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Pneumococcal vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906921/rheumatologists-fail-to-advise-people-with-ra-to-get-immunised-which-matters-if-you-are-under-65-an-audit-in-a-new-zealand-rheumatology-service
#1
Brendan Ng, Lynn McBain, Rebecca Grainger
AIM: To assess if yearly-influenza and five-yearly pneumococcal vaccines are recommended to people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a New Zealand rheumatology service in accordance with guidelines and determine patient immunisation status for these respiratory pathogens. METHODS: Retrospective review of electronic health records of all outpatients with RA attending a regional rheumatology centre in New Zealand over a one-month period immediately after the release of the 2015 influenza vaccination...
December 2, 2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905836/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-the-post-vaccine-era
#2
Sevgen Tanır Basaranoglu, Eda Karadag Oncel, Kubra Aykac, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Ates Kara, Mehmet Ceyhan
A breakthrough infection occurring with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in Turkey are previously described. A breakthrough infection is defined as IPD in a child who had received ≥1 PCV-7 or PCV-13 and for which the pneumococcal isolate was a vaccine serotype. During one year period, among six patients with invasive pneumococcal infection, two patients were considered to have a vaccine failure with serotype 19F. Antibiotic resistance results were remarkable; macrolide resistance were observed in all strains except one, and high and intermediate penicillin resistance were determined in two strains...
December 1, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903558/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-routine-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-the-uk-a-comparison-of-the-phid-cv-vaccine-and-the-pcv-13-vaccine-using-a-markov-model
#3
Emmanuelle Delgleize, Oscar Leeuwenkamp, Eleni Theodorou, Nicolas Van de Velde
OBJECTIVES: In 2010, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) replaced the 7-valent vaccine (introduced in 2006) for vaccination against invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs), pneumonia and acute otitis media (AOM) in the UK. Using recent evidence on the impact of PCVs and epidemiological changes in the UK, we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to compare the pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) with PCV-13 in the ongoing national vaccination programme...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902652/circulating-antibody-1-and-2-years-after-vaccination-with-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-preterm-compared-with-term-infants
#4
Federico Martinón-Torres, Jacek Wysocki, Kimberly J Center, Hanna Czajka, Ewa Majda-Stanislawska, Felix Omeñaca, Ana Concheiro-Guisan, Francisco Gimenez-Sanchez, Leszek Szenborn, Daniel Blázquez-Gamero, Laura Moreno-Galarraga, Peter C Giardina, Gang Sun, William C Gruber, Daniel A Scott, Alejandra Gurtman
BACKGROUND: Premature infants have lower short-term immune responses to vaccination than term infants, but patterns of antibody persistence in preterm infants over longer periods are not well established. This study assessed the persistence of antibody response to the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in formerly preterm versus term infants. METHODS: In total, 100 preterm and 100 term infants received PCV13 with routine vaccines at ages 2, 3, 4, and 12 months...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899227/challenges-to-estimating-vaccine-impact-using-hospitalization-data
#5
Cynthia Schuck-Paim, Robert J Taylor, Lone Simonsen, Roger Lustig, Esra Kürüm, Christian A W Bruhn, Daniel M Weinberger
Because the real-world impact of new vaccines cannot be known before they are implemented in national programs, post-implementation studies at the population level are critical. Studies based on analysis of hospitalization rates of vaccine-preventable outcomes are typically used for this purpose. However, estimates of vaccine impact based on hospitalization data are particularly prone to confounding, as hospitalization rates are tightly linked to changes in the quality, access and use of the healthcare system, which often occur simultaneously with introduction of new vaccines...
November 26, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895845/a-trial-of-a-7-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-hiv-infected-adults
#6
Neil French, Stephen B Gordon, Thandie Mwalukomo, Sarah A White, Gershom Mwafulirwa, Herbert Longwe, Martin Mwaiponya, Eduard E Zijlstra, Malcolm E Molyneux, Charles F Gilks
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading and serious coinfection in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, particularly in Africa. Prevention of this disease by vaccination with the current 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine is suboptimal. Protein conjugate vaccines offer a further option for protection, but data on their clinical efficacy in adults are needed. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical efficacy trial, we studied the efficacy of a 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in predominantly HIV-infected Malawian adolescents and adults who had recovered from documented invasive pneumococcal disease...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895641/pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccination-elicits-igg-anti-a-b-blood-group-antibodies-in-healthy-individuals-and-patients-with-type-i-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Wendelin Wolfram, Kai M T Sauerwein, Christoph J Binder, Nicole Eibl-Musil, Hermann M Wolf, Michael B Fischer
HYPOTHESIS: Blood group antibodies are natural antibodies that develop early in life in response to cross-reactive environmental antigens in the absence of antigen encounter. Even later in life structural similarities in saccharide composition between environmental antigens such as bacterial polysaccharides and blood group A/B antigens could lead to changes in serum levels, IgM/IgG isotype, and affinity maturation of blood group anti-A/B antibodies. We addressed the question whether immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnP) vaccine Pneumo 23 Vaccine "Pasteur Merieux" (Pn23) could have such an effect in patients with type I diabetes mellitus (DM I), an autoimmune disease where an aberrant immune response to microbial antigens likely plays a role...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890398/influenza-vaccination-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-coverage-predictors-of-uptake-and-perceptions-result-of-the-madiabetes-cohort-a-7years-follow-up-study
#8
Rodrigo Jiménez-Garcia, Ana Lopez-de-Andres, Valentin Hernandez-Barrera, Paloma Gómez-Campelo, Francisco J San Andrés-Rebollo, Carmen de Burgos-Lunar, Juan Cárdenas-Valladolid, Juan Carlos Abánades-Herranz, Miguel Angel Salinero-Fort
OBJECTIVES: We aim to determine influenza vaccination uptake among people with diabetes included in the MADIABETES cohort study in order to identify predictors of uptake and to analyze reasons for adherence and non-adherence with vaccination. METHODS: Using data from the MADIABETES Study we conducted a retrospective case record form based study without controls. We included outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Information was obtained from computerized clinical records and by telephone survey...
November 24, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889801/production-and-purification-of-an-untagged-recombinant-pneumococcal-surface-protein-a-pspa4pro-with-high-purity-and-low-endotoxin-content
#9
Douglas B Figueiredo, Eneas Carvalho, Mauricio P Santos, Stefanie Kraschowetz, Rafaela T Zanardo, Gilson Campani, Gabriel G Silva, Cíntia R Sargo, Antonio Carlos L Horta, Roberto de C Giordano, Eliane N Miyaji, Teresa C Zangirolami, Joaquin Cabrera-Crespo, Viviane Maimoni Gonçalves
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of pneumonia, meningitis, and other conditions that kill thousands of children every year worldwide. The replacement of pneumococcal serotypes among the vaccinated population has evidenced the need for new vaccines with broader coverage and driven the research for protein-based vaccines. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) protects S. pneumoniae from the bactericidal effect of human apolactoferrin and prevents complement deposition. Several studies indicate that PspA is a very promising target for novel vaccine formulations...
November 26, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889249/analysis-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-haemophilus-influenzae-isolated-from-middle-ear-fluid-before-and-after-the-introduction-of-government-subsidies-for-pneumococcal-and-h-%C3%A2-influenzae-type-b-vaccines-in-japan
#10
Tadashi Hoshino, Noriko Takeuchi, Chie Fukasawa, Shoko Hirose, Hideyuki Okui, Hiroko Sato, Mari Sato, Yukiko Arimoto, Atsuko Nakano, Naruhiko Ishiwada
This study aimed to identify trends in frequency, serotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from middle ear fluid specimens of children aged≤15 years (mean, 2 years), before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and the H. influenzae type b vaccine, at a pediatric facility in Japan. Sixty-six S. pneumoniae and 88 H. influenzae strains were isolated from 820 middle ear fluid samples. Serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887596/effectiveness-immunogenicity-and-safety-of-23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-revaccinations-in-the-elderly-a-systematic-review
#11
Cornelius Remschmidt, Thomas Harder, Ole Wichmann, Christian Bogdan, Gerhard Falkenhorst
BACKGROUND: In many industrialized countries routine vaccination with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV-23) is recommended to prevent pneumococcal disease in the elderly. However, vaccine-induced immunity wanes after a few years, and there are controversies around revaccination with PPSV-23. Here, we systematically assessed the effectiveness and safety of PPSV-23 revaccination. METHOD: We conducted a systematic literature review in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to June 2015...
November 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885841/the-utility-of-saliva-for-the-assessment-of-anti-pneumococcal-antibodies-investigation-of-saliva-as-a-marker-of-antibody-status-in-serum
#12
Jennifer L J Heaney, Anna C Phillips, Douglas Carroll, Mark T Drayson
CONTEXT: Salivary antibodies may act as non-invasive marker of systemic immunity enabling assessment of vaccination and protection against bacterial infections. OBJECTIVE: To assess if levels of anti-pneumococcal antibodies in saliva reflect concentrations in serum and determine whether saliva can accurately identify protective concentrations in serum. METHODS: IgG, IgA and IgM antibody levels in paired saliva and serum samples were measured against 12 pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens in 72 healthy adults...
November 25, 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885442/patterns-and-trends-of-pediatric-bloodstream-infections-a-7-year-surveillance-study
#13
N Buetti, A Atkinson, L Kottanattu, J Bielicki, J Marschall, A Kronenberg
We characterize the epidemiology of pediatric bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Switzerland. We analyzed pathogen distribution and resistance patterns in monomicrobial and polymicrobial BSIs in children from 2008 to 2014 using data from the Swiss antibiotic resistance centre (ANRESIS). A confirmatory statistical analysis was performed comparing pathogens and resistance across 20 acute care hospitals. We identified 3,067 bacteremia episodes, of which 1,823 (59 %) were considered true BSI episodes. Overall, S...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885052/enhanced-protective-responses-to-a-serotype-independent-pneumococcal-vaccine-when-combined-with-an-inactivated-influenza-vaccine
#14
Rachelle Babb, Austen Chen, Abiodun D Ogunniyi, Timothy R Hirst, Ervin E Kara, Shaun R McColl, Mohammed Alsharifi, James C Paton
Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza are the world's foremost bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens. We have previously described a gamma-irradiated influenza (γ-FLU) vaccine that provides cross-protective immunity against heterosubtypic infections. More recently, we reported a novel non-adjuvanted gamma-irradiated S. pneumoniae (γ-PN) vaccine that elicits serotype-independent protection. Considering the clinical synergism of both pathogens, combination of a serotype-independent pneumococcal vaccine with a broad-spectrum influenza vaccine to protect against both infections would have considerable clinical impact...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884476/systemic-immunization-with-rpotd-reduces-streptococcus-pneumoniae-nasopharyngeal-colonization-in-mice
#15
T R Converso, C Goulart, D Rodriguez, M Darrieux, L C C Leite
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a human pathogen that can cause otitis media, pneumonia and, in severe cases, meningitis and bacteremia. The pneumococcus expresses PotD, a protein belonging to the polyamines transporter complex called PotABCD. PotD is a membrane-associated protein that binds polyamines and has been shown to be important for virulence. In this work we demonstrate that subcutaneous immunization with rPotD reduces the bacterial load in the nasal tissue of mice, following intranasal challenge with a type 6B pneumococcus...
November 21, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879558/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-selected-head-and-neck-infections-in-hospitalized-israeli-children
#16
Tal Marom, Shiran Bookstein Peretz, Orna Schwartz, Abraham Goldfarb, Yahav Oron, Sharon Ovnat Tamir
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen of pediatric head and neck infections (HNIs), e.g. acute otitis media (AOM), acute mastoiditis (AM), acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) and meningitis. The aim of the study was to characterize the epidemiology of pneumococcal HNIs (pHNIs) before, during, and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). METHODS: Children 0-16 years who were hospitalized with HNIs in the Pediatrics Department in a general hospital between 1/1/2007-12/31/2014 were retrospectively identified...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876197/vaccination-of-special-populations-protecting-the-vulnerable
#17
REVIEW
Mark Doherty, Ruprecht Schmidt-Ott, Jose Ignacio Santos, Lawrence R Stanberry, Annika M Hofstetter, Susan L Rosenthal, Anthony L Cunningham
One of the strategic objectives of the 2011-2020 Global Vaccine Action Plan is for the benefits of immunisation to be equitably extended to all people. This approach encompasses special groups at increased risk of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as preterm infants and pregnant women, as well as those with chronic and immune-compromising medical conditions or at increased risk of disease due to immunosenescence. Despite demonstrations of effectiveness and safety, vaccine uptake in these special groups is frequently lower than expected, even in developed countries with vaccination strategies in place...
November 18, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869440/immunology-update-new-vaccines
#18
S Paul Starr
A new 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is effective against more cancer-causing HPV types than previous vaccines. HPV vaccine series started with previous vaccines can be completed with the 9-valent vaccine. Two new influenza vaccines are available for adults 65 years and older: a high-dose vaccine and an enhanced adjuvant vaccine. These elicit stronger antibody responses than standard-dose vaccines. Current guidelines specify no preference for the new versus standard-dose vaccines. Two new group B meningococcal vaccines are intended for use during outbreaks and for patients with asplenia, complement deficiencies, frequent occupational meningococcus exposure, or for patients who desire protection from type B meningococcus...
November 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867073/immune-status-assessment-in-adult-lung-transplant-candidates
#19
Diana A van Kessel, Thijs W Hoffman, Heleen van Velzen-Blad, Ed A van de Graaf, Jan C Grutters, Ger T Rijkers
BACKGROUND: Lung transplant recipients have an increased susceptibility to a variety of infections due to immunosuppressive therapy. Current guidelines recommend pneumococcal and other vaccinations, prior to lung transplantation to protect against post-transplant infections, but measurement of the antibody response to vaccination is not advised. Immune status investigation in lung transplant candidates, including the response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination, has not been described...
November 17, 2016: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865564/pneumococcal-pep27-mutant-immunization-stimulates-cytokine-secretion-and-confers-long-term-immunity-with-a-wide-range-of-protection-including-against-non-typeable-strains
#20
Gyu-Lee Kim, Sang-Yoon Choi, Seung-Han Seon, Seungyeop Lee, Sang-Sang Park, Joon Young Song, David E Briles, Dong-Kwon Rhee
Streptococcus pneumoniae is comprised of more than 90 serotypes and is the major causative agent of pneumonia, which results in over 1million deaths worldwide every year. Currently available injectable vaccines can protect against only 13-23 serotypes, and result in decrease of colonization against vaccine serotypes. However, they are neither effective for inhibition of non-vaccine serotypes colonization nor inhibition against initial colonization in the nasopharynx against various serotypes. Thus, development of a vaccine conveying broader protection at the colonization stage is required...
December 12, 2016: Vaccine
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