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Pneumococcal vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636411/asthma-and-influenza-vaccination-in-elderly-hospitalized-patients-matched-case-control-study-in-spain
#1
María Morales Suárez-Varela, Agustin Llopis, Estrella Fernandez-Fabrellas, Francisco Sanz, M Jose Perez-Lozano, Vicente Martin, Jenaro Astray, Jesús Castilla, Mikel Egurrola, Luis Force, Diana Toledo, Àngela Domínguez
OBJECTIVES: Influenza infection is an exacerbating factor for asthma, and its prevention is critical in managing asthmatic patients. We investigated the effect of influenza vaccination on asthmatic and non-asthmatic patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza in Spain. METHODS: We made a matched case-control study to assess the frequency of hospitalization for influenza in people aged ≥65 years. Hospitalized patients with unplanned hospital admissions were recruited from 20 hospitals representing seven Spanish regions...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633889/serious-pneumococcal-disease-outbreak-in-men-exposed-to-metal-fume-detection-response-and-future-prevention-through-pneumococcal-vaccination
#2
Judith Ewing, Lynsey Patterson, Neil Irvine, Lorraine Doherty, Anne Loughrey, Joe Kidney, Carmen Sheppard, Georgia Kapatai, Norman K Fry, Mary Ramsay, Lucy Jessop
Welders and those exposed to metal fume are known to be at increased risk of pneumococcal pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease. Current UK guidance recommends that vaccination against pneumococcus be considered in those at risk of frequent or continuous occupational exposure to metal fume, taking into account the exposure control measures in place. We report an outbreak of serious pneumococcal disease that occurred between April and June 2015 among a multinational workforce exposed to metal fumes while working on the refurbishment of an oil rig in a Belfast shipyard...
June 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632827/-occult-bacteremia-in-s%C3%A3-tero-del-r%C3%A3-o-hospital-experience-after-pneumococcal-conjugated-vaccine
#3
Isolda Budnik, Alejandra Sandoval, Alejandra Prado, Marcela Labbé, Anamaría Peña, Tamara Viviani
BACKGROUND: Occult bacteremia (OB) is one of the possible diagnoses of children younger than 3 years with fever without source in the emergency room. OBJECTIVE: describe OB in the era after introduction of pneumococcal vaccine in Chile. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective descriptive review of data of children with possible OB diagnosis, referred from the emergency department between 2010-2013. RESULTS: Possible OB was diagnosed on 391 patients...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626738/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-prevalence-and-antibiotic-resistance-among-young-children-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-south-india
#4
Savitha Nagaraj, Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal, Anand Manoharan, Anita Shet
INTRODUCTION: We performed a study to describe the clinical profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalent serotypes of pneumococcal isolates from children with suspected invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) admitted to a tertiary care hospital in South India. METHODS: Hospitalized children, ≤ 5 years with fever (>38 °C); increased respiratory rate or neurological symptoms were recruited, (as part of the Alliance for Surveillance of Invasive Pneumococci - ASIP - project) from January 2011 to March 2013...
June 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626461/neoglycoconjugate-of-tetrasaccharide-representing-one-repeating-unit-of-the-streptococcus-pneumoniae-type-14-capsular-polysaccharide-induces-the-production-of-opsonizing-igg1-antibodies-and-possesses-the-highest-protective-activity-as-compared-to-hexa-and-octasaccharide
#5
Ekaterina A Kurbatova, Nelli K Akhmatova, Elina A Akhmatova, Nadezhda B Egorova, Natalya E Yastrebova, Elena V Sukhova, Dmitriy V Yashunsky, Yury E Tsvetkov, Marina L Gening, Nikolay E Nifantiev
Identifying protective synthetic oligosaccharide (OS) epitopes of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides (CPs) is an indispensable step in the development of third-generation carbohydrate pneumococcal vaccines. Synthetic tetra-, hexa-, and octasaccharide structurally related to CP of S. pneumoniae type 14 were coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA), adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide, and tested for their immunogenicity in mice upon intraperitoneal prime-boost immunizations. Injections of the conjugates induced production of opsonizing anti-OS IgG1 antibodies (Abs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624420/biophysical-characterization-and-thermal-stability-of-pneumococcal-histidine-triad-protein-d-phtd-in-the-presence-of-zinc-and-manganese
#6
Salvador F Ausar, Kavisha Jayasundara, Lamees Akawi, Cristopher Roque, Anthony Sheung, Jian Hu, Marina Kirkitadze, Nausheen Rahman
The Pneumococcal Histidine Triad Protein D (PhtD) is believed to play a central role in pneumococcal metal ion homeostasis and has been proposed as a promising vaccine candidate against pneumococcal disease. To investigate for potential stabilizers, a panel of physiologically relevant metals was screened using the thermal shift assay and it was found that only Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) were able to increase PhtD melting temperature. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed a sequential unfolding of PhtD and the presence of at least 3 independent folding domains that can be stabilized by Zn(2+) and Mn(2+)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623156/trends-in-influenza-and-pneumococcal-vaccination-among-us-nursing-home-residents-2006-2014
#7
Carla L Black, Walter W Williams, Inaki Arbeloa, Natasa Kordic, Lindsay Yang, Tom MaCurdy, Chris Worrall, Jeffrey A Kelman
BACKGROUND: Institutionalized adults are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from influenza and pneumococcal infection. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination have been shown to be effective in reducing hospitalization and deaths due to pneumonia and influenza in this population. OBJECTIVE: To assess trends in influenza vaccination coverage among US nursing home residents from the 2005-2006 through 2014-2015 influenza seasons and trends in pneumococcal vaccination coverage from 2006 to 2014 among US nursing home residents, by state and demographic characteristics...
June 13, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623109/serotype-distribution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-from-adult-respiratory-tract-infections-in-nationwide-japanese-surveillances-from-2006-to-2014
#8
Hisashi Shoji, Masayuki Maeda, Takahiro Takuma, Yoshihito Niki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Reports on the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been received from many countries. However, in countries where the 7-valent PCV (PCV7) and 13-valent PCV (PCV13) were introduced, overall coverage of the serotypes by the vaccine gradually decreased due to pneumococcal serotype replacement. The aim of this study is to assess the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes and to also provide basic data on adult respiratory infection in Japan. METHODS: We analyzed 1086 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains that had been isolated from respiratory tract infection specimens in adult patients from 2006 to 2014...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619234/what-is-the-heterogeneity-in-the-impact-seen-with-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-telling-us
#9
William P Hausdorff, Steve Black
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have proven highly effective in decreasing invasive disease and pneumonia in young children. However, there is considerable geographic variability in the impact of these vaccines on other disease endpoints and in other age groups. Investigation of the possible causes of this variability would greatly improve our understanding of pneumococcal pathophysiology and stimulate the effort to design more broadly effective vaccines.
June 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618091/bacterial-transformation-comfa-is-a-dna-dependent-atpase-that-forms-complexes-with-comfc-and-dpra
#10
Amy Diallo, Hannah R Foster, Katarzyna A Gromek, Thomas N Perry, Annick Dujeancourt, Petya V Krasteva, Francesca Gubellini, Tanya G Falbel, Briana M Burton, Rémi Fronzes
Pneumococcal natural transformation contributes to genomic plasticity, antibiotic resistance development, and vaccine escape. Streptococcus pneumoniae, like many other naturally transformable species, has evolved sophisticated protein machinery for the binding and uptake of DNA. Two proteins encoded by the comF operon, ComFA and ComFC, are involved in transformation but their exact molecular roles remain unknown. In this study, we provide experimental evidence that ComFA binds to single stranded DNA (ssDNA) and has ssDNA-dependent ATPase activity...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617178/concentrations-of-pneumococcal-iga-and-igm-are-compromised-in-some-individuals-with-antibody-deficiencies
#11
Ainara Echeverría de Carlos, Ricardo Gómez de la Torre, Enrique García Carus, Luis Caminal Montero, Jose Bernardino Díaz López, Hector Suárez Casado, Luis Molinos Matin, Lourdes Tricas Aizpún, Stephen Harding, Antony R Parker
The response to pneumococcal vaccination is assessed by measurement of antigen specific IgG only and is compromised in a number of antibody deficiencies. We measured the concentrations of Pneumococcal IgA and IgM in individuals with both normal and abnormal pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PCP) IgG concentrations. A higher number of individuals had abnormal pre vaccination IgA and IgM concentrations below the lower limit of the normal range compared to the control group. Post vaccination a lower number of individuals had IgA and IgM concentrations below the upper limit of the normal range compared to the control group...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616365/streptococcus-pneumoniae-otitis-media-pathogenesis-and-how-it-informs-our-understanding-of-vaccine-strategies
#12
REVIEW
Caroline Bergenfelz, Anders P Hakansson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to review the literature regarding the mechanisms of transition from asymptomatic colonization to induction of otitis media and how the insight into the pathogenesis of otitis media has the potential to help design future otitis media-directed vaccines. RECENT FINDINGS: Respiratory viruses have long been shown to predispose individuals to bacterial respiratory infections, such as otitis media. Recent information suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae, which colonize the nasopharynx asymptomatically, can sense potentially "threatening" changes in the nasopharyngeal environment caused by virus infection by upregulating specific sets of genes involved in biofilm release, dissemination from the nasopharynx to other sites, and protection against the host immune system...
2017: Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616364/recurrent-acute-otitis-media-what-are-the-options-for-treatment-and-prevention
#13
REVIEW
Anna Granath
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To survey current strategies for treatment and prevention of recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM). RECENT FINDINGS: Treatment with systemic antibiotics is required in recurrent episodes of acute otitis media. A cautious attitude is recommended due to antibiotic resistance. Antibiotics also provide effective prophylaxis for rAOM. Topical treatment with ear drops is recommended in rAOM with otorrhea from tympanostomy tubes. Pneumococcal conjugated vaccines seem to have a moderate reductive effect on overall otitis media...
2017: Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613137/measurement-of-the-igg2-response-to-pneumococcal-capsular-polysaccharides-may-identify-an-antibody-deficiency-in-individuals-referred-for-immunological-investigation
#14
Antony Parker, Juan Irure Ventura, Dawn Sims, Ainara Echeverría de Carlos, Ricardo Gómez de la Torre, Lourdes Tricas Aizpún, J Gonzalo Ocejo-Vinyals, Marcos López-Hoyos, Gregg Wallis, Stephen Harding
IgG2 is the most efficient subclass for providing protection against pneumococcal pathogens. We hypothesised that some individuals may be unable to mount an effective pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PCP) IgG2 response despite having a normal PCP IgG concentration (PCP IgG2 deficient). The median pre-vaccination PCP IgG2 concentration was significantly lower in individuals referred for immunological investigation compared to healthy controls (2.8 mg/L range, 95% CI 1.1-88 vs 29.5mg/L, 95% CI 13.5-90, p=0...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612153/streptococcus-pneumoniae-antimicrobial-resistance-decreased-in-the-helsinki-metropolitan-area-after-routine-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-of-infants-in-finland
#15
R Sihvonen, L Siira, M Toropainen, P Kuusela, A Pätäri-Sampo
Since the introduction of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) into the Finnish national vaccination program in September 2010, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in children has decreased steeply in Finland. We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive and non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) isolated in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area during 2009-2014. We divided the data into two age groups: isolates from patients <5 years old and ≥5 years old. We also studied the serotype distribution of invasive isolates and of a subset of non-invasive multidrug-resistant isolates...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607461/geographic-variation-in-pneumococcal-vaccine-efficacy-estimated-from-dynamic-modeling-of-epidemiological-data-post-pcv7
#16
Erida Gjini
Although mean efficacy of multivalent pneumococcus vaccines has been intensively studied, variance in vaccine efficacy (VE) has been overlooked. Different net individual protection across settings can be driven by environmental conditions, local serotype and clonal composition, as well as by socio-demographic and genetic host factors. Understanding efficacy variation has implications for population-level effectiveness and other eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Here I show that realized VE can vary across epidemiological settings, by applying a multi-site-one-model approach to data post-vaccination...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606106/perceptions-of-measles-pneumonia-and-meningitis-vaccines-among-caregivers-in-shanghai-china-and-the-health-belief-model-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Abram L Wagner, Matthew L Boulton, Xiaodong Sun, Bhramar Mukherjee, Zhuoying Huang, Irene A Harmsen, Jia Ren, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher
BACKGROUND: In China, the measles vaccine is offered for free whereas the pneumococcal vaccine is a for-fee vaccine. This difference has the potential to influence how caregivers evaluate whether a vaccine is important or necessary for their child, but it is unclear if models of health behavior, such as the Health Belief Model, reveal the same associations for different diseases. This study compares caregiver perceptions of different diseases (measles, pneumonia and meningitis); and characterizes associations between Health Belief Model constructs and both pneumococcal vaccine uptake and perceived vaccine necessity for pneumonia, measles, and meningitis...
June 12, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605414/childhood-deaths-attributable-to-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-england-and-wales-2006-2014
#18
Godwin Oligbu, Sarah Collins, Carmen L Sheppard, Norman K Fry, Mary Slack, Ray Borrow, Shamez N Ladhani
Background.: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are highly effective in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), but deaths due to IPD still occur. We aimed to describe children who died of IPD since PCV introduction in England and Wales. Methods.: Public Health England conducts enhanced IPD surveillance in England and Wales. IPD cases in PCV-eligible children aged <5 years (born since 4 September 2004 and diagnosed between 4 September 2006 and 3 September 2014) were actively followed up by postal questionnaires and, for fatal cases, detailed information was requested prospectively from multiple sources...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604773/surveillance-of-impact-of-pcv-10-vaccine-on-pneumococcal-meningitis-in-mozambique-2013-2015
#19
Aquino Albino Nhantumbo, Goitom Weldegebriel, Reggis Katsande, Linda de Gouveia, Charlotte Elizabeth Comé, Arlindo Zacarias Cuco, Vlademir Vicente Cantarelli, Cícero Dias, Juliana Caierão, Jason Mwenda Mathiu, Eduardo Samo Gudo
BACKGROUND: Vaccination using the 10-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV-10) was introduced into the Extended Program on Immunization in Mozambique in March 2013, however its impact on pediatric pneumococcal meningitis is unknown. In this study, we assessed for the first time the impact of PCV10 on the burden of pneumococcal meningitis in children less than 5 years of age at the three largest hospitals in Mozambique. METHOD: Between March 2013 and December 2015, a total of 744 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from eligible children, of which 160 (21...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604328/the-status-of-vaccine-availability-and-associated-factors-in-tshwane-government-clinics
#20
Ntombenhle Judith Ngcobo, Mercy G Kamupira
BACKGROUND: Vaccines have greatly contributed to the control of vaccine-preventable diseases and to human development. Efforts by many countries to introduce new vaccines are a significant move towards achieving the sustainable development goal for health. However, effective vaccine supply chains that ensure an uninterrupted supply of vaccines are pivotal to attaining universal access to life-saving vaccines and sustainable development. The introduction of new vaccines puts a strain on supply chains; South Africa (SA) is no exception, as there are indications of vaccine stock-outs in clinics...
May 24, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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