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Pneumococcal vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813518/changes-in-the-incidence-of-pneumonia-bacterial-meningitis-and-infant-mortality-5-years-following-introduction-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-a-3-0-schedule
#1
Sylvia Becker-Dreps, Bryan Blette, Rafaela Briceño, Jorge Alemán, Michael G Hudgens, Gilberto Moreno, Ana Ordoñez, Julio Rocha, David J Weber, Erick Amaya
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes about 826,000 deaths of children in the world each year and many health facility visits. To reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, many nations have added pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to their national immunization schedules. Nicaragua was the first country eligible for GAVI Alliance funding to introduce the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 2010, provided to infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. The goal of this study was to evaluate the population impact of the first five years of the program...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811633/rapid-replacement-by-non-vaccine-pneumococcal-serotypes-may-mitigate-the-impact-of-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-nasopharyngeal-bacterial-ecology
#2
Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Blake Hanson, Archibald Worwui, Schadrac Agbla, Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko, Fatima Ceesay, Chinelo Ebruke, Uzochukwu Egere, Yanjiao Zhou, Maze Ndukum, Erica Sodergren, Michael Barer, Richard Adegbola, George Weinstock, Martin Antonio
There is growing concern that interventions that alter microbial ecology can adversely affect health. We characterised the impact of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal carriage and the bacterial component of the nasopharyngeal microbiome during infancy. Newborns were recruited into three groups as follows: Group1 (n = 33) was the control group and comprised infants who received PCV7 after 6 months and came from unvaccinated communities. Group 2 (n = 30) came from unvaccinated communities and Group 3 (n = 39) came from vaccinated communities...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808074/trends-in-antibiotic-use-by-birth-season-and-birth-year
#3
Alan C Kinlaw, Til Stürmer, Jennifer L Lund, Lars Pedersen, Michael D Kappelman, Julie L Daniels, Trine Frøslev, Christina D Mack, Henrik Toft Sørensen
OBJECTIVES: We examined 2 birth cohort effects on antibiotic prescribing during the first year of life (henceforth, infancy) in Denmark: (1) the birth season effect on timing and overall occurrence of antibiotic prescribing, and (2) the birth year effect amid emerging nationwide pneumococcal vaccination programs and changing prescribing guidelines. METHODS: We linked data for all live births in Denmark from 2004 to 2012 (N = 561 729) across the National Health Service Prescription Database, Medical Birth Registry, and Civil Registration System...
August 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807606/effectiveness-of-different-vaccine-schedules-for-heptavalent-and-13-valent-conjugate-vaccines-against-pneumococcal-disease-in-the-community-of-madrid
#4
P Latasa, M Ordobás, M Garrido-Estepa, A Gil de Miguel, J C Sanz, M D Barranco, E Insúa, L García-Comas
INTRODUCTION: The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) was added to the childhood routine vaccination program in the Community of Madrid in November of 2006 with 3+1 recommended doses and a catch-up for those under 2years old. In June 2010, PCV-7 was replaced by 13-valent vaccine (PCV-13) with 2+1 recommended doses. In July of 2012, the PCV-13 was removed from the funded program and reintroduced again (2+1 recommended doses) in December 2014. In between, children were vaccinated privately with 3+1 recommended doses of PCV-13...
August 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807604/focusing-on-the-implementation-of-21st-century-vaccines-for-adults
#5
Paolo Bonanni, Guglielmo Bonaccorsi, Chiara Lorini, Francesca Santomauro, Emilia Tiscione, Sara Boccalini, Angela Bechini
Adult immunization is a priority for public health, particularly in countries where an aging population has become increasingly more numerous. Protection against diseases which typically affect adults (like flu, pneumococcal diseases and Herpes zoster), the shift of age of infections which originally affected children (like measles), the decreasing protection with time for infections which need periodical booster doses of vaccines (Tdap), the availability of vaccines which can also impact on adult health (HPV) are only some examples of the importance of implementing targeted vaccination strategies...
August 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806737/effectiveness-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-preventing-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-aged-7-59-months-a-matched-case-control-study
#6
Ángela Domínguez, Pilar Ciruela, Sergi Hernández, Juan José García-García, Núria Soldevila, Conchita Izquierdo, Fernando Moraga-Llop, Alvaro Díaz, Mariona F de Sevilla, Sebastià González-Peris, Magda Campins, Sonia Uriona, Johanna Martínez-Osorio, Anna Solé-Ribalta, Gemma Codina, Cristina Esteva, Ana María Planes, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Luis Salleras
BACKGROUND: The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was licensed based on the results of immunogenicity studies and correlates of protection derived from randomized clinical trials of the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. We assessed the vaccination effectiveness (VE) of the PCV13 in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children aged 7-59 months in a population with suboptimal vaccination coverage of 55%. METHODS: The study was carried out in children with IPD admitted to three hospitals in Barcelona (Spain) and controls matched by hospital, age, sex, date of hospitalization and underlying disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803551/hospitalisation-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-children-in-the-province-of-quebec-canada-before-and-during-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#7
G Anderson, G Deceuninck, Z Zhou, F D Boucher, Y Bonnier Viger, R Gilca, P DE Wals
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) may reduce this burden. This study's goal was to analyse trends in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) hospitalisations before and during a routine vaccination programme targeting all newborns with PCV was started in the province of Quebec, Canada in December 2004. The study population included hospital admissions with a main diagnosis of LRTI among 6-59 month-old Quebec residents from April 2000 to December 2014...
August 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803139/the-effect-of-age-on-the-manifestations-and-outcomes-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-adults
#8
Thomas J Marrie, Gregory J Tyrrell, Sumit R Majumdar, Dean T Eurich
BACKGROUND: While a considerable amount is known about the effect of age on the manifestations and outcomes of pneumonia, the same is not true for invasive pneumococcal disease . METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study of all cases (2435) of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults in Northern Alberta from 2000 to 2014. Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease/100,000, sociodemographic variables, clinical characteristics, and invasive pneumococcal disease -related outcomes were compared for the following age groups - 17 to 54, 55 -64, 65 to 74 and 75 years and over...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802755/pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-response-in-patients-after-community-acquired-pneumonia-differences-in-patients-with-s-pneumoniae-versus-other-pathogens
#9
G H J Wagenvoort, B J M Vlaminckx, D A van Kessel, R C L Geever, B A W de Jong, J C Grutters, W J W Bos, B Meek, G T Rijkers
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to investigate the immune response to the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in former pneumococcal CAP patients. We hypothesize that an impaired or suboptimal humoral immune response against (specific) pneumococcal serotypes might explain the vulnerability for pneumococcal disease. METHODS: Hospitalised adult CAP patients who participated in two trials (2004-2006 (n=201) and, 2007-2009 (n=304)) were screened. Patients eligible for inclusion had CAP caused by either S...
August 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802367/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-otitis-media-a-review-of-measurement-and-interpretation-challenges
#10
REVIEW
Ivo Vojtek, Marcus Nordgren, Bernard Hoet
Acute otitis media (AOM) is among the most frequent childhood diseases and is caused by various bacterial and viral etiological agents. In this article, we provide an overview of published studies assessing the impact of higher-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) on AOM. In some instances, reports of PCV impact on complications of AOM have been included. While randomized controlled trials (RCTs) allow for the most precise assessment of vaccine efficacy against AOM, observational studies provide answers to questions regarding the public health value of these vaccines in real-life settings...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801224/celiac-disease-and-increased-risk-of-pneumococcal-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Malorie Simons, Lori A J Scott-Sheldon, Yesenia Risech-Neyman, Steven Moss, Jonas F Ludvigsson, Peter Hr Green
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease has been associated with hyposplenism and multiple case reports link Celiac disease and pneumococcal infections; however, increased risk of pneumococcal infection in celiac disease has not been confirmed. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine the risk of pneumococcal infections in celiac disease. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified using electronic bibliographic searches of PubMed, OVID Medline and EMBASE (1980 to February 2017) and reviewing abstracts from major conferences in gastroenterology...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800724/a-comparison-of-machine-learning-and-bayesian-modelling-for-molecular-serotyping
#12
Richard Newton, Lorenz Wernisch
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogen that is a major cause of infant mortality. Identifying the pneumococcal serotype is an important step in monitoring the impact of vaccines used to protect against disease. Genomic microarrays provide an effective method for molecular serotyping. Previously we developed an empirical Bayesian model for the classification of serotypes from a molecular serotyping array. With only few samples available, a model driven approach was the only option...
August 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797727/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-booster-dose-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-children-primed-with-the-10-valent-or-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-the-czech-republic-and-slovakia
#13
Ingrid Urbancikova, Roman Prymula, David Goldblatt, Lucy Roalfe, Karolina Prymulova, Pavel Kosina
BACKGROUND: Although both the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) are widely used, it is unclear how interchangeable they are in terms of immunogenicity. METHODS: Two phase 3, open-label, multicenter studies were conducted to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of PCV13 in children primed with PHiD-CV or PCV13. In the Czech Republic, 12-15-month-old children received a PCV13 booster after 3-dose priming with either PHiD-CV or PCV13...
August 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783380/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-worldwide-epidemiology
#14
Raul Isturiz, Heather L Sings, Betsy Hilton, Adriano Arguedas, Ralf-René Reinert, Luis Jodar
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes mucosal and invasive diseases with high morbidity and mortality. Introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into routine infant immunization programs worldwide resulted in serotype 19A becoming a leading cause of the remaining pneumococcal disease burden in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. This article reviews the impact of the latest generation PCVs (10-valent PCV, PCV10, and 13-valent PCV, PCV13) on serotype 19A. Areas covered: This article covers immune responses elicited by PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13 against serotype 19A and their impact on nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and disease in vaccinated and unvaccinated populations using data from surveillance systems, randomized controlled trials, and observational studies...
August 7, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783024/pneumococcal-nasopharyngeal-carriage-in-young-healthy-children-after-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-turkey
#15
Ahmet Arvas, Haluk Çokuğraş, Emel Gür, Nevriye Gönüllü, Zeynep Taner, Hrisi Bahar Tokman
AIMS: To determine the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy children aged 0-6 years who were vaccinated with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 healthy Turkish children between 1 month and 6 years of age. Serotyping was performed and risk factors of carriage were evaluated. RESULTS: The overall carriage rate was 14%. Vaccine type serotypes were determined in 17 (12...
August 4, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781877/serotypes-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-from-hospitalized-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-italy
#16
Marta Di Pasquale, Stefano Aliberti, Chara Azzari, Maria Moriondo, Francesco Nieddu, Francesco Blasi, Marco Mantero
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia remain an important public health problem. The primary objective was to determine the proportion of community-acquired pneumonia that is attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection; secondary objectives were the description of community-acquired pneumonia attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae according to socio-demographic and clinical variables, the clinical evolution of community-acquired pneumonia and the description of the serotype distribution of vaccine-preventable disease and antibiotic resistance rate of pneumococcal infections...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780980/impact-of-the-hajj-on-pneumococcal-carriage-and-the-effect-of-various-pneumococcal-vaccines
#17
REVIEW
Sophie Edouard, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Ziad A Memish, Saber Yezli, Philippe Gautret
BACKGROUND: The Islamic Hajj pilgrimage is the largest annual mass gathering in the world. The overcrowding of people promotes the acquisition, spread and transmission of respiratory pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is estimated that about 33% of pilgrims are at risk of invasive pneumococcal disease. METHODS: We conducted a methodological review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and meta-Analysis guidelines. The objective was to summarize the available data regarding the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage among Hajj pilgrims and about carriage acquisition and circulation of S...
August 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780272/current-challenges-in-the-accurate-identification-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-its-serogroups-serotypes-in-the-vaccine-era
#18
REVIEW
Rosemol Varghese, Ranjith Jayaraman, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis and other invasive diseases resulting in high mortality and morbidity among children under the age of five. Inaccurate identification of S. pneumoniae masks the exact estimation of disease burden and could delay treatment options. This is the common problem most frequently faced in developing countries due to several reasons that include poor infrastructure, insensitive operational procedures and lack of expertise. Inconsistent methods for phenotypic detection often delay the early identification and confirmation of S...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776337/changes-in-the-serotype-distribution-among-antibiotic-resistant-carriage-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-in-children-after-the-introduction-of-the-extended-valency-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine
#19
Joon Kee Lee, Ki Wook Yun, Eun Hwa Choi, Sun Jung Kim, Seong Yeon Lee, Hoan Jong Lee
This study investigated the serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of 3,820 nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from infants and children who presented with respiratory symptoms at Seoul National University Children's Hospital from July 2010 to June 2015 after the introduction of the extended-valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility were determined using the Quellung reaction and E-test, respectively. S. pneumoniae was isolated from 397 (10...
September 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774564/risk-of-bursitis-and-other-injuries-and-dysfunctions-of-the-shoulder-following-vaccinations
#20
REVIEW
L H Martín Arias, R Sanz Fadrique, M Sáinz Gil, M E Salgueiro-Vazquez
While vaccination injection site adverse reactions are usually mild and transient in nature, several cases of bursitis and other shoulder injuries have been reported in the medical literature. However, these lesions are not included in vaccine label inserts. To identify the characteristics of post-vaccination shoulder injuries and those of patients and involved vaccines, as well as their potential causes, a systematic review of the cases of vaccination-related bursitis and other shoulder injuries reported in the literature and notified to the Spanish Pharmacovigilance System database (FEDRA) have been conducted...
July 31, 2017: Vaccine
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