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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245026/ketogenic-diet-induced-extension-of-longevity-in-epileptic-kcna1-null-mice-is-influenced-by-gender-and-age-at-treatment-onset
#1
Kyoung-Chul Chun, Shun-Chieh Ma, Hyoungil Oh, Jong M Rho, Do Young Kim
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a leading cause of premature mortality in patients with epilepsy, and has been linked to multiple risk factors, including gender and early age at seizure onset. Despite the lack of a targeted therapy for SUDEP, it has recently been shown that a high-fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) enhances longevity in the epileptic Kcna1-null (KO) mouse, a validated model of SUDEP. Here, we asked whether the KD-driven prolongation of lifespan in KO mice is dependent on sex and/or age at treatment onset...
November 21, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240830/a-low-fat-diet-ameliorates-pathology-but-retains-beneficial-effects-associated-with-cpt1b-knockout-in-skeletal-muscle
#2
Jaycob D Warfel, Bolormaa Vandanmagsar, Shawna E Wicks, Jingying Zhang, Robert C Noland, Randall L Mynatt
Inhibiting fatty acid oxidation is one approach to lowering glucose levels in diabetes. Skeletal muscle specific Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b knockout mice (Cpt1bm-/-) comprise a model of impaired fat oxidation; and have decreased fat mass and enhanced glucose disposal and muscle oxidative capacity compared to controls. However, unfavorable effects occur relative to controls when Cpt1bm-/- mice are fed a 25% fat diet, including decreased activity and fat free mass and increased intramuscular lipid and serum myoglobin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235157/dietary-intake-in-people-consuming-a-low-carbohydrate-diet-in-the-uk-biobank
#3
M Shafique, S Russell, S Murdoch, J D Bell, N Guess
BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets are becoming increasingly popular, although their dietary quality outside of clinical studies is unknown. A previous study analysed the dietary intake in people consuming a reduced-carbohydrate diet (<40% calories). However, it is not clear what foods people consume when carbohydrate is reduced to below 26% of total calories. METHODS: In the present cross-sectional study, the dietary and nutrient intake collected via up to five consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and a food frequency questionnaire of 444 individuals (aged 46-79 years) consuming <26% of calories from carbohydrate (LCHO) was compared with that of 131 897 individuals consuming ≥45% calories from carbohydrate (NCHO) using the UK Biobank Dataset...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233719/a-randomized-study-of-dietary-composition-during-weight-loss-maintenance-rationale-study-design-intervention-and-assessment
#4
Cara B Ebbeling, Gloria L Klein, Patricia K Luoto, Julia M W Wong, Lisa Bielak, Ralph G Eddy, Sarah K Steltz, Courtenay Devlin, Megan Sandman, Bridget Hron, Kim Shimy, Steven B Heymsfield, Robert R Wolfe, William W Wong, Henry A Feldman, David S Ludwig
BACKGROUND: While many people with overweight or obesity can lose weight temporarily, most have difficulty maintaining weight loss over the long term. Studies of dietary composition typically focus on weight loss, rather than weight-loss maintenance, and rely on nutrition education and dietary counseling, rather than controlled feeding protocols. Variation in initial weight loss and insufficient differentiation among treatments confound interpretation of results and compromise conclusions regarding the weight-independent effects of dietary composition...
December 9, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233588/changes-in-circulating-mirnas-in-healthy-overweight-and-obese-subjects-effect-of-diet-composition-and-weight-loss
#5
S Giardina, P Hernández-Alonso, A Díaz-López, A Salas-Huetos, J Salas-Salvadó, M Bulló
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that can play an important role in several chronic metabolic conditions, including obesity. However, to date little is known about how they are regulated. Weight loss induced by surgical procedures has been effective at modulating specific circulating miRNAs, but the effect of energy-restricted diets with different macronutrient compositions on circulating miRNAs is not well understood. The objective of the present analysis was to explore the effect of three energy-restricted diets of different macronutrient composition and carbohydrate quality on plasma miRNA levels...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231275/effects-of-limit-feeding-diets-with-different-forage-to-concentrate-ratios-on-nutrient-intake-rumination-ruminal-fermentation-digestibility-blood-parameters-and-growth-in-holstein-heifers
#6
Jun Zhang, Haitao Shi, Yajing Wang, Shengli Li, Hongtao Zhang, Zhijun Cao, Kailun Yang
The objective of this study was using a wide range of dietary concentrate levels to investigate the major effects of limit-feeding on heifers. Twenty-four Holstein heifers were blocked into six groups and fed with one of four diets containing different levels of concentrate (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% on a dry matter (DM) basis) but with same intakes of metabolizable energy for 28 days. Increasing levels of dietary concentrate caused decreased (P ≤ 0.02) intakes of dry matter (DMI) and neutral detergent fiber and total rumination time, but increased (P < 0...
December 12, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229652/protocol-for-the-specialist-supervised-individualised-multifactorial-treatment-of-new-clinically-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-in-general-practice-ida-a-prospective-controlled-multicentre-open-label-intervention-study
#7
Jacob Volmer Stidsen, Jens Steen Nielsen, Jan Erik Henriksen, Søren Gunnar Friborg, Reimar Wernich Thomsen, Thomas Bastholm Olesen, Michael Hecht Olsen, Henning Beck-Nielsen
INTRODUCTION: We present the protocol for a multifactorial intervention study designed to test whether individualised treatment, based on pathophysiological phenotyping and individualised treatment goals, improves type 2 diabetes (T2D) outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a prospective controlled multicentre open-label intervention study, drawing on the longitudinal cohort of the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2). New clinically diagnosed patients with T2D in the intervention group will be assigned to receive individualised treatment by their general practitioner...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225095/restriction-of-dietary-protein-leads-to-conditioned-protein-preference-and-elevated-palatability-of-protein-containing-food-in-rats
#8
Michelle Murphy, Kate Z Peters, Bethany S Denton, Kathryn A Lee, Heramb Chadchankar, James E McCutcheon
The mechanisms by which intake of dietary protein is regulated are poorly understood despite their potential involvement in determining food choice and appetite. In particular, it is unclear whether protein deficiency results in a specific appetite for protein and whether influences on diet are immediate or develop over time. To determine the effects of protein restriction on consumption, preference, and palatability for protein we assessed patterns of intake for casein (protein) and maltodextrin (carbohydrate) solutions in adult rats...
December 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216237/the-nutraceutical-benefits-of-subfractions-of-abelmoschus-esculentus-in-treating-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Chien-Ning Huang, Chau-Jong Wang, Chih-Li Lin, Hui-Ting Lin, Chiung-Huei Peng
Abelmoschus esculentus (AE), a commonly consumed vegetable, is well-known for its anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, few scientific reports have identified its targets because mucilage increases the difficulty of manipulation. We recently reported extraction steps to obtain subfractions of AE, which were found to attenuate the adverse effects of high glucose and fatty acid in vitro. In this study, we used modified extraction steps and type 2 diabetic rats to explore whether AE subfractions can improve the metabolic disturbances caused by insulin resistance in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206237/one-year-follow-up-after-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-130-g-day-low-carbohydrate-diet-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-poor-glycemic-control
#10
Junko Sato, Akio Kanazawa, Chie Hatae, Sumiko Makita, Koji Komiya, Tomoaki Shimizu, Fuki Ikeda, Yoshifumi Tamura, Takeshi Ogihara, Tomoya Mita, Hiromasa Goto, Toyoyoshi Uchida, Takeshi Miyatsuka, Chie Ohmura, Takehito Watanabe, Kiyoe Kobayashi, Yoshiko Miura, Manami Iwaoka, Nao Hirashima, Hirotaka Watada
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recently, we conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) showing that a 6-month 130g/day low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) reduced HbA1c and BMI more than a calorie restricted diet (CRD). [1] To assess whether the benefits of the LCD persisted after the intensive intervention, we compared HbA1c and BMI between the LCD and CRD groups at 1 year after the end of the 6-month RCT. METHODS: Following the end of the 6-month RCT, patients were allowed to manage their own diets with periodic outpatient visits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204137/microbial-mechanistic-insight-into-the-role-of-inulin-in-improving-maternal-health-in-a-pregnant-sow-model
#11
Pan Zhou, Yang Zhao, Pan Zhang, Yan Li, Taotao Gui, Jun Wang, Chao Jin, Lianqiang Che, Jian Li, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Bin Feng, Zhengfeng Fang, De Wu
General consumption of "western diet" characterized by high refined carbohydrates, fat and energy intake has resulted in a global obesity epidemics and related metabolic disturbance even for pregnant women. Pregnancy process is accompanied by substantial hormonal, metabolic and immunological changes during which gut microbiota is also remarkably remodeled. Dietary fiber has been demonstrated to have a striking role in shifting the microbial composition so as to improve host metabolism and health in non-pregnant individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203178/fruit-flies-may-face-a-nutrient-dependent-life-history-trade-off-between-secondary-sexual-trait-quality-survival-and-developmental-rate
#12
Lindsey J Gray, Stephen J Simpson, Michal Polak
Optimal life-history strategies are those that best allocate finite environmental resources to competing traits. We used the geometric framework for nutrition to evaluate life-history strategies followed by Drosophila melanogaster by measuring the condition-dependent performance of life-history traits, including the morphology of male secondary sexual characters, sex combs. We found that depending on their rearing environment flies faced different forms of trait trade-offs and accordingly followed different life-history strategies...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190720/intramyocellular-triacylglycerol-accumulation-across-weight-loss-strategies-sub-study-of-the-central-trial
#13
Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Gal Tsaban, Hila Zelicha, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Lilac Tene, Benjamin Sarusy, Philip Rosen, Jay R Hoffman, Jeffrey R Stout, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
BACKGROUND: Intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG) is utilized as metabolic fuel during exercise and is linked to insulin resistance, but the long-term effect of weight loss strategies on IMTG among participants with abdominal fat, remain unclear. METHODS: In an 18-month trial, sedentary participants with abdominal fat/dyslipidemia were randomized to either a low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet (including 28g·day-1 of walnuts). After 6-months, the participants were re-randomized to moderate intense physical activity (PA+) or non-physical activity (PA-)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188010/effects-of-macronutrient-intake-on-the-lifespan-and-fecundity-of-the-marula-fruit-fly-ceratitis-cosyra-tephritidae-extreme-lifespan-in-a-host-specialist
#14
Kevin Malod, C Ruth Archer, John Hunt, Susan W Nicolson, Christopher W Weldon
In insects, lifespan and reproduction are strongly associated with nutrition. The ratio and amount of nutrients individuals consume affect their life expectancy and reproductive investment. The geometric framework (GF) enables us to explore how animals regulate their intake of multiple nutrients simultaneously and determine how these nutrients interact to affect life-history traits of interest. Studies using the GF on host-generalist tephritid flies have highlighted trade-offs between longevity and reproductive effort in females, mediated by the protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C) ratio that individuals consume...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186908/the-effect-of-a-diet-moderately-high-in-protein-and-fiber-on-insulin-sensitivity-measured-using-the-dynamic-insulin-sensitivity-and-secretion-test-disst
#15
Lisa Te Morenga, Paul Docherty, Sheila Williams, Jim Mann
Evidence shows that weight loss improves insulin sensitivity but few studies have examined the effect of macronutrient composition independently of weight loss on direct measures of insulin sensitivity. We randomised 89 overweight or obese women to either a standard diet (StdD), that was intended to be low in fat and relatively high in carbohydrate (n = 42) or to a relatively high protein (up to 30% of energy), relatively high fibre (>30 g/day) diet (HPHFib) (n = 47) for 10 weeks. Advice regarding strict adherence to energy intake goals was not given...
November 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186772/correction-watson-n-et-al-effects-of-low-fat-diets-differing-in-protein-and-carbohydrate-content-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-during-weight-loss-and-weight-maintenance-in-obese-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-nutrients-2016-8-289
#16
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185929/impact-of-a-non-restrictive-satiating-diet-on-anthropometrics-satiety-responsiveness-and-eating-behaviour-traits-in-obese-men-displaying-a-high-or-a-low-satiety-phenotype
#17
Hélène Arguin, Angelo Tremblay, John E Blundell, Jean-Pierre Després, Denis Richard, Benoît Lamarche, Vicky Drapeau
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a non-restrictive satiating diet in men displaying various degrees of satiety efficiency. In all, sixty-nine obese men aged 41·5 (sd 5·7) years were randomly assigned to a control (10-15, 55-60 and 30 % energy as protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively; n 34) or satiating (20-25, 45-50 and 30-35 % energy as protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively; n 35) diet for 16 weeks, and were classified as having a low (LSP) or high (HSP) satiety phenotype...
November 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184484/ketone-based-metabolic-therapy-is-increased-nad-a-primary-mechanism
#18
Marwa Elamin, David N Ruskin, Susan A Masino, Paola Sacchetti
The ketogenic diet's (KD) anticonvulsant effects have been well-documented for nearly a century, including in randomized controlled trials. Some patients become seizure-free and some remain so after diet cessation. Many recent studies have explored its expanded therapeutic potential in diverse neurological disorders, yet no mechanism(s) of action have been established. The diet's high fat, low carbohydrate composition reduces glucose utilization and promotes the production of ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are a more efficient energy source than glucose and improve mitochondrial function and biogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182403/long-distance-triathletes-intentions-to-manipulate-energy-and-macronutrient-intake-over-a-training-macrocycle
#19
Hani Kopetschny, David Rowlands, David Popovich, Jasmine Thomson
This study explored the information sources long-distance triathletes used to inform their training and nutrition plans, and evaluated these plans over a training macrocycle. Seventy-four long-distance triathletes completed the online survey. Coaches were the most popular training information source (69%), whereas non-professional sources (internet 65%, other athletes 53%) were more popular than nutritionists (29%) for nutrition information. Attributes valued most in an information source were: source prior personal experience, individualised advice, breadth of knowledge, and credibility...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181545/non-celiac-gluten-sensitivity-people-without-celiac-disease-avoiding-gluten-is-it-due-to-histamine-intolerance
#20
REVIEW
Wolfgang J Schnedl, Sonja Lackner, Dietmar Enko, Michael Schenk, Harald Mangge, Sandra J Holasek
INTRODUCTION: Food intolerance/malabsorption is caused by food ingredients, carbohydrates (mainly lactose and fructose), proteins (gluten), and biogenic amines (histamine) which cause nonspecific gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. Here we focus on possible etiologic factors of intolerance/malabsorption especially in people with non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or the so-called people without celiac disease avoiding gluten (PWCDAG) and histamine intolerance. METHODS: Recognizing the recently described symptoms of NCGS (PWCDAG) we review correlations and parallels to histamine intolerance (HIT)...
November 27, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
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