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low-carbohydrate diet

Nerylee Ann Watson, Kathryn Ann Dyer, Jonathan David Buckley, Grant David Brinkworth, Alison Mary Coates, Gaynor Parfitt, Peter Ranald Charles Howe, Manny Noakes, Karen Joy Murphy
BACKGROUND: Although higher-protein diets (HP) can assist with weight loss and glycemic control, their effect on psychological wellbeing has not been established. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a HP and a higher-carbohydrate diet (HC), combined with regular exercise, on psychological wellbeing both during weight loss (WL) and weight maintenance phases (WM). METHODS: In a parallel RCT, 61 adults with T2D (mean ± SD: BMI 34.3 ± 5...
June 15, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Perdana Samekto Tyasnugroho Suyoto
Meta-analysis was conducted to clarify the effect of low carbohydrate diet (LCD) on renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). An extensive literature search was conducted on scientific databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library until September 2017. Only controlled trials on human subjects written in English were included in this meta-analysis. Several markers of renal function were compared between subjects who adopted a LCD or control diet, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), creatinine clearance, urinary albumin, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid...
June 14, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Evelyn G Reátegui-Zirena, Christopher J Salice
Diet quality has a strong impact on life history traits but it is not usually considered as a factor in toxicity tests. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how diets differing in nutritional content affect sensitivity to cadmium, pyraclostrobin and tributyltin in Lymnaea stagnalis offspring. Three groups were fed a different diet each; lettuce, high-caloric pellets, or a combination of both. Snails fed pellets and both diets had similar growth; however, snails fed lettuce showed lower growth until the 4th month...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Gordon Sloan, Tania Kakoudaki, Nishant Ranjan
We report a case of a 63-year-old man who developed diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) associated with canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor. He presented acutely unwell with a silent myocardial infarction, diverticulitis and DKA with a minimally raised blood glucose level. Standard therapy for DKA was initiated. Despite this, ketonaemia persisted for a total of 12 days after discontinuation of canagliflozin. Glucosuria lasting for several days despite discontinuation of the medications is a recognised phenomenon...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Conor P Kerley
Evidence supporting the role of nutrition in heart failure (HF) incidence and severity is growing. A comprehensive search of online databases was conducted using relevant keywords to identify human studies including diet and HF. Several plant-based diets have consistently been associated with decreased HF incidence and severity, notably the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets. Several other plant-based dietary patterns, including low-fat diets and the rice diet, also show promise...
May 2018: Cardiac failure review
Ling-Yu Shen, Cui-Mei Liang, Wen-Jin Yang, Liang Pan, Hua Li, Hui Hu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the therapeutic effect of acupuncture in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients with abdominal obesity by regulating glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, sex hormones, etc. METHODS: Eligible PCOS volunteers were randomly divided into treatment group( n =30) and control group( n =28). The treatment group received acupuncture therapy three times a week combined with diet control and exercise. EA (2 Hz/100 Hz, 4-8 mA) was applied to bilateral Daimai (GB 26)and Tianshu (ST 25) for 20 min/time, and bilateral Daheng (SP 15), Shenshu (BL 23), Ciliao (BL 32), Guilai (ST 29), Zulinqi (GB 41) and Waiguan (SJ 5) were stimulated with filiform needles, with the needles retained for 20 min...
April 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Julia Weigl, Hans Hauner, Dagmar Hauner
Background: The impact of diet on breast cancer prognosis is poorly understood. Therefore, we conducted a literature search summarizing the current evidence on the effect of diet on breast cancer recurrence and mortality. Methods: The PubMed database was searched for original studies, reviews, and meta-analyses published between 2010 and 2017. Studies related to diet, dietary patterns, special diets or specific dietary factors, and breast cancer recurrence or mortality were included...
April 2018: Breast Care
Susan A Masino, Jong M Rho
Metabolic dysfunction can underlie seizure disorders, and metabolism-based treatments can afford seizure control and promote homeostasis. This relationship between metabolism and the risk of sporadic seizures was observed historically with the clinical success of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat, ketosis-inducing ketogenic diet - a treatment that remains relevant today, and one that has been shown to be effective against medically refractory epilepsy. Mechanisms underlying the success of the ketogenic diet are a topic of intense research efforts - not only because of proven success in arresting treatment-resistant seizures, but also because recent evidence suggests that altering metabolism with a ketogenic diet enables a homeostatic state in the brain that is less excitable, and hence raises the threshold for seizure genesis...
June 5, 2018: Brain Research
Li-Li Wang, Qi Wang, Yong Hong, Omorogieva Ojo, Qing Jiang, Yun-Ying Hou, Yu-Hua Huang, Xiao-Hua Wang
OBJECTIVE: In China, a low-fat diet (LFD) is mainly recommended to help improve blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) has been shown to be effective in improving blood glucose levels in America and England. A few studies, primarily randomized controlled trials, have been reported in China as well. METHOD: Firstly, we designed two 'six-point formula' methods, which met the requirements of LCD and LFD, respectively...
May 23, 2018: Nutrients
Kayo Masuko
Although it is largely unknown how diet might modulate rheumatoid arthritis (RA), dietary interventions, including so-called "low-carbohydrate" diets, may be considered for RA patients because of the high incidence of cardiovascular comorbidity. However, it has been shown that restriction or skewed intake of particular nutrient may alter the components of the intestinal flora. Changes to the gut microbiota or dysbiosis may be relevant to the pathogenesis of RA because the gut microbiota is reported to regulate the T cell phenotype and T cell-mediated immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Paul A Ayayee, Andrew Ondrejech, George Keeney, Agustí Muñoz-Garcia
Insect gut microbiota contribute significantly to host nutritional ecology. Disrupting insect gut microbial assemblages impacts nutrient provisioning functions, and can potentially affect host standard metabolic rate (SMR), a measure of host energy balance. In this study, we evaluated the effect of disrupting gut microbial assemblages on the SMR of female Periplaneta americana cockroaches fed dog food (DF, high protein/carbohydrate (p/c) ratio), and cellulose-amended dog food (CADF, 30% dog food, 70% cellulose, low p/c ratio) diets, supplemented with none, low, or high antibiotic doses...
2018: PeerJ
Briseidy Ortiz-Rodríguez, Lidia G De León, Julián Esparza-Romero, Claudia E Carrasco-Legleu, Ramón Candia-Luján
OBJECTIVE: To analyze changes in blood glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations in relation to a moderate aerobic exercise in sedentary women of different body weight, exposed to either a high or low glycemic index carbohydrates diet. DISEñO: Cross-over type. SITE: Research was performed in the Exercise Physiology Laboratory at Facultad de Ciencias de la Cultura Física, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, México. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six young sedentary women who did not exercise in the last year participated in the study...
May 25, 2018: Atencion Primaria
Franco Cavaleri, Emran Bashar
The low-carbohydrate high-fat diet (LCHFD), also known as the ketogenic diet, has cycled in and out of popularity for decades as a therapeutic program to treat metabolic syndrome, weight mismanagement, and drug-resistant disorders as complex as epilepsy, cancer, dementia, and depression. Despite the benefits of this diet, health care professionals still question its safety due to the elevated serum ketones it induces and the limited dietary fiber. To compound the controversy, patient compliance with the program is poor due to the restrictive nature of the diet and symptoms related to energy deficit and gastrointestinal adversity during the introductory and energy substrate transition phase of the diet...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Lauren Williams, Katherine S Rhodes, Wahida Karmally, Lori A Welstead, Lori Alexander, Lindsey Sutton
BACKGROUND: Familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with loss of function mutations of lipoprotein lipase resulting in hypertriglyceridemia and accumulation of chylomicrons in plasma, often leading to acute pancreatitis. The mainstay of treatment is a specialized very-low-fat diet. Even adhering to the diet, some patients may experience high triglycerides and pancreatitis. There currently are no comprehensive dietary guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To report best practices and develop comprehensive dietary guidelines for nutrition therapy in patients with FCS...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Sihui Ma, Qingyi Huang, Koichi Yada, Chunhong Liu, Katsuhiko Suzuki
Current fueling tactics for endurance exercise encourage athletes to ingest a high carbohydrate diet. However, athletes are not generally encouraged to use fat, the largest energy reserve in the human body. A low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach ensuring that the body utilizes lipids. Although KD has been associated with weight-loss, enhanced fat utilization in muscle and other beneficial effects, there is currently no clear proof whether it could lead to performance advantage...
May 25, 2018: Nutrients
Erminia Lembo, Roberta Lupoli, Paola Ciciola, Annalisa Creanza, Eufemia Silvestri, Gennaro Saldalamacchia, Brunella Capaldo
Post-bariatric hypoglycemia (PBH) is an increasingly recognized long-term complication of bariatric surgery. The nutritional treatment of PBH includes a high-fiber diet and the restriction of soluble and high-glycemic index carbohydrates; however, these measures are not always enough to prevent hypoglycemia. We evaluated the efficacy of uncooked cornstarch, a low-glycemic index carbohydrate characterized by slow intestinal degradation and absorption, in addition to a high-fiber diet, for the treatment of PBH...
May 25, 2018: Nutrients
L Johnsen, N B Lyckegaard, P Khanal, B Quistorff, K Raun, M O Nielsen
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test, whether fetal under- or overnutrition differentially program the thyroid axis with lasting effects on energy metabolism, and if early-life postnatal overnutrition modulates implications of prenatal programming. DESIGN: Twin-pregnant sheep ( n  = 36) were either adequately (NORM), under- (LOW; 50% of NORM) or overnourished (HIGH; 150% of energy and 110% of protein requirements) in the last-trimester of gestation. From 3 days-of-age to 6 months-of-age, twin lambs received a conventional (CONV) or an obesogenic, high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diet...
May 2018: Endocrine Connections
Vincenzo Pilone, Salvatore Tramontano, Michele Renzulli, Mafalda Romano, Luigi Cobellis, Tiziano Berselli, Luigi Schiavo
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated significant advantages from a preoperative dietetic regimen for candidates to bariatric procedure. OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of safety, efficacy, and acceptability of a very low-calorie ketogenic diet in patients before bariatric surgery. SETTING: University Hospital. METHODS: A standardized 30-day sequential preoperative diet regimen has been analyzed, optimizing metabolic response with gradual carbohydrate reintroduction...
March 21, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Moniek Looman, Danielle A J M Schoenaker, Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu, Anouk Geelen, Edith J M Feskens, Gita D Mishra
Carbohydrate quantity and quality affect postprandial glucose response, glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the association of pre-pregnancy dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality with the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We used data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health that included 3607 women aged 25-30 years without diabetes who were followed up between 2003 and 2015. We examined carbohydrate quantity (total carbohydrate intake and a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) score) and carbohydrate subtypes indicating quality (fibre, total sugar intake, glycaemic index, glycaemic load and intake of carbohydrate-rich food groups)...
May 22, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Ed Maunder, Andrew E Kilding, Daniel J Plews
Ironman triathlons are ultra-endurance events of extreme duration. The performance level of those competing varies dramatically, with elite competitors finishing in ~ 8:00:00, and lower performing amateurs finishing in ~ 14-15:00:00. When applying appropriate values for swimming, cycling and running economies to these performance times, it is demonstrated that the absolute energy cost of these events is high, and the rate of energy expenditure increases in proportion with the athlete's competitive level...
May 18, 2018: Sports Medicine
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