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demyelinating diseases

W Oliver Tobin, Chiara Costanzi, Yong Guo, Joseph E Parisi, Stephen D Weigand, Claudia F Lucchinetti
BACKGROUND: The spectrum of central nervous system-idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease (CNS-IIDD) in the elderly is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of a cohort of 30 pathologically proven CNS-IIDD patients ⩾65 years. METHODS: Elderly multiple sclerosis (MS)/clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients were compared to a cohort of 125 patients with pathologically proven MS/CIS and symptom onset <65 years...
October 19, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Anastasiya G Trenova, Georgi S Slavov, Maria G Manova, Jana B Aksentieva, Lyuba D Miteva, Spaska A Stanilova
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a socially significant immune-mediated disease, characterized by demyelination, axonal transection and oligodendropathy in the central nervous system. Inflammatory demyelination and neurodegeneration lead to brain atrophy and cognitive deficit in up to 75% of the patients. Cognitive dysfunctions impact significantly patients' quality of life, independently from the course and phase of the disease. The relationship between pathological brain findings and cognitive impairment is a subject of intensive research...
September 1, 2016: Folia Medica
J Pakpoor, D Saylor, I Izbudak, L Liu, E M Mowry, D M Yousem
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The increasing use of the emergency department MR imaging scanner at our institution raises questions about its added value to certain patient groups. We hypothesized that the use of emergency department MR imaging for identifying active demyelination in MS patients presenting with new neurologic symptoms would be of low yield. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic medical records were reviewed for patients with MS who had emergency department MR imaging scans for a suspected MS exacerbation between March 1, 2014, and March 1, 2016...
October 6, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Ke-Wei Tian, Fan Zhang, Hong Jiang, Beibei Wang, Shu Han
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disorder that affects the central nervous system (CNS), and results in CNS inflammation and damage to myelin. In this study, we examined the possible synergistic effects of C16, angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and regeneration gene protein 2 (Reg-2) in alleviating inflammation in an acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. We employed multiple histological, morphological and iconographic assays to examine the effect of those drugs on disease onset, clinical scores and behavioral deficits...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Nabil K El Ayoubi, Samia J Khoury
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. Only a few biomarkers are available in MS clinical practice, such as cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands and immunoglobulin index, serum anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies, and serum anti-John Cunningham virus antibodies. Thus, there is a significant unmet need for biomarkers to assess prognosis, response to therapy, or potential treatment complications. Here we describe emerging biomarkers that are in development, focusing on those from peripheral blood...
October 18, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Volkan Solmaz, Selçuk Yavuz, Ahmet İnanr, Dürdane Aksoy, Elmas Pektaş, Aslan Tekataş, Semiha Gulsum Kurt
INTRODUCTION: our aim was to determine if there are electro diagnostic (EDX) differences between carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), CTS+hypothyroidism (HT), CTS+fibromyalgia (FMS), CTS+rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and idiopathic CTS cases by comparing nerve conduction studies (NCS). METHOD: This research examined electrophysiological studies of untreated 47 HT+CTS, 47 DM+CTS, 49 RA+CTS, 52 FMS+CTS, 50 idiopathic CTS cases, and a healthy control group of 50 individuals (total of 293 patients and 433 hands with CTS)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Ana Luiza M Amorim, Nadia C Cabral, Fabiane M Osaku, Claudio A Len, Enedina M L Oliveira, Maria Teresa Terreri
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. Autoimmunity in patients with demyelinating disease and in their families has been broadly investigated and discussed. Recent studies show a higher incidence of rheumatic autoimmune diseases among adult patients with MS or NMO and their families, but there are no studies in the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an association of MS and NMO with autoimmune rheumatic diseases in pediatric patients...
September 28, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
Mohammad A Al-Qudah, Ahmed Al-Dwairi
Neurotrophins are secreted proteins that are synthesized as pre-pro-neurotrophins on the rough endoplasmic reticulum, which are subsequently processed and then secreted as mature proteins. During synthesis, neurotrophins are sorted in the trans-Golgi apparatus into 2 pathways of secretion; the constitutive and the regulated pathways. Neurotrophins in the constitutive pathway are secreted cautiously without any trigger, while in the regulated pathway of secretion an external stimulus elevates the calcium concentration intracellularly leading to neurotrophin release...
October 2016: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
Pietro Maggi, Pascal Sati, Luca Massacesi
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an invaluable tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as for the study of the disease pathophysiology. Because of its strong clinical, radiological and histopathological similarities with the human disease, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the common marmoset has been studied more intensively over the past several years. Here, we review the current knowledge on MRI in the marmoset EAE, and we outline the physiopathological significance and translational values of these studies with respect to MS...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Kms Kanhai, S C Goulooze, J Stevens, J L Hay, G Dent, A Verma, T Hankemeier, T de Boer, H Meijering, J C Chavez, A F Cohen, G J Groeneveld
Therapeutics promoting myelin synthesis may enhance recovery in demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. However, no suitable method exists to quantify myelination. The turnover of galactosylceramide (myelin component) is indicative of myelination in mice, but its turnover has not been determined in humans. Here, six healthy subjects consumed 120 mL 70% D2 O daily for 70 days to label galactosylceramide. We then used mass spectrometry and compartmental modeling to quantify the turnover rate of galactosylceramide in cerebrospinal fluid...
October 15, 2016: Clinical and Translational Science
Konstantin Balashov
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article focuses on neuroimaging in multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disorder encountered by practicing neurologists. Less common adult demyelinating disorders and incidental subclinical white matter abnormalities that are often considered in the differential diagnosis of MS are also reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Advancements in neuroimaging techniques, eg, the application of ultrahigh-field MRI, are rapidly expanding the use of neuroimaging in CNS demyelinating disorders...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Michele R Colonna, Giuseppe Tallarida, Francesco Stagno d'Alcontres, Salvatore Noto, Aurora Parodi, Alberto Tagliafico
Five years after both right ulnar and median nerve decompression for paraesthesias and palsy, a patient, coming from Nigeria but living in Italy, came to our unit claiming to have persistent pain and combined median and ulnar palsy. Under suspicion of leprosy, skin and left sural nerve biopsy were performed. Skin tests were negative, but Schwann cells resulted as positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB), leading to the diagnosis of Pure Neuritic Leprosy (PNL). The patient was given PB multidrug therapy and recovered from pain in two months...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Olivier Colin, Sylvie Favrelière, Alexandre Quillet, Jean-Philippe Neau, Jean-Luc Houeto, Claire Lafay-Chebassier, Marie-Christine Pérault-Pochat
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an often fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. As effective treatment is unavailable, identification of all drugs that could be associated with PML is essential. The objective of this study was to investigate the putative association of reports of PML and drugs. We used the case/noncase method in the French PharmacoVigilance Database (FPVD). Cases were reports of PML in the FPVD between January 2008 and December 2015. Noncases were all other reports during the same period...
October 13, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Zhimin Ou, Yuxia Sun, Li Lin, Nachun You, Xue Liu, Hongchao Li, Yanchen Ma, Lei Cao, Ying Han, Min Liu, Yaqi Deng, Luming Yao, Q Richard Lu, Ying Chen
: Demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are known to result from acute or chronic injury to the myelin sheath and inadequate remyelination; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we performed genome occupancy analysis by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing in oligodendrocytes in response to lysolecithin-induced injury and found that Olig2 and its downstream target Gpr17 are critical factors in regulating oligodendrocyte survival. After injury to oligodendrocytes, Olig2 was significantly upregulated and transcriptionally targeted the Gpr17 locus...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yoshiki Takai, Tatsuro Misu, Shuhei Nishiyama, Hirohiko Ono, Hiroshi Kuroda, Ichiro Nakashima, Ryuta Saito, Masayuki Kanamori, Yukihiko Sonoda, Toshihiro Kumabe, Shunji Mugikura, Mika Watanabe, Masashi Aoki, Kazuo Fujihara
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the pathogenic factors and mechanisms underlying the development of concentric demyelinating lesions in Balo disease. METHODS: We conducted serial clinical, MRI, and histopathologic assessments of concentric lesion formation in a case of relapsing Balo disease. RESULTS: The patient experienced 2 attacks caused by left parietal and left frontal lesions in 5 years. In MRI findings from both episodes of expanding lesions, there were diffusion-restricted rings that antedated the appearance of gadolinium enhancement; subsequently, typical concentric T2 lesions appeared concurrently with the disappearance of this enhancement...
October 12, 2016: Neurology
Jennifer N Hahn, Deepak K Kaushik, Manoj K Mishra, Jianxiong Wang, Claudia Silva, V Wee Yong
Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN, CD147) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is upregulated on leukocytes in active lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Administration of anti-EMMPRIN Abs reduces the severity of EAE. Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic with immune-modulatory properties that decreases the severity of EAE; it was recently found to attenuate the conversion from a first demyelinating event to clinically definite MS in a phase III trial...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Annie C Bowles, Amy L Strong, Rachel M Wise, Robert C Thomas, Brittany Y Gerstein, Maria F Dutreil, Ryan S Hunter, Jeffrey M Gimble, Bruce A Bunnell
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common neurodegenerative disease and remains an unmet clinical challenge. In MS, an autoimmune response leads to immune cell infiltration, inflammation, demyelination, and lesions in central nervous system (CNS) tissues resulting in tremors, fatigue, and progressive loss of motor function. These pathologic hallmarks are effectively reproduced in the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is composed of adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASC), adipocytes, and various leukocytes...
October 12, 2016: Stem Cells
Chen Gu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Many believe autoimmune pathogenesis plays a key role in MS, but its target(s) remains elusive. A recent study detected autoantibodies against KIR4.1, an ATP-sensitive, inward rectifier potassium channel, in nearly half of the MS patients examined. KIR4.1 channels are expressed in astrocytes. Together with aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channels, they regulate astrocytic functions vital for myelination. Autoantibodies against AQP4 have been established as a key biomarker for neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and contributed to diagnostic and treatment strategy adjustments...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Violaine K Harris, Tamara Vyshkina, Saud A Sadiq
BACKGROUND AIMS: There is a critical unmet need to develop regenerative therapies for the demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). We previously characterized the immunoregulatory and trophic properties of neural progenitors derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC-NPs) and established that cells derived from MS and non-MS patients alike were therapeutically viable. In an experimental model of MS, intrathecal MSC-NP injection resulted in disease amelioration with decreased T-cell infiltration, and less severe lesion pathology associated with recruitment of resident progenitors to inflammatory sites...
October 7, 2016: Cytotherapy
Tetsuya Akaishi, Masatoshi Konno, Ichiro Nakashima, Masashi Aoki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Internal Medicine
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