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Prenatal alcohol exposure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788774/the-standardization-of-diagnostic-criteria-for-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-fasd-implications-for-research-clinical-practice-and-population-health
#1
Jasmine M Brown, Roger Bland, Egon Jonsson, Andrew J Greenshaw
OBJECTIVE: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a preventable disorder caused by maternal alcohol consumption and marked by a range of physical and mental disabilities. Although recognized by the scientific and medical community as a clinical disorder, no internationally standardized diagnostic tool yet exists for FASD. METHODS AND RESULTS: This review seeks to analyse the discrepancies in existing diagnostic tools for FASD, and the repercussions these differences have on research, public health, and government policy...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781554/children-who-face-development-risks-due-to-maternal-addiction-during-pregnancy-require-extra-medical-and-psychosocial-resources
#2
Jenny Rangmar, Maria Lilja, Marie Köhler, Antonia Reuter
AIM: This study examined medical and psychosocial risk factors in children born to women with addiction problems during pregnancy and the children's needs for extra medical and psychosocial resources. METHODS: Swedish midwives routinely screen pregnant women for drugs and alcohol and refer women with addictions to the Maternity and Child Healthcare Resource Team. We investigated the medical records of 127 children (51% girls) whose mothers were referred to the Resource Team from 2009-2015...
May 21, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778775/prenatal-exposures-to-tobacco-and-cannabis-associations-with-adult-electronic-cigarette-use
#3
Natacha M De Genna, Gale A Richardson, Lidush Goldschmidt, Nancy L Day, Marie D Cornelius
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal exposures to tobacco and cannabis are associated with combustible cigarette use. This study evaluated pathways from these prenatal exposures to adult electronic cigarette use. We tested whether there were indirect effects of these prenatal exposures via childhood behavior dysregulation, early tobacco use, and adolescent tobacco dependence. METHODS: Telephone interviews were conducted with 427 adult offspring (22-33 years old) from 3 prenatal cohorts with trimester-specific data on exposures to tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis...
May 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775869/mathematics-intervention-for-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-a-replication-and-extension-of-the-math-interactive-learning-experience-mile-program
#4
Katrina Kully-Martens, Jacqueline Pei, Julie Kable, Claire D Coles, Gail Andrew, Carmen Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) experience deficits in behavior, cognition, and academic functioning resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Although receiving intervention for developmental disabilities is a strong protective factor against negative outcomes in FASD, intervention research in this population is in its infancy. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend a mathematics intervention, the Math Interactive Learning Experience (MILE) program, which was developed in the USA specifically for children with FASD...
May 15, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769550/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-increases-the-susceptibility-to-develop-aggressive-prolactinomas-in-the-pituitary-gland
#5
Shaima Jabbar, Kenneth Reuhl, Dipak K Sarkar
Excess alcohol use is known to promote development of aggressive tumors in various tissues in human patients, but the cause of alcohol promotion of tumor aggressiveness is not clearly understood. We used an animals model of fetal alcohol exposure that is known to promote tumor development and determined if alcohol programs the pituitary to acquire aggressive prolactin-secreting tumors. Our results show that pituitaries of fetal alcohol-exposed rats produced increased levels of intra-pituitary aromatase protein and plasma estrogen, enhanced pituitary tissue growth, and upon estrogen challenge developed prolactin-secreting tumors (prolactinomas) that were hemorrhagic and often penetrated into the surrounding tissue...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763474/early-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-alters-imprinted-gene-expression-in-placenta-and-embryo-in-a-mouse-model
#6
Heidi Marjonen, Mia Toivonen, Laura Lahti, Nina Kaminen-Ahola
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can harm the embryonic development and cause life-long consequences in offspring's health. To clarify the molecular mechanisms of PAE we have used a mouse model of early alcohol exposure, which is based on maternal ad libitum ingestion of 10% (v/v) ethanol for the first eight days of gestation (GD 0.5-8.5). Owing to the detected postnatal growth-restricted phenotype in the offspring of this mouse model and both prenatal and postnatal growth restriction in alcohol-exposed humans, we focused on imprinted genes Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2), H19, Small Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Polypeptide N (Snrpn) and Paternally expressed gene 3 (Peg3), which all are known to be involved in embryonic and placental growth and development...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750367/efficacy-of-maternal-choline-supplementation-during-pregnancy-in-mitigating-adverse-effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-on-growth-and-cognitive-function-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#7
Sandra W Jacobson, R Colin Carter, Christopher D Molteno, Mark E Stanton, Jane Herbert, Nadine M Lindinger, Catherine E Lewis, Neil C Dodge, H Eugene Hoyme, Steven H Zeisel, Ernesta M Meintjes, Christopher P Duggan, Joseph L Jacobson
BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated the acceptability and feasibility of a randomized, double-blind choline supplementation intervention for heavy drinking women during pregnancy. In this paper, we report our results relating to the efficacy of this intervention in mitigating adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on infant growth and cognitive function. METHODS: 69 Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) heavy drinkers in Cape Town, South Africa, recruited in mid-pregnancy, were randomly assigned to receive a daily oral dose of either 2 g of choline or placebo from time of enrollment until delivery...
May 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750366/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-maternal-choline-supplementation-in-heavy-drinking-pregnant-women-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#8
Sandra W Jacobson, R Colin Carter, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Marjanne Senekal, Nadine M Lindinger, Neil C Dodge, Steven H Zeisel, Christopher P Duggan, Joseph L Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Choline, an essential nutrient, serves as a methyl-group donor for DNA methylation and is a constituent of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and a precursor to major components of cell membranes. Findings from animal studies suggest that choline supplementation during pregnancy may mitigate adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on growth and neurocognitive function. We conducted a randomized, double-blind exploratory trial to examine feasibility and acceptability of a choline supplementation intervention during pregnancy...
May 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745329/building-bridges-between-clinical-and-forensic-toxicology-laboratories
#9
Bernardino Barcelo Martin, Isabel Gomila, Valeria Noce
BACKGROUND: Clinical and forensic toxicology can be defined as the two disciplines involved the detection, identification and measurement of xenobiotics in biological and non-biological specimens to help in the diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, prevention of poisonings and to disclose causes and contributory causes of fatal intoxications, respectively. OBJECTIVE: This article explores the close connections between clinical and forensic toxicology in overlapping areas of interest...
May 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691979/the-bdnf-val68met-polymorphism-modulates-how-developmental-ethanol-exposure-impacts-the-hippocampus
#10
Clark W Bird, Brian C Baculis, Jacob J Mayfield, Glenna J Chavez, Tiahna Ontiveros, Dana J Paine, Aaron J Marks, Alicia L Gonzales, Dorit Ron, C Fernando Valenzuela
Prenatal exposure to alcohol causes a wide range of deficits known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Many factors determine vulnerability to developmental alcohol exposure including timing and pattern of exposure, nutrition, and genetics. Here, we characterized how a prevalent single nucleotide polymorphism in the human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene (val66met) modulates FASDs severity. This polymorphism disrupts BDNF's intracellular trafficking and activity dependent secretion, and has been linked to increased incidence of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety...
April 24, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688328/ethanol-exposure-in-utero-disrupts-radial-migration-and-pyramidal-cell-development-in-the-somatosensory-cortex
#11
Laurie C Delatour, Pamela W Yeh, Hermes H Yeh
Deficits in sensory processing in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) implicate dysfunction in the somatosensory cortex. However, the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on the development of this region await elucidation. Here, we used an established mouse model of FASD with binge-type ethanol exposure from embryonic day 13.5-16.5 to investigate the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on pyramidal neurons in the somatosensory cortex. Specifically, we focused on the radial migration of primordial pyramidal neurons during embryonic corticogenesis and their morphology and function during active synaptogenesis in early postnatal development...
April 24, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672868/fetal-cerebral-circulation-as-target-of-maternal-alcohol-consumption
#12
Anna N Bukiya, Alex M Dopico
Alcohol (ethanol) is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances worldwide. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy may result in a wide range of morphological and neurodevelopmental abnormalities termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), with the most severe cases diagnosed as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FAS and FASD are not readily curable and currently represent the leading preventable causes of birth defect and neurodevelopmental delay in the US. The etiology of FAS/FASD remains poorly understood...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672865/dietary-iron-fortification-normalizes-fetal-hematology-hepcidin-and-iron-distribution-in-a-rat-model-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#13
Shane M Huebner, Kaylee K Helfrich, Nipun Saini, Sharon E Blohowiak, Adrienne A Cheng, Pamela J Kling, Susan M Smith
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) causes neurodevelopmental disability. Clinical and animal studies show gestational iron deficiency exacerbates PAE's behavioral and growth deficits. In rat, PAE manifests an inability to establish iron homeostasis, increasing hepcidin (maternal and fetal) and fetal liver iron while decreasing brain iron and promoting anemia. Here, we hypothesize dietary iron fortification during pregnancy may mitigate alcohol's disruption of fetal iron homeostasis...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672859/applying-a-developmental-framework-to-the-self-regulatory-difficulties-of-young-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-a-review
#14
Natasha Reid, Christie L M Petrenko
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can be associated with significant difficulties in self-regulatory abilities. As such, interventions have been developed that focus on improving varying aspects of self-regulation for this population. The application of a multi-level theoretical framework that describes the development of self-regulation during early childhood could further advance the field. First, this framework could assist in elucidating mechanisms in the trajectories of early adjustment problems in this population and second, informing the development of more precise assessment and interventions for those affected by PAE...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659832/average-sperm-count-remains-unchanged-despite-reduction-in-maternal-smoking-results-from-a-large-cross-sectional-study-with-annual-investigations-over-21-years
#15
L Priskorn, L Nordkap, A K Bang, M Krause, S A Holmboe, D L Egeberg Palme, S B Winge, N Mørup, E Carlsen, U N Joensen, M Blomberg Jensen, K M Main, A Juul, N E Skakkebaek, T K Jensen, N Jørgensen
STUDY QUESTION: How are temporal trends in lifestyle factors, including exposure to maternal smoking in utero, associated to semen quality in young men from the general population? SUMMARY ANSWER: Exposure to maternal smoking was associated with lower sperm counts but no overall increase in sperm counts was observed during the study period despite a decrease in this exposure. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Meta-analyses suggest a continuous decline in semen quality but few studies have investigated temporal trends in unselected populations recruited and analysed with the same protocol over a long period and none have studied simultaneous trends in lifestyle factors...
April 11, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658509/-experimental-approaches-to-the-investigation-of-behavioral-disorders-associated-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#16
E V Razumkina, P K Anokhin, T V Proskuryakova, I Yu Shamakina
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term which covers a wide range of deficits in prenatal and postnatal growth, anatomy and CNS functions produced by prenatal alcohol exposure. The most severe form of FASD is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) characterized by additional specific craniofacial and brain malformations. Despite a high prevalence and extensive clinical studies, the fundamental mechanisms of FASD are still poorly understood. Thereby, experimental models, which allow better control for both socio-environmental and genetic factors, are critical to our understanding of FASD...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602689/benefits-of-caseload-midwifery-to-prevent-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-a-discussion-paper
#17
Natasha Reid, Jenny Gamble, Debra K Creedy, Amy Finlay-Jones
BACKGROUND: Exposure to alcohol prenatally can result in a child being diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Affected infants experience lifelong impairments that can involve, physical, cognitive, behavioural and emotional difficulties that impact on their functional capacity. Effective prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is critically needed in Australia. Reduction in the prevalence of this disorder will only be possible if we prevent alcohol consumption during pregnancy...
March 27, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593510/chronic-stress-alters-behavior-in-the-forced-swim-test-and-underlying-neural-activity-in-animals-exposed-to-alcohol-prenatally-sex-and-time-dependent-effects
#18
Vivian Y Y Lam, Charlis Raineki, Lily E Takeuchi, Linda Ellis, Todd S Woodward, Joanne Weinberg
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress response has been suggested to play a role in vulnerability to stress-related disorders, such as depression. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may result in HPA dysregulation, which in turn may predispose individuals to the effects of stress exposure throughout life, and increase their risk of developing depression compared to unexposed individuals. We examined the immediate and delayed effects of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in adulthood on behavior of PAE animals in the forced swim test (FST) and the neurocircuitry underlying behavioral, emotional, and stress regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571047/enhanced-sensitivity-to-socially-facilitating-and-anxiolytic-effects-of-ethanol-in-adolescent-sprague-dawley-rats-following-acute-prenatal-ethanol-exposure
#19
Sandra M Mooney, Elena I Varlinskaya
Emerging evidence suggests that deficits in social functioning and social anxiety are associated with adolescent alcohol use. Our previous research has shown that acute exposure to a high dose of ethanol on gestational day (G) 12 produces social alterations in adolescent Sprague Dawley rats. The present study assessed whether these social alterations can affect sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge during adolescence. Pregnant females were exposed intraperitoneally (i.p.) to ethanol (2.5 g/kg followed by 1...
November 6, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569345/fish-oil-treatment-reduces-chronic-alcohol-exposure-induced-synaptic-changes
#20
Zhe Shi, Youna Xie, Huixia Ren, Baixuan He, Meng Wang, Jian-Bo Wan, Ti-Fei Yuan, Xiaoli Yao, Huanxing Su
Alcohol addiction is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that represents one of the most serious global public health problems. Yet, currently there still lacks an effective pharmacotherapy. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N-3 PUFAs) have exhibited beneficial effects in a variety of neurological disorders, particularly in reversing behavioral deficits and neurotoxicity induced by prenatal alcohol exposure and binge drinking. In the present study, we investigated if fish oil, which is rich in N-3 PUFAs, had beneficial effects on preventing relapse and alleviating withdrawal symptoms after chronic alcohol exposure...
March 22, 2018: Addiction Biology
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