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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024341/modulation-of-human-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-microrna-profile-associated-with-changes-in-adiposity-related-parameters
#1
Simona Giardina, Pablo Hernández-Alonso, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Antoni Rabassa-Soler, Mònica Bulló
SCOPE: To analyze the effect of three calorie-restricted diets with different amount and quality of carbohydrates on subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) miRNA profile. METHODS AND RESULTS: 6-month, parallel, randomized trial conducted on overweight and obese subjects randomized to: 1) low glycemic index diet (LGI), 2) high glycemic index diet (HGI), and 3) low-fat (LF). The genome-wide SAT miRNA profile was assessed in 8 randomly selected participants and the most relevant changing miRNAs (n = 13) were validated in 48 subjects...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022752/nutritional-characteristics-of-the-diets-of-child-and-adolescent-cancer-survivors
#2
Julia Ferrari Carneiro Teixeira, Priscila Dos Santos Maia-Lemos, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani
PURPOSE: Diseases associated with prior treatment, such as obesity, have been described in cancer survivors. Recent studies have shown that current estimates of overweight do not differ from that in the general population, suggesting the influence of environmental factors, such as dietary intake. In this context, there is increasing interest in the examination of health behaviors that may modify and reduce the risk of overweight and obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of dietary intake among child cancer survivors living in a developing country...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022562/ketogenic-diet-in-endocrine-disorders-current-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
L Gupta, D Khandelwal, S Kalra, P Gupta, D Dutta, S Aggarwal
Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome...
October 2017: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020939/a-transcriptomic-approach-to-study-the-effect-of-long-term-starvation-and-diet-composition-on-the-expression-of-mitochondrial-oxidative-phosphorylation-genes-in-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#4
Jonás I Silva-Marrero, Alberto Sáez, Albert Caballero-Solares, Ivan Viegas, María Pilar Almajano, Felipe Fernández, Isabel V Baanante, Isidoro Metón
BACKGROUND: The impact of nutritional status and diet composition on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in fish remains largely unknown. To identify biomarkers of interest in nutritional studies, herein we obtained a deep-coverage transcriptome by 454 pyrosequencing of liver and skeletal muscle cDNA normalised libraries from long-term starved gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and fish fed different diets. RESULTS: After clean-up of high-throughput deep sequencing reads, 699,991 and 555,031 high-quality reads allowed de novo assembly of liver and skeletal muscle sequences, respectively (average length: 374 and 441 bp; total megabases: 262 and 245 Mbp)...
October 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987405/combined-effect-of-temperature-and-nutritional-regime-on-the-elimination-of-the-lipophilic-toxin-okadaic-acid-in-the-naturally-contaminated-wedge-shell-donax-trunculus
#5
Maria João Botelho, Carlos Vale, Sandra Joaquim, Sara T Costa, Florbela Soares, Claúdia Roque, Domitília Matias
The influence of nutritional regime and water temperature on depuration rates of OA-group toxins in the wedge shell Donax trunculus was examined by exposing naturally contaminated specimens to three nutritional regimes (microalgae, commercial paste of microalgae, and starvation) for 14 days at 16 °C and 20 °C. Total OA was quantified in the whole soft tissues of the individuals collected in days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14. Mortality, dry weight, condition index, gross biochemical composition and gametogenic stages were surveyed...
September 21, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986357/excess-omega-6-fatty-acids-influx-in-aging-drives-metabolic-dysregulation-electrocardiographic-alterations-and-low-grade-chronic-inflammation
#6
Vasundhara Kain, Kevin A Ingle, Maureen Kachman, Heidi Baum, Gobinath Shanmugam, Namakkal S Rajasekaran, Martin E Young, Ganesh V Halade
Maintaining a balance of omega-6 and -3 fatty acids is essential for cardiac health. Current omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the American diet has shifted from the ideal ratio of 2:1 to almost 20:1, while there is a body of evidence suggest the negative impact of such a shift in younger organisms, the underlying age-related metabolic signaling in response to the excess influx of omega-6 is incompletely understood. In the current study, young (6-month-old) and aging (≥18-month-old) mice were fed for two months with omega-6 enriched diet...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981820/oral-digestion-and-perception-of-starch-effects-of-cooking-tasting-time-and-salivary-%C3%AE-amylase-activity
#7
Trina J Lapis, Michael H Penner, Amy S Balto, Juyun Lim
Since starch is a significant part of human diet, its oral detection would be highly beneficial. This study was designed to determine whether starch or its degradation products can be tasted and what factors influence its perception. Subjects were asked 1) to taste 8% raw and cooked starch samples for 5, 15, and 35 s and rate perceived intensities of sweetness and "other" taste (i.e., other than sweet), 2) to donate saliva to obtain salivary flow rate (mg/s) and salivary α-amylase activity (per mg saliva), and 3) to fill out a carbohydrate consumption survey...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978672/magnesium-intake-quality-of-carbohydrates-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-results-from-three-u-s-cohorts
#8
Adela Hruby, Marta Guasch-Ferré, Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, JoAnn E Manson, Walter C Willett, Nicola M McKeown, Frank B Hu
OBJECTIVE: Magnesium intake is inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in many observational studies, but few have assessed this association in the context of the carbohydrate quality of the diet. We hypothesized that higher magnesium intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, especially in the context of a poor-carbohydrate-quality diet characterized by low cereal fiber or high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1984-2012, n = 69,176), NHS2 (1991-2013, n = 91,471), and the Health Professionals' Follow-Up Study (1986-2012, n = 42,096), dietary intake was assessed from food frequency questionnaires every 4 years...
October 4, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978421/dietary-carbohydrates-impair-healthspan-and-promote-mortality
#9
Meenakshi Ravichandran, Gerald Grandl, Michael Ristow
The prospective cohort study, named PURE, found that in >135,000 participants from 18 countries, nutritive carbohydrates increase human mortality, whereas dietary fat reduces it, requesting a fundamental change of current nutritional guidelines. Experimental evidence from animal models provides synergizing mechanistic concepts as well as pharmacological options to mimic low-carb or ketogenic diets.
October 3, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976929/simple-vs-complex-carbohydrate-dietary-patterns-and-the-global-overweight-and-obesity-pandemic
#10
Fabrizio Ferretti, Michele Mariani
Nowadays, obesity and being overweight are among the major global health concerns. Many, diet-related diseases impose high tangible and intangible costs, and threaten the sustainability of health-care systems worldwide. In this study, we model, at the macroeconomic level, the impact of energy intake from different types of carbohydrates on the population's BMI (body mass index). We proceed in three steps. First, we develop a framework to analyse both the consumption choices between simple and complex carbohydrates and the effects of these choices on people health conditions...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956658/short-term-supplementation-of-a-moderate-carbohydrate-diet-with-psyllium-reduces-fasting-plasma-insulin-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Mahdieh Kamalpour, Hamid Ghalandari, Javad Nasrollahzadeh
The purpose of this study was to compare effects of a moderate carbohydrate diet supplemented with psyllium with those of a lower carbohydrate diet supplemented with placebo powder on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In an open randomized controlled trial, 37 patients with T2D with body mass index (BMI) 25-35 kg/m2 received either a low-energy, moderate carbohydrate diet plus 7 grams of psyllium powder (MoCyllium group) or a low-energy, lower carbohydrate diet plus placebo powder (LoCarb group) for 2 weeks...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954840/a-high-carbohydrate-high-fiber-low-fat-diet-results-in-weight-loss-among-adults-at-high-risk-of-type-2-diabetes
#12
Allison C Sylvetsky, Sharon L Edelstein, Geoffrey Walford, Edward J Boyko, Edward S Horton, Uzoma N Ibebuogu, William C Knowler, Maria G Montez, Marinella Temprosa, Mary Hoskin, Kristina I Rother, Linda M Delahanty
Background: Weight loss is a key factor in reducing diabetes risk. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is a completed clinical trial that randomly assigned individuals at high risk of diabetes to a placebo (PLBO), metformin (MET), or intensive lifestyle intervention (ILS) group, which included physical activity (PA) and reduced dietary fat intake.Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations between diet and weight at baseline and to identify specific dietary factors that predicted weight loss among DPP participants...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954411/beneficial-effects-of-small-molecule-oligopeptides-isolated-from-panax-ginseng-meyer-on-pancreatic-beta-cell-dysfunction-and-death-in-diabetic-rats
#13
Meihong Xu, Bin Sun, Di Li, Ruixue Mao, Hui Li, Yong Li, Junbo Wang
To determine whether treatment with ginseng oligopeptides (GOPs) could modulate hyperglycemia related to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rats induced by high-fat diet and low doses of alloxan, type 2 diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by injecting them once with 105 mg/kg alloxan and feeding them high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet with or without GOP administration (0.125, 0.5, and 2.0 g/kg Body Weight) for 7, 24, and 52 weeks. Oral glucose test tolerance (OGTT), plasma glucose, serum insulin, level of antioxidant, and beta cell function were measured...
September 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941398/the-mechanisms-mediating-the-antiepileptic-effects-of-the-ketogenic-diet-and-potential-opportunities-for-improvement-with-metabolism-altering-drugs
#14
REVIEW
Neil A Youngson, Margaret J Morris, J William O Ballard
The ketogenic diet (KD) is increasingly being used to treat patients with intractable epilepsy. Despite decades of research, the reason for its success, when anticonvulsants have failed, is still not completely understood. There are, however, many candidate mechanisms which can be grouped into those that alter neuronal excitability at the synapse, and those that confer neuroprotection. The molecular underpinning of these mechanisms centres on the shift from glucose- to lipid-based energy generation that accompanies a high fat/low carbohydrate diet...
September 13, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938440/sex-differences-in-the-hormonal-and-metabolic-response-to-dietary-protein-dilution
#15
Karlton R Larson, Kimberly A Russo, Yanbin Fang, Niloufar Mohajerani, Michael L Goodson, Karen K Ryan
Consumption of a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet induces a striking increase in circulating fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), which is associated with improved cardiometabolic health and increased longevity. Increased lifespan during this dietary protein "dilution" has been explained by resource-mediated trade-offs between reproduction and survival, such that fecundity is optimized at a greater relative intake of proteins/carbohydrates. The magnitude of this trade-off is thought to be sex-dependent. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that metabolic responses to dietary protein dilution are likewise dependent on sex...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934589/low-dietary-protein-and-high-carbohydrate-infant-formula-affects-the-microbial-ecology-of-the-large-intestine-in-neonatal-rats
#16
Wenguang Fan, Haiwei Ren, Yingying Cao, Yonggang Wang, Guicheng Huo
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a low dietary protein and high carbohydrate infant formula on the large intestine of neonatal rats. A total of 24 neonatal SD rats (14d old) were randomly assigned to the low-protein, high-carbohydrate infant formula-fed group (IF group) and a human breast milk-fed group (HF group). After 7 days, we selected 6 rats at random from each group to study. No significantly different microbial colonization patterns were observed in the two groups at the phylum level...
September 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931586/urinary-excretion-of-sodium-nitrogen-and-sugar-amounts-are-valid-biomarkers-of-dietary-sodium-protein-and-high-sugar-intake-in-nonobese-adolescents
#17
Lori B Moore, Sarah V Liu, Tanya M Halliday, Andrew P Neilson, Valisa E Hedrick, Brenda M Davy
Background: Objective indicators of dietary intake (e.g., biomarkers) are needed to overcome the limitations of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods in adolescents. To our knowledge, no controlled feeding studies to date have evaluated the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, or sugar excretion as dietary biomarkers in adolescents.Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, and total sugars (TS) excretion as biomarkers for sodium, protein, and added sugars (AS) intake in nonobese adolescents...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928235/testosterone-protects-high-fat-low-carbohydrate-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-castrated-male-rats-mainly-via-modulating-er-stress
#18
Yue Jia, Jennifer Kuang Yee, Christina Wang, Liana Nikolaenko, Maruja Diaz-Arjonilla, Joshua N Cohen, Samuel W French, Peter Y Liu, YanHe Lue, Wai-Nang Paul Lee, Ronald S Swerdloff
We previously showed that testosterone (T) deficiency enhanced high-fat diet (HFD) induced hepatic steatosis in rats that was independent of insulin resistance, and that T replacement reduced hepatic macrovesicular fat accumulation and inflammation. The present report explores the mechanism of T-protective effects on HFD-induced steatohepatitis. Adult male rats were randomized into four treatment groups for 15 weeks (intact rats on regular chow diet or HFD, and castrated rats on HFD with/without T replacement)...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924478/a-rare-cause-of-metabolic-acidosis-ketoacidosis-in-a-non-diabetic-lactating-woman
#19
Gordon Sloan, Amjad Ali, Jonathan Webster
Ketoacidosis occurring during lactation has been described infrequently. The condition is incompletely understood, but it appears to be associated with a combination of increased metabolic demands during lactation, reduction in carbohydrate intake and acute illness. We present a case of a 27-year-old woman, 8 weeks post-partum, who was exclusively breastfeeding her child whilst following a low carbohydrate diet. She developed gastroenteritis and was unable to tolerate an oral diet for several days. She presented with severe metabolic acidosis on admission with a blood 3-hydroxybutyrate of 5...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924074/postprandial-glucose-surges-after-extremely-low-carbohydrate-diet-in-healthy-adults
#20
Koji Kanamori, Noriko Ihana-Sugiyama, Ritsuko Yamamoto-Honda, Tomoka Nakamura, Chie Sobe, Shigemi Kamiya, Miyako Kishimoto, Hiroshi Kajio, Kimiko Kawano, Mitsuhiko Noda
Carbohydrate-restricted diets are prevalent not only in obese people but also in the general population to maintain appropriate body weight. Here, we report that extreme carbohydrate restriction for one day affects the subsequent blood glucose levels in healthy adults. Ten subjects (median age 30.5 years, BMI 21.1 kg/m(2), and HbA1c 5.5%), wearing with a continuous glucose monitoring device, were given isoenergetic test meals for 4 consecutive days. On day 1, day 2 (D2), and day 4 (D4), they consumed normal-carbohydrate (63-66% carbohydrate) diet, while on day 3, they took low-carbohydrate/high-fat (5% carbohydrate) diet...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
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