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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777624/characterisation-of-a-putative-glutamate-5-kinase-from-leishmania-donovani
#1
Natasha Sienkiewicz, Han B Ong, Alan H Fairlamb
Previous metabolic studies have demonstrated that leishmania parasites are able to synthesise proline from glutamic acid and threonine from aspartic acid. The first committed step in both biosynthetic pathways involves an amino acid kinase, either a glutamate 5-kinase (EC 2.7.2.11) or an aspartokinase (EC 2.7.2.4). Bioinformatic analysis of multiple leishmania genomes identifies a single amino-acid-kinase gene (LdBPK 262740.1) variously annotated as either a putative glutamate or aspartate kinase. To establish the catalytic function of this Leishmania donovani gene product, we have determined the physical and kinetic properties of the recombinant enzyme purified from Escherichia coli...
May 19, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775225/cytokines-and-chemokines-differentially-regulate-innate-immune-cell-trafficking-during-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#2
Ashish K Singh, Vidya N R Das, Ajay Amit, Manas R Dikhit, Vijaya Mahantesh, Shubhankar K Singh, Shyam Naryan, Krishna Pandey, Pradeep Das, Neena Verma, Sanjiva Bimal
Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is often considered to be the anthroponotic reservoir of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India. A better understanding of the host immune-response in dermal lesions of PKDL patients is therefore of utmost significance to minimize such patients and to restrict VL transmission. Although the innate immune response is known to play an important role in parasite clearance from dermal lesions, the actual contribution of innate cells to the pathogenicity of PKDL is poorly understood...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774958/effect-of-trapping-method-on-species-identification-of-phlebotomine-sandflies-by-maldi-tof-ms-protein-profiling
#3
P Halada, K Hlavackova, J Risueño, E Berriatua, P Volf, V Dvorak
Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) (Newstead, 1911) are blood-feeding insects that transmit human pathogens including Leishmania (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) parasites, causative agents of the leishmaniases. To elucidate Leishmania transmission cycles, conclusive identification of vector species is essential. Molecular approaches including matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) protein profiling have recently emerged to complement morphological identification...
May 18, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774295/serological-investigation-of-visceral-leishmania-infection-in-human-and-its-associated-risk-factors-in-welkait-district-western-tigray-ethiopia
#4
Abrha Bsrat, Mebrahtu Berhe, Endalemaw Gadissa, Habtamu Taddele, Yohannes Tekle, Yohannes Hagos, Adugna Abera, Messele G/Micael, Tehetna Alemayhu, Getachew Gugsa, Abraham Aseffa
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is major neglected public health problem in terms of geographical spread and incidence in Ethiopia. Magnitude, public health impact and dynamics of VL were not well studied in Welkait District, Western Tigray, though the area is known for VL. Hence, this study aimed to determine sero-prevalence of human VL and associated risk factors in Welkait as new foci. A cross sectional study design was employed in this study. Two stage stratified random sampling method was used to select study participants...
February 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773132/leishmania-in-wolves-in-northern-spain-a-spreading-zoonosis-evidenced-by-wildlife-sanitary-surveillance
#5
Alvaro Oleaga, Stefania Zanet, Alberto Espí, Marcia Raquel Pegoraro de Macedo, Christian Gortázar, Ezio Ferroglio
Leishmaniosis is, to date, considered the second most important emerging vector-borne protozoal disease in the world after malaria. The form of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis found in the Mediterranean basin is caused by Leishmania infantum, and its life cycle includes the domestic dog and a phlebotomine sandfly vector. This complex epidemiological cycle and its high prevalence of subclinical infection, hinder the surveillance and control of L. infantum, and allows it to go unnoticed at the geographical endemicity limits of the parasite or in recently colonized areas...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773051/dna-topoisomerases-of-leishmania-parasites-druggable-targets-for-drug-discovery
#6
Rosa Mª Reguer, Ehab Kotb Elmahallaw, Carlos Garcia-Estrada, Ruben Carbajo-Andres, Rafael Balana-Fouce
DNA topoisomerases (Top) are a group of isomerase enzymes responsible for controlling the topological problems caused by DNA double helix in the cell during the processes of replication, transcription and recombination. Interestingly, these enzymes have been known since long to be key molecular machines in several cellular processes through overwinding or underwinding of DNA in all-living organisms. Leishmania, a trypanosomatid parasite responsible for causing fatal diseases mostly in impoverished populations of low-income countries, have a set of six classes of Top enzymes...
May 17, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772025/shape-shifting-trypanosomes-flagellar-shortening-followed-by-asymmetric-division-in-trypanosoma-congolense-from-the-tsetse-proventriculus
#7
Lori Peacock, Christopher Kay, Mick Bailey, Wendy Gibson
Trypanosomatids such as Leishmania and Trypanosoma are digenetic, single-celled, parasitic flagellates that undergo complex life cycles involving morphological and metabolic changes to fit them for survival in different environments within their mammalian and insect hosts. According to current consensus, asymmetric division enables trypanosomatids to achieve the major morphological rearrangements associated with transition between developmental stages. Contrary to this view, here we show that the African trypanosome Trypanosoma congolense, an important livestock pathogen, undergoes extensive cell remodelling, involving shortening of the cell body and flagellum, during its transition from free-swimming proventricular forms to attached epimastigotes in vitro...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770328/second-blood-meal-by-female-lutzomyia-longipalpis-enhancement-by-oviposition-and-its-effects-on-digestion-longevity-and-leishmania-infection
#8
C S Moraes, K Aguiar-Martins, S G Costa, P A Bates, R J Dillon, F A Genta
Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in America. Physiological and molecular mechanisms of Leishmania infection in sand flies have been studied during the first gonotrophic cycle. There are few studies about these interactions during the second gonotrophic cycle mainly because of the difficulties maintaining sand flies through sequential feeds. Here we standardized conditions to perform the second blood feed efficiently, and our results show that oviposition is an essential factor for the success of multiple feeds...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768103/efficacy-of-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-to-diagnose-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-in-dogs-with-cardiac-alterations-from-an-endemic-area-of-mexico
#9
Matilde Jimenez-Coello, Thomas Shelite, Alejandro Castellanos-Gonzalez, Omar Saldarriaga, Rocio Rivero, Antonio Ortega-Pacheco, Carlos Acevedo-Arcique, Karla Amaya-Guardia, Nisha Garg, Peter Melby, Bruno L Travi
Chagas disease is a lingering Public Health problem in Latin America with ∼5.7 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Transmission is still taking place in most countries of the Americas, including the United States. Dogs are frequently infected with T. cruzi and its high infection prevalence is associated with increased risk of Chagas disease in humans. The city of Mérida in the Yucatan peninsula is endemic for Chagas disease and canines are frequently infected with T. cruzi. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a qualitative point of care (POC) molecular test (RPA-LF, recombinase polymerase amplification-lateral flow) developed in our laboratory for identifying infected dogs...
May 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766807/first-total-synthesis-of-%C3%AF-phenyl-%C3%AF-6-fatty-acids-and-their-leishmanicidal-and-anticancer-properties
#10
Nestor M Carballeira, Christian Morales-Guzman, Ester Alvarez-Benedicto, Zally Torres-Martinez, Yamixa Delgado-Reyes, Kai H Griebenow, Arthur D Tinoco, Rosa M Reguera, Yolanda Perez-Pertejo, Ruben Carbajo-Andres, Rafael Balana-Fouce
The first total synthesis of -phenyl 6 fatty acids (FA) and their cytotoxicity (A549) and leishmanicidal (L. infantum) activities are described. The novel 16-phenyl-6-hexadecynoic acid (1) and the known 16-phenylhexadecanoic acid (2) were synthesized in 7-8 steps with overall yields of 46 % and 41 %, respectively. The syntheses of the unprecedented 10-phenyl-6-decynoic acid (3), 10-cyclohexyl-6-decynoic acid (4) and 10-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6-decynoic acid (5) was also performed in 3 steps with 73-76 % overall yields...
May 16, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765989/corrigendum-to-dendritic-cells-and-leishmania-infection-adding-layers-of-complexity-to-a-complex-disease
#11
Daniel Feijó, Rafael Tibúrcio, Mariana Ampuero, Cláudia Brodskyn, Natalia Tavares
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2016/3967436.].
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765969/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-a-case-involving-the-scalp-clinical-and-videodermoscopic-findings
#12
Carlos Daniel Sánchez Cárdenas, Yolanda Judith Álvarez Luna, Yesenia Bello Hernández, Daniel Asz Sigall, Roberto Arenas Guzmán
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a worldwide infectious disease caused by flagellate protozoa of the genus Leishmania . In America, the species most commonly responsible for CL are L. mexicana and L. brasiliensis . Usually, in America, it is transmitted by sand flies mainly of the genus Lutzomyia and Psychodopygus . CL most commonly affects exposed areas and is characterized by an erythematous infiltrated and ulcerated papular or nodular lesion. We report a 28-year-old male, with a 6-month history and a previous trip to the forest in the south of Mexico...
April 2018: Skin Appendage Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765675/-leishmania-naiffi-and-leishmania-guyanensis-reference-genomes-highlight-genome-structure-and-gene-evolution-in-the-viannia-subgenus
#13
Simone Coughlan, Ali Shirley Taylor, Eoghan Feane, Mandy Sanders, Gabriele Schonian, James A Cotton, Tim Downing
The unicellular protozoan parasite Leishmania causes the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis, affecting 12 million people in 98 countries. In South America, where the Viannia subgenus predominates, so far only L. ( Viannia ) braziliensis and L. ( V. ) panamensis have been sequenced, assembled and annotated as reference genomes. Addressing this deficit in molecular information can inform species typing, epidemiological monitoring and clinical treatment. Here, L. ( V. ) naiffi and L. ( V. ) guyanensis genomic DNA was sequenced to assemble these two genomes as draft references from short sequence reads...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763945/leishmanicidal-effects-of-piperlongumine-piplartine-and-its-putative-metabolites
#14
Fernanda de Lima Moreira, Thalita Bachelli Riul, Marcela de Lima Moreira, Alan Cesar Pilon, Marcelo Dias-Baruffi, Márcio S S Araújo, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Anderson R M de Oliveira
Piperlongumine is an amide alkaloid found in Piperaceae species that shows a broad spectrum of biological properties, including antitumor and antiparasitic activities. Herein, the leishmanicidal effect of piperlongumine and its derivatives produced by a biomimetic model using metalloporphyrins was investigated. The results showed that IC50 values of piperlongumine in promastigote forms of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania amazonensis were 7.9 and 3.3 µM, respectively. The IC50 value of piperlongumine in the intracellular amastigote form of L...
May 15, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758517/identification-of-chalcone-based-antileishmanial-agents-targeting-trypanothione-reductase
#15
Margherita Ortalli, Andrea Ilari, Gianni Colotti, Ilenia De Ionna, Theo Battista, Alessandra Bisi, Silvia Gobbi, Angela Rampa, Rita M C Di Martino, Giovanna A Gentilomi, Stefania Varani, Federica Belluti
All currently used first-line and second-line drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis exhibit several drawbacks including toxicity, high costs and route of administration. Furthermore, some drugs are associated with the emergence of drug resistance. Thus, the development of new treatments for leishmaniasis is a priority in the field of neglected tropical diseases. The present work highlights the use of natural derived products, i.e. chalcones, as potential source of antileishmanial agents. Thirty-one novel chalcone compounds have been synthesized and their activity has been evaluated against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani; 16 compounds resulted active against L...
May 2, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757525/entomological-surveys-of-lutzomyia-flaviscutellata-and-other-vectors-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-municipalities-with-records-of-leishmania-amazonensis-within-the-bragan%C3%A3-a-region-of-par%C3%A3-state-brazil
#16
Bruno M Carvalho, Thiago Vasconcelos Dos Santos, Iorlando da R Barata, José Aprígio N Lima, Fernando T Silveira, Mariana M Vale, Paul D Ready, Elizabeth F Rangel
In southeast Amazon, Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) flaviscutellata is the incriminated vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, a causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The optimal methods for surveying Lu. flaviscutellata were investigated in the Bragança region, northeast Pará State, Brazil, selected for the presence of Le. amazonensis. The performances of modified Disney traps and CDC light traps were compared in four ecotopes within and around four village transects during the wet and dry seasons...
June 2018: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757380/simultaneous-population-pharmacokinetic-modelling-of-plasma-and-intracellular-pbmc-miltefosine-concentrations-in-new-world-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-and-exploration-of-exposure-response-relationships
#17
Anke E Kip, María Del Mar Castro, Maria Adelaida Gomez, Alexandra Cossio, Jan H M Schellens, Jos H Beijnen, Nancy Gore Saravia, Thomas P C Dorlo
Objectives: Leishmania parasites reside within macrophages and the direct target of antileishmanial drugs is therefore intracellular. We aimed to characterize the intracellular PBMC miltefosine kinetics by developing a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model simultaneously describing plasma and intracellular PBMC pharmacokinetics. Furthermore, we explored exposure-response relationships and simulated alternative dosing regimens. Patients and methods: A population PK model was developed with NONMEM, based on 339 plasma and 194 PBMC miltefosine concentrations from Colombian cutaneous leishmaniasis patients [29 children (2-12 years old) and 22 adults] receiving 1...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757339/novel-antimony-iii-hydroxamic-acid-complexes-as-potential-anti-leishmanial-agents
#18
D M Keogan, S S C Oliveira, L S Sangenito, M H Branquinha, R D Jagoo, B Twamley, A L S Santos, D M Griffith
Reaction of benzohydroxamic acid (Bha), 2-pyridinehydroxamic acid (2-pyha), 2-amino-phenylhydroxamic acid (2-NH2-pha) and salicylhydroxamic acid (Sha) with SbCl3 in ethanol gave the corresponding novel hydroxamato Sb(iii) complexes, [Sb(Bha-1H)2Cl] 1, [SbCl2(2-pyha-1H)] 2, [Sb(2-NH2-pha-1H)(2-NH3-pha-1H)]Cl2 3 and [SbCl(Sha-1H)2] 4. In all cases the hydroxamic acids coordinate to the Sb centres in the typical bidentate hydroxamato (O,O') coordination mode, via the carbonyl oxygen and deprotonated hydroxyl group...
May 14, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755558/antiparasitic-activity-and-essential-oil-chemical-analysis-of-the-piper-tuberculatum-jacq-fruit
#19
Valterlúcio Dos Santos Sales, Álefe Brito Monteiro, Gyllyandeson de Araújo Delmondes, Emmily Petícia do Nascimento, Francisco Rodolpho Sobreira Dantas Nóbrega de Figuêiredo, Cristina Kelly de Souza Rodrigues, Josefa Fernanda Evangelista de Lacerda, Cícera Norma Fernandes, Maysa de Oliveira Barbosa, Adamo Xenofonte Brasil, Saulo Relison Tintino, Maria Celeste Vega Gomez, Cathia Coronel, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Cícero Francisco Bezerra Felipe, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes, Marta Regina Kerntopf
With the increase of neglected diseases such as leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, there was a need for the search for new therapeutic alternatives that reduce the harm caused by medicine available for treatment. Thus, this study was performed to investigate the antiparasitic activity of the essential oil from the fruits of Piper tuberculatum Jacq, against lines of Leishmania braziliensis (MHOM/CO/88/UA301), Leishmania infantum (MHOM/ES/92/BCN83) and Trypanosoma cruzi (LC-B5 clone). Before running protocols, an analysis of the chemical composition of essential oil was conducted, which presented monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751117/cell-death-mechanisms-in-leishmania-amazonensis-triggered-by-methylene-blue-mediated-antiparasitic-photodynamic-therapy
#20
Débora P Aureliano, José Angelo Lauletta Lindoso, Sandra Regina de Castro Soares, Cleusa Fumika Hirata Takakura, Thiago Martini Pereira, Martha Simões Ribeiro
Antiparasitic photodynamic therapy (ApPDT) is an emerging approach to manage cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) since no side effects, contraindications and parasite resistance have been reported. In addition, methylene blue (MB) is a suitable photosensitizer to mediate ApPDT on CL. In this study we aimed to look for the best parameters to eradicate Leishmania amazonensis and investigated the cell death pathways involved in MB-mediated ApPDT. MB uptake by parasites was determined using different MB concentrations (50, 100, 250 and 500 μM) and incubation times (10, 30 and 60 min)...
May 8, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
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