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Prenatal alcohol exposure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098942/biomarkers-for-the-detection-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Heidi Bager, Lars Porskjaer Christensen, Steffen Husby, Lene Bjerregaard
Alcohol exposure during pregnancy can cause adverse effects to the fetus, because it interferes with fetal development, leading to later physical and mental impairment. The most common clinical tool to determine fetal alcohol exposure is maternal self-reporting. However, a more objective and useful method is based on the use of biomarkers in biological specimens alone or in combination with maternal self-reporting. This review reports on clinically relevant biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)...
January 18, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075019/differential-recruitment-of-brain-regions-during-response-inhibition-in-children-prenatally-exposed-to-alcohol
#2
Vikas N Kodali, Joseph L Jacobson, Nadine M Lindinger, Neil C Dodge, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Sandra W Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Response inhibition is a distinct aspect of executive function that is frequently impaired in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We used a Go/NoGo (GNG) task in a functional MRI protocol to investigate differential activation of brain regions in the response inhibition network in children diagnosed with full or partial fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS/PFAS), compared with healthy controls. METHODS: A rapid, event-related task with 120 Go and 60 NoGo trials was used to study children aged 8 to 12 years-8 with FAS/PFAS, 17 controls...
January 11, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067756/alcohol-use-disorders-in-argentinian-girls-and-women-12-months-before-delivery-comparison-of-dsm-iv-dsm-5-and-icd-10-diagnostic-criteria
#3
Mariana Beatriz López, Karina Conde, Mariana Cremonte
BACKGROUND: The evidence of important problems related to prenatal alcohol exposure has faced researchers with the problem of understanding and screening alcohol use in this population. Although any alcohol use should be considered risky during pregnancy, identifying alcohol-drinking problems (ADPs) could be especially important because women with ADPs could not benefit from a simple advice of abstinence and because their offsprings are subjected to a higher risk of problems related with prenatal alcohol exposure...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062893/prenatal-alcohol-induced-neuroapoptosis-in-rat-brain-cerebral-cortex-protective-effect-of-folic-acid-and-betaine
#4
Ibrahim Sogut, Onur Uysal, Aysegul Oglakci, Ferruh Yucel, Kazim Kartkaya, Gungor Kanbak
PURPOSE: Alcohol consumption in pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the infant. This study aims to investigate prenatal alcohol exposure related neuroapoptosis on the cerebral cortex tissues of newborn rats and possible neuroprotective effects of betaine, folic acid, and combined therapy. METHODS: Pregnant rats were divided into five experimental groups: control, ethanol, ethanol + betaine, ethanol + folic acid, and ethanol + betaine + folic acid combined therapy groups...
January 6, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056970/inhibition-of-histone-acetylation-by-curcumin-reduces-alcohol-induced-fetal-cardiac-apoptosis
#5
Xiaochen Yan, Bo Pan, Tiewei Lv, Lingjuan Liu, Jing Zhu, Wen Shen, Xupei Huang, Jie Tian
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure may cause cardiac development defects, however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet clear. In the present study we have investigated the roles of histone modification by curcumin on alcohol induced fetal cardiac abnormalities during the development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Q-PCR and Western blot results showed that alcohol exposure increased gene and active forms of caspase-3 and caspase-8, while decreased gene and protein of bcl-2...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018163/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-rodents-as-a-promising-model-for-the-study-of-adhd-molecular-basis
#6
REVIEW
Argelia E Rojas-Mayorquín, Edgar Padilla-Velarde, Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún
A physiological parallelism, or even a causal effect relationship, can be deducted from the analysis of the main characteristics of the "Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders" (ARND), derived from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), and the behavioral performance in the Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These two clinically distinct disease entities, exhibits many common features. They affect neurological shared pathways, and also related neurotransmitter systems. We briefly review here these parallelisms, with their common and uncommon characteristics, and with an emphasis in the subjacent molecular mechanisms of the behavioral manifestations, that lead us to propose that PAE in rats can be considered as a suitable model for the study of ADHD...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011337/risk-taking-locomotor-activity-and-dopamine-levels-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-male-rats-treated-prenatally-with-alcohol
#7
Patricia Muñoz-Villegas, Verónica Mireya Rodríguez, Magda Giordano, Jorge Juárez
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PA) restricted to days 8-20 of rat gestation reduces the activity of the dopaminergic neurons (DA) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Hyperactivity and impulsivity have been observed under this treatment; however, it is unknown whether DA levels are affected. Decision-making in risk situations, meanwhile, has been associated with impulsive behavior, but because studies of this phenomenon in animal models are limited, we do not yet know whether PA has any effect...
December 21, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011263/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-potentiates-chronic-neuropathic-pain-spinal-glial-and-immune-cell-activation-and-alters-sciatic-nerve-and-drg-cytokine-levels
#8
Shahani Noor, Joshua J Sanchez, Arden G Vanderwall, Melody S Sun, Jessie R Maxwell, Suzy Davies, Lauren L Jantzie, Timothy R Petersen, Daniel D Savage, Erin D Milligan
A growing body of evidence indicates that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may predispose individuals to secondary medical disabilities later in life. Animal models of PAE reveal neuroimmune sequelae such as elevated brain astrocyte and microglial activation with corresponding region-specific changes in immune signaling molecules such as cytokines and chemokines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moderate PAE on the development and maintenance of allodynia induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in adult male rat offspring...
December 20, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008975/pre-conception-and-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-from-mothers-and-fathers-drinking-and-head-circumference-results-from-the-norwegian-mother-child-study-moba
#9
Luisa Zuccolo, Lisa A DeRoo, Andrew K Wills, George Davey Smith, Pål Suren, Christine Roth, Camilla Stoltenberg, Per Magnus
Although microcephaly is a feature of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, it is currently unknown whether low-to-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure affects head circumference. Small magnitude associations reported in observational studies are likely to be misleading due to confounding and misclassification biases. Alternative analytical approaches such as the use of family negative controls (e.g. comparing the effects of maternal and paternal exposure) could help disentangle causal effects. We investigated the association of maternal and paternal alcohol drinking before and early in pregnancy with infant head circumference, using data from 68,244 mother-father-offspring trios from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) (1999-2009)...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987413/intervention-recommendations-and-subsequent-access-to-services-following-clinical-assessment-for-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#10
Jacqueline Pei, Lauren Baugh, Gail Andrew, Carmen Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) experience multiple difficulties requiring various interventions. Researchers have called for investigation into service use with respect to clinically recommended interventions. AIMS: To examine intervention recommendations for children with FASD/PAE and subsequent access to these recommended interventions. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Intervention recommendations following FASD assessment were examined for children (1-17 years)...
January 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987329/fetal-alcohol-exposure-alters-blood-flow-and-neurological-responses-to-transient-cerebral-ischemia-in-adult-mice
#11
Shameena Bake, Rachel Gardner, Joseph D Tingling, Rajesh C Miranda, Farida Sohrabji
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in physical and neurocognitive deficits that are collectively termed "fetal alcohol spectrum disorders" (FASD). Although FASD is associated with lifelong intellectual disability, the mechanisms mediating the emergence of secondary mental health and physical disabilities are poorly understood. Based on our previous data showing that maternal ethanol (EtOH) exposure in mice resulted in an immediate reduction in cranially directed fetal blood flow, we hypothesized that such exposure would also result in persistent alterations in cranially directed blood flow in the prenatally alcohol-exposed (PAE) adult...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940974/potential-intervention-targets-in-utero-and-early-life-for-prevention-of-hormone-related-cancers
#12
C Mary Schooling, Lauren C Houghton, Mary Beth Terry
Hormone-related cancers have long been thought to be sensitive to exposures during key periods of sexual development, as shown by the vulnerability to such cancers of women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero. In addition to evidence from human studies, animal studies using new techniques, such as gene knockout models, suggest that an increasing number of cancers may be hormonally related, including liver, lung, and bladder cancer. Greater understanding of sexual development has also revealed the "mini-puberty" of early infancy as a key period when some sex hormones reach levels similar to those at puberty...
November 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935818/prenatal-ethanol-exposure-phenocopies-cdon-mutation-by-impeding-shh-function-in-the-etiology-of-optic-nerve-hypoplasia
#13
Benjamin M Kahn, Tanya S Corman, Korah Lovelace, Mingi Hong, Robert S Krauss, Douglas J Epstein
Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a congenital disorder characterized by optic nerve, pituitary and midline brain malformations. The clinical presentation of SOD is highly variable with a poorly understood etiology. The majority of SOD cases are sporadic, but in rare instances inherited mutations have been identified in a small number of transcription factors, some of which regulate the expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) during mouse forebrain development. SOD is also associated with young maternal age suggesting that environmental factors, including alcohol consumption at early stages of pregnancy, may increase the risk of developing this condition...
November 24, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925227/an-erp-study-of-response-inhibition-in-the-auditory-domain-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#14
Matthew M Gerhold, Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Colin M Andrew
BACKGROUND: Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies of response inhibition in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) have used a visual Go/NoGo task to study the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on response inhibition. No studies exist using auditory versions of the task; thus, it is unclear how the deficits observed in visual tasks translate into the auditory domain. METHODS: This study examined ERPs using an auditory Go/NoGo paradigm in a sample of 35 school-age children-18 with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and 17 normally developing controls...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922636/dna-methylation-and-substance-use-risk-a-prospective-genome-wide-study-spanning-gestation-to-adolescence
#15
C A M Cecil, E Walton, R G Smith, E Viding, E J McCrory, C L Relton, M Suderman, J-B Pingault, W McArdle, T R Gaunt, J Mill, E D Barker
Epigenetic processes have been implicated in addiction; yet, it remains unclear whether these represent a risk factor and/or a consequence of substance use. Here, we believe we conducted the first genome-wide, longitudinal study to investigate whether DNA methylation patterns in early life prospectively associate with substance use in adolescence. The sample comprised of 244 youth (51% female) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), with repeated assessments of DNA methylation (Illumina 450k array; cord blood at birth, whole blood at age 7) and substance use (tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use; age 14-18)...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893083/cohesive-referencing-errors-during-narrative-production-as-clinical-evidence-of-central-nervous-system-abnormality-in-school-aged-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#16
John C Thorne, Truman E Coggins
Purpose: Previous evidence suggests that cohesive referencing errors made during narratives may be a behavior that is revealing of underlying central nervous system abnormality in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The current research extends this evidence. Method: Retrospective analysis of narrative and clinical data from 152 children (ages 6 to 14), 72 of whom had confirmed FASD, was used. Narrative analysis was conducted blind to diagnostic status, age, or gender...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891300/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-fasd-an-approach-to-effective-prevention
#17
REVIEW
Sylvia Roozen, D Black, G-J Y Peters, G Kok, D Townend, J G Nijhuis, G H Koek, L M G Curfs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of the current contribution is to propose an evidence-based, six-step approach to develop effective programs for prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite widespread campaigns aimed to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure, the number of affected children continues to be high. Current strategies to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure may be ineffective or counterproductive. However, proven principles of health promotion could be applied to reduce drinking in pregnancy...
2016: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889070/prenatal-ethanol-exposure-modifies-locomotor-activity-and-induces-selective-changes-in-met-enk-expression-in-adolescent-rats
#18
P Abate, A C Reyes-Guzmán, K Hernández-Fonseca, M Méndez
Several studies suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) facilitates ethanol intake. Opioid peptides play a main role in ethanol reinforcement during infancy and adulthood. However, PEE effects upon motor responsiveness elicited by an ethanol challenge and the participation of opioids in these actions remain to be understood. This work assessed the susceptibility of adolescent rats to prenatal and/or postnatal ethanol exposure in terms of behavioral responses, as well as alcohol effects on Met-enk expression in brain areas related to drug reinforcement...
November 22, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888055/dietary-choline-levels-modify-the-effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-rats
#19
Nirelia M Idrus, Kristen R Breit, Jennifer D Thomas
Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor...
November 23, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888019/ifenprodil-infusion-in-agranular-insular-cortex-alters-social-behavior-and-vocalizations-in-rats-exposed-to-moderate-levels-of-ethanol-during-prenatal-development
#20
Clark W Bird, Daniel Barto, Christy M Magcalas, Carlos I Rodriguez, Tia Donaldson, Suzy Davies, Daniel D Savage, Derek A Hamilton
Moderate exposure to alcohol during development leads to subtle neurobiological and behavioral effects classified under the umbrella term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Alterations in social behaviors are a frequently observed consequence of maternal drinking, as children with FASDs display inappropriate aggressive behaviors and altered responses to social cues. Rodent models of FASDs mimic the behavioral alterations seen in humans, with rats exposed to ethanol during development displaying increased aggressive behaviors, decreased social investigation, and altered play behavior...
March 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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