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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915184/anti-atherosclerotic-effects-of-pravastatin-in-brachiocephalic-artery-in-comparison-with-en-face-aorta-and-aortic-roots-in-apoe-ldlr-mice
#1
Renata B Kostogrys, Magdalena Franczyk-Zarow, Marlena Gasior-Glogowska, Edyta Kus, Agnieszka Jasztal, Tomasz P Wrobel, Malgorzata Baranska, Izabela Czyzynska-Cichon, Anna Drahun, Angelika Manterys, Stefan Chlopicki
BACKGROUND: Cholesterol-dependent and independent mechanisms were proposed to explain anti-atherosclerotic action of statins in humans. However, their effects in murine models of atherosclerosis have not been consistently demonstrated. Here, we studied the effects of pravastatin on atherosclerosis in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice fed a control and atherogenic diet. METHODS: ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a control (CHOW) or an atherogenic (Low Carbohydrate High Protein, LCHP) diet...
September 17, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913012/hyperglycemic-high-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis-in-patients-receiving-sglt-2-inhibitors-for-diabetes-management
#2
Juliette Sandifer Kum-Nji, Aidar R Gosmanov, Helmut Steinberg, Samuel Dagogo-Jack
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are a class of antidiabetic medications that improve glycemic control via inhibiting the reabsorption of filtered glucose and are approved for use in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). These drugs have recently been associated with euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). An increasing number of cases of SGLT-2i-associated DKA have occurred in patients with T2DM. Herein, we describe five episodes of hyperglycemic DKA in four type 2 diabetes patients receiving SGLT-2i therapy...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910718/substituting-poly-and-mono-unsaturated-fat-for-dietary-carbohydrate-reduces-hyperinsulinemia-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#3
Dalia Perelman, Nicole Coghlan, Cindy Lamendola, Susan Carter, Fahim Abbasi, Tracey McLaughlin
OBJECTIVE: Hyperinsulinemia is a prevalent feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), contributing to metabolic and reproductive manifestations of the syndrome. Weight loss reduces hyperinsulinemia but weight regain is the norm, thus preventing long-term benefits. In the absence of weight loss, replacement of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) with mono/polyunsaturated fat reduces ambient insulin concentrations in non-PCOS subjects. The current study evaluated whether this dietary intervention could ameliorate hyperinsulinemia in women with PCOS...
December 2, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904598/the-effects-of-low-carbohydrate-diets-on-liver-function-tests-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinical-trials
#4
REVIEW
Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Amin Salehi-Abargouei, Pamela J Surkan, Leila Azadbakht
BACKGROUND: Although several observational and experimental studies have examined the effects of low carbohydrate diets (LCDs) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), there are considerable inconsistencies among studies. We summarized the effect of LCDs on liver function tests, including intrahepatic lipid content (IHLC), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferases (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in patients with NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant publications until July 2014, resulting in ten relevant papers that were included in meta-analysis...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904578/low-energy-density-diet-weight-loss-maintenance-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-following-a-recent-weight-reduction-program-a-randomized-control-trial
#5
Golgis Karimi, Leila Azadbakht, Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of a low energy dense diet on weight maintenance and cardiovascular risks following a recent weight reduction. Therefore, we assessed if weight maintenance, lipid profiles, and glycemic control differ between low energy density (LED) diet and usual diet consumers following a recent weight reduction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized controlled clinical trial study in a parallel design, we recruited 70 patients with the history of weight reduction in the recent 1 year...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903745/inhibiting-microglia-expansion-prevents-diet-induced-hypothalamic-and-peripheral-inflammation
#6
Caroline André, Omar Guzman-Quevedo, Charlotte Rey, Julie Rémus-Borel, Samantha Clark, Ashley Castellanos-Jankiewicz, Elodie Ladeveze, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, Agnes Nadjar, Djoher Nora Abrous, Sophie Laye, Daniela Cota
Cell proliferation and neuroinflammation in the adult hypothalamus may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we tested whether the intertwining of these two processes has a role in the metabolic changes caused by three weeks of saturated high-fat diet (HFD) consumption.As compared to chow, HFD-fed mice rapidly increased body weight and fat mass, and specifically showed increased microglia number in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. Microglia expansion required the adequate presence of fats and carbohydrates in the diet, since feeding mice a very high-fat, very low-carbohydrate diet did not affect cell proliferation...
November 30, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903520/visceral-adiposity-and-metabolic-syndrome-after-very-high-fat-and-low-fat-isocaloric-diets-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Vivian L Veum, Johnny Laupsa-Borge, Øyvin Eng, Espen Rostrup, Terje H Larsen, Jan Erik Nordrehaug, Ottar K Nygård, Jørn V Sagen, Oddrun A Gudbrandsen, Simon N Dankel, Gunnar Mellgren
BACKGROUND: Different aspects of dietary pattern, including macronutrient and food profiles, may affect visceral fat mass and metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that consuming energy primarily from carbohydrate or fat in diets with similar food profiles would differentially affect the ability to reverse visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: Forty-six men (aged 30-50 y) with body mass index (in kg/m(2)) >29 and waist circumference >98 cm were randomly assigned to a very high-fat, low-carbohydrate (VHFLC; 73% of energy fat and 10% of energy carbohydrate) or low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LFHC; 30% of energy fat and 53% of energy carbohydrate) diet for 12 wk...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899882/tumor-metabolism-the-ketogenic-diet-and-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-novel-approaches-to-adjuvant-brain-tumor-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Eric C Woolf, Nelofer Syed, Adrienne C Scheck
Malignant brain tumors are devastating despite aggressive treatments such as surgical resection, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The average life expectancy of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma is approximately ~18 months. It is clear that increased survival of brain tumor patients requires the design of new therapeutic modalities, especially those that enhance currently available treatments and/or limit tumor growth. One novel therapeutic arena is the metabolic dysregulation that results in an increased need for glucose in tumor cells...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898849/effects-of-feed-intake-and-dietary-nutrient-density-on-apparent-ileal-and-total-tract-digestibility-of-nutrients-and-gross-energy-for-growing-pigs
#9
J B Liu, Z Q Liu, L Chen, H F Zhang
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of feed intake (FI) and dietary nutrient concentration on the determination of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and GE for growing pigs. A total of 48 growing pigs (40.7 ± 1.3 kg initial BW) were surgically fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and assigned to 6 treatment groups in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 2 diets (a low-nutrient-density [LND] diet or a normal-nutrient-density [NND] diet) and 3 FI levels (3, 4 or 5% of BW per day)...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896443/dietary-sources-of-sugars-in-adolescents-diet-the-helena-study
#10
M I Mesana, A Hilbig, O Androutsos, M Cuenca-García, J Dallongeville, I Huybrechts, S De Henauw, K Widhalm, A Kafatos, E Nova, A Marcos, M González-Gross, D Molnar, F Gottrand, L A Moreno
OBJECTIVE: To report dietary sugars consumption and their different types and food sources, in European adolescents. METHODS: Food consumption data of selected groups were obtained from 1630 adolescents (45.6% males, 12.5-17.5 years) from the HELENA study using two nonconsecutive 24-h recalls. Energy intake, total sugars and free sugars were assessed using the HELENA-DIAT software. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: Total sugars intake (137...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895819/nutrition-insulin-resistance-and-dysfunctional-adipose-tissue-determine-the-different-components-of-metabolic-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Juan Antonio Paniagua
Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat. Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895389/comparisons-of-dietary-intake-in-japanese-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Yukiko Kobayashi, Hina Tatsumi, Mikako Hattori, Hiroki Sugiyama, Sayori Wada, Masashi Kuwahata, Saiyu Tanaka, Kazuyuki Kanemasa, Yoshio Sumida, Yuji Naito, Michiaki Fukui, Yasuhiro Kido
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multifactorial disease that involves a complex interaction between genetics, diet, and lifestyle, all of which combine to form the NAFLD phenotype. In Japan, medical nutrition therapy for NAFLD has not yet been established, so NAFLD patients are instructed in the dietary modifications used for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because points of difference may exist in the effects of dietary choices on NAFLD and T2DM, the present study aimed to compare and assess the dietary intake of Japanese individuals with NAFLD and T2DM...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893736/diet-induced-nutritional-stress-and-pathogen-interference-in-wolbachia-infected-aedes-aegypti
#13
Eric Pearce Caragata, Fernanda Oliveira Rezende, Taynãna César Simões, Luciano Andrade Moreira
The pathogen interference phenotype greatly restricts infection with dengue virus (DENV) and other pathogens in Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti, and is a vital component of Wolbachia-based mosquito control. Critically, the phenotype's causal mechanism is complex and poorly understood, with recent evidence suggesting that the cause may be species specific. To better understand this important phenotype, we investigated the role of diet-induced nutritional stress on interference against DENV and the avian malarial parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum in Wolbachia-infected Ae...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893145/are-low-carbohydrate-diets-safe-and-effective
#14
Heather Fields, Barbara Ruddy, Mark R Wallace, Amit Shah, Denise Millstine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891164/a-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-decreases-lean-mass-and-impairs-cardiac-function-in-pair-fed-female-c57bl-6j-mice
#15
Jessica Nilsson, Madelene Ericsson, Masoumeh Motamedi Joibari, Fredrick Anderson, Leif Carlsson, Stefan K Nilsson, Anna Sjödin, Jonas Burén
BACKGROUND: Excess body fat is a major health issue and a risk factor for the development of numerous chronic diseases. Low-carbohydrate diets like the Atkins Diet are popular for rapid weight loss, but the long-term consequences remain the subject of debate. The Scandinavian low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet, which has been popular in Scandinavian countries for about a decade, has very low carbohydrate content (~5 E %) but is rich in fat and includes a high proportion of saturated fatty acids...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884550/effects-of-changing-the-amount-and-source-of-dietary-carbohydrates-on-symptoms-and-dietary-satisfaction-over-a-1-year-period-in-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-canadian-trial-of-carbohydrates-in-diabetes-ccd
#16
Thomas M S Wolever, Jean-Louis Chiasson, Robert G Josse, Lawrence A Leiter, Pierre Maheux, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, N Wilson Rodger, Edmond A Ryan
OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term effects of changing the amount or source of dietary carbohydrate on quality of life (QOL), symptoms and dietary satisfaction in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Subjects with diabetes treated by diet alone (n=162) were randomly assigned to high-carbohydrate/high-glycemic-index (HGI) diets; high-carbohydrate/low-glycemic-index (LGI) diets; or lower-carbohydrate/high-monounsaturated-fat (LC) diets for 1 year. We measured QOL at baseline and at study's end, and we measured symptoms and dietary satisfaction quarterly...
November 21, 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876096/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-effects-of-very-low-carbohydrate-and-high-carbohydrate-diets-on-cognitive-performance-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Jeannie Tay, Ian T Zajac, Campbell H Thompson, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Vanessa Danthiir, Manny Noakes, Jonathan D Buckley, Gary A Wittert, Grant D Brinkworth
This study compared the longer-term effects of a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on cognitive performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In total, 115 obese adults with T2D (sixty-six males, BMI: 34·6 (sd 4·3) kg/m2, age: 58 (sd 7) years, HbA1c: 7·3 (sd 1·1) %, diabetes duration: 8 (sd 6) years) were randomised to consume either an energy-restricted, very low-carbohydrate, low-saturated-fat (LC) diet or an energy-matched high unrefined carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet with supervised aerobic/resistance exercise (60 min, 3 d/week) for 52 weeks...
November 23, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875499/impact-of-acute-dietary-manipulations-on-dxa-and-bia-body-composition-estimates
#18
Grant M Tinsley, Flor E Morales, Jeffrey S Forsse, Peter W Grandjean
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of acute pre-assessment diets on body composition estimates obtained by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). METHODS: In a counterbalanced design, 48 males and females were provided with two one-day diets: high-carbohydrate diet (9 g CHO/kg) and very low-carbohydrate diet (1 to 1.5 g CHO/kg). For each condition, body composition was assessed in the morning after an overnight fast, in the afternoon after feeding, and the following morning after a second overnight fast...
November 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868313/nutrient-dependent-increased-dendritic-arborization-of-somatosensory-neurons
#19
Kaori Watanabe, Yuki Furumizo, Tadao Usui, Yukako Hattori, Tadashi Uemura
Suboptimal nutrition imposes developmental constraints on infant animals, which marshal adaptive responses to eventually become mature adults. Such responses are mounted at multiple levels from systemic to cellular. At the cellular level, the underlying mechanisms of cell proliferation control have been intensively studied. However, less is known about how growth of postmitotic and morphologically complex cells, such as neurons, is controlled by nutritional status. We address this question using Class I and Class IV dendritic arborization neurons in Drosophila larvae...
November 21, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858027/%C3%AE-galactosides-present-in-lupin-flour-affect-several-metabolic-parameters-in-wistar-rats
#20
María I Palacio, Adriana R Weisstaub, Ángela Zuleta, Analía I Etcheverría, Guillermo D Manrique
The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of α-galactosides present in a lupin diet on metabolic parameters in growing Wistar rats. Lupin (Lupinus albus) is a rich source of non-digestible carbohydrates called α-galactosides whose beneficial health effects have been widely reported. For our investigation, twenty male Wistar rats were fed with two different diets: control (C) and lupin flour (L) for a 60-day period. The fermentation of these α-galactosides was monitored by measuring the following indicators: changes in the dynamic lactobacilli and enterobacteriaceae population, cecal content pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), Ca and P absorption, and serum lipid (triglycerides and cholesterol) contents...
November 18, 2016: Food & Function
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