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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785956/using-alternatives-to-the-car-and-risk-of-all-cause-cardiovascular-and-cancer-mortality
#1
Jenna Panter, Oliver Mytton, Stephen Sharp, Søren Brage, Steven Cummins, Anthony A Laverty, Katrien Wijndaele, David Ogilvie
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between using alternatives to the car which are more active for commuting and non-commuting purposes, and morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study using data from 3 58 799 participants, aged 37-73 years, from UK Biobank. Commute and non-commute travel were assessed at baseline in 2006-2010. We classified participants according to whether they relied exclusively on the car or used alternative modes of transport that were more active at least some of the time...
May 21, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785727/body-composition-profiling-in-the-uk-biobank-imaging-study
#2
Jennifer Linge, Magnus Borga, Janne West, Theresa Tuthill, Melissa R Miller, Alexandra Dumitriu, E Louise Thomas, Thobias Romu, Patrik Tunón, Jimmy D Bell, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the value of imaging-based multivariable body composition profiling by describing its association with coronary heart disease (CHD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and metabolic health on individual and population levels. METHODS: The first 6,021 participants scanned by UK Biobank were included. Body composition profiles (BCPs) were calculated, including abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thigh muscle volume, liver fat, and muscle fat infiltration (MFI), determined using magnetic resonance imaging...
May 22, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785011/a-genome-wide-cross-trait-analysis-from-uk-biobank-highlights-the-shared-genetic-architecture-of-asthma-and-allergic-diseases
#3
Zhaozhong Zhu, Phil H Lee, Mark D Chaffin, Wonil Chung, Po-Ru Loh, Quan Lu, David C Christiani, Liming Liang
Clinical and epidemiological data suggest that asthma and allergic diseases are associated and may share a common genetic etiology. We analyzed genome-wide SNP data for asthma and allergic diseases in 33,593 cases and 76,768 controls of European ancestry from UK Biobank. Two publicly available independent genome-wide association studies were used for replication. We have found a strong genome-wide genetic correlation between asthma and allergic diseases (rg  = 0.75, P = 6.84 × 10-62 ). Cross-trait analysis identified 38 genome-wide significant loci, including 7 novel shared loci...
May 21, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785010/genome-wide-analyses-identify-68-new-loci-associated-with-intraocular-pressure-and-improve-risk-prediction-for-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#4
Anthony P Khawaja, Jessica N Cooke Bailey, Nicholas J Wareham, Robert A Scott, Mark Simcoe, Robert P Igo, Yeunjoo E Song, Robert Wojciechowski, Ching-Yu Cheng, Peng T Khaw, Louis R Pasquale, Jonathan L Haines, Paul J Foster, Janey L Wiggs, Chris J Hammond, Pirro G Hysi
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness globally 1 . Despite its gravity, the disease is frequently undiagnosed in the community 2 . Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG)3,4 . Here we present a meta-analysis of 139,555 European participants, which identified 112 genomic loci associated with IOP, 68 of which are novel. These loci suggest a strong role for angiopoietin-receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, lipid metabolism, mitochondrial function and developmental processes underlying risk for elevated IOP...
May 21, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784928/statistical-machine-learning-of-sleep-and-physical-activity-phenotypes-from-sensor-data-in-96-220-uk-biobank-participants
#5
Matthew Willetts, Sven Hollowell, Louis Aslett, Chris Holmes, Aiden Doherty
Current public health guidelines on physical activity and sleep duration are limited by a reliance on subjective self-reported evidence. Using data from simple wrist-worn activity monitors, we developed a tailored machine learning model, using balanced random forests with Hidden Markov Models, to reliably detect a number of activity modes. We show that physical activity and sleep behaviours can be classified with 87% accuracy in 159,504 minutes of recorded free-living behaviours from 132 adults. These trained models can be used to infer fine resolution activity patterns at the population scale in 96,220 participants...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782485/evaluation-and-application-of-summary-statistic-imputation-to-discover-new-height-associated-loci
#6
Sina Rüeger, Aaron McDaid, Zoltán Kutalik
As most of the heritability of complex traits is attributed to common and low frequency genetic variants, imputing them by combining genotyping chips and large sequenced reference panels is the most cost-effective approach to discover the genetic basis of these traits. Association summary statistics from genome-wide meta-analyses are available for hundreds of traits. Updating these to ever-increasing reference panels is very cumbersome as it requires reimputation of the genetic data, rerunning the association scan, and meta-analysing the results...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777993/toenail-selenium-genetic-variation-in-selenoenzymes-and-risk-and-outcome-in-glioma
#7
Noah C Peeri, Jordan H Creed, Gabriella M Anic, Reid C Thompson, Jeffrey J Olson, Renato V LaRocca, Sajeel A Chowdhary, John D Brockman, Travis A Gerke, L Burton Nabors, Kathleen M Egan
BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential trace element obtained through diet that plays a critical role in DNA synthesis and protection from oxidative damage. Selenium intake and polymorphisms in selenoproteins have been linked to the risk of certain cancers though data for glioma are sparse. METHODS: In a case-control study of glioma, we examined the associations of selenium in toenails and genetic variants in the selenoenzyme pathway with the risk of glioma and patient survival...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777097/gwas-on-family-history-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Riccardo E Marioni, Sarah E Harris, Qian Zhang, Allan F McRae, Saskia P Hagenaars, W David Hill, Gail Davies, Craig W Ritchie, Catharine R Gale, John M Starr, Alison M Goate, David J Porteous, Jian Yang, Kathryn L Evans, Ian J Deary, Naomi R Wray, Peter M Visscher
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a public health priority for the 21st century. Risk reduction currently revolves around lifestyle changes with much research trying to elucidate the biological underpinnings. We show that self-report of parental history of Alzheimer's dementia for case ascertainment in a genome-wide association study of 314,278 participants from UK Biobank (27,696 maternal cases, 14,338 paternal cases) is a valid proxy for an AD genetic study. After meta-analysing with published consortium data (n = 74,046 with 25,580 cases across the discovery and replication analyses), three new AD-associated loci (P < 5 × 10-8 ) are identified...
May 18, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776774/association-of-disrupted-circadian-rhythmicity-with-mood-disorders-subjective-wellbeing-and-cognitive-function-a-cross-sectional-study-of-91-105-participants-from-the-uk-biobank
#9
Laura M Lyall, Cathy A Wyse, Nicholas Graham, Amy Ferguson, Donald M Lyall, Breda Cullen, Carlos A Celis Morales, Stephany M Biello, Daniel Mackay, Joey Ward, Rona J Strawbridge, Jason M R Gill, Mark E S Bailey, Jill P Pell, Daniel J Smith
BACKGROUND: Disruption of sleep and circadian rhythmicity is a core feature of mood disorders and might be associated with increased susceptibility to such disorders. Previous studies in this area have used subjective reports of activity and sleep patterns, but the availability of accelerometer-based data from UK Biobank participants permits the derivation and analysis of new, objectively ascertained circadian rhythmicity parameters. We examined associations between objectively assessed circadian rhythmicity and mental health and wellbeing phenotypes, including lifetime history of mood disorder...
May 15, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776014/association-of-objectively-measured-physical-activity-with-brain-structure-uk-biobank-study
#10
Mark Hamer, Nikhil Sharma, G David Batty
BACKGROUND: Physical activity may be beneficial for cognition but mechanisms are unclear. We examined the association between objectively assessed physical activity and brain volume, with a focus on the hippocampus region. METHODS: We used data from UK Biobank (n=5,272; aged 55.4±7.5 yrs; 45.6% men) collected through 2013-2016. Participants wore the Axivity AX3 wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer for seven days to assess habitual physical activity. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a standard Siemens Skyra 3T running VD13A SP4 to obtain images of the brain...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773120/age-specific-association-between-blood-pressure-and-vascular-and-non-vascular-chronic-diseases-in-0%C3%A2-5-million-adults-in-china-a-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Ben Lacey, Sarah Lewington, Robert Clarke, Xiang Ling Kong, Yiping Chen, Yu Guo, Ling Yang, Derrick Bennett, Fiona Bragg, Zheng Bian, Shaojie Wang, Hua Zhang, Junshi Chen, Robin G Walters, Rory Collins, Richard Peto, Liming Li, Zhengming Chen
BACKGROUND: The age-specific association between blood pressure and vascular disease has been studied mostly in high-income countries, and before the widespread use of brain imaging for diagnosis of the main stroke types (ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage). We aimed to investigate this relationship among adults in China. METHODS: 512 891 adults (59% women) aged 30-79 years were recruited into a prospective study from ten areas of China between June 25, 2004, and July 15, 2008...
June 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773119/adiposity-and-risk-of-ischaemic-and-haemorrhagic-stroke-in-0%C3%A2-5-million-chinese-men-and-women-a-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Zhengming Chen, Andri Iona, Sarah Parish, Yiping Chen, Yu Guo, Fiona Bragg, Ling Yang, Zheng Bian, Michael V Holmes, Sarah Lewington, Ben Lacey, Ruqin Gao, Fang Liu, Zengzhi Zhang, Junshi Chen, Robin G Walters, Rory Collins, Robert Clarke, Richard Peto, Liming Li
BACKGROUND: China has high stroke rates despite the population being relatively lean. Uncertainty persists about the relevance of adiposity to risk of stroke types. We aimed to assess the associations of adiposity with incidence of stroke types and effect mediation by blood pressure in Chinese men and women. METHODS: The China Kadoorie Biobank enrolled 512 891 adults aged 30-79 years from ten areas (five urban and five rural) during 2004-08. During a median 9 years (IQR 8-10) of follow-up, 32 448 strokes (about 90% confirmed by neuroimaging) were recorded among 489 301 participants without previous cardiovascular disease...
June 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771288/sex-differences-in-the-adult-human-brain-evidence-from-5216-uk-biobank-participants
#13
Stuart J Ritchie, Simon R Cox, Xueyi Shen, Michael V Lombardo, Lianne M Reus, Clara Alloza, Mathew A Harris, Helen L Alderson, Stuart Hunter, Emma Neilson, David C M Liewald, Bonnie Auyeung, Heather C Whalley, Stephen M Lawrie, Catharine R Gale, Mark E Bastin, Andrew M McIntosh, Ian J Deary
Sex differences in the human brain are of interest for many reasons: for example, there are sex differences in the observed prevalence of psychiatric disorders and in some psychological traits that brain differences might help to explain. We report the largest single-sample study of structural and functional sex differences in the human brain (2750 female, 2466 male participants; mean age 61.7 years, range 44-77 years). Males had higher raw volumes, raw surface areas, and white matter fractional anisotropy; females had higher raw cortical thickness and higher white matter tract complexity...
May 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769521/thirty-loci-identified-for-heart-rate-response-to-exercise-and-recovery-implicate-autonomic-nervous-system
#14
Julia Ramírez, Stefan van Duijvenboden, Ioanna Ntalla, Borbala Mifsud, Helen R Warren, Evan Tzanis, Michele Orini, Andrew Tinker, Pier D Lambiase, Patricia B Munroe
Impaired capacity to increase heart rate (HR) during exercise (ΔHRex ), and a reduced rate of recovery post-exercise (ΔHRrec ) are associated with higher cardiovascular mortality rates. Currently, the genetic basis of both phenotypes remains to be elucidated. We conduct genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for ΔHRex and ΔHRrec in ~40,000 individuals, followed by replication in ~27,000 independent samples, all from UK Biobank. Six and seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms for ΔHRex and ΔHRrec , respectively, formally replicate...
May 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769355/role-of-obesity-in-smoking-behaviour-mendelian-randomisation-study-in-uk-biobank
#15
Robert Carreras-Torres, Mattias Johansson, Philip C Haycock, Caroline L Relton, George Davey Smith, Paul Brennan, Richard M Martin
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist circumference influence smoking status and intensity. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation study. SETTING: UK Biobank, with replication of results from the Tobacco and Genetics (TAG) consortium. PARTICIPANTS: European descent participants from the UK Biobank cohort (n=372 791) and the TAG consortium (n=74 035). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of current and past smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, age of smoking initiation...
May 16, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760501/habitual-coffee-consumption-and-cognitive-function-a-mendelian-randomization-meta-analysis-in-up-to-415-530-participants
#16
Ang Zhou, Amy E Taylor, Ville Karhunen, Yiqiang Zhan, Suvi P Rovio, Jari Lahti, Per Sjögren, Liisa Byberg, Donald M Lyall, Juha Auvinen, Terho Lehtimäki, Mika Kähönen, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Mia Maria Perälä, Karl Michaëlsson, Anubha Mahajan, Lars Lind, Chris Power, Johan G Eriksson, Olli T Raitakari, Sara Hägg, Nancy L Pedersen, Juha Veijola, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Marcus R Munafò, Erik Ingelsson, David J Llewellyn, Elina Hyppönen
Coffee's long-term effect on cognitive function remains unclear with studies suggesting both benefits and adverse effects. We used Mendelian randomization to investigate the causal relationship between habitual coffee consumption and cognitive function in mid- to later life. This included up to 415,530 participants and 300,760 coffee drinkers from 10 meta-analysed European ancestry cohorts. In each cohort, composite cognitive scores that capture global cognition and memory were computed using available tests...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753134/the-use-of-human-tissue-in-safety-assessment
#17
Samuel J Jackson, Helen Prior, Anthony Holmes
INTRODUCTION: The safety-related failure of drugs during clinical phases of development is a significant contributor to drug attrition, wasting resources, preventing treatments from reaching patients. A lack of concordance between results from animal models and adverse events in the clinic has been identified as one potential cause of attrition. In vitro models using human tissue or cells have the potential to replace some animal models and improve predictivity to humans. METHODS: To gauge the current use of human tissue models in safety pharmacology and the barriers to greater uptake, an electronic survey of the international safety assessment community was carried out and a Safety Pharmacology Society European Regional Meeting was organised entitled 'The Use of Human Tissue in Safety Assessment'...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752348/genetic-study-of-white-matter-integrity-in-uk-biobank-n-8448-and-the-overlap-with-stroke-depression-and-dementia
#18
Loes C A Rutten-Jacobs, Daniel J Tozer, Marco Duering, Rainer Malik, Martin Dichgans, Hugh S Markus, Matthew Traylor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Structural integrity of the white matter is a marker of cerebral small vessel disease, which is the major cause of vascular dementia and a quarter of all strokes. Genetic studies provide a way to obtain novel insights in the disease mechanism underlying cerebral small vessel disease. The aim was to identify common variants associated with microstructural integrity of the white matter and to elucidate the relationships of white matter structural integrity with stroke, major depressive disorder, and Alzheimer disease...
May 11, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741272/proton-pump-inhibitor-and-histamine-2-receptor-antagonist-use-and-risk-of-liver-cancer-in-two-population-based-studies
#19
K T Tran, Ú C McMenamin, B Hicks, P Murchie, A P Thrift, H G Coleman, L Iversen, B T Johnston, A J Lee, C R Cardwell
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are commonly used. PPIs have been shown to promote liver cancer in rats; however, only one study has examined the association in humans. AIMS: To investigate PPIs and H2RAs and risk of primary liver cancer in two large independent study populations. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the Primary Care Clinical Informatics Unit (PCCIU) database in which up to five controls were matched to cases with primary liver cancer, recorded by General Practitioners...
May 9, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739817/comparison-of-genotypic-and-phenotypic-correlations-cheverud-s-conjecture-in-humans
#20
Sebastian M Sodini, Kathryn E Kemper, Naomi R Wray, Maciej Trzaskowski
Accurate estimation of genetic correlation requires large sample sizes and access to genetically informative data, which are not always available. Accordingly, phenotypic correlations are often assumed to reflect genotypic correlations in evolutionary biology. Cheverud's conjecture asserts that the use of phenotypic correlations as proxies for genetic correlations is appropriate. Empirical evidence of the conjecture has been found across plant and animal species, with results suggesting that there is indeed a robust relationship between the two...
May 8, 2018: Genetics
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