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Working memory impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914009/serum-response-factor-srf-ablation-interferes-with-acute-stress-associated-immediate-and-long-term-coping-mechanisms
#1
Annemarie Zimprich, Gabi Mroz, Christopher Meyer Zu Reckendorf, Sofia Anastasiadou, Philip Förstner, Lillian Garrett, Sabine M Hölter, Lore Becker, Jan Rozman, Cornelia Prehn, Birgit Rathkolb, Kristin Moreth, Wolfgang Wurst, Thomas Klopstock, Martin Klingenspor, Jerzy Adamski, Eckhard Wolf, Raffi Bekeredjian, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Bernd Knöll
Stress experience modulates behavior, metabolism, and energy expenditure of organisms. One molecular hallmark of an acute stress response is a rapid induction of immediate early genes (IEGs) such as c-Fos and Egr family members. IEG transcription in neurons is mediated by the neuronal activity-driven gene regulator serum response factor (SRF). We show a first role of SRF in immediate and long-lasting acute restraint stress (AS) responses. For this, we employed a standardized mouse phenotyping protocol at the German Mouse Clinic (GMC) including behavioral, metabolic, and cardiologic tests as well as gene expression profiling to analyze the consequences of forebrain-specific SRF deletion in mice exposed to AS...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911004/a-comparison-of-the-neuropsychological-profiles-of-people-living-in-squalor-without-hoarding-to-those-living-in-squalor-associated-with-hoarding
#2
Sook Meng Lee, Matthew Lewis, Deborah Leighton, Ben Harris, Brian Long, Stephen Macfarlane
OBJECTIVE: Squalor affects 1 in 1000 older people and is regarded as a secondary condition to other primary disorders such as dementia, intellectual impairment and alcohol abuse. Squalor frequently is associated with hoarding behaviour. We compared the neuropsychological profile of people living in squalor associated with hoarding to those presenting with squalor only. METHODS: This study is a retrospective case series of hospital inpatient and community healthcare services of 69 people living in squalor (49 from aged care, 16 from aged psychiatry, 3 from acute medical and 1 from a memory clinic)...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909405/classifying-cognitive-profiles-using-machine-learning-with-privileged-information-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#3
Hanin H Alahmadi, Yuan Shen, Shereen Fouad, Caroline Di B Luft, Peter Bentham, Zoe Kourtzi, Peter Tino
Early diagnosis of dementia is critical for assessing disease progression and potential treatment. State-or-the-art machine learning techniques have been increasingly employed to take on this diagnostic task. In this study, we employed Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ) classifiers to discriminate patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from healthy controls based on their cognitive skills. Further, we adopted a "Learning with privileged information" approach to combine cognitive and fMRI data for the classification task...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909006/a-neural-mechanism-for-surprise-related-interruptions-of-visuospatial-working-memory
#4
Jan R Wessel
Surprising perceptual events recruit a fronto-basal ganglia mechanism for inhibition, which suppresses motor activity following surprise. A recent study found that this inhibitory mechanism also disrupts the maintenance of verbal working memory (WM) after surprising tones. However, it is unclear whether this same mechanism also relates to surprise-related interruptions of non-verbal WM. We tested this hypothesis using a change-detection task, in which surprising tones impaired visuospatial WM. Participants also performed a stop-signal task (SST)...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908700/sex-dependent-effects-of-developmental-exposure-to-different-pesticides-on-spatial-learning-the-role-of-induced-neuroinflammation-in-the-hippocampus
#5
Belén Gómez-Giménez, Marta Llansola, Vicente Hernández-Rabaza, Andrea Cabrera-Pastor, Michele Malaguarnera, Ana Agusti, Vicente Felipo
The use of pesticides has been associated with impaired neurodevelopment in children. The aims of this work were to assess: 1) the effects on spatial learning of developmental exposure to pesticides 2) if the effects are sex-dependent and 3) if hippocampal neuroinflammation is associated with the impairment of spatial learning. We analyzed the effects of developmental exposure to four pesticides: chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, endosulfan and cypermethrin. Exposure was from gestational day 7 to post-natal day 21 and spatial learning and memory was assessed when the rats were young adults...
November 28, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903817/effects-of-orthostatic-hypotension-on-cognition-in-parkinson-disease
#6
Justin Centi, Roy Freeman, Christopher H Gibbons, Sandy Neargarder, Alexander O Canova, Alice Cronin-Golomb
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between orthostatic hypotension (OH) and posture-mediated cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease (PD) using a cross-sectional and within-group design. METHODS: Individuals without dementia with idiopathic PD included 18 with OH (PDOH) and 19 without OH; 18 control participants were also included. Neuropsychological tests were conducted in supine and upright-tilted positions. Blood pressure was assessed in each posture. RESULTS: The PD groups performed similarly while supine, demonstrating executive dysfunction in sustained attention and response inhibition, and reduced semantic fluency and verbal memory (encoding and retention)...
November 30, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903327/auditory-vigilance-and-working-memory-in-youth-at-familial-risk-for-schizophrenia-or-affective-psychosis-in-the-harvard-adolescent-family-high-risk-study
#7
Larry J Seidman, Andrea Pousada-Casal, Silvia Scala, Eric C Meyer, William S Stone, Heidi W Thermenos, Elena Molokotos, Jessica Agnew-Blais, Ming T Tsuang, Stephen V Faraone
BACKGROUND: The degree of overlap between schizophrenia (SCZ) and affective psychosis (AFF) has been a recurring question since Kraepelin's subdivision of the major psychoses. Studying nonpsychotic relatives allows a comparison of disorder-associated phenotypes, without potential confounds that can obscure distinctive features of the disorder. Because attention and working memory have been proposed as potential endophenotypes for SCZ and AFF, we compared these cognitive features in individuals at familial high-risk (FHR) for the disorders...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898071/are-adolescents-more-vulnerable-to-the-harmful-effects-of-cannabis-than-adults-a-placebo-controlled-study-in-human-males
#8
C Mokrysz, T P Freeman, S Korkki, K Griffiths, H V Curran
Preclinical research demonstrates that cannabinoids have differing effects in adolescent and adult animals. Whether these findings translate to humans has not yet been investigated. Here we believe we conducted the first study to compare the acute effects of cannabis in human adolescent (n=20; 16-17 years old) and adult (n=20; 24-28 years old) male cannabis users, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design. After inhaling vaporized active or placebo cannabis, participants completed tasks assessing spatial working memory, episodic memory and response inhibition, alongside measures of blood pressure and heart rate, psychotomimetic symptoms and subjective drug effects (for example, 'stoned', 'want to have cannabis')...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897670/boosting-cognition-effects-of-multiple-session-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-working-memory
#9
Lotte J Talsma, Henryk A Kroese, Heleen A Slagter
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising tool for neurocognitive enhancement. Several studies have shown that just a single session of tDCS over the left dorsolateral pFC (lDLPFC) can improve the core cognitive function of working memory (WM) in healthy adults. Yet, recent studies combining multiple sessions of anodal tDCS over lDLPFC with verbal WM training did not observe additional benefits of tDCS in subsequent stimulation sessions nor transfer of benefits to novel WM tasks posttraining...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896065/analysis-of-ageing-associated-grey-matter-volume-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-shows-excess-atrophy-in-subcortical-regions
#10
Courtney A Bishop, Rexford D Newbould, Jean Sz Lee, Lesley Honeyfield, Rebecca Quest, Alessandro Colasanti, Rehiana Ali, Miriam Mattoscio, Antonio Cortese, Richard Nicholas, Paul M Matthews, Paolo A Muraro, Adam D Waldman
Age of onset in multiple sclerosis (MS) exerts an influence on the course of disease. This study examined whether global and regional brain volumes differed between "younger" and "older" onset MS subjects who were matched for short disease duration, mean 1.9 years and burden as measured by the MS Severity Score and relapses. 21 younger-onset MS subjects (age 30.4 ± 3.2 years) were compared with 17 older-onset (age 48.7 ± 3.3 years) as well as age-matched controls (n = 31, 31.9 ± 3.5 years and n = 21, 47...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894373/cognitive-effects-of-adjunctive-n-acetyl-cysteine-in-psychosis
#11
M Rapado-Castro, S Dodd, A I Bush, G S Malhi, D R Skvarc, Z X On, M Berk, O M Dean
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are predictors of functional outcome in patients with psychosis. While conventional antipsychotics are relatively effective on positive symptoms, their impact on negative and cognitive symptoms is limited. Recent studies have established a link between oxidative stress and neurocognitive deficits in psychosis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor with glutamatergic properties, has shown efficacy on negative symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894004/online-and-offline-inferential-and-textual-processing-of-poor-comprehenders-evidence-from-a-probing-method
#12
Menahem Yeari, Shiri Elentok, Rachel Schiff
Numerous studies have demonstrated that poor inferential processing underlies the specific deficit of poor comprehenders. However, it is still not clear why poor comprehenders have difficulties in generating inferences while reading and whether this impairment is general or specific to one or more types of inferences. The current study employed an online probing method to examine the spontaneous immediate activation of two inference types-forward-predictive inferences and backward-explanatory inferences-during reading...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893232/narrative-production-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-and-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-similarities-and-differences
#13
Sanne J M Kuijper, Catharina A Hartman, Suzanne T M Bogaerds-Hazenberg, Petra Hendriks
The present study focuses on the similarities and differences in language production between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, we investigated whether Theory of Mind (ToM), working memory, and response inhibition are associated with language production. Narratives, produced by 106 Dutch-speaking children (36 with ASD, 34 with ADHD, and 36 typically developing) aged 6 to 12 during ADOS assessment, were examined on several linguistic measures: verbal productivity, speech fluency, syntactic complexity, lexical semantics, and discourse pragmatics...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893230/ecological-momentary-assessment-of-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-relationships-to-effort-based-decision-making-and-reinforcement-learning
#14
Erin K Moran, Adam J Culbreth, Deanna M Barch
Negative symptoms are a core clinical feature of schizophrenia, but conceptual and methodological problems with current instruments can make their assessment challenging. One hypothesis is that current symptom assessments may be influenced by impairments in memory and may not be fully reflective of actual functioning outside of the laboratory. The present study sought to investigate the validity of assessing negative symptoms using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Participants with schizophrenia (N = 31) completed electronic questionnaires on smartphones 4 times a day for 1 week...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890689/developmental-toxicity-of-nicotine-a-transdisciplinary-synthesis-and-implications-for-emerging-tobacco-products
#15
REVIEW
Lucinda J England, Kjersti Aagaard, Michele Bloch, Kevin Conway, Kelly Cosgrove, Rachel Grana, Thomas J Gould, Dorothy Hatsukami, Frances Jensen, Denise Kandel, Bruce Lanphear, Frances Leslie, James R Pauly, Jenae Neiderhiser, Mark Rubinstein, Theodore A Slotkin, Eliot Spindel, Laura Stroud, Lauren Wakschlag
While the health risks associated with adult cigarette smoking have been well described, effects of nicotine exposure during periods of developmental vulnerability are often overlooked. Using MEDLINE and PubMed literature searches, books, reports and expert opinion, a transdisciplinary group of scientists reviewed human and animal research on the health effects of exposure to nicotine during pregnancy and adolescence. A synthesis of this research supports that nicotine contributes critically to adverse effects of gestational tobacco exposure, including reduced pulmonary function, auditory processing defects, impaired infant cardiorespiratory function, and may contribute to cognitive and behavioral deficits in later life...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890591/circadian-waveform-bifurcation-but-not-phase-shifting-leaves-cued-fear-memory-intact
#16
E M Harrison, S A Carmack, C L Block, J Sun, S G Anagnostaras, M R Gorman
In mammals, memory acquisition and retrieval can be affected by time of day, as well as by manipulations of the light/dark cycle. Under bifurcation, a manipulation of circadian waveform, two subjective days and nights are experimentally induced in rodents. We examined the effect of bifurcation on Pavlovian fear conditioning, a prominent model of learning and memory. Here we demonstrate that bifurcation of the circadian waveform produces a small deficit in acquisition, but not on retrieval of fear memory. In contrast, repeated phase-shifting in a simulated jet-lag protocol impairs retrieval of memory for cued fear...
November 24, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889579/protective-effects-of-high-tryptophan-diet-on-aging-induced-passive-avoidance-impairment-and-hippocampal-apoptosis
#17
Giuseppe Musumeci, Paola Castrogiovanni, Marta Anna Szychlinska, Rosa Imbesi, Carla Loreto, Sergio Castorina, Salvatore Giunta
In our previous work we have shown that L-Tryptophan (TrP) enriched diet prevents the age-induced decline of hippocampal Serotonin (5-HT) production. Considering that loss or reduction in 5-HT neurotransmission may contribute to age-related cognitive decline, here we have investigated the effect of such diet on passive avoidance (PA) behavior, cell death, pro- and anti- apoptotic molecules (BAX, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3) and an important transcription factor involved in synaptic plasticity and memory (CREB). The increase in 5-HT neurotransmission in the Hippocampus (Hp) of aged rats was induced by 1 month of high TrP administration...
November 23, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889232/l-methionine-and-silymarin-a-comparison-of-prophylactic-protective-capabilities-in-acetaminophen-induced-injuries-of-the-liver-kidney-and-cerebral-cortex
#18
Olakunle J Onaolapo, Moses A Adekola, Taiwo O Azeez, Karimat Salami, Adejoke Y Onaolapo
We compared the relative protective abilities of silymarin and l-methionine pre-treatment in acetaminophen overdose injuries of the liver, kidney and cerebral cortex by assessing behaviours, antioxidant status, tissue histological changes and biochemical parameters of hepatic/renal function. Rats were divided into six groups of ten each; animals in five of these groups were pre-treated with oral distilled water, silymarin (25mg/kg) or l-methionine (2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg body weight) for 14days; and then administered intraperitoneal (i...
November 23, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888324/learning-to-echolocate-in-sighted-people-a-correlational-study-on-attention-working-memory-and-spatial-abilities
#19
M R Ekkel, R van Lier, B Steenbergen
Echolocation can be beneficial for the orientation and mobility of visually impaired people. Research has shown considerable individual differences for acquiring this skill. However, individual characteristics that affect the learning of echolocation are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined individual factors that are likely to affect learning to echolocate: sustained and divided attention, working memory, and spatial abilities. To that aim, sighted participants with normal hearing performed an echolocation task that was adapted from a previously reported size-discrimination task...
November 25, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886529/autobiographical-and-episodic-memory-deficits-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Jeffrey D Wammes, Tyler J Good, Myra A Fernandes
Those who have suffered a concussion, otherwise known as a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), often complain of lingering memory problems. However, there is little evidence in the behavioral literature reliably demonstrating memory deficits. Thus, in the present study, cognitive profiles including measures of general executive functioning and processing speed, as well as episodic and semantic memory were collected in younger and older adult participants with or without a remote (>1year prior to testing) mTBI...
November 22, 2016: Brain and Cognition
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