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Working memory impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777198/aberrant-working-memory-processing-in-major-depression-evidence-from-multivoxel-pattern-classification
#1
Matti Gärtner, M Elisabetta Ghisu, Milan Scheidegger, Luisa Bönke, Yan Fan, Anna Stippl, Ana-Lucia Herrera-Melendez, Sophie Metz, Emilia Winnebeck, Maria Fissler, Anke Henning, Malek Bajbouj, Karsten Borgwardt, Thorsten Barnhofer, Simone Grimm
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often accompanied by severe impairments in working memory (WM). Neuroimaging studies investigating the mechanisms underlying these impairments have produced conflicting results. It remains unclear whether MDD patients show hyper- or hypoactivity in WM-related brain regions and how potential aberrations in WM processing may contribute to the characteristic dysregulation of cognition-emotion interactions implicated in the maintenance of the disorder. In order to shed light on these questions and to overcome limitations of previous studies, we applied a multivoxel pattern classification approach to investigate brain activity in large samples of MDD patients (N = 57) and matched healthy controls (N = 61) during a WM task that incorporated positive, negative, and neutral stimuli...
May 2, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775094/developmental-dyslexia-and-specific-language-impairment-distinct-syntactic-profiles
#2
Hélène Delage, Stephanie Durrleman
Recent work exploring syntax in developmental dyslexia (DD) has identified morphosyntactic deficits, striking parallelisms between children with DD and specific language impairment (SLI). The question remains open if the underlying causes for such deficits are related to difficulties in phonology, which is affected in DD, or to working memory, as has been previously reported for SLI. We focus on the production of third person accusative clitic pronouns (ACC3) and of homophonous definite determiners in French-speaking children with DD and SLI as well as typically developing (TD) controls...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772485/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-subjects-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-meta-analysis
#3
Wei Zheng, Qing-E Zhang, Dong-Bin Cai, Chee H Ng, Gabor S Ungvari, Yu-Ping Ning, Yu-Tao Xiang
Findings of neurocognitive dysfunction in subjects at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR-P) have been controversial. This meta-analysis systematically examined studies of neurocognitive functions using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in CHR-P. An independent literature search of both English and Chinese databases was conducted by two reviewers. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was calculated using a random effects model to evaluate the effect size of the meta-analytic results. Six case-control studies (n = 396) comparing neurocognitive functions between CHR-P subjects (n = 197) and healthy controls (n = 199) using the MCCB were identified; 4 (66...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771474/neurocog-fx-study-a-multicenter-cohort-study-on-cognitive-dysfunction-in-patients-with-early-breast-cancer
#4
Oliver Rick, Monika Reuß-Borst, Timm Dauelsberg, Holger Hass, Volker König, Reiner Caspari, Gabriele Götz-Keil, Jürgen Pfitzner, Christa Kerschgens, Klaus Fliessbach, Christian Hoppe
OBJECTIVE: Complaints about cognitive dysfunction (CD) reportedly persist in approximately one third of breast cancer patients but the nature of CD and possible risk factors are unknown. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multicenter study was set-up at 9 German oncological rehabilitation centers. Objective cognitive performance was assessed by the NeuroCog FX test, a short computerized screening (duration <30 min) which assesses working memory, alertness, verbal/figural memory and language/executive...
May 17, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768473/impaired-serial-ordering-in-nondemented-patients-with-mild-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Jinghong Ma, Shaoyang Ma, Haiqiang Zou, Yizhi Zhang, Piu Chan, Zheng Ye
The ability to arrange thoughts and actions in an appropriate serial order (the problem of serial order) is essential to complex behaviors such as language, reasoning and cognitive planning. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) perform poorly in tasks that rely on the successful rearrangement of working memory representations. We hypothesized that serial ordering is impaired in nondemented patients with mild PD. We recruited 49 patients with mild idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr Scale 1-2.5) and 51 matched healthy adults...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765316/noradrenergic-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases-an-overview-of-imaging-studies
#6
REVIEW
Andrew C Peterson, Chiang-Shan R Li
Noradrenergic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD). Conventional therapeutic strategies seek to enhance cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in AD and PD, respectively, and few studies have examined noradrenergic dysfunction as a target for medication development. We review the literature of noradrenergic dysfunction in AD and PD with a focus on human imaging studies that implicate the locus coeruleus (LC) circuit. The LC sends noradrenergic projections diffusely throughout the cerebral cortex and plays a critical role in attention, learning, working memory, and cognitive control...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764201/cognitive-predictors-of-sequential-motor-impairments-in-children-with-dyslexia-and-or-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
Marie-Ève Marchand-Krynski, Anne-Marie Bélanger, Olivier Morin-Moncet, Miriam H Beauchamp, Gabriel Leonard
This study examined cognitive predictors of sequential motor skills in 215 children with dyslexia and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Visual working memory and math fluency abilities contributed significantly to performance of sequential motor abilities in children with dyslexia (N = 67), ADHD (N = 66) and those with a comorbid diagnosis (N = 82), generally without differentiation between groups. In addition, primary diagnostic features of each disorder, such as reading and inattention, did not contribute to the variance in motor skill performance of these children...
May 15, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762677/anti-dementia-drugs-for-psychopathology-and-cognitive-impairment-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Taro Kishi, Toshikazu Ikuta, Kazuto Oya, Shinji Matsunaga, Yuki Matsuda, Nakao Iwata
Background: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of anti-dementia drugs plus antipsychotics (ADD+AP) for schizophrenia. Methods: Primary outcomes of efficacy and safety included improving overall symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores) and all-cause discontinuation, respectively. Other outcomes included psychopathology subscales (positive, negative, general, and anxiety/depressive symptoms), cognitive function (attention/vigilance, reasoning/problem solving, social cognition, speed of processing, verbal learning, visual learning, working memory, and cognitive control/executive function), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, treatment discontinuation due to adverse events and inefficacy, and individual adverse events...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761010/central-cholinergic-system-mediates-working-memory-deficit-induced-by-anesthesia-surgery-in-adult-mice
#9
Xiao Zhang, Xuliang Jiang, Lili Huang, Weitian Tian, Xuemei Chen, Xiyao Gu, Weifeng Yu, Jie Tian, Diansan Su
Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is consistently associated with increased morbidity and mortality, which has become a major concern of patients and caregivers. Although POCD occurs mainly in aged patients, it happens at any age. Previous studies demonstrated that anesthesia/surgery had no effects on reference memory of adult mice. However, whether it impairs working memory remains unclear. Working memory deficit would result in many deficits of executive function...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758392/effects-of-mindfulness-and-psychoeducation-on-working-memory-in-adult-adhd-a-randomised-controlled-fmri-study
#10
Katharina Bachmann, Alexandra P Lam, Peter Sörös, Manuela Kanat, Eliza Hoxhaj, Swantje Matthies, Bernd Feige, Helge Müller, Jale Özyurt, Christiane M Thiel, Alexandra Philipsen
Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious mental disorder associated with impaired neurocognitive performance related to working memory function. Recent clinical trials have suggested that mindfulness is a promising intervention in adults with ADHD. We performed a randomised controlled clinical trial to investigate working memory (WM) with an n-back task in adults with ADHD during fMRI before and after an 8-week mindfulness intervention (MAP) compared with psychoeducation (PE). ADHD symptoms were assessed using the self- and observer-rated Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS)...
May 7, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754119/a-pilot-study-and-brief-overview-of-rehabilitation-via-virtual-environment-in-patients-suffering-from-dementia
#11
Th Fasilis, P Patrikelis, A Siatouni, A Alexoudi, A Veretzioti, L Zachou, S-St Gatzonis
Dementia is one of the increasing problems of modern societies. The immediate cure is not a possible solution, at least at the moment, but science has found a number of new ways to retard and under specific conditions to halt its development. A potential, and constantly evolving scientific field is the use of Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation (CCR) and Virtual Environments (Vr.E). According to the existing literature, subjecting patients to various neuro-rehabilitative conditions within 3D virtual environments, allows them to obtain significant therapeutic benefits in which both transferability and durations over time are observed, in relation to the training period of the intervention...
January 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754109/improving-effect-of-mild-foot-electrical-stimulation-on-pentylenetetrazole-induced-impairment-of-learning-and-memory
#12
Monir Abasi-Moghadam, Arefe Ghasemi-Dehno, Mehdi Sadegh, Mohammad Reza Palizvan
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that affects learning and memory. Recently it has been shown that mild foot electrical stimulation (MFES) can increase learning and memory in normal rats. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling is a model of human epilepsy. As with human epilepsy, PTZ kindling impairs learning and memory in rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect MFES on kindling-induced learning and memory deficits in rats. Forty-nine male Wistar rats weighting 200 to 250 g were divided into the following seven groups: PTZ only, phenytoin only, MFES only, PTZ plus phenytoin, PTZ plus MFES, phenytoin plus MFES, and saline (control), with the treatments administered for 26 days...
May 10, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747856/paradoxical-decision-making-a-framework-for-understanding-cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Alessandra Perugini, Jochen Ditterich, Aasef G Shaikh, Barbara J Knowlton, Michele A Basso
People with Parkinson's disease (PD) show impaired decision-making when sensory and memory information must be combined. This recently identified impairment results from an inability to accumulate the proper amount of information needed to make a decision and appears to be independent of dopamine tone and reinforcement learning mechanisms. Although considerable work focuses on PD and decisions involving risk and reward, in this Opinion article we propose that the emerging findings in perceptual decision-making highlight the multisystem nature of PD, and that unraveling the neuronal circuits underlying perceptual decision-making impairment may help in understanding other cognitive impairments in people with PD...
May 7, 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747716/effects-of-antiparkinson-medication-on-cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#14
Marc-André Roy, Maxime Doiron, Jessica Talon-Croteau, Nicolas Dupré, Martine Simard
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to systematically review the effects of currently prescribed antiparkinson medication on cognition in patients with mild-to-moderate Parkinson's disease (PD) who were either cognitively intact or mildly impaired. METHODS: English- and French-language studies published between 1969 and 2017 were accessed via MedLine, PsychNET, EMBASE and EBSCO databases. Methodological quality (MQ) was evaluated with the quality assessment instrument of the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review (scores from 0% to 44% indicate very low quality; scores from 45% to 64% indicate low quality; scores from 65% to 84% indicate medium quality; and scores from 85% to 100% indicate high quality)...
May 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747665/comprehensive-behavioral-analysis-of-mice-deficient-in-rapgef2-and-rapgef6-a-subfamily-of-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factors-for-rap-small-gtpases-possessing-the-ras-rap-associating-domain
#15
Kazuhiro Maeta, Satoko Hattori, Junji Ikutomo, Hironori Edamatsu, Shymaa E Bilasy, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Tohru Kataoka
Rapgef2 and Rapgef6 define a subfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap small GTPases, characterized by the possession of the Ras/Rap-associating domain. Previous genomic analyses suggested their possible involvement in the etiology of schizophrenia. We recently demonstrated the development of an ectopic cortical mass (ECM), which resembles the human subcortical band heterotopia, in the dorsal telencephalon-specific Rapgef2 conditional knockout (Rapgef2-cKO) brains. Additional knockout of Rapgef6 in Rapgef2-cKO mice resulted in gross enlargement of the ECM whereas knockout of Rapgef6 alone (Rapgef6-KO) had no discernible effect on the brain morphology...
May 10, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746820/electrophysiological-repetition-effects-in-persons-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-depend-upon-working-memory-demand
#16
Lucas S Broster, Shonna L Jenkins, Sarah D Holmes, Matthew G Edwards, Gregory A Jicha, Yang Jiang
Forms of implicit memory, including repetition effects, are preserved relative to explicit memory in clinical Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, cognitive interventions for persons with Alzheimer's disease have been developed that leverage this fact. However, despite the clinical robustness of behavioral repetition effects, altered neural mechanisms of repetition effects are studied as biomarkers of both clinical Alzheimer's disease and pre-morbid Alzheimer's changes in the brain. We hypothesized that the clinical preservation of behavioral repetition effects results in part from concurrent operation of discrete memory systems...
May 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746297/microglial-activation-is-inversely-associated-with-cognition-in-individuals-living-with-hiv-on-effective-antiretroviral-therapy
#17
Leah H Rubin, Ned Sacktor, Jason Creighton, Yong Du, Christopher J Endres, Martin G Pomper, Jennifer M Coughlin
OBJECTIVE: Despite viral suppression, HIV-associated cognitive impairment persists and may be partially due to persistent immune signaling by cells of the myeloid-lineage. Here we aimed to understand the contribution of activated microglia located in vulnerable brain regions (e.g., frontal, subcortical) of HIV-infected, virally suppressed (HIV+VS) individuals in relation to cognitive and motor function. DESIGN: 21 HIV+VS individuals underwent positron emission tomography (PET) with [C]DPA-713 to image the translocator protein 18 KDa (TSPO), a marker of microglial activation, and completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery...
May 9, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740871/the-neuropeptide-12-n-pep-12-improves-recognition-memory-and-neuronal-plasticity-of-the-limbic-system-in-old-rats
#18
Elizabeth Monserrat Hernández-Hernández, Karen Caporal Hernandez, Rubén Antonio Vázquez-Roque, Alfonso Díaz, Fidel de la Cruz, Benjamin Florán, Gonzalo Flores
Aging is a stage of life where cognitive and motor functions are impaired. This is because oxidative and inflammatory processes exacerbate neurodegeneration, which affects dendritic morphology and neuronal communication of limbic regions with memory loss. Recently, the use of trophic substances has been proposed to prevent neuronal deterioration. The neuropeptide-12 (N-PEP-12) has been evaluated in elderly patients with dementia, showing improvements in cognitive tasks due to acts as a neurotrophic factor. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of N-PEP-12 on motor activity and recognition memory, as well as its effects on dendritic morphology and the immunoreactivity of GFAP, Synaptophysin, and BDNF in neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal hippocampus (DH) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of aged rats...
May 8, 2018: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740353/distinct-associations-of-motor-domains-in-relatives-of-schizophrenia-patients-different-pathways-to-motor-abnormalities-in-schizophrenia
#19
Lea Schäppi, Katharina Stegmayer, Petra V Viher, Sebastian Walther
Introduction: Aberrant motor function is an integral part of schizophrenia. In fact, abnormalities are frequently found in patients, in populations at risk, and in unaffected relatives. Motor abnormalities are suspected to be relevant for the clinical outcome and could probably predict the conversion from at-risk individuals to schizophrenia. Furthermore, motor function has been argued as endophenotype of the disorder. Yet, which particular motor domain may classify as a potential endophenotype is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739127/diagnostic-validity-of-an-automated-probabilistic-tractography-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#20
Won Sang Jung, Yoo Hyun Um, Dong Woo Kang, Chang Uk Lee, Young Sup Woo, Won-Myong Bahk, Hyun Kook Lim
Objective: Although several prior works showed the white matter (WM) integrity changes in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease, it is still unclear the diagnostic accuracy of the WM integrity measurements using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in discriminating aMCI from normal controls. The aim of this study is to explore diagnostic validity of whole brain automated probabilistic tractography in discriminating aMCI from normal controls. Methods: One hundred-two subjects (50 aMCI and 52 normal controls) were included and underwent DTI scans...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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