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Prenatal alcohol exposure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340498/academic-difficulties-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-presence-profile-and-neural-correlates
#1
Leila Glass, Eileen M Moore, Natacha Akshoomoff, Kenneth Lyons Jones, Edward P Riley, Sarah N Mattson
BACKGROUND: Academic achievement was evaluated in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure to determine potential strengths and weaknesses, evaluate the utility of different definitions for identifying low academic performance, and explore the neural correlates that may underlie academic performance. METHODS: Children (8 to 16 years) were assessed using the WIAT-II. Patterns of performance were examined in 2 subject groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 67) and controls (n = 61)...
March 24, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326963/the-stillbirth-classification-system-for-the-safe-passage-study
#2
Theonia K Boyd, Colleen A Wright, Hein J Odendaal, Amy J Elliott, Mary Ann Sens, Rebecca D Folkerth, Drucilla J Roberts, Hannah C Kinney
Objective Describe the classification system for assigning the cause of stillbirth in the Safe Passage Study, an international, multi-institutional, prospective analysis conducted by the NIAAA/NICHD-funded Prenatal Alcohol in SIDS and Stillbirth (PASS) Research Network. The study mission is to determine the role of prenatal alcohol and/or cigarette smoke exposure in adverse pregnancy outcomes, including stillbirth, in a high-risk cohort of 12,000 maternal/fetal dyads. Methods The PASS Network classification system is based upon 5 "sites of origin" for cause of stillbirth, further subdivided into mechanism subcategories; both are employed to assign an ultimate cause of death...
March 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301980/an-investigation-of-intra-individual-variability-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-fasd
#3
Sheliza Ali, Kimberly A Kerns, Bryce P Mulligan, Heather Carmichael Olson, Susan J Astley
Intra-individual variability (IIV) is defined as systematic within-person variation in performance either across test sessions (e.g., test/retest performance on the same task) or in one session (e.g., variations in performance on multiple trials of a single task). Higher levels of IIV have been noted as a characteristic of neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder​ (ADHD), but IIV is yet to be investigated in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD is a term used to describe a range of conditions resulting from prenatal exposure to alcohol...
March 16, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294365/prevalence-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-the-state-of-texas-as-assessed-by-phosphatidylethanol-in-newborn-dried-blood-spot-specimens
#4
Ludmila N Bakhireva, Janet Sharkis, Shikhar Shrestha, Tristan J Miranda-Sohrabji, Sonnie Williams, Rajesh C Miranda
BACKGROUND: While 2-5% of school-aged children in the U.S. are estimated to be affected by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), the prevalence of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) might be substantially under-reported. Our objective was to systematically estimate the prevalence of PAE in Texas by measuring a direct ethanol metabolite, phosphatidylethanol (PEth), in 1,000 infant residual dried blood spots (irDBS) in the Texas Newborn Screening Repository. METHODS: All Public Health Regions were represented proportional to their 2014 birth rate (~0...
March 13, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283038/exploring-associations-between-prenatal-solvent-exposures-and-teenage-drug-and-alcohol-use-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
Lisa G Gallagher, Thomas F Webster, Ann Aschengrau
BACKGROUND: Investigating the effects of prenatal and childhood exposures on behavioral health outcomes in adolescence is challenging given the lengthy period between the exposure and outcomes. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in Cape Cod, Massachusetts to evaluate the impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on the occurrence of risk-taking behaviors as a teenager. An increased occurrence of risk-taking behaviors, particularly illicit drug use, was observed in those highly exposed to PCE...
March 11, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247416/heavy-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-is-related-to-smaller-corpus-callosum-in-newborn-mri-scans
#6
Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Christopher M R Warton, Pia Wintermark, H Eugene Hoyme, Greetje De Jong, Paul Taylor, Fleur Warton, Nadine M Lindinger, R Colin Carter, Neil C Dodge, Ellen Grant, Simon K Warfield, Lilla Zöllei, André J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
BACKGROUND: MRI studies have consistently demonstrated disproportionately smaller corpus callosa in individuals with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure but have not previously examined the feasibility of detecting this effect in infants. Tissue segmentation of the newborn brain is challenging because analysis techniques developed for the adult brain are not directly transferable, and segmentation for cerebral morphometry is difficult in neonates, due to the latter's incomplete myelination...
March 1, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237885/assessment-of-tobacco-alcohol-and-cannabinoid-metabolites-in-645-meconium-samples-of-newborns-compared-to-maternal-self-reports
#7
Sandrine Lamy, Benjamin Hennart, Estelle Houivet, Sylvain Dulaurent, Heloise Delavenne, Jacques Benichou, Delphine Allorge, Stéphane Marret, Florence Thibaut
Prenatal psychoactive substance exposure has significant impact on neonatal health and child development and the development of reliable biomarkers is critical. Meconium presents several advantages for detecting prenatal exposure to psychoactive substances, as it is easy to collect and provides a broad time frame of exposure (third trimester). The aim of our study was to compare the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and/or cannabis use during the third trimester of pregnancy (using maternal self-reports) with the results of meconium testing of their metabolites in newborns (cotinine, ethyl-glucuronide (EtG) and cannabinoid metabolites)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223149/long-term-behavioral-change-as-a-result-of-acute-ethanol-exposure-in-zebrafish-evidence-for-a-role-for-sonic-hedgehog-but-not-retinoic-acid-signaling
#8
Derek F Burton, Chengjin Zhang, Oswald Boa-Amponsem, Shanta Mackinnon, Gregory J Cole
BACKGROUND: Developmental exposure to ethanol is recognized to produce long-term neurobehavioral impairment in multiple animal models. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits remain poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether two well-characterized targets of prenatal alcohol exposure, sonic hedgehog (Shh) and retinoic acid (RA), that induce the hallmark morphological phenotypes of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), are involved in the generation of behavioral alterations as a result of alcohol exposure...
February 20, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187949/long-term-alterations-to-dna-methylation-as-a-biomarker-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-from-mouse-models-to-human-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Benjamin I Laufer, Eric J Chater-Diehl, Joachim Kapalanga, Shiva M Singh
Rodent models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) have revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) results in differential DNA cytosine methylation in the developing brain. The resulting genome-wide methylation changes are enriched in genes with neurodevelopmental functions. The profile of differential methylation is dynamic and present in some form for life. The methylation changes are transmitted across subsequent mitotic divisions, where they are maintained and further modified over time. More recent follow up has identified a profile of the differential methylation in the buccal swabs of young children born with FASD...
November 22, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186713/fetal-alcohol-research-caring-for-patients-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-a-needs-assessment
#10
Vincent C Smith, Phillip Matthias, Yasmin N Senturias, Renee M Turchi, Janet F Williams
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is the United States' most common preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and developmental disabilities collectively referred to as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to identify gaps in pediatric providers' knowledge and practices regarding FASD patient identification, diagnosis, management and referral, and to inform needs-based FASD resource development. METHODS: Pediatric providers (pediatricians, trainees, nurse practitioners) were exposed to survey links embedded in newsletters electronically distributed to the membership of two national professional societies...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182007/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-impairs-autophagy-in-neonatal-brain-cortical-microvessels
#11
Virginie Girault, Vianney Gilard, Florent Marguet, Céline Lesueur, Michelle Hauchecorne, Yasmina Ramdani, Annie Laquerrière, Stéphane Marret, Sylvie Jégou, Bruno Jose Gonzalez, Carole Brasse-Lagnel, Soumeya Bekri
Brain developmental lesions are a devastating consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). We recently showed that PAE affects cortical vascular development with major effects on angiogenesis and endothelial cell survival. The underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects remain poorly understood. This study aimed at characterizing the ethanol exposure impact on the autophagic process in brain microvessels in human fetuses with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and in a PAE mouse model. Our results indicate that PAE induces an increase of autophagic vacuole number in human fetal and neonatal mouse brain cortical microvessels...
February 9, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160199/an-overview-of-the-mechanisms-of-abnormal-gabaergic-interneuronal-cortical-migration-associated-with-prenatal-ethanol-exposure
#12
REVIEW
Botros B Shenoda
GABAergic Interneuronal migration constitutes an essential process during corticogenesis. Derived from progenitor cells located in the proliferative zones of the ventral telencephalon, newly generated GABAergic Interneuron migrate to their cortical destinations. Cortical dysfunction associated with defects in neuronal migration results in severe developmental consequences. There is growing evidence linking prenatal ethanol exposure to abnormal GABAergic interneuronal migration and subsequent cortical dysfunction...
February 3, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153658/first-trimester-alcohol-exposure-alters-placental-perfusion-and-fetal-oxygen-availability-affecting-fetal-growth-and-development-in-a-non-human-primate-model
#13
Jamie O Lo, Matthias C Schabel, Victoria H J Roberts, Xiaojie Wang, Katherine S Lewandowski, Kathleen A Grant, Antonio E Frias, Christopher D Kroenke
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure leads to impaired fetal growth, brain development, and stillbirth. Placental impairment likely contributes to these adverse outcomes, but the mechanisms and specific vasoactive effects of alcohol that links altered placental function to impaired fetal development remain areas of active research. OBJECTIVE: Recently, we developed magnetic resonance imaging techniques in nonhuman primates to characterize placental blood oxygenation through measurements of T2* and perfusion using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging...
March 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125440/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-in-africa
#14
Colleen M Adnams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize data published in the scientific literature and available on official websites on fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in Africa. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a paucity of published literature and evidence-based information on prenatal exposure to alcohol in the African continent and the majority of the continent's literature on FASD emanates from South Africa. A small number of scientific publications document FASD and drinking in pregnancy in other Sub-Saharan African countries and these findings provide evidence that FASD occurs across the continent...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116821/prenatal-alcohol-consumption-between-conception-and-recognition-of-pregnancy
#15
Clare McCormack, Delyse Hutchinson, Lucy Burns, Judy Wilson, Elizabeth Elliott, Steve Allsop, Jake Najman, Sue Jacobs, Larissa Rossen, Craig Olsson, Richard Mattick
BACKGROUND: Current estimates of the rates of alcohol-exposed pregnancies may underestimate prenatal alcohol exposure if alcohol consumption in early trimester 1, prior to awareness of pregnancy, is not considered. Extant literature describes predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy; however, alcohol consumption prior to awareness of pregnancy is a distinct behavior from consumption after becoming aware of pregnancy and thus may be associated with different predictors. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption by women prior to awareness of their pregnancy, and trajectories of change to alcohol use following pregnancy recognition...
February 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098942/biomarkers-for-the-detection-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Heidi Bager, Lars Porskjaer Christensen, Steffen Husby, Lene Bjerregaard
Alcohol exposure during pregnancy can cause adverse effects to the fetus, because it interferes with fetal development, leading to later physical and mental impairment. The most common clinical tool to determine fetal alcohol exposure is maternal self-reporting. However, a more objective and useful method is based on the use of biomarkers in biological specimens alone or in combination with maternal self-reporting. This review reports on clinically relevant biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)...
February 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075019/differential-recruitment-of-brain-regions-during-response-inhibition-in-children-prenatally-exposed-to-alcohol
#17
Vikas N Kodali, Joseph L Jacobson, Nadine M Lindinger, Neil C Dodge, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Sandra W Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Response inhibition is a distinct aspect of executive function that is frequently impaired in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We used a Go/NoGo (GNG) task in a functional MRI protocol to investigate differential activation of brain regions in the response inhibition network in children diagnosed with full or partial fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS/PFAS), compared with healthy controls. METHODS: A rapid, event-related task with 120 Go and 60 NoGo trials was used to study children aged 8 to 12 years-8 with FAS/PFAS, 17 controls...
February 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067756/alcohol-use-disorders-in-argentinian-girls-and-women-12-months-before-delivery-comparison-of-dsm-iv-dsm-5-and-icd-10-diagnostic-criteria
#18
Mariana B López, Karina Conde, Mariana Cremonte
BACKGROUND: The evidence of important problems related to prenatal alcohol exposure has faced researchers with the problem of understanding and screening alcohol use in this population. Although any alcohol use should be considered risky during pregnancy, identifying alcohol-drinking problems (ADPs) could be especially important because women with ADPs could not benefit from a simple advice of abstinence and because their offsprings are subjected to a higher risk of problems related with prenatal alcohol exposure...
March 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062893/prenatal-alcohol-induced-neuroapoptosis-in-rat-brain-cerebral-cortex-protective-effect-of-folic-acid-and-betaine
#19
Ibrahim Sogut, Onur Uysal, Aysegul Oglakci, Ferruh Yucel, Kazim Kartkaya, Gungor Kanbak
PURPOSE: Alcohol consumption in pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the infant. This study aims to investigate prenatal alcohol exposure related neuroapoptosis on the cerebral cortex tissues of newborn rats and possible neuroprotective effects of betaine, folic acid, and combined therapy. METHODS: Pregnant rats were divided into five experimental groups: control, ethanol, ethanol + betaine, ethanol + folic acid, and ethanol + betaine + folic acid combined therapy groups...
January 6, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056970/inhibition-of-histone-acetylation-by-curcumin-reduces-alcohol-induced-fetal-cardiac-apoptosis
#20
Xiaochen Yan, Bo Pan, Tiewei Lv, Lingjuan Liu, Jing Zhu, Wen Shen, Xupei Huang, Jie Tian
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure may cause cardiac development defects, however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet clear. In the present study we have investigated the roles of histone modification by curcumin on alcohol induced fetal cardiac abnormalities during the development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Q-PCR and Western blot results showed that alcohol exposure increased gene and active forms of caspase-3 and caspase-8, while decreased gene and protein of bcl-2...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
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