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Working memory impairment

Michael K Yeung, Sophia L Sze, Jean Woo, Timothy Kwok, David H K Shum, Ruby Yu, Agnes S Chan
BACKGROUND: Some functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported altered activations in the frontal cortex during working memory (WM) performance in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but the findings have been mixed. The objective of the present study was to utilize near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an alternative imaging technique, to examine neural processing during WM performance in individuals with MCI. METHODS: Twenty-six older adults with MCI (7 males; mean age 69...
October 27, 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Gulben Senturk, Basar Bilgic, Ali Bilgin Arslan, Ali Bayram, Hasmet Hanagasi, Hakan Gurvit, Murat Emre
BACKGROUND: Anosognosia is a common feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The brain substrates of anosognosia are not fully understood, and less is known about the cognitive substrates of anosognosia in prodromal and early stages of AD. METHODS: Fourty-seven patients with amnestic-type mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) (n = 26) and early-stage AD (n = 21) were included, and Clinical Insight Rating Scale and Anosognosia Questionnaire for Dementia (AQ-D) were used to assess anosognosia...
October 26, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Sean James Fallon, Marieke E van der Schaaf, Niels Ter Huurne, Roshan Cools
A balance has to be struck between supporting distractor-resistant representations in working memory and allowing those representations to be updated. Catecholamine, particularly dopamine, transmission has been proposed to modulate the balance between the stability and flexibility of working memory representations. However, it is unclear whether drugs that increase catecholamine transmission, such as methylphenidate, optimize this balance in a task-dependent manner or bias the system toward stability at the expense of flexibility (or vice versa)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Meghan M McConnell, Sandra Monteiro, Molly M Pottruff, Alan Neville, Geoff R Norman, Kevin W Eva, Kulamakan Kulasegaram
PURPOSE: Training to become a physician is an emotionally laden experience. Research in cognitive psychology indicates that emotions can influence learning and performance, but the materials used in such research (e.g., word lists) rarely reflect the complexity of material presented in medical school. The present study examined whether emotions influence learning of basic science principles. METHOD: Fifty-five undergraduate psychology students were randomly assigned to write about positive, negative, or neutral life events for nine minutes...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Thomas G Burns, Natasha N Ludwig, Tiffany N Tajiri, Nick DeFilippis
The objective of this study was to assess cognitive performance and behavioral symptoms in a sample of children diagnosed with partial epilepsy who were seizure controlled on AED monotherapy for one year. Ninety-eight seizure-controlled children on AED monotherapy were included in this study. Specific AEDs examined included topiramate, divalproex sodium, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and oxcarbazepine. Groups did not differ on age, region of focal epilepsy, or Full-Scale IQ. Direct measures included the WISC-IV and selected tests from the DKEFS (Verbal Fluency and Trail Making Test)...
October 25, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Hong-Yan Cai, Zhao-Jun Wang, Christian Hölscher, Li Yuan, Jun Zhang, Peng Sun, Jing Li, Wei Yang, Mei-Na Wu, Jin-Shun Qi
Type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) is a risk factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is most likely linked to impairments of insulin signaling in the brain. Hence, drugs enhancing insulin signaling may have therapeutic potential for AD. Lixisenatide, a novel long-lasting glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogue, facilitates insulin signaling and has neuroprotective properties. We previously reported the protective effects of lixisenatide on memory formation and synaptic plasticity. Here, we describe additional key neuroprotective properties of lixisenatide and its possible molecular and cellular mechanisms against AD-related impairments in rats...
October 21, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
M Amélia Santos, Karam Chand, Sílvia Chaves
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious progressive neurological disorder, characterized by impaired cognition and profound irreversible memory loss. The multifactorial nature of AD and the absence of a cure so far have stimulated medicinal chemists worldwide to follow multitarget drug-design strategies based on repositioning approved drugs. This review describes a summary of recently published works focused on tailoring new derivatives of US FDA-approved acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, in addition to huperzine (a drug approved in China), either by hybridization with other pharmacophore elements (to hit more AD targets), or by combination of two FDA-approved drugs...
October 24, 2016: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Katie M de Almondes, Mônica V Costa, Leandro F Malloy-Diniz, Breno S Diniz
Aim: In this manuscript, we report data on the association between executive functions screened by Frontal Assessment Battery, Five Digit Test and Digit Span with self-reported depressive symptoms and sleep complaints in non-demented older adults. Methods: A total sample of 95 non-demented older adults performed Geriatric Depression Scale short version, Frontal Assessment Battery, Five Digit Test, Digit Span, and clinical interview. We split participants in groups stratified by age according to: young-old (60-69 years of age), old-old (70-79 years), and oldest-old (>80 years) and compared these three groups on the sociodemographic characteristics and executive functions performance...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Berna van Wendel de Joode, Ana M Mora, Christian H Lindh, David Hernández-Bonilla, Leonel Córdoba, Catharina Wesseling, Jane A Hoppin, Donna Mergler
Certain pesticides may affect children's neurodevelopment. We assessed whether pesticide exposure was associated with impaired neurobehavioral outcomes in children aged 6-9 years. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 140 children living near banana plantations and plantain farms in the Talamanca County, Costa Rica and assessed their neurobehavioral performance. Exposure was determined by analyzing urinary metabolites of chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, TCPy), mancozeb (ethylenethiourea, ETU), and pyrethroids (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-PBA)...
September 15, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Thomas Maran, Pierre Sachse, Markus Martini, Marco Furtner
Hunger is an everyday motivational state, which biases cognition to detect food. Although evidence exists on how hunger affects basic attentional and mnemonic processes, less is known about how motivational drive for food modulates higher cognition. We aimed to investigate the effects of food deprivation on proactive interference resolution, in the presence and absence of food. Normal-weight participants performed a recency probes paradigm providing an experimental block with food and object stimuli as well as a control block with object stimuli only, in a fasted and a sated state...
October 18, 2016: Appetite
Helena Jahncke, Patrik Björkeholm, John E Marsh, Johan Odelius, Patrik Sörqvist
BACKGROUND: Background speech is one of the most disturbing noise sources at shared workplaces in terms of both annoyance and performance-related disruption. Therefore, it is important to identify techniques that can efficiently protect performance against distraction. It is also important that the techniques are perceived as satisfactory and are subjectively evaluated as effective in their capacity to reduce distraction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to compare three methods of attenuating distraction from background speech: masking a background voice with nature sound through headphones, masking a background voice with other voices through headphones and merely wearing headphones (without masking) as a way to attenuate the background sound...
October 17, 2016: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Nicole Mons, Daniel Beracochea
A prime mechanism that contributes to the development and maintenance of alcoholism is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and primates, corticosterone in rodents) from the adrenal glands. In the brain, sustained, local elevation of glucocorticoid concentration even long after cessation of chronic alcohol consumption compromises functional integrity of a circuit, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus (HPC), and the amygdala (AMG)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Daniel Ben-Eliezer, Eldad Yechiam
Considered an antidepressant and anti-anxiety agent, Hypericum perforatum affects multiple neurotransmitters in a non-competitive synergistic manner, and may have nootropic potential. We quantitatively reviewed the pre-clinical literature to examine if there is a cognitive-enhancing effect of H. perforatum in healthy rodents. Additionally, within these studies, we compared the effects observed in intact rodents versus those whose performance has been impaired, mostly through stress manipulations. The meta-analysis incorporated studies that examined the effect of H...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Laura Whitton, Donna Cosgrove, Christopher Clarkson, Denise Harold, Kimberley Kendall, Alex Richards, Kiran Mantripragada, Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan, James Walters, Annette Hartmann, Betina Konte, Dan Rujescu, Michael Gill, Aiden Corvin, Stephen Rea, Gary Donohoe, Derek W Morris
Epigenetic mechanisms are an important heritable and dynamic means of regulating various genomic functions, including gene expression, to orchestrate brain development, adult neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. These processes when perturbed are thought to contribute to schizophrenia pathophysiology. A core feature of schizophrenia is cognitive dysfunction. For genetic disorders where cognitive impairment is more severe such as intellectual disability, there are a disproportionally high number of genes involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
J Zhao, Y Zhang, Y Y Chao, J Ma, Y F Yang, J Y Zhao, Y H Du, W W Li, X Q Song, L X Lü
Objective: To study the impairments of cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia and the potential effectiveness of risperidone and olanzapine monotherapy on first-episode schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 57 first-episode schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls were assessed at baseline, and patients were assessed again after 8-week antipsychotics therapy. Results: The positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) reductive ratio between the two groups was similar. At baseline, the performance of schizophrenia patients was significant poor than healthy controls in the four domains of cognitive function (P<0...
October 11, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Erica M Barhorst-Cates, Kristina M Rand, Sarah H Creem-Regehr
Recent work with simulated reductions in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity has found decrements in survey spatial learning as well as increased attentional demands when navigating, compared to performance with normal vision. Given these findings, and previous work showing that peripheral field loss has been associated with impaired mobility and spatial memory for room-sized spaces, we investigated the role of peripheral vision during navigation using a large-scale spatial learning paradigm. First, we aimed to establish the magnitude of spatial memory errors at different levels of field restriction...
2016: PloS One
Giuseppe Pastura, Tadeu Takao Almodovar Kubo, Maria Angélica Regalla, Cíntia Machado Mesquita, Gabriel Coutinho, Emerson Leandro Gasparetto, Otávio Figueiredo, Paulo Mattos, Alexandra Prüfer de Queiroz Campos Araújo
Objective: To perform a pilot study to investigate the association between working memory and cortical thickness in a sample of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Methods: Seventeen children aged 7-10 years diagnosed with ADHD and 16 healthy children underwent a magnetic resonance scan for cortical thickness measurements. Data was correlated with working memory performance using the Backwards Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Andresa H Betti, Camila B Antonio, Thais E T Pompeu, Thaise S Martins, Vivian Herzfeldt, Eveline D Stolz, Carlos A M Fraga, Eliezer Barreiro, François Noël, Stela M K Rates
Aiming to identify new antipsychotic lead-compounds, our group has been working on the design and synthesis of new N-phenylpiperazine derivatives. Here, we characterized LASSBio-1422 as a pharmacological prototype of this chemical series. Adult male Wistar rats and CF1 mice were used for in-vitro and in-vivo assays, respectively. LASSBio-1422 [1 and 5 mg/kg, postoperatively (p.o.)] inhibited apomorphine-induced climbing as well as ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion (1 and 5 mg/kg, p.o.), animal models predictive of efficacy on positive symptoms...
October 13, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Gonzalo Sánchez-Benavides, Juan D Gispert, Karine Fauria, José Luis Molinuevo, Nina Gramunt
INTRODUCTION: Repetitive administration of neuropsychological tests can lead to performance improvement merely due to previous exposure. The magnitude of such practice effects (PEs) may be used as a marker of subtle cognitive impairment because they are diminished in healthy individuals subsequently developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: To explore the relationship between sociodemographic factors, AD family history (FH), and APOE ε4 status, and the magnitude of PE, four subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV were administered twice to 400 middle-aged healthy individuals, most of them first-degree descendants of AD patients...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Patricia A Boyle, Lei Yu, Debra A Fleischman, Sue Leurgans, Jingyun Yang, Robert S Wilson, Julie A Schneider, Zoe Arvanitakis, Konstantinos Arfanakis, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Examine the association of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) with risk of incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and rate of decline in multiple cognitive systems in community-based older persons. METHODS: Participants (n = 354) were older persons initially free of cognitive impairment from two ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic studies of aging. All underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantification of WMH and gray matter volumes and detailed annual clinical evaluations including 17 cognitive tests...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
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