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Working memory impairment

Alessandra Moletto, Irene Bagnasco, Patrizia Dassi, Piernanda Vigliano
OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term neurocognitive changes of a right-handed girl with intractable epilepsy after late right hemispherectomy and compare them with data in the literature. METHOD: The girl was affected by an epileptic encephalopathy associated with right fronto-temporo-parietal polymicrogyria; she was submitted to right hemispherectomy at the age of 5 and examined with cognitive and neuropsychological tests at the age of 17 years. The girl took advantage of neurocognitive rehabilitation for several years; she is currently seizure-free and off therapy...
March 21, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Wolf Osterode, Sandra Schranz, Galateja Jordakieva
Mental and physical stress is common in physicians during night shifts. Neurocognitive effects of sleep deprivation as well as alterations in hormonal and metabolic parameters have previously been described. The aim of this crossover study was to evaluate the effects of night-shift work with partial sleep deprivation on steroid hormone excretion and possible associations with mood, sleep characteristics and cognitive functions in physicians. In total, 34 physicians (mean age 42 ± 8.5 years, 76.5% male) from different departments of the General Hospital of Vienna, Austria, were randomly assigned to two conditions: a regular day shift (8 h on duty, condition 1) and a continuous day-night shift (24 h on duty, condition 2)...
March 21, 2018: Chronobiology International
Jorge A Avila, Roseanna M Zanca, Denis Shor, Nicholas Paleologos, Amber A Alliger, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Peter A Serrano
Methamphetamine (MA) is an addictive drug with neurotoxic effects on the brain producing cognitive impairment and increasing the risk for neurodegenerative disease. Research has focused largely on examining the neurochemical and behavioral deficits induced by injecting relatively high doses of MA [30 mg/kg of body weight (bw)] identifying the upper limits of MA-induced neurotoxicity. Accordingly, we have developed an appetitive mouse model of voluntary oral MA administration (VOMA) based on the consumption of a palatable sweetened oatmeal mash containing a known amount of MA...
February 2018: Heliyon
Uros Marusic, Sidney Grosprêtre
Normal and pathological ageing are associated with several motor impairments that reduce quality of life and represent a general challenge for public healthcare systems. Consequently, over the past decades, many scientists and physiotherapists dedicated their research to the development and improvement of safe and costless methods to counteract the progressive decline of motor functions with age. The urgency of finding new and easy to implement methods is even more paramount in case of acute pathologies (e...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
C Richardson, G Micic, N Cain, K Bartel, B Maddock, M Gradisar
The present study aimed to investigate whether Australian adolescents with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder have impaired cognitive performance and whether chronobiological treatment for Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder improves adolescents' sleep, daytime functioning and cognitive performance. Adolescents with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (mean = 15.68 ± 2.1 y, 62% f) reported significantly later sleep timing (d = 1.03-1.45), less total sleep time (d = 0.82) and greater daytime sleepiness (d = 2...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Jackie M Poos, Lize C Jiskoot, Janne M Papma, John C van Swieten, Esther van den Berg
OBJECTIVES: A meta-analysis of the extent, nature and pattern of memory performance in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Multiple observational studies have challenged the relative sparing of memory in bvFTD as stated in the current diagnostic criteria. METHODS: We performed a meta-analytic review covering the period 1967 to February 2017 of case-control studies on episodic memory in bvFTD versus control participants (16 studies, 383 patients, 603 control participants), and patients with bvFTD versus those with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (20 studies, 452 bvFTD, 874 AD)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Pierpaolo Cerullo, Paola Brancaccio, Serenella Anzilotti, Antonio Vinciguerra, Ornella Cuomo, Ferdinando Fiorino, Beatrice Severino, Paola Di Vaio, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato, Giuseppe Pignataro
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HI) accounts for the majority of developmental, motor and cognitive deficits in children, leading to life-long neurological impairments. Since the plasmamembrane sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) plays a fundamental role in maintaining ionic homeostasis during adult brain ischemia, in the present work we aimed to demonstrate (1)the involvement of NCX in the pathophysiology of neonatal HI and (2)a possible NCX-based pharmacological intervention. HI was induced in neonatal mice at postnatal day 7(P7) by unilateral cut of the right common carotid artery, followed by 60 min exposure to 8%O2 ...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Yue Cao, Christian Hölscher, Meng-Ming Hu, Ting Wang, Fang Zhao, Yu Bai, Jun Zhang, Mei-Na Wu, Jin-Shun Qi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no cure. The early primary symptom of AD is the decline of memory ability, which gradually develops into complete dementia. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important risk factor of AD; and mimetics of the incretin hormone GLP-1 developed to treat diabetes are being tested as a novel therapeutic strategy for AD. In the present study, we reported for the first time the neuroprotective effects of a novel GLP-1/GIP dual agonist DA5-CH that activates the incretin hormone GLP-1 and GIP receptors in the APP/PS1 transgenic AD mouse model...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
K A Honn, J M Hinson, P Whitney, H P A Van Dongen
In around-the-clock operations, reduced alertness due to circadian misalignment and sleep loss causes performance impairment, which can lead to catastrophic errors and accidents. There is mounting evidence that performance on different tasks is differentially affected, but the general principles underlying this differentiation are not well understood. One factor that may be particularly relevant is the degree to which tasks require executive control, that is, control over the initiation, monitoring, and termination of actions in order to achieve goals...
March 14, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jonathan Greenberg, Victoria L Romero, Seth Elkin-Frankston, Matthew A Bezdek, Eric H Schumacher, Sara W Lazar
Proactive interference occurs when previously relevant information interferes with retaining newer material. Overcoming proactive interference has been linked to the hippocampus and deemed critical for cognitive functioning. However, little is known about whether and how this ability can be improved or about the neural correlates of such improvement. Mindfulness training emphasizes focusing on the present moment and minimizing distraction from competing thoughts and memories. It improves working memory and increases hippocampal density...
March 17, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Kristin L Szuhany, Danny MacKenzie, Michael W Otto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The impaired ability to delay rewards, delay discounting (DD), is associated with several problematic conditions in which impulsive decision-making derails long-term goals. Working memory (WM), the ability to actively store and manipulate information, is associated with DD. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive priming on DD and to identify moderation of this effect dependent on degree of WM capacity (WMC) and depressed mood. METHODS: A WM task (n-back) was used as a cognitive prime before assessment of DD (Monetary Choice Questionnaire) and was compared to a similar prime from an inhibition task in a factorial design in 183 community participants...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Bonnie Auyeung
BACKGROUND: The association between Executive Function (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been mainly investigated using false belief tasks, whilst less is known about the EF effect on other ToM facets. Furthermore, the role EF plays in social communication in ASD is mainly assessed using parent-report EF ratings rather than direct assessment. AIMS: The aim of this study was to shed more light on the effect of performance-based EF measures on ToM and social communication in middle childhood in ASD relative to neurotypical controls...
March 13, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Tabitha C Peck, My Doan, Kimberly A Bourne, Jessica J Good
The underrepresentation of women in technical and STEM fields is a well-known problem, and stereotype threatening situations have been linked to the inability to recruit and retain women into these fields. Virtual reality enables the unique ability to perform body-swap illusions, and research has shown that these illusions can change participant behavior. Characteristically people take on the traits of the avatar they are embodying. We hypothesized that female participants embodying male avatars when a stereotype threat was made salient would demonstrate stereotype lift...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Arun Gupta, Pratima Murthy, Shobini Rao
Chronic use of mind altering substances can lead to a wide variety of neuropsychological deficits, affecting the domains of attention, learning, memory, reasoning. Executive functions such as working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control may specifically be impaired. These deficits can impact engagement in effective psychosocial interventions. Mild to moderate cognitive dysfunction may not be picked up in routine clinical examination or through commonly used tests like the mini-mental state examination (MMSE)...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Douglas Sjöwall, Lisa B Thorell
The present study aimed at improving our understanding of the role of neuropsychological deficits in preschool Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study included 52 children in the ADHD group and 72 controls (age 4-6 years). Both laboratory measures and teacher reports of executive deficits (i.e., working memory, inhibition, and shifting), delay-related behaviors (i.e., the preference for minimizing delay), and emotional functions (i.e., emotion recognition and regulation) were included. Variable-oriented analyses were complemented with person-oriented analyses (i...
March 14, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Daniel P Sheppard, Jelle P Bruineberg, Anett Kretschmer-Trendowicz, Mareike Altgassen
OBJECTIVE: The current article set out to review all research conducted to date investigating prospective memory (PM) in autism. METHOD: All studies on PM in autism are first described, followed by a critical review and discussion of experimental findings within the multiprocess framework. PM in autism is then considered through an embodied predictive-coding account of autism. RESULTS: Overall, despite somewhat inconsistent methodologies, a general deficit in PM in autism is observed, with evidence mostly in line with the multiprocess framework...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Eunyoung Bang, Boyoung Lee, Joon-Oh Park, Yooncheol Jang, Aekyong Kim, Sungwuk Kim, Hee-Sup Shin
In recent years, as the aging population grows, aging-induced cognitive impairments including dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have become the biggest challenges for global public health and social care. Therefore, the development of potential therapeutic drugs for aging-associated cognitive impairment is essential. Metabolic dysregulation has been considered to be a key factor that affects aging and dementia. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a primary sensor of cellular energy states and regulates cellular energy metabolism...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
J F Tornero-Aguilera, José Juan Robles-Pérez, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Previous studies have shown that actuate stress have a negative effect on working memory, visio-spatial ability and symptoms of disassociation. We conducted the present research with the aim of to analyse the effect of experience and training in psychophysiological response, attention and memory of soldiers in combat. Variables of blood lactate, blood glucose, blood oxygen saturation, body temperature, heart rate, lower body muscular strength manifestation, autonomic modulation, cortical arousal, cognitive and somatic anxiety, and memory by a post mission questionnaire were analysed before and after a combat simulation in 49 soldiers of Spanish Army...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Christine M Embury, Alex I Wiesman, Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Timothy J McDermott, Grace H Lord, Kaitlin L Brau, Andjela T Drincic, Cyrus V Desouza, Tony W Wilson
It is now generally accepted that diabetes increases the risk for cognitive impairment, but the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. A critical problem in linking diabetes to cognitive impairment is that patients often have multiple comorbidities (e.g., obesity, hypertension) that have been independently linked to cognitive deficits. Herein, we focus on young adults with and without type 1 diabetes who were virtually free of such comorbidities. The two groups were matched on major health and demographic factors, and all participants completed a verbal working memory task during magnetoencephalographic (MEG) brain imaging...
March 12, 2018: Diabetes
Mi Li, Lei Feng, Xingwang Liu, Ming Zhang, Bingbing Fu, Gang Wang, Shengfu Lu, Ning Zhong, Bin Hu
Objective This study was performed to examine the working memory (WM) encoding and retrieval abilities in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and determine whether a mood-congruent memory effect is present. Methods The modified Sternberg WM paradigm with positive, negative, and neutral emotional pictures was used to investigate the WM abilities of 26 patients with MDD and 26 healthy controls (HCs). Results No significant difference in picture WM was found between the MDD and HC groups; however, the accuracy of picture position WM was significantly lower and the response time was significantly longer in the MDD than HC group, regardless of the picture or position WM...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
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