these cognitive impairments largely remain to be characterized, especially at the cellular level. Here, we use in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to describe pathological dynamics, occurring in parallel with cognitive dysfunction, in a developmental NMDA receptor hypofunction model...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317248/cognitive-decline-and-increased-hippocampal-p-tau-expression-in-mice-with-hearing-loss
#18
So Young Park, Min Jung Kim, Hong Lim Kim, Dong Kee Kim, Sang Won Yeo, Shi Nae Park
Hearing and cognition are commonly involved in both normal and pathological aging. Current clinical interest lies in whether peripheral hearing loss promotes cognitive decline. In our previous publication, the authors have shown a causal relationship between hearing and cognitive impairments in C57BL/6 mice. Here we extended the follow-up to 12 months to determine the long-term effects of hearing loss on cognition and to observe hippocampal p-tau and lipofuscin. One month old male mice were randomly allocated into two groups, the control (n = 12) and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) (n = 12)...
January 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317186/perturbation-of-theta-gamma-coupling-at-the-temporal-lobe-hinders-verbal-declarative-memory
#19
Gabriel Amador de Lara, Ivan Alekseichuk, Zsolt Turi, Albert Lehr, Andrea Antal, Walter Paulus
BACKGROUND: Phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (PAC) is characterized by the modulation of the power of a fast brain oscillation (e.g., gamma) by the phase of a slow rhythm (e.g., theta). PAC in different sub- and neocortical regions is known to underlie effective neural communication and correlates with successful long-term memory formation. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The present work aims to extend earlier observational data, by probing the functional role of theta-gamma PAC in the left temporal cortex in humans during verbal long-term memory encoding...
December 25, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316527/contrasting-effects-of-individual-versus-combined-estrogen-and-progestogen-regimens-as-working-memory-load-increases-in-middle-aged-ovariectomized-rats-one-plus-one-does-not-equal-two
#20
Alesia V Prakapenka, Ryoko Hiroi, Alicia M Quihuis, Catie Carson, Shruti Patel, Claire Berns-Leone, Carly Fox, Rachael W Sirianni, Heather A Bimonte-Nelson
Most estrogen-based hormone therapies are administered in combination with a progestogen, such as Levonorgestrel (Levo). Individually, the estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2) and Levo can improve cognition in preclinical models. However, although these hormones are often given together clinically, the impact of the E2 + Levo combination on cognitive function has yet to be methodically examined. Thus, we investigated E2 + Levo treatment on a cognitive battery in middle-aged, ovariectomized rats. When administered alone, E2 and Levo treatments each enhanced spatial working memory relative to vehicle treatment, whereas the E2 + Levo combination impaired high working memory load performance relative to E2 only and Levo only treatments...
December 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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