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Prenatal alcohol exposure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915355/thiamin-deficiency-on-fetal-brain-development-with-and-without-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#1
Olena Kloss, Michael Eskin, Miyoung Suh
Adequate thiamin levels are crucial for optimal health, through maintenance of homeostasis and viability of metabolic enzymes, which require thiamine as a co-factor. Thiamin deficiency occurs during pregnancy when dietary intake is inadequate or excessive alcohol is consumed. Thiamin deficiency leads to brain dysfunction due to its involvement in synthesis of myelin and neurotransmitters (eg. acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate), and increases oxidative stress by decreasing the production of reducing agents...
September 15, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914230/prefrontal-cortical-responses-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-related-neurodevelopmental-impairment-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#2
Julie A Kable, Claire D Coles
OBJECTIVE: Disruption in the neural activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in modulating arousal was explored in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), who have known neurobehavioral impairment. METHODS: During a task that elicits frustration, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to measure PFC activation, specifically levels of oxygenated (HBO) and deoxygenated (HBR) hemoglobin, in children with PAE (n=18) relative to typically developing Controls (n=12) and a Clinical Contrast group with other neurodevelopmental or behavioral problems (n=14)...
September 2, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898707/the-effect-of-prenatal-substance-use-and-maternal-contingent-responsiveness-on-infant-affect
#3
Jean Lowe, Fares Qeadan, Lawrence Leeman, Shikhar Shrestha, Julia M Stephen, Ludmila N Bakhireva
BACKGROUND: The effects of prenatal substance exposure on neurobehavioral outcomes are inherently confounded by the effects of the postnatal environment, making it difficult to disentangle their influence. The goal of this study was to examine the contributing effects of prenatal substance use and parenting style (operationalized as contingent responding during the play episodes of the Still-face paradigm [SFP]) on infant affect. METHODS: A prospective cohort design was utilized with repeated assessment of substance use during pregnancy and the administration of the SFP, which measures infant response to a social stressor, at approximately 6months of age...
September 9, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892122/effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-consumption-on-cognitive-development-and-adhd-related-behaviour-in-primary-school-age-a-multilevel-study-based-on-meconium-ethyl-glucuronide
#4
Anna Eichler, Linda Hudler, Juliane Grunitz, Jennifer Grimm, Eva Raabe, Tamme W Goecke, Peter A Fasching, Matthias W Beckmann, Oliver Kratz, Gunther H Moll, Johannes Kornhuber, Hartmut Heinrich
BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake during pregnancy is considered to be a risk factor for child development. Child biomarkers of intrauterine alcohol exposure have been rarely studied. We investigated whether a meconium alcohol metabolite (ethyl glucuronide, EtG) was associated with cognitive development, ADHD-related behaviour and neurophysiological markers of attention and executive control of children at primary-school age. METHODS: Mothers provided self-report on prenatal alcohol consumption during their 3rd trimester...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888041/supplementation-with-the-methyl-donor-betaine-prevents-congenital-defects-induced-by-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#5
Ganga Karunamuni, Megan M Sheehan, Yong Qiu Doughman, Shi Gu, Jiayang Sun, Youjun Li, James P Strainic, Andrew M Rollins, Michael W Jenkins, Michiko Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of public education about dire consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, drinking alcohol during pregnancy remains prevalent. As high as 40% of live-born infants exposed to alcohol during gestation and diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome have congenital heart defects that can be life-threatening. In animal models, the methyl donor betaine, found in foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets and spinach, ameliorated neurobehavioral deficits associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) but effects on heart development are unknown...
September 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884976/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-enhances-the-susceptibility-to-nmda-induced-generalized-tonic-clonic-seizures-in-developing-rats
#6
Sue J Cho, David M Lovinger, Prosper N'Gouemo
AIMS: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with a higher likelihood of developing generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) in infants and children. However, experimental studies of PAE-related seizures have yielded conflicting results. Here, we investigated the effect of acute PAE on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced seizures in developing rats. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were given an oral dose of either ethanol (5 g/kg body weight) or vehicle on embryonic day 18...
October 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881390/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-relation-to-autism-spectrum-disorder-findings-from-the-study-to-explore-early-development-seed
#7
Alison B Singer, Arthur S Aylsworth, Christina Cordero, Lisa A Croen, Carolyn DiGuiseppi, M Daniele Fallin, Amy H Herring, Stephen R Hooper, Rebecca E Pretzel, Laura A Schieve, Gayle C Windham, Julie L Daniels
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure can affect neurodevelopment, but few studies have examined associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: We assessed the association between maternal alcohol use and ASD in the Study to Explore Early Development, a multi-site case-control study of children born between September 2003 and August 2006 in the US Regression analyses included 684 children with research clinician-confirmed ASD, 869 children with non-ASD developmental delays or disorders (DDs), and 962 controls ascertained from the general population (POP)...
September 7, 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873290/intelligence-and-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-a-review
#8
Vanessa K de L Ferreira, Marcelo S Cruz
BACKGROUND: Background: The studies on intelligence in individuals with fetal alcohol exposure are conflicting. Some have found a relevant impairment in this population, while others found results that were consistent with the population at large. OBJECTIVES: Describe the results of studies on intelligence in individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. METHODS: Indexed articles of the last 10 years were selected for an integrative literature review...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869026/-a-danish-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-definition
#9
Marcella Broccia, Jennifer Vikre-Jørgensen, Nete Lundager Klokker Rausgaard
The Danish Paediatric Society presents the first Danish definition of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in a new guideline. FASD is an umbrella term for conditions caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. To varying degrees, fetal alcohol damages manifest as physical defects, characteristic facial features and poor growth, as well as behavioural and cognitive disorders. It requires both somatic and psychological evaluation to identify these damages. Early diagnosis and identification of problems are important for prognosis as professional care has a positive preventive effect on comorbidities...
August 7, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865114/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-leads-to-enhanced-serine-9-phosphorylation-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-gsk-3%C3%AE-in-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-of-adult-mouse
#10
Lee Anna Cunningham, Jessie Newville, Phillip Tapia, Andrea M Allan, C Fernando Valenzuela
BACKGROUND: The goal of the present study was to evaluate the expression and serine 9 phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β) within the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) in a preclinical mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). GSK-3β is a multifunctional kinase that modulates many hippocampal processes affected by gestational alcohol, including synaptic plasticity and adult neurogenesis. GSK-3β is a constitutively active kinase that is negatively regulated by phosphorylation at the serine-9 residue...
September 1, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859338/human-brain-abnormalities-associated-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-and-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#11
Jessica S Jarmasz, Duaa A Basalah, Albert E Chudley, Marc R Del Bigio
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a common neurodevelopmental problem, but neuropathologic descriptions are rare and focused on the extreme abnormalities. We conducted a retrospective survey (1980-2016) of autopsies on 174 individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure or an FASD diagnosis. Epidemiologic details and neuropathologic findings were categorized into 5 age groups. Alcohol exposure was difficult to quantify. When documented, almost all mothers smoked tobacco, many abused other substances, and prenatal care was poor or nonexistent...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839077/alcohol-consumption-in-a-general-antenatal-population-and-child-neurodevelopment-at-2-years
#12
Jane L Halliday, Evelyne Muggli, Sharon Lewis, Elizabeth J Elliott, David J Amor, Colleen O'Leary, Susan Donath, Della Forster, Cate Nagle, Jeffrey M Craig, Peter J Anderson
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is a community health problem with up to 50% of pregnant women drinking alcohol. The relationship between low or sporadic binge PAE and adverse child outcomes is not clear. This study examines the association between PAE in the general antenatal population and child neurodevelopment at 2 years, accounting for relevant contributing factors. METHODS: This prospective population-based cohort recruited 1570 pregnant women, providing sociodemographic, psychological and lifestyle information and alcohol use for five time periods...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838601/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-what-pediatric-providers-need-to-know
#13
Angela Nash, Leah Davies
Prenatal alcohol exposure is the cause of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), the prevalence of which is similar to that of other developmental disabilities like Down syndrome and autism. Children, adolescents, and adults who live with the disabilities associated with prenatal alcohol exposure face extraordinary challenges throughout their lives. Pediatric providers need to be able to identify patients with FASD because early recognition and intervention is known to improve life outcomes for affected individuals...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834683/global-prevalence-of-alcohol-use-and-binge-drinking-during-pregnancy-and-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#14
Svetlana Popova, Shannon Lange, Charlotte Probst, Gerrit Gmel, Jürgen Rehm
Alcohol use during pregnancy is an established cause of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), with heavy drinking during pregnancy being explicitly linked to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). The current paper presents recent estimates of the prevalence of: i) any amount of alcohol use during pregnancy, ii) one or more binge drinking episode(s) (four or more standard drinks on a single occasion) during pregnancy, iii) FAS, and iv) FASD among the general population globally and by World Health Organization region...
August 23, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833270/tailoring-an-alcohol-intervention-for-aian-women-of-childbearing-age-listening-to-the-community
#15
Annika C Montag, Marlené L Dusek, Marina L Ortega, Alexandrea Camp-Mazzetti, Dan J Calac, Christina D Chambers
BACKGROUND: Reduction of risky drinking in women of childbearing age is one strategy that may be employed to prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, a sequela of prenatal alcohol-exposure. Communities differ in risk and protective factors, necessitating culturally informed interventions for maximal efficacy. This manuscript describes the modification of an existing web-based SBIRT intervention to reduce risky drinking among AIAN women of child-bearing age in Southern California into a peer-to-peer based intervention using motivational interviewing...
August 23, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828483/global-prevalence-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-among-children-and-youth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Shannon Lange, Charlotte Probst, Gerrit Gmel, Jürgen Rehm, Larry Burd, Svetlana Popova
Importance: Prevalence estimates are essential to effectively prioritize, plan, and deliver health care to high-needs populations such as children and youth with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, most countries do not have population-level prevalence data for FASD. Objective: To obtain prevalence estimates of FASD among children and youth in the general population by country, by World Health Organization (WHO) region, and globally. Data Sources: MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, EMBASE, Education Resource Information Center, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, PsychINFO, and Scopus were systematically searched for studies published from November 1, 1973, through June 30, 2015, without geographic or language restrictions...
August 21, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820871/genetic-predisposition-to-fetal-alcohol-syndrome-association-with-congenital-disorders-of-n-glycosylation
#17
María E de la Morena-Barrio, María J Ballesta-Martínez, Raquel López-Gálvez, Ana I Antón, Vanessa López-González, Laia Martínez-Ribot, José Padilla, Antonia Miñano, Oscar García-Algar, Miguel Del Campo, Javier Corral, Encarna Guillén-Navarro, Vicente Vicente
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, although additional factors must be involved, as development and severity are not directly related to alcohol intake. The abnormal glycosylation caused by alcohol might play a role in FAS according to the clinical similarities shared with congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). Thus, mutations underlying CDG, affecting genes involved in glycosylation, could also be involved in FAS...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796950/age-related-differences-in-neuropsychological-assessment-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Nicole Taylor, Leah Enns
This cross-sectional study examined six key areas of neuropsychological functioning (cognitive, academic, attention, executive function, adaptive skills) comparing adolescents and school-age children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). The aims were: (1) to examine which neuropsychological measures were predictive of an FASD diagnosis in adolescents and school-age children with PAE, and (2) to compare the neuropsychological performance of adolescents and children diagnosed with FASD. Hierarchical logistic regressions determined that the Full-Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning indices, basic reading and math skills, adaptive functioning at school, and components of executive functioning (dependent on age) improved the probability of an accurate FASD diagnosis in both groups: 9...
August 10, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796310/turmeric-extract-rescues-ethanol-induced-developmental-defect-in-the-zebrafish-model-for-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-fasd
#19
Pooja Muralidharan, Craig T Connors, Arooj S Mohammed, Swapnalee Sarmah, Kathleen Marrs, James A Marrs, Grady W Chism
Prenatal ethanol exposure causes the most frequent preventable birth disorder, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The effect of turmeric extracts in rescuing an ethanol-induced developmental defect using zebrafish as a model was determined. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms underlying FASD. We hypothesize that antioxidant inducing properties of turmeric may alleviate ethanol-induced defects. Curcuminoid content of the turmeric powder extract (5 mg/mL turmeric in ethanol) was determined by UPLC and found to contain Curcumin (124...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775124/low-alcohol-consumption-and-pregnancy-and-childhood-outcomes-time-to-change-guidelines-indicating-apparently-safe-levels-of-alcohol-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#20
Loubaba Mamluk, Hannah B Edwards, Jelena Savović, Verity Leach, Timothy Jones, Theresa H M Moore, Sharea Ijaz, Sarah J Lewis, Jenny L Donovan, Debbie Lawlor, George Davey Smith, Abigail Fraser, Luisa Zuccolo
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of low-to-moderate levels of maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy on pregnancy and longer-term offspring outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Psychinfo from inception to 11 July 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA: Prospective observational studies, negative control and quasiexperimental studies of pregnant women estimating effects of light drinking in pregnancy (≤32 g/week) versus abstaining...
August 3, 2017: BMJ Open
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