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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145428/abnormal-brain-white-matter-microstructure-is-associated-with-both-pre-hypertension-and-hypertension
#1
Hideaki Suzuki, He Gao, Wenjia Bai, Evangelos Evangelou, Ben Glocker, Declan P O'Regan, Paul Elliott, Paul M Matthews
OBJECTIVES: To characterize effects of chronically elevated blood pressure on the brain, we tested for brain white matter microstructural differences associated with normotension, pre-hypertension and hypertension in recently available brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 4659 participants without known neurological or psychiatric disease (62.3±7.4 yrs, 47.0% male) in UK Biobank. METHODS: For assessment of white matter microstructure, we used measures derived from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) including the intracellular volume fraction (an estimate of neurite density) and isotropic volume fraction (an index of the relative extra-cellular water diffusion)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112751/multimorbidity-and-co-morbidity-in-atrial-fibrillation-and-effects-on-survival-findings-from-uk-biobank-cohort
#2
Bhautesh Dinesh Jani, Barbara I Nicholl, Ross McQueenie, Derek T Connelly, Peter Hanlon, Katie I Gallacher, Duncan Lee, Frances S Mair
Aims: To examine the number and type of co-morbid long-term health conditions (LTCs) and their associations with all-cause mortality in an atrial fibrillation (AF) population. Methods and results: Community cohort participants (UK Biobank n = 502 637) aged 37-73 years were recruited between 2006 and 2010. Self-reported LTCs (n = 42) identified in people with AF at baseline. All-cause mortality was available for a median follow-up of 7 years (interquartile range 76-93 months)...
November 2, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110330/multiethnic-polygenic-risk-scores-improve-risk-prediction-in-diverse-populations
#3
Carla Márquez-Luna, Po-Ru Loh, Alkes L Price
Methods for genetic risk prediction have been widely investigated in recent years. However, most available training data involves European samples, and it is currently unclear how to accurately predict disease risk in other populations. Previous studies have used either training data from European samples in large sample size or training data from the target population in small sample size, but not both. Here, we introduce a multiethnic polygenic risk score that combines training data from European samples and training data from the target population...
November 7, 2017: Genetic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106579/a-small-amount-of-precisely-measured-high-intensity-habitual-physical-activity-predicts-bone-health-in-pre-and-post-menopausal-women-in-uk-biobank
#4
Victoria H Stiles, Brad S Metcalf, Karen M Knapp, Alex V Rowlands
Background: Physical inactivity is a highly modifiable risk factor for the development of osteoporosis but, due to a lack of research that has precisely and objectively meaured physical activity (PA) relevant to bone, the specific contribution that PA can make to bone health is poorly understood. This study examined whether a more precise measure of PA relelvant to bone was associated with meaures of bone health in pre- and post-menopausal women in UK Biobank. Methods: Time spent at intensities specific to bone health [≥750 milli-gravitational units ( mg ) and ≥1000 mg ] were analysed from raw tri-axial acceleration data averaged over 1-second epochs from 7-day monitoring of habitual PA using accelerometry-based activity monitors (100 Hz; AX3, Axivity, UK) of 1218 pre- and 1316 post-menopausal healthy women...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084183/dietary-magnesium-may-be-protective-for-aging-of-bone-and-skeletal-muscle-in-middle-and-younger-older-age-men-and-women-cross-sectional-findings-from-the-uk-biobank-cohort
#5
Ailsa A Welch, Jane Skinner, Mary Hickson
Although fragility fractures, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and frailty are becoming more prevalent in our aging society the treatment options are limited and preventative strategies are needed. Despite magnesium being integral to bone and muscle physiology, the relationship between dietary magnesium and skeletal muscle and bone health has not been investigated concurrently to date. We analysed cross-sectional associations between dietary magnesium and skeletal muscle mass (as fat free mass-FFM), grip strength, and bone density (BMD) in 156,575 men and women aged 39-72 years from the UK Biobank cohort...
October 30, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079522/image-processing-and-quality-control-for-the-first-10-000-brain-imaging-datasets-from-uk-biobank
#6
Fidel Alfaro-Almagro, Mark Jenkinson, Neal K Bangerter, Jesper L R Andersson, Ludovica Griffanti, Gwenaëlle Douaud, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Saad Jbabdi, Moises Hernandez-Fernandez, Emmanuel Vallee, Diego Vidaurre, Matthew Webster, Paul McCarthy, Christopher Rorden, Alessandro Daducci, Daniel C Alexander, Hui Zhang, Iulius Dragonu, Paul M Matthews, Karla L Miller, Stephen M Smith
UK Biobank is a large-scale prospective epidemiological study with all data accessible to researchers worldwide. It is currently in the process of bringing back 100,000 of the original participants for brain, heart and body MRI, carotid ultrasound and low-dose bone/fat x-ray. The brain imaging component covers 6 modalities (T1, T2 FLAIR, susceptibility weighted MRI, Resting fMRI, Task fMRI and Diffusion MRI). Raw and processed data from the first 10,000 imaged subjects has recently been released for general research access...
October 24, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069474/the-validity-and-value-of-self-reported-physical-activity-and-accelerometry-in-people-with-schizophrenia-a-population-scale-study-of-the-uk-biobank
#7
Joseph Firth, Brendon Stubbs, Davy Vancampfort, Felipe B Schuch, Simon Rosenbaum, Philip B Ward, Josh A Firth, Jerome Sarris, Alison R Yung
Background: Previous physical activity (PA) research in schizophrenia has relied largely upon self-report measures. However, the accuracy of this method is questionable. Obtaining accurate measurements, and determining what may influence PA levels in schizophrenia, is essential to understand physical inactivity in this population. This study examined differences in self-reported and objectively measured PA in people with schizophrenia and the general population using a large, population-based dataset from the UK Biobank...
October 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066090/genetic-variants-associated-with-susceptibility-to-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-people-of-european-ancestry-a-genome-wide-association-study
#8
Richard J Allen, Joanne Porte, Rebecca Braybrooke, Carlos Flores, Tasha E Fingerlin, Justin M Oldham, Beatriz Guillen-Guio, Shwu-Fan Ma, Tsukasa Okamoto, Alison E John, Ma'en Obeidat, Ivana V Yang, Amanda Henry, Richard B Hubbard, Vidya Navaratnam, Gauri Saini, Norma Thompson, Helen L Booth, Simon P Hart, Mike R Hill, Nik Hirani, Toby M Maher, Robin J McAnulty, Ann B Millar, Philip L Molyneaux, Helen Parfrey, Doris M Rassl, Moira K B Whyte, William A Fahy, Richard P Marshall, Eunice Oballa, Yohan Bossé, David C Nickle, Don D Sin, Wim Timens, Nick Shrine, Ian Sayers, Ian P Hall, Imre Noth, David A Schwartz, Martin D Tobin, Louise V Wain, R Gisli Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive lung disease with high mortality, uncertain cause, and few treatment options. Studies have identified a significant genetic risk associated with the development of IPF; however, mechanisms by which genetic risk factors promote IPF remain unclear. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with IPF susceptibility and provide mechanistic insight using gene and protein expression analyses. METHODS: We used a two-stage approach: a genome-wide association study in patients with IPF of European ancestry recruited from nine different centres in the UK and controls selected from UK Biobank (stage 1) matched for age, sex, and smoking status; and a follow-up of associated genetic variants in independent datasets of patients with IPF and controls from two independent US samples from the Chicago consortium and the Colorado consortium (stage 2)...
November 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040744/tobacco-exposure-and-sleep-disturbance-in-498-208-uk-biobank-participants
#9
D Boakye, C A Wyse, C A Morales-Celis, S M Biello, M E S Bailey, S Dare, J Ward, J M R Gill, J P Pell, D F Mackay
Background: The prevalence of sleep disturbance is high and increasing. The study investigated whether active, former and passive smoking were associated with sleep disturbance. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the UK Biobank: a cohort study of 502 655 participants, of whom 498 208 provided self-reported data on smoking and sleep characteristics. Multivariable multinomial and logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between smoking and sleep disturbance...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040610/the-biological-impact-of-blood-pressure-associated-genetic-variants-in-the-natriuretic-peptide-receptor-c-gene-on-human-vascular-smooth-muscle
#10
Meixia Ren, Fu Liang Ng, Helen Warren, Kate Witkowska, Michael Baron, Zhilong Jia, Claudia Cabrera, Ruoxin Zhang, Borbala Mifsud, Patricia B Munroe, Qingzhong Xiao, Andrea Townsend-Nicholson, Adrian Hobbs, Shu Ye, Mark Caulfield
Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a major global risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic variants at the NPR3 locus associated with BP, but the functional impact of these variants remains to be determined. Here we confirmed, by a genome-wide association study within UK Biobank, the existence of two independent BP-related signals within NPR3 locus. Using human primary vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells from different individuals, we found that the BP-elevating alleles within one linkage disequilibrium block identified by the sentinel variant rs1173771 was associated with lower endogenous NPR3 mRNA and protein levels in vascular smooth muscle cells, together with reduced levels in open chromatin and nuclear protein binding...
October 10, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040602/software-application-profile-phesant-a-tool-for-performing-automated-phenome-scans-in-uk-biobank
#11
Louise A C Millard, Neil M Davies, Tom R Gaunt, George Davey Smith, Kate Tilling
Motivation: Epidemiological cohorts typically contain a diverse set of phenotypes such that automation of phenome scans is non-trivial, because they require highly heterogeneous models. For this reason, phenome scans have to date tended to use a smaller homogeneous set of phenotypes that can be analysed in a consistent fashion. We present PHESANT (PHEnome Scan ANalysis Tool), a software package for performing comprehensive phenome scans in UK Biobank. General features: PHESANT tests the association of a specified trait with all continuous, integer and categorical variables in UK Biobank, or a specified subset...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031762/sleep-and-cognitive-performance-cross-sectional-associations-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-uk-biobank
#12
Simon D Kyle, Claire E Sexton, Bernd Feige, Annemarie I Luik, Jacqueline Lane, Richa Saxena, Simon G Anderson, David A Bechtold, William Dixon, Max A Little, David Ray, Dieter Riemann, Colin A Espie, Martin K Rutter, Kai Spiegelhalder
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between insomnia symptoms and cognitive performance is unclear, particularly at the population level. We conducted the largest examination of this association to date through analysis of the UK Biobank, a large population-based sample of adults aged 40-69 years. We also sought to determine associations between cognitive performance and self-reported chronotype, sleep medication use and sleep duration. METHODS: This cross-sectional, population-based study involved 477,529 participants, comprising 133,314 patients with frequent insomnia symptoms (age: 57...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030403/new-blood-pressure-associated-loci-identified-in-meta-analyses-of-475%C3%A2-000-individuals
#13
Aldi T Kraja, James P Cook, Helen R Warren, Praveen Surendran, Chunyu Liu, Evangelos Evangelou, Alisa K Manning, Niels Grarup, Fotios Drenos, Xueling Sim, Albert Vernon Smith, Najaf Amin, Alexandra I F Blakemore, Jette Bork-Jensen, Ivan Brandslund, Aliki-Eleni Farmaki, Cristiano Fava, Teresa Ferreira, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Ayush Giri, Franco Giulianini, Megan L Grove, Xiuqing Guo, Sarah E Harris, Christian T Have, Aki S Havulinna, He Zhang, Marit E Jørgensen, AnneMari Käräjämäki, Charles Kooperberg, Allan Linneberg, Louis Little, Yongmei Liu, Lori L Bonnycastle, Yingchang Lu, Reedik Mägi, Anubha Mahajan, Giovanni Malerba, Riccardo E Marioni, Hao Mei, Cristina Menni, Alanna C Morrison, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Walter Palmas, Alaitz Poveda, Rainer Rauramaa, Nigel William Rayner, Muhammad Riaz, Ken Rice, Melissa A Richard, Jennifer A Smith, Lorraine Southam, Alena Stančáková, Kathleen E Stirrups, Vinicius Tragante, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Tibor V Varga, Stefan Weiss, Andrianos M Yiorkas, Robin Young, Weihua Zhang, Michael R Barnes, Claudia P Cabrera, He Gao, Michael Boehnke, Eric Boerwinkle, John C Chambers, John M Connell, Cramer K Christensen, Rudolf A de Boer, Ian J Deary, George Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Anna F Dominiczak, Marcus Dörr, Roby Joehanes, Todd L Edwards, Tõnu Esko, Myriam Fornage, Nora Franceschini, Paul W Franks, Giovanni Gambaro, Leif Groop, Göran Hallmans, Torben Hansen, Caroline Hayward, Oksa Heikki, Erik Ingelsson, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Sharon L R Kardia, Fredrik Karpe, Jaspal S Kooner, Timo A Lakka, Claudia Langenberg, Lars Lind, Ruth J F Loos, Markku Laakso, Mark I McCarthy, Olle Melander, Karen L Mohlke, Andrew P Morris, Colin N A Palmer, Oluf Pedersen, Ozren Polasek, Neil R Poulter, Michael A Province, Bruce M Psaty, Paul M Ridker, Jerome I Rotter, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Nilesh J Samani, Peter J Sever, Tea Skaaby, Jeanette M Stafford, John M Starr, Pim van der Harst, Peter van der Meer, Cornelia M van Duijn, Anne-Claire Vergnaud, Vilmundur Gudnason, Nicholas J Wareham, James G Wilson, Cristen J Willer, Daniel R Witte, Eleftheria Zeggini, Danish Saleheen, Adam S Butterworth, John Danesh, Folkert W Asselbergs, Louise V Wain, Georg B Ehret, Daniel I Chasman, Mark J Caulfield, Paul Elliott, Cecilia M Lindgren, Daniel Levy, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Patricia B Munroe, Joanna M M Howson
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have recently identified >400 loci that harbor DNA sequence variants that influence blood pressure (BP). Our earlier studies identified and validated 56 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) associated with BP from meta-analyses of exome chip genotype data. An additional 100 variants yielded suggestive evidence of association. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we augment the sample with 140 886 European individuals from the UK Biobank, in whom 77 of the 100 suggestive SNVs were available for association analysis with systolic BP or diastolic BP or pulse pressure...
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025033/heavier-smoking-increases-coffee-consumption-findings-from-a-mendelian-randomization-analysis
#14
Johan H Bjørngaard, Ask Tybjærg Nordestgaard, Amy E Taylor, Jorien L Treur, Maiken E Gabrielsen, Marcus R Munafò, Børge Grønne Nordestgaard, Bjørn Olav Åsvold, Pål Romundstad, George Davey Smith
Background: There is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake. Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK Biobank ( N  = 114 029), the Norwegian HUNT study ( N  = 56 664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) ( N  = 78 650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CGPS...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024958/a-computable-pathology-report-for-precision-medicine-extending-an-observables-ontology-unifying-snomed-ct-and-loinc
#15
Walter S Campbell, Daniel Karlsson, Daniel J Vreeman, Audrey J Lazenby, Geoffrey A Talmon, James R Campbell
Background: The College of American Pathologists (CAP) introduced the first cancer synoptic reporting protocols in 1998. However, the objective of a fully computable and machine-readable cancer synoptic report remains elusive due to insufficient definitional content in Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) and Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC). To address this terminology gap, investigators at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) are developing, authoring, and testing a SNOMED CT observable ontology to represent the data elements identified by the synoptic worksheets of CAP...
September 13, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020281/association-of-walking-pace-and-handgrip-strength-with-all-cause-cardiovascular-and-cancer-mortality-a-uk-biobank-observational-study
#16
Thomas Yates, Francesco Zaccardi, Nafeesa N Dhalwani, Melanie J Davies, Kishan Bakrania, Carlos A Celis-Morales, Jason M R Gill, Paul W Franks, Kamlesh Khunti
Aims: To quantify the association of self-reported walking pace and handgrip strength with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality. Methods and results: A total of 230 670 women and 190 057 men free from prevalent cancer and cardiovascular disease were included from UK Biobank. Usual walking pace was self-defined as slow, steady/average or brisk. Handgrip strength was assessed by dynamometer. Cox-proportional hazard models were adjusted for social deprivation, ethnicity, employment, medications, alcohol use, diet, physical activity, and television viewing time...
November 14, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993386/patterns-and-correlates-of-active-commuting-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-cross-sectional-evidence-from-uk-biobank
#17
Catherine L Falconer, Ashley R Cooper, Ellen Flint
OBJECTIVES: To describe the active commuting (AC) patterns of adults with type 2 diabetes and how these relate to physical activity and sedentary behaviour in UK Biobank. Social and environmental correlates of AC will also be explored. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study. SETTINGS: This is a population cohort of over 500 000 people recruited from 22 centres across the UK. Participants aged between 37 and 73 years were recruited between 2006 and 2010...
October 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992036/associations-between-sedentary-behaviours-and-cognitive-function-cross-sectional-and-prospective-findings-from-the-uk-biobank
#18
Kishan Bakrania, Charlotte L Edwardson, Kamlesh Khunti, Stephan Bandelow, Melanie J Davies, Thomas Yates
We investigate the cross-sectional and prospective associations between different sedentary behaviours and cognitive function in a large sample of UK Biobank adults. Baseline data were available on 502,643 participants (years 2006-2010). Cognitive tests included prospective memory [n = 171,585 (baseline only)], visual-spatial memory [round 1 (n = 483,832); round 2 (n = 482,762)], fluid intelligence [n = 165,492], and short-term numeric memory [n = 50,370]. After a mean period of 5.3-years, between 12,091 and 114,373 participants also provided follow-up cognitive data...
July 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989980/bone-mineral-density-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-and-coronary-heart-disease-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#19
Wei Gan, Robert J Clarke, Anubha Mahajan, Benard Kulohoma, Hidetoshi Kitajima, Neil R Robertson, N William Rayner, Robin G Walters, Michael V Holmes, Zhengming Chen, Mark I McCarthy
Background: Observational studies have demonstrated that increased bone mineral density is associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the relationship with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is less clear. Moreover, substantial uncertainty remains about the causal relevance of increased bone mineral density for T2D and CHD, which can be assessed by Mendelian randomisation studies.  Methods: We identified 235 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated at p<5×10 (-8) with estimated heel bone mineral density (eBMD) in 116,501 individuals from the UK Biobank study, accounting for 13...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989979/haplotype-based-association-analysis-of-general-cognitive-ability-in-generation-scotland-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing-and-uk-biobank
#20
David M Howard, Mark J Adams, Toni-Kim Clarke, Eleanor M Wigmore, Yanni Zeng, Saskia P Hagenaars, Donald M Lyall, Pippa A Thomson, Kathryn L Evans, David J Porteous, Reka Nagy, Caroline Hayward, Chris S Haley, Blair H Smith, Alison D Murray, G David Batty, Ian J Deary, Andrew M McIntosh
BACKGROUND: Cognitive ability is a heritable trait with a polygenic architecture, for which several associated variants have been identified using genotype-based and candidate gene approaches. Haplotype-based analyses are a complementary technique that take phased genotype data into account, and potentially provide greater statistical power to detect lower frequency variants. METHODS: In the present analysis, three cohort studies (n total = 48,002) were utilised: Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS), the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), and the UK Biobank...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
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