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Prenatal alcohol exposure

Steve Gregory, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Joseph R Hibbeln, Caroline M Taylor, Jean Golding
OBJECTIVES: There have been conflicting data suggesting that prenatal mercury exposure is associated with adverse cardiovascular measures in children. We therefore analysed a large prospective population study to investigate whether prenatal mercury exposure might influence offspring blood pressure (BP) and heart rate adversely. DESIGN: Prospective birth cohort. SETTING: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). PARTICIPANTS: Maternal whole blood collected in the first half of pregnancy was assayed for mercury and selenium...
October 14, 2016: BMJ Open
Ryan Mills, Steve Kisely, Rosa Alati, Lane Strathearn, Jake M Najman
AIMS: To investigate whether: (1) child maltreatment is associated with lifetime cannabis use, early onset cannabis use, daily cannabis use and DSM-IV cannabis abuse in young adulthood; and (2) behaviour problems, tobacco use and alcohol use at 14 are associated with cannabis use. DESIGN: Birth cohort using linked government agency child protection data to define exposure to child maltreatment. SETTING: The Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy in Brisbane, Australia...
October 14, 2016: Addiction
Jeffrey R Wozniak, Bryon A Mueller, Sarah N Mattson, Claire D Coles, Julie A Kable, Kenneth L Jones, Christopher J Boys, Kelvin O Lim, Edward P Riley, Elizabeth R Sowell
: Consistent with well-documented structural and microstructural abnormalities in prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), recent studies suggest that functional connectivity (FC) may also be disrupted. We evaluated whole-brain FC in a large multi-site sample, examined its cognitive correlates, and explored its potential to objectively identify neurodevelopmental abnormality in individuals without definitive dysmorphic features. Included were 75 children with PAE and 68 controls from four sites...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Miguel Del Campo, Kenneth Lyons Jones
The fetal alcohol spectrum of disorders (FASD) includes four diagnostic categories for the clinical consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the unborn child. Physical features are necessary for the diagnosis of the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial pFAS. Moreover, these features are specific and a diagnosis of FAS can be made even in the absence of knowledge of PAE. Not only growth deficits, microcephaly and the 3 facial features (short palpebral fissures, smooth philtrum and narrow vermillion of the upper lip) are characteristic, since other dysmorphic features particularly in the hands are key to the recognition of FAS...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Kyoko Wada, Barbra de Vrijer, Barbara F Hales, Jeff Nisker
BACKGROUND: There have long been minimal risk thresholds beneath which risks may not need to be discussed in clinical research. This threshold concept may be applied to clinical practice. Our research explored application of minimal risk standards in research regulations to providing information in prenatal and pre-conception care. METHODS: A case study approach applied minimal risk standards in research regulations to prenatal and pre-conception care with respect to the risks of excess alcohol consumption, folic acid insufficiency, exposure to phthalate plasticizers, and exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs)...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Zoe H Larsen, Praveen Chander, Jason A Joyner, Crina M Floruta, Tess L Demeter, Jason P Weick
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in animal models results in excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) imbalance in neocortex due to alterations in the GABAergic interneuron (IN) differentiation and migration. Thus, E/I imbalance is a potential cause for intellectual disability in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), but whether ethanol (EtOH) changes glutamatergic and GABAergic IN specification during human development remains unknown. Here, we created a human cellular model of PAE/FASD and tested the hypothesis that EtOH exposure during differentiation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons (hPSNs) would cause the aberrant production of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, resulting in E/I imbalance...
September 26, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Angelina Paolozza, Douglas P Munoz, Donald Brien, James N Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Saccades are rapid eye movements that bring an image of interest onto the retina. Previous research has found that in healthy individuals performing eye movement tasks, the location of a previous visual target can influence performance of the saccade on the next trial. This rapid behavioral adaptation represents a form of immediate neural plasticity within the saccadic circuitry. Our studies have shown that children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) are impaired on multiple saccade measures...
September 22, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Joanna Helena Sliwowska, Wendy L Comeau, Tamara S Bodnar, Linda Ellis, Joanne Weinberg
BACKGROUND: Reproductive maturation is initiated with the onset of puberty, which activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and coincidences with increased expression of the hormone kisspeptin within the hypothalamus. Maturational events are sensitive to environmental factors, including alcohol, which is known to delay reproductive development. We hypothesized that, similar to alcohol's adverse effects during reproductive maturation, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) would alter pubertal markers, sex hormone profiles, and kisspeptin expression in the hypothalamus...
September 30, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Annika C Montag, Andrew D Hull, Lyubov Yevtushok, Natalya Zymak-Zakutnya, Zoryana Sosyniuk, Viktor Dolhov, Kenneth Lyons Jones, Wladimir Wertelecki, Christina D Chambers
BACKGROUND: Early detection of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) is desirable to allow earlier and more comprehensive interventions to be initiated for the mother and infant. We examined prenatal ultrasound as an early method of detecting markers of the physical features and neurobehavioral deficits characteristic of FASD. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort of pregnant women in Ukraine was recruited as part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders...
September 30, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Joseph F Hagan, Tatiana Balachova, Jacquelyn Bertrand, Ira Chasnoff, Elizabeth Dang, Daniel Fernandez-Baca, Julie Kable, Barry Kosofsky, Yasmin N Senturias, Natasha Singh, Mark Sloane, Carol Weitzman, Jennifer Zubler
Children and adolescents affected by prenatal exposure to alcohol who have brain damage that is manifested in functional impairments of neurocognition, self-regulation, and adaptive functioning may most appropriately be diagnosed with neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal exposure. This Special Article outlines clinical implications and guidelines for pediatric medical home clinicians to identify, diagnose, and refer children regarding neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal exposure. Emphasis is given to reported or observable behaviors that can be identified as part of care in pediatric medical homes, differential diagnosis, and potential comorbidities...
September 27, 2016: Pediatrics
Isabel C S Carvalho, Carolina da S M Martinelli, Noala V M Milhan, Adriana M P da S Marchini, Tamires P Dutra, Daniela M de Souza, Rosilene F da Rocha
Previous studies suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure affects fetal bone development, including bone quality. This study evaluated the chemical composition of mandibles from newborn rats after maternal 20% alcohol consumption before and throughout gestation. Nine rats were initially distributed into three groups: an Alcohol group, Pair-fed group, and Control group. The groups were fed prespecified diets for 8 weeks before and the 3 weeks during pregnancy. At age 5 days, eight newborns from each group were euthanized (total, n = 24)...
2016: Journal of Oral Science
Christie L M Petrenko, Mary E Pandolfino, Rachael Roddenbery
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Limited research has focused on parenting practices used by caregivers raising children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The current study hypothesized that parental attributions of children's misbehavior would relate to the parenting strategies caregivers utilize with children with FASD. This study also aimed to develop a coding scheme to allow quantification of these treatment-relevant constructs in future intervention trials. METHODS: Thirty-one caregivers of children with FASD (age 4-8) were interviewed with the Parenting Practices Interview (PPI), a study-developed qualitative interview...
September 20, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Julie A Kable, Claire D Coles, Kenneth L Jones, Lyubov Yevtushok, Yaroslav Kulikovsky, Wladimir Wertelecki, Christina D Chambers
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been found to impact neurophysiological encoding of environmental events negatively in the first year of life but has not been evaluated in older infants or toddlers. Cardiac orienting responses (ORs) collected during a habituation/dishabituation learning paradigm were obtained from 12- to 18-month-olds to assess the impact of PAE beyond the first year of life. METHODS: Participants included women and their toddlers who differed in PAE histories and enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of multivitamin/mineral usage during pregnancy...
September 21, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Onni Niemelä, Solja Niemelä, Annukka Ritvanen, Mika Gissler, Aini Bloigu, Marja Vääräsmäki, Eero Kajantie, Martha M Werler, Heljä-Marja Surcel
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use during pregnancy leads to detrimental effects on fetal development. As self-reports by mothers are known to be unreliable for assessing prenatal alcohol exposure, there is a need for sensitive and specific biomarkers for identifying those at risk for alcohol-affected offspring. METHODS: We measured serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), a mathematically formulated combination of GGT and CDT (GGT-CDT), and ethylglucuronide (EtG) concentrations from 1,936 mothers with a positive (n = 480) or negative (n = 1,456) history of alcohol use at the time of pregnancy...
September 21, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Robyn Doney, Barbara R Lucas, Tracy Jirikowic, Tracey W Tsang, Rochelle E Watkins, Kay Sauer, Peter Howat, Jane Latimer, James P Fitzpatrick, June Oscar, Maureen Carter, Elizabeth J Elliott
BACKGROUND/AIM: Few studies have examined graphomotor skills in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). METHODS: Graphomotor skills were assessed in 108 predominantly Australian Aboriginal children aged 7.5-9.6 years in remote Western Australia using clinical observations (pencil grasp; writing pressure) and standardised assessment tools (the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting; and the Miller Function and Participation Scales - The Draw-a-Kid Game)...
September 19, 2016: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
Svetlana Popova, Shannon Lange, Charlotte Probst, Nino Parunashvili, Jürgen Rehm
Prenatal alcohol exposure may cause a number of health complications for the mother and developing fetus, including Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). This study aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of i) alcohol use (any amount) and binge drinking (4 or more standard drinks on a single occasion) during pregnancy, and ii) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and FASD among the general and Aboriginal populations in Canada and the United States, based on the available literature. Comprehensive systematic literature searches and meta-analyses, assuming a random-effects model, were conducted...
September 13, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Julie A Kable, Raja A S Mukherjee
Neurobehavioral Disorder associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE) was proposed as a diagnostic formulation intended to capture the range of mental health problems occurring in alcohol-affected individuals with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. The proposed criteria for the disorder are reviewed as well as various factors considered in the development of the disorder and its associated criteria. The taxonomic research related to the disorder is reviewed with preliminary analyses indicating that clinicians are readily able to agree when applying the diagnostic criteria but that the adaptive functioning criteria may need to be modified to expand its coverage of alcohol-affected individuals and to aid in discriminating these individuals from others not alcohol-affected...
September 13, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Robin L Haynes, Rebecca D Folkerth, David S Paterson, Kevin G Broadbelt, S Dan Zaharie, Richard H Hewlett, Johan J Dempers, Elsie Burger, Shabbir Wadee, Pawel Schubert, Colleen Wright, Mary Ann Sens, Laura Nelsen, Bradley B Randall, Hoa Tran, Elaine Geldenhuys, Amy J Elliott, Hein J Odendaal, Hannah C Kinney
The Safe Passage Study is an international, prospective study of approximately 12 000 pregnancies to determine the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) upon stillbirth and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). A key objective of the study is to elucidate adverse effects of PAE upon binding to serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors in brainstem homeostatic networks postulated to be abnormal in unexplained stillbirth and/or SIDS. We undertook a feasibility assessment of 5-HT1A receptor binding using autoradiography in the medulla oblongata (6 nuclei in 27 cases)...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Angelina Paolozza, Sarah Treit, Christian Beaulieu, James N Reynolds
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can cause central nervous system dysfunction and widespread structural anomalies as detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study focused on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of white matter in a large sample of PAE participants that allowed us to examine correlations with behavioral outcomes. Participants were confirmed PAE (n = 69, mean age = 12.5 ± 3.2 years) or typically developing control children (n = 67, mean age = 12.1 ± 3.2 years) who underwent brain MRI, eye movement tasks, and psychometric tests...
September 13, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
S Boronat, A Sánchez-Montañez, N Gómez-Barros, C Jacas, L Martínez-Ribot, E Vázquez, M Del Campo
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) include physical and neurodevelopmental abnormalities related to prenatal alcohol exposure. Some neuroimaging findings have been clearly related to FASD, including corpus callosum and cerebellar anomalies. However, detailed studies correlating with specific FASD categories, that is, the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS (pFAS) and alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorders (ARND), are lacking. We prospectively performed clinical assessment and brain MR imaging to 72 patients with suspected FASD, and diagnosis was confirmed in 62...
September 9, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
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