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Pneumococcal vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729954/clinical-streptococcal-isolates-distinct-from-streptococcus-pneumoniae-but-containing-the-%C3%AE-glucosyltransferase-tts-gene-and-expressing-serotype-37-capsular-polysaccharide
#1
Carmen L Sheppard, Georgia Kapatai, Karen Broughton, Ulf Schaefer, Matthew Hannah, David J Litt, Norman K Fry
The major virulence factor of the pneumococcus, and target for conjugate vaccines, is the polysaccharide capsule, which is usually encoded by the highly variable cps locus. Serotype 37 is an unusual pneumococcal type in which the single β-glucosyltransferase gene responsible for serotype capsule production (tts) is located outside of the capsular operon region. Using a previously described automated whole genome sequence (WGS)-based serotyping bioinformatics tool, PneumoCaT, we identified and investigated seven clinical isolates (three from blood cultures) of non-pneumococcal streptococci containing a highly homologous tts and included them in a study panel of 20 isolates which included a 11 further clinical isolates of S...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729019/safety-reactogenicity-and-immunogenicity-of-two-investigational-pneumococcal-protein-based-vaccines-results-from-a-randomized-phase-ii-study-in-infants
#2
Roman Prymula, Leszek Szenborn, Sven-Arne Silfverdal, Jacek Wysocki, Piotr Albrecht, Magali Traskine, Asparuh Gardev, Yue Song, Dorota Borys
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination with formulations containing pneumococcal protein antigens such as pneumolysin toxoid (dPly) and histidine-triad protein D (PhtD) may extend serotype-related protection of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) against Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS: This phase II, multi-center, observer-blind trial conducted in Europe (NCT01204658) assessed 2 investigational vaccines containing 10 serotype-specific polysaccharide conjugates of PHiD-CV and either 10 or 30µg of dPly and PhtD each...
July 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729018/sustained-reduction-in-vaccine-type-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-despite-waning-effects-of-a-catch-up-campaign-in-kilifi-kenya-a-mathematical-model-based-on-pre-vaccination-data
#3
John Ojal, Stefan Flasche, Laura L Hammitt, Donald Akech, Moses C Kiti, Tatu Kamau, Ifedayo Adetifa, Markku Nurhonen, J Anthony G Scott, Kari Auranen
BACKGROUND: In 2011, Kenya introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine together with a catch-up campaign for children aged <5years in Kilifi County. In a post-vaccination surveillance study based in Kilifi, there was a substantial decline in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). However, given the continued circulation of the vaccine serotypes it is possible that vaccine-serotype disease may re-emerge once the effects of the catch-up campaign wear off. METHODS: We developed a compartmental, age-structured dynamic model of pneumococcal carriage and invasive disease for three serotype groups: the 10-valent vaccine serotypes and two groups of non-vaccine serotypes based on their susceptibility to mutual competition...
July 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726625/risk-for-death-among-children-with-pneumonia-afghanistan
#4
Rahmani Zabihullah, Bhim G Dhoubhadel, Ferogh A Rauf, Sahab A Shafiq, Motoi Suzuki, Kiwao Watanabe, Lay M Yoshida, Michio Yasunami, Salihi Zabihullah, Christopher M Parry, Rabi Mirwais, Koya Ariyoshi
In Afghanistan, childhood deaths from pneumonia are high. Among 639 children at 1 hospital, the case-fatality rate was 12.1%, and 46.8% of pneumococcal serotypes detected were covered by the 13-valent vaccine. Most deaths occurred within 2 days of hospitalization; newborns and malnourished children were at risk. Vaccination could reduce pneumonia and deaths.
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724524/assignment-of-weight-based-antibody-units-for-four-additional-serotypes-to-a-human-anti-pneumococcal-standard-reference-serum-007sp
#5
D Goldblatt, A McKeen, P Burbidge, S McElhiney, L McLaughlin, A Johnson, M Rauh, P C Giardina
The pneumococcal ELISA reference standard serum, Lot 89SF, has been in use since 1990 and was replaced with a new reference standard serum, 007sp in 2013. This serum was generated under an FDA-approved clinical protocol, where 278 adult volunteers were immunized with the 23-valent unconjugated polysaccharide vaccine, Pneumovax II®, and a unit of blood was obtained twice within 120 days following immunization. Pooled serum was prepared from the plasma, filled at 6ml per vial and lyophilised. Five independent laboratories participated in bridging the serotype specific IgG assignments for 89SF to 007sp to establish equivalent reference values for 13 pneumococcal capsular serotypes (1,3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, 23F) using the WHO reference ELISA...
July 19, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723870/osteoarticular-infections-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-children-in-the-post-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#6
Liset Olarte, Jose Romero, William Barson, John Bradley, Philana Ling Lin, Laurence Givner, Tina Tan, Jill Hoffman, Kristina G Hultén, Edward O Mason, Sheldon L Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal osteoarticular infections (OAI) are an uncommon manifestation of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We describe the demographic characteristics, hospitalization rate, serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of children with pneumococcal OAI over a 16-year period. METHODS: We identified patients ≤18 years old with pneumococcal OAI at 8 children's hospitals in the United States (2000-2015). Pneumococcal isolates were collected prospectively...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719500/a-randomized-controlled-study-of-a-fully-liquid-dtap-ipv-hb-prp-t-hexavalent-vaccine-for-primary-and-booster-vaccinations-of-healthy-infants-and-toddlers-in-latin-america
#7
Pío López, Adriano Arguedas Mohs, Arturo Abdelnour Vásquez, Maria Consuelo-Miranda, Emmanuel Feroldi, Fernando Noriega, Emilia Jordanov, Siham B'Chir, Betzana Zambrano
BACKGROUND: Hexavalent diphtheria (D)-tetanus (T)-acellular pertussis (aP)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-hepatitis B (HB)-Haemophilus influenzae type b (PRP-T)-containing vaccines are increasingly the standard of care. This study evaluated the primary series (NCT01177722) and booster (NCT01444781) of a fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine in Latin America. METHODS: Infants (N=1375) received HB vaccine at birth and were randomized to one of three batches of the investigational DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or licensed control vaccine (DTaP-HB-IPV//PRP-T) at 2-4-6 months of age, co-administered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2-4-6 months) and rotavirus vaccine (2-4 months)...
July 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719496/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-children-aged-6-to-17-years-in-india-an-open-label-trial
#8
Sharad Agarkhedkar, Christine Juergens, Krishnamurthy Balasundaram, Shalaka Agarkhedkar, Vani Sundaraiyer, Natacha Le Dren-Narayanin, Mark W Cutler, William C Gruber, Daniel A Scott, Beate Schmoele-Thoma
In an open-label study in India, 200 healthy participants aged 6-17 years received 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). PCV13 elicited robust functional antibody immune responses. No adverse events were reported by caregivers at the 1-month follow-up visit. The immunogenicity results together with the known favorable risk-benefit profile of PCV13 support extension of the indication to this age group in India.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02034877.
July 15, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719225/association-between-social-support-and-self-care-behaviors-in-adults-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
Zijing Chen, Vincent S Fan, Basia Belza, Kenneth Pike, Huong Q Nguyen
RATIONALE: Higher social support is associated with a better quality of life and functioning in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between structural and functional social support and self-care behaviors in adults with COPD. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study using data from the CASCADE (COPD Activity: Serotonin Transporter, Cytokines, and Depression) study which was focused on depression and functioning in COPD...
July 18, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717032/th17-mediated-cross-protection-against-pneumococcal-carriage-by-vaccination-with-a-variable-antigen
#10
Kirsten Kuipers, Wouter S P Jong, Christa E van der Gaast-de Jongh, Diane Houben, Fred van Opzeeland, Elles Simonetti, Saskia van Selm, Ronald de Groot, Marije I Koenders, Taj Azarian, Elder Pupo, Peter van der Ley, Jeroen D Langereis, Aldert Zomer, Joen Luirink, Marien I de Jonge
Serotype-specific protection against a Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important limitation of the current polysaccharide-based vaccines. To prevent serotype replacement, reduce transmission and limit emergence of new variants, it is essential to induce broad protection and restrict pneumococcal colonization. In this study, we used a prototype vaccine formulation consisting of LPS-detoxified outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from Salmonella Typhimurium displaying the variable N-terminus of PspA (α1α2) for intranasal vaccination, which induced strong Th17 immunity associated with substantial reduction of pneumococcal colonization...
July 17, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716854/india-introducing-routine-pneumococcal-vaccine
#11
Prasun Chaudhuri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716556/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv7-and-pcv13-on-pneumococcal-invasive-diseases-in-italian-children-and-insight-into-evolution-of-pneumococcal-population-structure
#12
Romina Camilli, Fabio D'Ambrosio, Maria Del Grosso, Fernanda Pimentel de Araujo, Maria Grazia Caporali, Martina Del Manso, Giovanni Gherardi, Fortunato D'Ancona, Annalisa Pantosti
BACKGROUND: The use of PCV7 for children immunization was gradually implemented in the Italian regions starting from 2006 and was replaced by PCV13 in 2010-2011. In this study we aimed to assess the PCV impact on invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) incidence, serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance in Italian children under 5years old. METHODS: All IPD cases in children from 5 Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Lombardia, A. P. Bolzano, A. P. Trento, and Piemonte) reported through the nationwide surveillance system during 2008-2014 were included in this study...
July 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713446/nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-serotypes-indentified-among-nursing-home-residents-in-comparison-to-the-elderly-and-patients-younger-than-65-years-living-in-domestic-environment
#13
Maja Kolšek-Šušteršič, Andreja Beg Krasnič, Verica Mioč, Metka Paragi, Janez Rifel
INTRODUCTION: In Slovenia, there is little data available on pneumococcal vaccination rates and no data on asymptomatic NPCR and serotypes in the population of nursing home residents in comparison to the elderly living in domestic environment, therefore the goal was to gain these data. METHODS: A cross sectional epidemiological study was performed. Nasopharyngeal swabs from 151 nursing home residents, 150 elderly living in domestic environment, and 38 adults less than 65 years old were collected twice (in two consecutive years)...
September 2017: Zdravstveno Varstvo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712490/pneumococcal-vaccination-for-splenectomized-patients-with-thalassemia-major-in-indonesia
#14
Teny Tjitra Sari, Arwin Ali P Akib, Djajadiman Gatot, Alida Roswita Harahap, Saptawati Bardosono, Sri Rezeki S Hadinegoro
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a capsulated bacterium that can cause severe infection in patients with thalassemia major, particularly those who have undergone splenectomy. The absence of the spleen as well as zinc deficiency in splenectomized patients with thalassemia major increases the possibility of developing invasive pneumococcal infection. The aims of this study are to evaluate pneumococcal IgG levels following PCV and PPV immunizations and the effect of zinc supplementation on qualitative specific immune responses in splenectomized patients with thalassemia...
July 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712384/the-epidemiology-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-older-adults-in-the-post-pcv-era-has-there-been-a-herd-effect
#15
M Corcoran, I Vickers, J Mereckiene, S Murchan, S Cotter, M Fitzgerald, M McElligott, M Cafferkey, D O'Flanagan, R Cunney, H Humphreys
The 7 and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children in many countries. The objective of this work was to assess the impact of PCVs and potential herd-protection in older adults in Ireland. IPD notification and typing data from adults ⩾65 years of age from July 2007 to June 2016 was assessed using national surveillance data. There was a 94% reduction in PCV7 serotypes from 2007-2008 to 2015-2016, incidence rate ratio (IRR 0·05, P < 0·0001)...
August 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711461/prevalence-of-comorbidities-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-evaluation-of-their-monitoring-in-clinical-practice-the-spanish-cohort-of-the-comora-study
#16
Alejandro Balsa, Leticia Lojo-Oliveira, Mercedes Alperi-López, María García-Manrique, Carmen Ordóñez-Cañizares, Lorena Pérez, Virginia Ruiz-Esquide, Alfonso Corrales, Javier Narváez, José Rey-Rey, Carlos Rodríguez-Lozano, Soledad Ojeda, Santiago Muñoz-Fernández, Joan M Nolla, José García-Torrón, Fernando Gamero, Rosario García-Vicuña, Blanca Hernández-Cruz, José Campos, José Rosas, José Francisco García-Llorente, Antonio Gómez-Centeno, Rafael Cáliz, Raimon Sanmartí, Alberto Bermúdez, Lydia Abasolo-Alcázar, Antonio Fernández-Nebro, Luis Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos Marras, Miguel Ángel González-Gay, Ihsane Hmamouchi, Emilio Martín-Mola
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of comorbidities in patients with RA in Spain and discuss their management and implications using data from the Spanish cohort of the multinational study on COMOrbidities in Rheumatoid Arthritis (COMORA). METHODS: This is a national sub-analysis of the COMORA study. We studied the demographics and disease characteristics of 200 adults patients diagnosed with RA (1987 ACR), and routine practices for screening and preventing the following selected comorbidities: cardiovascular, infections, cancer, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, osteoporosis and depression...
July 12, 2017: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711389/population-genetic-structure-antibiotic-resistance-capsule-switching-and-evolution-of-invasive-pneumococci-before-conjugate-vaccination-in-malawi
#17
Chrispin Chaguza, Jennifer E Cornick, Cheryl P Andam, Rebecca A Gladstone, Maaike Alaerts, Patrick Musicha, Chikondi Peno, Naor Bar-Zeev, Arox W Kamng'ona, Anmol M Kiran, Chisomo L Msefula, Lesley McGee, Robert F Breiman, Aras Kadioglu, Neil French, Robert S Heyderman, William P Hanage, Stephen D Bentley, Dean B Everett
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal infections cause a high death toll in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) but the recently rolled out pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) will reduce the disease burden. To better understand the population impact of these vaccines, comprehensive analysis of large collections of pneumococcal isolates sampled prior to vaccination is required. Here we present a population genomic study of the invasive pneumococcal isolates sampled before the implementation of PCV13 in Malawi...
July 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711388/impact-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-pneumococcal-meningitis-in-children
#18
Jesus Ruiz-Contreras, Juan Picazo, Juan Casado-Flores, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, Teresa Hernández-Sampelayo, Enrique Otheo, Cristina Méndez, María Del Amo, César Balseiro
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal meningitis in children. METHODS: Children younger than 15years of age attending 27 hospitals in the Region of Madrid with confirmed pneumococcal meningitis were identified in a prospective surveillance study, from 2007 to 2015. Clinical data, neurological sequelae, pneumococcal vaccination status, serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and four cases of pneumococcal meningitis were identified, 63 during the period of routine 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunisation (May 2007-April 2010) and 41 during the period of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunisation (May 2010-April 2015)...
July 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711387/serotype-distribution-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-pattern-in-children%C3%A2-5years-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-india-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Jyotsana Singh, Suba Sundaresan, Anand Manoharan, Anita Shet
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood diseases that result in significant morbidity and mortality in India. Commercially licensed and available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) include ten (PCV-10) and 13 (PCV-13) pneumococcal serotypes. Vaccines with other serotype combinations are under development. Reviewing and reporting trends and distribution of pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease in India will be useful for policy making as PCV is being introduced into India's universal immunization program...
July 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708954/pneumococcal-and-influenza-vaccination-status-of-hospitalized-adults-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-the-effects-of-vaccination-on-clinical-presentation
#20
Ezgi Demirdogen Cetinoglu, Esra Uzaslan, Abdullah Sayıner, Aykut Cilli, Oguz Kılınc, Aysın Sakar Coskun, Armağan Hazar, Nurdan Kokturk, Ayten Filiz, Mehmet Polatli
Background Previous reports have shown that vaccination rates of adult at-risk populations are low in Turkey. There are differing reports with regards to the effectiveness of the influenza and the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) on the clinical outcomes of community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The purpose of this study was to analyse the influenza (FV) and pneumococcal vaccination (PV) status, the factors that influence the receipt of influenza/pneumococcal vaccine and the effects of prior vaccination on the clinical outcomes in adults hospitalized with CAP...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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