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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353004/leishmania-tropica-isolates-from-non-healed-and-healed-patients-in-iran-a-molecular-typing-and-phylogenetic-analysis
#1
Mehdi Bamorovat, Iraj Sharifi, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Sana Eybpoosh, Saeid Nasibi, Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian, Ahmad Khosravi
The precise identification of the parasite species causing leishmaniasis is essential for selecting proper treatment modality. The present study aims to compare the nucleotide variations of the ITS1, 7SL RNA, and Hsp70 sequences between non-healed and healed anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) patients in major foci in Iran. A case-control study was carried out from September 2015 to October 2016 in the cities of Kerman and Bam, in the southeast of Iran. Randomly selected skin-scraping lesions of 40 patients (20 non-healed and 20 healed) were examined and the organisms were grown in a culture medium...
January 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352826/the-in-vitro-antileishmanial-activity-of-essential-oil-from-aloysia-gratissima-and-guaiol-its-major-sesquiterpene-against-leishmania-amazonensis
#2
Maria Carolina Freitas Garcia, Deivid Costa Soares, Raissa Couto Santana, Elvira Maria Saraiva, Antonio Carlos Siani, Mônica Freiman S Ramos, Maria das Graças Miranda Danelli, Thaïs Cristina Souto-Padron, Lucia H Pinto-da-Silva
Leishmaniases is a tropical disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania for which the current treatment is expensive, besides increasing reports of parasite resistance. This study investigated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of the essential oil from Aloysia gratissima (AgEO) and guaiol, the major sesquiterpene constituent in the oil. Our results showed that AgEO killed promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes at an IC50 of 25 and 0·16 µg mL-1, respectively, while guaiol killed amastigotes at an IC50 of 0·01 µg mL-1...
January 21, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352388/cutaneous-granulomatosis-a-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli, Carlo Mainetti, Marie-Astrid Peeters, Emmanuel Laffitte
Cutaneous granulomatosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases, characterized by a skin inflammatory reaction triggered by a wide variety of stimuli, including infections, foreign bodies, malignancy, metabolites, and chemicals. From a pathogenic point of view, they are divided into non-infectious and infectious granulomas. Pathophysiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Non-infectious granulomatous skin diseases include granuloma annulare, necrobiosis lipoidica, rheumatic nodules, foreign body granulomas, cutaneous sarcoidosis, and interstitial granulomatous dermatitis...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352310/leishmania-proteophosphoglycans-regurgitated-from-infected-sand-flies-accelerate-dermal-wound-repair-and-exacerbate-leishmaniasis-via-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-dependent-signalling
#4
Emilie Giraud, Tereza Lěstinová, Tamsyn Derrick, Oihane Martin, Rod J Dillon, Petr Volf, Ingrid Műller, Paul A Bates, Matthew E Rogers
Leishmania parasites are transmitted to vertebrate hosts by female phlebotomine sand flies as they bloodfeed by lacerating the upper capillaries of the dermis with their barbed mouthparts. In the sand fly midgut secreted proteophosphoglycans from Leishmania form a biological plug known as the promastigote secretory gel (PSG), which blocks the gut and facilitates the regurgitation of infective parasites. The interaction between the wound created by the sand fly bite and PSG is not known. Here we nanoinjected a sand fly egested dose of PSG into BALB/c mouse skin that lead to the differential expression of 7,907 transcripts...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351090/parasitic-infections-of-the-skin-and-subcutaneous-tissues
#5
Andrew P Norgan, Bobbi S Pritt
A variety of arthropods, protozoa, and helminths infect the skin and subcutaneous tissues and may be identified by anatomic pathologists in standard cytology and histology preparations. The specific organisms seen vary greatly with the patient's exposure history, including travel to or residence in endemic countries. Arthropods are the most commonly encountered parasites in the skin and subcutaneous tissues and include Sarcoptes scabei, Demodex species, Tunga penetrans, and myiasis-causing fly larvae. Protozoal parasites such as Leishmania may also be common in some settings...
January 18, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351081/characterization-of-phosphate-transporter-s-and-understanding-their-role-in-leishmania-donovani-parasite
#6
K J Sindhu, Amit Kumar Kureel, Sheetal Saini, Smita Kumari, Pankaj Verma, Ambak Kumar Rai
Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is shown to be involved in excretion of methylglyoxal (MG) in the promastigote form of Leishmania donovani parasite. Absence of Pi leads to its accumulation inside the parasite. Accumulation of MG is toxic to the parasite and utilizes glyoxylase as well as excretory pathways for its detoxification. In addition, Pi is also reported to regulate activities of ectoenzymes and energy metabolism (glucose to pyruvate) etc. Thus, it is known to cumulatively affect the growth of Leishmania parasite...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351078/asymmetric-peptidomimetics-containing-l-tartaric-acid-core-inhibit-the-aspartyl-peptidase-activity-and-growth-of-leishmania-amazonensis-promastigotes
#7
André L S Santos, Filipe P Matteoli, Leandro S Sangenito, Marta H Branquinha, Bruno A Cotrim, Gabriel O Resende
Aspartyl-type peptidases are promising chemotherapeutic targets in protozoan parasites. In the present work, we identified an aspartyl peptidase activity from the soluble extract of Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes, which cleaved the fluorogenic peptide 7-methoxycoumarin-4-acetyl-Gly-Lys-Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe-Phe-Arg-Leu-Lys(DNP)-D-Arg-amide (cathepsin D substrate) under acidic pH conditions at 37°C, showing a KM of 0.58 μM and Vmax of 129.87 fluorescence arbitrary units/s mg protein. The leishmanial aspartyl peptidase activity was blocked by pepstatin A (IC50 = 6...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351073/molecular-and-serological-investigation-of-infectious-diseases-in-captive-and-free-range-crab-eating-fox-cerdocyon-thous-linnaeus-1776-from-northeastern-brazil
#8
Jonatas C Almeida, Renata P B Melo, Pomy C P Kim, Neurisvan R Guerra, Leucio C Alves, Diego F Costa, Clebert José Alves, Wagnner J N Porto, Rinaldo A Mota
The aim of this study was to detect DNA and antibodies anti-Leishmania spp., Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in captive and free-range crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) from northeastern Brazil. Twenty-five crab-eating foxes from different states of northeastern Brazil were sampled by this study. Blood samples were collected by cephalic or jugular vein punctures. The whole blood was submitted to PCR, and the sera samples to the serological analysis as follows: MAT for T. gondii, NAT for N. caninum, and ELISA for L...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346371/identification-of-novel-leishmanicidal-molecules-by-virtual-and-biochemical-screenings-targeting-leishmania-eukaryotic-initiation-factor-4a
#9
Emna Harigua-Souiai, Yosser Zina Abdelkrim, Imen Bassoumi-Jamoussi, Ons Zakraoui, Guillaume Bouvier, Khadija Essafi-Benkhadir, Josette Banroques, Nathan Desdouits, Hélène Munier-Lehmann, Mourad Barhoumi, N Kyle Tanner, Michael Nilges, Arnaud Blondel, Ikram Guizani
Leishmaniases are neglected parasitic diseases in spite of the major burden they inflict on public health. The identification of novel drugs and targets constitutes a research priority. For that purpose we used Leishmania infantum initiation factor 4A (LieIF), an essential translation initiation factor that belongs to the DEAD-box proteins family, as a potential drug target. We modeled its structure and identified two potential binding sites. A virtual screening of a diverse chemical library was performed for both sites...
January 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345601/vaccine-effectiveness-and-use-of-collar-impregnated-with-insecticide-for-reducing-incidence-of-leishmania-infection-in-dogs-in-an-endemic-region-for-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-brazil
#10
E G Lopes, A P Sevá, F Ferreira, C M Nunes, L B Keid, R M Hiramoto, H L Ferreira, T M F S Oliveira, F G Ovallos, E A B Galati, T J Villegas, D V Bortoletto, S Y O B Valadas, R M Soares
Although a national programme for control of visceral leishmaniosis (VL) is being run in Brazil, the disease continues to spread. This programme is essentially based on culling infected dogs from endemic regions. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop other control measures against VL to deter its advance. Here, a subunit vaccine, a recombinant vaccine, an insecticide-impregnated collar and the associations between these measures were evaluated for reducing the incidence of Leishmania infection in dogs. This was through a cohort study conducted in an endemic region of Brazil, considering the incidence and time of total exposure over a period of 1 year...
January 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345298/leishmania-amazonensis-isolated-from-human-visceral-leishmaniasis-histopathological-analysis-and-parasitological-burden-in-different-inbred-mice
#11
Celeste da Silva Freitas de Souza, Kátia da Silva Calabrese, Ana Lúcia Abreu-Silva, Luiz Otávio Pereira Carvalho, Flávia de Oliveira Cardoso, Maria Elizabeth Moraes Cavalheiros Dorval, Elisa Teruya Oshiro, Patrícia Flávia Quaresma, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo, Raquel da Silva Pacheco, Maria Isabel Doria Rossi, Sylvio Celso Gonçalves da Costa, Tânia Zaverucha do Valle
Leishmania amazonensis is a major etiological agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Americas; nevertheless there are some reports of this species causing visceral disease in dogs and men. In the present work we have studied a Leishmania strain isolated from a human case of visceral leishmaniasis. We have infected different mouse strains and analyzed the development of the disease, studying the parasite's ability to visceralize and whether this ability is influenced by host genetics. Female BALB/c, C57BL/6, C57BL/10, CBA, DBA/2, and C3H/He mice were subcutaneously infected with 104 L...
January 18, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340456/new-strategy-to-improve-quality-control-of-montenegro-skin-test-at-the-production-level
#12
Deborah Carbonera Guedes, João Carlos Minozzo, Aline Kuhn Sbruzzi Pasquali, Craig Faulds, Carlos Ricardo Soccol, Vanete Thomaz-Soccol
INTRODUCTION: The production of the Montenegro antigen for skin test poses difficulties regarding quality control. Here, we propose that certain animal models reproducing a similar immune response to humans may be used in the quality control of Montenegro antigen production. METHODS: Fifteen Cavia porcellus (guinea pigs) were immunized with Leishmania amazonensis or Leishmania braziliensis , and, after 30 days, they were skin tested with standard Montenegro antigen...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339223/leishmania-infections-in-austrian-soldiers-returning-from-military-missions-abroad-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Adelheid G Obwaller, Martina Köhsler, Wolfgang Poeppl, Harald Herkner, Gerhard Mooseder, Horst Aspöck, Julia Walochnik
OBJECTIVES: The incidence of leishmaniasis is known to increase in conflict areas. The aim of this study was to determine the exposure to Leishmania species in Austrian soldiers returning from missions abroad also assessing possible risk factors. METHODS: A retrospective explorative cross-sectional serological study was conducted in 225 healthy Austrian soldiers returning from UN or EU peace-keeping missions in Syria, the Lebanon and Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH), respectively...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339220/a-new-chimeric-triple-reporter-fusion-protein-as-a-tool-for-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-multimodal-imaging-to-monitor-the-development-of-african-trypanosomes-and-leishmania-parasites
#14
Estefania Calvo Alvarez, Christelle Cren-Travaillé, Aline Crouzols, Brice Rotureau
Trypanosomiases and leishmaniases, caused by a group of related protist parasites, are Neglected Tropical Diseases currently threatening >500 million people worldwide. Reporter proteins have revolutionised the research on infectious diseases and have opened up new advances in the understanding of trypanosomatid-borne diseases in terms of both biology, pathogenesis and drug development. Here, we describe the generation and some applications of a new chimeric triple reporter fusion protein combining the red-shifted firefly luciferase PpyREH9 and the tdTomato red fluorescent protein, fused by the TY1 tag...
January 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338557/biosynthesis-characterization-and-leishmanicidal-activity-of-a-biocomposite-containing-agnps-pvp-glucantime
#15
Ana Patricia Cacua Gélvez, Luis Henrique Seabra Farias, Victor Soares Pereira, Inaldo Claudio Martins da Silva, Ana Carolina Costa, Carmen Gilda Barroso Tavares Dias, Roseane Maria Ribeiro Costa, Silvia Helena Marques Da Silva, Ana Paula Drummond Rodrigues
AIM: Development of functionalized nanocomposites containing AgNPs-PVP-Glucantime® to evaluate their leishmanicidal activity as a novel method for improving the pharmacological properties of the drug Glucantime® against extracellular promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis in vitro to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. MATERIALS & METHODS: The silver nanoparticles and nanocomposites prepared containing silver nanoparticles, polyvinylpyrrolidone and different amounts of Glucantime were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and ζ potential analysis; in addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated...
January 17, 2018: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337909/salvia-species-as-sources-of-natural-products-with-antiprotozoal-activity
#16
REVIEW
Núria Llurba-Montesino, Thomas J Schmidt
Natural products from plants have been used since ancestral times to treat a wide variety of diseases worldwide. Plants of the genus Salvia (Sage) have been reported to be used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases and ailments. In particular, some Salvia species have been used in traditional medicine to treat diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genera Trypanosoma, Leishmania and Plasmodium and scientific studies have demonstrated the activity of various isolated constituents from these plants against these pathogens...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337209/the-role-of-d-allo-isoleucine-in-the-deposition-of-the-anti-leishmania-peptide-bombinin-h4-as-revealed-by-31p-solid-state-nmr-vcd-spectroscopy-and-md-simulation
#17
Batsaikhan Mijiddorj, Shiho Kaneda, Hisako Sato, Yuki Kitahashi, Namsrai Javkhlantugs, Akira Naito, Kazuyoshi Ueda, Izuru Kawamura
Bombinin H4 is an antimicrobial peptide that was isolated from the toad Bombina variegata. Bombinin H family peptides are active against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria, and fungi as well as the parasite Leishmania. Among them, bombinin H4 (H4), which contains d-allo-isoleucine (d-allo-Ile) as the second residue in its sequence, is the most active, and its l-isomer is bombinin H2 (H2). H4 has a significantly lower LC50 than H2 against Leishmania. However, the atomic-level mechanism of the membrane interaction and higher activity of H4 has not been clarified...
January 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335002/leishmania-mortality-in-sand-fly-blood-meal-is-not-species-specific-and-does-not-result-from-direct-effect-of-proteinases
#18
Katerina Pruzinova, Jovana Sadlova, Jitka Myskova, Tereza Lestinova, Jozef Janda, Petr Volf
BACKGROUND: Leishmania development in sand flies is confined to the alimentary tract and is closely connected with blood meal digestion. Previously, it has been published that activities of sand fly midgut proteases are harmful to Leishmania, especially to amastigote-promastigote transition forms. However, our experiments with various Leishmania-sand fly pairs gave quite opposite results. METHODS: We evaluated the effect of semi-digested midgut content on different life stages of Leishmania donovani and Leishmania major in vitro...
January 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332596/synthesis-and-characterization-of-thiocarbohydrazones-and-their-inhibitory-potential-against-ignored-disease-leishmaniasis
#19
Nida Ghouri, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Arshia, M Iqbal Choudhary, Shahnaz Perveen
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a protozoan parasitic vector-borne disease which is endemic in 88 tropical countries. Infected sand fly is the main cause of this disease while, there are several vectors, parasites, and reservoirs involved in the transmission of this disease. Leishmania donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi are. common disease causing species, spread through sandflies. It is considered to be a focal disease having scattered foci. Leishmaniasis is a disease with a broad clinical spectrum...
January 14, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332401/proteomic-profiling-of-leishmania-donovani-promastigote-subcellular-organelles
#20
Armando Jardim, Darryl B Hardie, Jan Boitz, Christoph H Borchers
To facilitate a greater understanding of the biological processes in the medically important Leishmania donovani parasite, a combination of differential and density-gradient ultracentrifugation techniques were used to achieve a comprehensive subcellular fractionation of the promastigote stage. An in-depth label-free proteomic LC-MS/MS analysis of the density gradients resulted in the identification of ~50% of the Leishmania proteome (3883 proteins detected), which included ~645 integral membrane proteins and 1737 uncharacterized proteins...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
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