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Pneumococcal vaccine

Julia L Marcus, Roger Baxter, Wendy A Leyden, Dharushana Muthulingam, Arnold Yee, Michael A Horberg, Daniel B Klein, William J Towner, Chun R Chao, Charles P Quesenberry, Michael J Silverberg
It is unclear whether HIV-infected individuals remain at higher risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. We conducted a cohort study of HIV-infected and demographically matched HIV-uninfected adults within Kaiser Permanente Northern California during the period 1996-2011. We used Poisson models to obtain rate ratios (RRs) for incident IPD associated with HIV infection and other risk factors. Among 13,079 HIV-infected and 137,643 HIV-uninfected adults, the IPD rate per 100,000 person-years was 160 (n = 109 events) for HIV-infected and 8 (n = 75 events) for HIV-uninfected subjects, with an adjusted RR of 13...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Stefan Flasche, Noga Givon-Lavi, Ron Dagan
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have substantially reduced the burden of pneumococcal disease, including the incidence of otitis media (OM). However, in most countries, no surveillance exists to monitor the change in pneumococcal OM incidence after the introduction of PCVs. We explored whether measuring pneumococcal carriage was a useful surrogate for monitoring postvaccination changes in the incidence of pneumococcal OM. The 7-valent PCV was introduced to Israel's national immunization program in July 2009 and gradually replaced by the 13-valent PCV starting in November 2010...
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Vijay G Mammen, Ziyaad Dangor, David P Moore, Alane Izu, Natalie Beylis, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: Children hospitalized with culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) frequently present with acute symptoms, possibly because of superimposed pneumococcal pneumonia. We undertook a time-series analysis to determine whether routine immunization of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was temporally associated with changes in the incidence of hospitalization for PTB in South African children. METHODS: PCV was introduced in the South African public immunization program in April 2009, with coverage for the third dose of PCV of 10%, 64% and 89% in 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jacek Wysocki, Jerzy Brzostek, Ryszard Konior, Falko G Panzer, Nancy A François, Sudheer M Ravula, Devayani A Kolhe, Yue Song, Ilse Dieussaert, Lode Schuerman, Dorota Borys
To investigate long-term antibody persistence following the administration of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV), we present results of two follow-up studies assessing antibody persistence following two 3+1 schedules up to four (NCT00624819 - Study A) and five years (NCT00891176 - Study B) post-booster vaccination. In Study A, antibody persistence was measured one, two and four years post-booster in children previously primed and boosted with PHiD-CV, or primed with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) and boosted with either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM...
October 13, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Bahaa Abu-Raya, Tobias R Kollmann, Arnaud Marchant, Duncan M MacGillivray
Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Shalini Desai, Michelle E Policarpio, Kenney Wong, Jonathan Gubbay, Jill Fediurek, Shelley Deeks
BACKGROUND: In Ontario, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been sequentially introduced into the publicly funded childhood vaccination program since 2005. A 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) has been routinely recommended for adults aged 65 years and older since 1996. To determine the effect of herd immunity, we examined the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults aged 65 years and older. METHODS: Invasive pneumococcal disease is a provincially reportable disease...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
Tochukwu Raphael Abadom, Adrian D Smith, Stefano Tempia, Shabir A Madhi, Cheryl Cohen, Adam L Cohen
BACKGROUND: Influenza is a common cause of severe respiratory illness, but risk factors for hospitalisation in low income settings with a high HIV prevalence are not well described. We aimed to assess risk factors associated with influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalisation in South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a case-population study using data on risk conditions in patients hospitalised with SARI and the national prevalence of these conditions...
October 6, 2016: Vaccine
R Yazdani, R Seify, M Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, H Abolhassani, N Eskandari, F Golsaz-Shirazi, B Ansaripour, E Salehi, G Azizi, N Rezaei, A Aghamohammadi
BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disease, characterised by hypogammaglobulinaemia leading to recurrent infections and various complications. The aim of this study was to classify CVID patients based on four known classifications (Paris, Freiburg, EUROclass, and B-cell patterns) by measurement of B-cell subsets and to assess the relation of each classification with clinical manifestations. METHODS: We measured all B-cell subsets as both absolute count and percentage in 30 CVID patients and 30 healthy individuals using four-colour flow cytometry...
October 4, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
David Bin-Chia Wu, Kenneth Kwing Chin Lee, Vivian Wing Yan Lee, Li-Wen Hong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Anne L Wyllie, Lidewij W Rümke, Kayleigh Arp, Astrid A T M Bosch, Jacob P Bruin, Nynke Y Rots, Alienke J Wijmenga-Monsuur, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Krzysztof Trzciński
Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults is rarely detected by the gold standard culture method. With molecular tests of high sensitivity now available, we analysed upper respiratory tract samples collected during autumn/winter 2012/2013 from parents of PCV7-vaccinated infants and from childless adults, directly comparing culture and qPCR-based S. pneumoniae detection. As compared to the gold standard of testing nasopharyngeal swabs, qPCR-based analysis of oral samples significantly improved detection of pneumococcal carriage (5% versus 20%, p < 0...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Holly A Hill, Laurie D Elam-Evans, David Yankey, James A Singleton, Vance Dietz
Sustained high coverage with recommended vaccinations among children has kept many vaccine-preventable diseases at low levels in the United States (1). To assess coverage with vaccinations recommended for children by age 2 years in the United States (2), CDC analyzed data collected by the 2015 National Immunization Survey (NIS) for children aged 19-35 months (born January 2012-May 2014). Overall, coverage did not change during 2014-2015. Coverage in 2015 was highest for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (93...
October 7, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Max R Schroeder, David S Stephens
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common commensal and an opportunistic pathogen. Suspected pneumococcal upper respiratory infections and pneumonia are often treated with macrolide antibiotics. Macrolides are bacteriostatic antibiotics and inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit. The widespread use of macrolides is associated with increased macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae, and the treatment of pneumococcal infections with macrolides may be associated with clinical failures. In S...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Adamos Hadjipanayis, Elisavet Efstathiou, Maria Alexandrou, Loukia Panayiotou, Chrystalla Zachariadou, Panayiotis Petrou, Vasiliki Papaevangelou
The objective of the study was to describe the incidence of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage, serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance profile of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal isolates in healthy children aged 6 to 36 months following the implementation of conjugate vaccines. A nasopharyngeal swab was collected from 1105 healthy children following a stratified random sampling between September 2013 and April 2014. Demographics, vaccination status and data on possible risk factors were recorded. Isolates were serotyped and tested for antibiotic susceptibility...
2016: PloS One
Young-Eun Kim, Ye-Rin Lee, So-Youn Park, Kyung Suk Lee, In-Hwan Oh
Background. Otitis media (OM) is a common communicable disease that is associated with a substantial economic burden. However, no Korean studies have evaluated OM-related trends after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Purpose. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and economic burden of OM in Korea using nationally representative data. Methods. The burden of OM was estimated nationally representative data such as national health insurance claims data from 2012, based on the prevalence approach and the societal perspective...
2016: BioMed Research International
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
Pneumococcal infections continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients throughout the world. This microorganism remains the most common bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia and is associated with a considerable burden of disease and health-care costs in both developed and developing countries. Emerging antibiotic resistance has been a concern because of its potential negative impact on the outcome of patients who receive standard antibiotic therapy. However, there have been substantial changes in the epidemiology of this pathogen in recent years, not least of which has been due to the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in children, with subsequent herd protection in unvaccinated adults and children...
2016: F1000Research
Maria-Cristina de C Brandileone, Rosemeire C Zanella, Samanta C G Almeida, Angela P Brandao, Ana F Ribeiro, Telma-Regina M P Carvalhanas, Helena Sato, Ana-Lúcia Andrade, Jennifer R Verani
In March 2010, Brazil introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) in the routine infant immunization program using a 4-dose schedule and catch-up for children <23months. We investigated PCV10 effect on nasopharyngeal carriage with vaccine-type Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) among children in São Paulo city. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2010 (baseline) and 2013 (post-PCV10). Healthy PCV-naïve children aged 12-23months were recruited from primary health centers during immunization campaigns...
September 28, 2016: Vaccine
Catia Cilloniz, Adrian Ceccato, Alicia San Jose, Antoni Torres
Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major health problem in elderly persons and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Areas covered: This article reviews the most recent publications relative to CAP in the elderly population, with a focus on epidemiology, prognostic factors, microbial etiology, therapy and prevention. The data discussed in this review were mainly obtained from a non-systematic review using Medline, and references from relevant articles. Expert Commentary: CAP can occur at any age, but its incidence and risk of death are linked to increasing age...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Qi Liang, Gui-Fan Li, Feng-Cai Zhu
Diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are a major public health problem worldwide, which can be effectively prevented by the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (PPV23). Areas covered: The Beijing Minhai PPV23 showed good safety and immunogenicity profiles in clinical trials. The immunogenicity of Beijing Minhai PPV23 was non-inferior to other licensed PPVs. Although PPV23 has been proved to be highly efficient and cost-effective, and was recommended for vaccination in high-risk populations in industrialized countries, the coverage of PPV23 vaccination was relatively low in developing countries...
October 4, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
Antoni Payeras, Maria Peñaranda, Antonio Iñigo, Margarita Garau, José Luis Pérez, Carmen Gallegos, Melchor Riera
OBJECTIVES: To study the characteristics and outcomes of pneumococcal infections in patients aged ≥65 years since the authorization of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) in Spain. METHODS: All pneumococcal pneumonias, empyemas or primary bacteraemias treated at two hospitals in Majorca from 2010 to 2015 were included. Clinical variables, serotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility were collected. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-nine pneumonias, 11 primary bacteraemias, and 2 empyemas in 243 patients were studied; 181 (69...
August 11, 2016: Infectious Diseases
Barbara Rita Porchia, Paolo Bonanni, Angela Bechini, Gugliemo Bonaccorsi, Sara Boccalini
Pneumococcal infection is a public health concern that disproportionately affects the young, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. There is an open debate on the implementation of polysaccharide and/or conjugate vaccines for pneumococcal diseases in adults and the elderly in many countries. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the economic profile of pneumococcal vaccines in adults in terms of costs and benefits. Areas covered: The search for economic studies on pneumococcal vaccination was carried out in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and the HTA and NHS EED databases and through a manual search in journals dealing with economic evaluations...
October 12, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
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