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Marliane Batista Campos, Luciana Vieira do Rêgo Lima, Ana Carolina Stocco de Lima, Thiago Vasconcelos Dos Santos, Patrícia Karla Santos Ramos, Claudia Maria de Castro Gomes, Fernando Tobias Silveira
Leishmania (V.) braziliensis and Leishmania(L.) amazonensis are the most pathogenic agents of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Brazil, causing a wide spectrum of clinical and immunopathological manifestations, including: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCLDTH+/++), borderline disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (BDCLDTH±), anergic diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (ADCLDTH-), and mucosal leishmaniasis (MLDTH++++). It has recently been demonstrated, however, that while L. (V.) braziliensis shows a clear potential to advance the infection from central LCL (a moderate T-cell hypersensitivity form) towards ML (the highest T-cell hypersensitivity pole), L...
2018: PloS One
Céline Ronin, David Mendes Costa, Joana Tavares, Joana Faria, Fabrice Ciesielski, Paola Ciapetti, Terry K Smith, Jane MacDougall, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Iain K Pemberton
The de novo crystal structure of the Leishmania infantum Silent Information Regulator 2 related protein 1 (LiSir2rp1) has been solved at 1.99Å in complex with an acetyl-lysine peptide substrate. The structure is broadly commensurate with Hst2/SIRT2 proteins of yeast and human origin, reproducing many of the structural features common to these sirtuin deacetylases, including the characteristic small zinc-binding domain, and the larger Rossmann-fold domain involved in NAD+-binding interactions. The two domains are linked via a cofactor binding loop ordered in open conformation...
2018: PloS One
Sara Silva Pereira, Andrew P Jackson
BACKGROUND: Trypanosomatid parasites such as Trypanosoma spp. and Leishmania spp. are a major source of infectious disease in humans and domestic animals worldwide. Fundamental to the host-parasite interactions of these potent pathogens are their cell surfaces, which are highly decorated with glycosylated proteins and other macromolecules. Trypanosomatid genomes contain large multi-copy gene families encoding UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs), the primary role of which is cell-surface decoration...
March 14, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Nicole Zimara, Menberework Chanyalew, Abraham Aseffa, Ger van Zandbergen, Bernd Lepenies, Maximilian Schmid, Richard Weiss, Anne Rascle, Anja Kathrin Wege, Jonathan Jantsch, Valentin Schatz, Gordon D Brown, Uwe Ritter
Resistant mouse strains mount a protective T cell-mediated immune response upon infection with Leishmania (L.) parasites. Healing correlates with a T helper (Th) cell-type 1 response characterized by a pronounced IFN-γ production, while susceptibility is associated with an IL-4-dependent Th2-type response. It has been shown that dermal dendritic cells are crucial for inducing protective Th1-mediated immunity. Additionally, there is growing evidence that C-type lectin receptor (CLR)-mediated signaling is involved in directing adaptive immunity against pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Erica Cristina da Silva Chagas, Arineia Soares Silva, Nelson Ferreira Fé, Lucas Silva Ferreira, Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Wagner Cosme Morhy Terrazas, Jorge Augusto Oliveira Guerra, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de Souza, Henrique Silveira, Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa Guerra
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of Leishmania species, the etiological agents of leishmaniasis, which is one of the most important emerging infectious diseases in the Americas. In the state of Amazonas in Brazil, anthropogenic activities encourage the presence of these insects around rural homes. The present study aimed to describe the composition and distribution of sand fly species diversity among the ecotopes (intradomicile, peridomicile and forest) in an area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission and detect natural infection with Leishmania DNA to evaluate which vectors are inside houses and whether the presence of possible vectors represents a hazard of transmission...
March 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Tatjana Souza Lima Keesen, Larisse Virgolino da Silva, Juliana da Câmara Rocha, Luciana Nalone Andrade, Tamires Cardoso Lima, Damião Pergentino de Sousa
Leishmaniasis belongs to a complex of zoonotic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and is considered a major public health problem. Several essential oil chemical components have inhibitory effect against protozoa, including Leishmania donovani. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the anti-Leishmania activity of two p-menthane monoterpene isomers (EPER-1: perillaldehyde 1,2-epoxide and EPER-2: perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide) against L. donovani promastigotes as well as evaluating cytotoxic effect on mononuclear peripheral blood cells...
March 13, 2018: Natural Product Research
Mostafa Ramadhan Dokhan, Kaouther Jaouadi, Sadok Salem, Osama Zenbil, Jean Paul Gonzalez, Afif Ben Salah, Badreddin Bashir Annajar
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a public health concern caused by Leishmania ( L. ) major and ( L. ) tropica in Libya. Information on sandfly vectors, as well as their associated Leishmania species, is of paramount importance because vector dispersion is one of the major factors responsible for pathogen dissemination. A number of 515 sandflies (275 males and 240 females) were collected during June-November 2012 using the CDC miniature light traps from Al Rabta, northwest of Libya. Two hundred and forty unfed females were identified; Phlebotomus ( Ph...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Cielo M León, Marina Muñoz, Juan H Tabares, Carolina Hernandez, Carolina Florez, Martha S Ayala, Juan David Ramírez
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is ideal for the detection of Leishmania DNA as it is a quick and easy-to-perform test that does not require complex or sophisticated equipment or infrastructure. However, the application of this technique in the detection of Leishmania DNA has not been comprehensively analyzed to date (analytical validation). Our objective was to evaluate the sensitivity and analytical specificity (anticipated reportable range [ARR], the limit of detection [LoD], and accuracy) of LAMP targeting the 18S rRNA gene in the diagnosis of six New World Leishmania species...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Suelen S da Silva, Sandra S Mizokami, Jacqueline R Fanti, Idessania N Costa, Juliano Bordignon, Ionice Felipe, Wander R Pavanelli, Waldiceu A Verri, Ivete Conchon Costa
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the analgesic effect of Glucantime (antimoniate N-methylglucamine) in Leishmania amazonensis infection and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), chronic paw inflammation model, in BALB/c mice. METHODS: Two models of chronic inflammatory pain in BALB/c mice paw were used: infection with L. amazonensis and CFA stimulation. Both animals models received daily treatment with Glucantime (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and during the treatment was measured the mechanical hyperalgesia with electronic version of von Frey filaments...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Fatemeh Tabatabaie, Nasim Samarghandi, Somayeh Zarrati, Fatemeh Maleki, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Taher Elmi, Sayed Hussain Mosawi
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease induced by a protozoan from the genus Leishmania . No effective vaccine has yet been developed against the disease. AIM: In this work, two nano-vaccines, TSA recombinant plasmid and dendrimer and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles (as adjuvants), were designed and tested for their immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. METHODS: After the plasmid construction and preparation of adjuvants, three intramuscular injections of the nano-vaccines (100 µg) and the recombinant TSA protein (20 µg) were subcutaneously performed...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Letícia Sayuri Murase, João Vítor Perez de Souza, Quirino Alves de Lima Neto, Tatiane França Perles de Mello, Bruna Muller Cardoso, Daniele Stéfanie Sara Lopes Lera-Nonose, Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira, Maria Valdrinez Campana Lonardoni, Izabel Galhardo Demarchi
This is a systematic review on the role of metalloproteases in the pathogenicity of the American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) caused by New World Leishmania species. The review followed the PRISMA method, searching for articles in PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS and ISI Web of Science, by employing the following terms: 'leishmaniasis', 'cutaneous leishmaniasis', 'mucocutaneous leishmaniasis', 'diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis', 'Leishmania' and 'metalloproteases'. GP63 of New World Leishmania species is a parasite metalloproteases involved in the degradation and cleavage of many biological molecules as kappa-B nuclear factor, fibronectin, tyrosine phosphatases...
March 13, 2018: Parasitology
Pattana Jaroenlak, Dominic Wiredu Boakye, Rapeepun Vanichviriyakit, Bryony A P Williams, Kallaya Sritunyalucksana, Ornchuma Itsathitphaisarn
BACKGROUND: The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is a spore-forming, intracellular parasite that causes an economically debilitating disease (hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis or HPM) in cultured shrimp. HPM is characterized by growth retardation and wide size variation that can result in economic loss for shrimp farmers. Currently, the infection mechanism of EHP in shrimp is poorly understood, especially at the level of host-parasite interaction. In other microsporidia, spore wall proteins have been reported to be involved in host cell recognition...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Emeline Riboldi, Flavio Carvalho, Pedro Roosevelt Torres Romão, Regina Bones Barcellos, Graziele Lima Bello, Raquel Rocha Ramos, Rosemari Terezinha de Oliveira, João Pessoa Araújo Júnior, Maria Lucia Rossetti, Eliane Dallegrave
In Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is expanding and becoming urbanized, especially in non-endemic areas such as the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Considering that infected dogs are the main reservoir for zoonotic VL, this study evaluated the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, a new area of expansion of VL in Brazil. Serum and plasma from 405 asymptomatic dogs from the municipalities of Canoas (n=107), São Leopoldo (n=216), and Novo Hamburgo (n=82) were tested for CVL using immunochromatographic (DPP® ) and ELISA EIE® assays (2 assays officially adopted by the Brazilian government for the diagnosis of CVL) and real-time PCR to confirm the results...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Sujogya Kumar Panda, Walter Luyten
The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a) literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b) description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c) antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Anusree Mahanta, Piyali Ganguli, Pankaj Barah, Ram Rup Sarkar, Neelanjana Sarmah, Saurav Phukan, Mayuri Bora, Shashi Baruah
Diseases by protozoan pathogens pose a significant public health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries, where these are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Protozoan pathogens tend to establish chronic infections underscoring their competence at subversion of host immune processes, an important component of disease pathogenesis and of their virulence. Modulation of cytokine and chemokine levels, their crosstalks and downstream signaling pathways, and thereby influencing recruitment and activation of immune cells is crucial to immune evasion and subversion...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Patrícia Flávia Quaresma, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito, Jeronimo Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Janaína de Moura Freire, Rodrigo de Paula Baptista, Elizabeth Castro Moreno, Raquel Carvalho Gontijo, Felipe Dutra Rego, Joaquim Edemilson Diniz, Maria Norma Melo, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) samples obtained from the lesions of patients with typical (n = 25, 29%), atypical (n = 60, 69%) or both (n = 2%) clinical manifestations were analysed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, hsp70 restriction-fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), hsp70 sequencing and phylogenetics methods. The hsp70 PCR-RFLP analysis revealed two different profiles whose the most samples differed from those expected for Leishmania braziliensis and the other Leishmania species tested: of 39 samples evaluated, two (5%) had a restriction profile corresponding to L...
March 12, 2018: Parasitology
Javier Fernández Cotrina, Virginia Iniesta, Isabel Monroy, Victoria Baz, Christophe Hugnet, Francisco Marañon, Mercedes Fabra, Luis Carlos Gómez-Nieto, Carlos Alonso
Canine leishmaniosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum. Extensive research is currently ongoing to develop safe and effective vaccines to protect from disease development. The European Commission has granted a marketing authorization for LetiFend®, a new vaccine containing recombinant Protein Q. The efficacy of LetiFend® vaccination in a large-scale dog population of both sexes, different breeds and ages in endemic areas is reported in this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled field trial...
March 7, 2018: Vaccine
Omar Hamarsheh, Mehmet Karakuş, Kifaya Azmi, Kaouther Jaouadi, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Andreas Krüger, Ahmad Amro, Mohamed Amin Kenawy, Mostafa Ramadhan Dokhan, Ziad Abdeen, Mary Ann McDowell
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomus papatasi is a widely distributed sand fly species in different tropical and sub-tropical regions including the Middle East and North Africa. It is considered an important vector that transmits Leishmania major parasites, the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The development of microsatellite markers for this sand fly vector is of high interest to understand its population structure and to monitor its geographic dispersal. RESULTS: Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed with simple di-, tri- and tetra-nucleotide repeats...
March 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Amer Al-Jawabreh, Kamal Dumaidi, Suheir Ereqat, Abdelmajeed Nasereddin, Kifaya Azmi, Hanan Al-Jawabreh, Nahed Al-Laham, Ziad Abdeen
In human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), the success of positive diagnoses and species identifications depends, primarily, on how biopsies are taken and then processed and examined. The efficiency of three methods of taking skin biopsies from suspect cases of CL was compared using the classical methods of microscopy of stained smears, in vitro culture of tissue aspirate, and internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1)-polymerase chain reaction in diagnosing positive cases and identifying the species of Leishmania causing them...
March 6, 2018: Acta Tropica
Alfonso T Garcia-Sosa
Leishmaniasis, malaria, and fungal diseases are burdens on individuals and populations and can present severe complications. Easily accessible chemical treatments for these diseases are increasingly sought-after. Targeting the parasite N-myristoyl transferase while avoiding the human enzyme and other anti-targets may allow the prospect of compounds with pan-activity against these diseases, which would simplify treatments and costs. Developing chemical libraries, both virtual and physical, that have been filtered and flagged early on in the drug discovery process (before virtual screening) could reduce attrition rates of compounds being developed and failing late in development stages due to problems of side-effects or toxicity...
March 8, 2018: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
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