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Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327278/nicotinamide-inhibits-ethanol-induced-caspase-3-and-parp-1-over-activation-and-subsequent-neurodegeneration-in-the-developing-mouse-cerebellum
#1
Alessandro Ieraci, Daniel G Herrera
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the principal preventable cause of mental retardation in the western countries resulting from alcohol exposure during pregnancy. Ethanol-induced massive neuronal cell death occurs mainly in immature neurons during the brain growth spurt period. The cerebellum is one of the brain areas that are most sensitive to ethanol neurotoxicity. Currently, there is no effective treatment that targets the causes of these disorders and efficient treatments to counteract or reverse FASD are desirable...
January 11, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321611/acetaldehyde-inhibits-retinoic-acid-biosynthesis-to-mediate-alcohol-teratogenicity
#2
Yehuda Shabtai, Liat Bendelac, Halim Jubran, Joseph Hirschberg, Abraham Fainsod
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy induces Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which has been proposed to arise from competitive inhibition of retinoic acid (RA) biosynthesis. We provide biochemical and developmental evidence identifying acetaldehyde as responsible for this inhibition. In the embryo, RA production by RALDH2 (ALDH1A2), the main retinaldehyde dehydrogenase expressed at that stage, is inhibited by ethanol exposure. Pharmacological inhibition of the embryonic alcohol dehydrogenase activity, prevents the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde that in turn functions as a RALDH2 inhibitor...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316477/challenges-of-diagnosing-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-in-foster-and-adopted-children
#3
Ludmila N Bakhireva, Laura Garrison, Shikhar Shrestha, Janet Sharkis, Rajesh Miranda, Karen Rogers
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) might be 10-15 times more prevalent among foster/adopted children compared to the general population; however, many of these children remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. The lack of confirmed prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may be a key barrier to diagnosis. Our sample included 681 patients evaluated for FASD, according to the University of Washington 4-Digit Diagnostic Code, at a pediatric specialty clinic. Guardianship status and other patient characteristics were evaluated by multinomial logistic regression as potential predictors of being classified into one of the following FASD groups: 1) full or partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS/pFAS; n = 97); 2) Static Encephalopathy/Alcohol-Exposed (SE/AE) or Neurobehavioral Disorder/Alcohol-Exposed (ND/AE) (n = 135); and 3) some features of FASD (equivalent to pFAS, SE/AE or ND/AE phenotypes) but unknown PAE (n = 449)...
August 24, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313400/gofar-improving-attention-behavior-and-adaptive-functioning-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-brief-report
#4
Claire D Coles, Julie A Kable, Elles Taddeo, Dorothy Strickland
OBJECTIVE: This brief report describes the GoFAR intervention designed to improve attention, behavior, and adaptive functioning in children with FASD, ages 5 to 10 years. METHODS: Thirty children were randomized to one of three conditions: GoFAR; FACELAND, and CONTROL; 25 completed the interventions. Over 10 sessions children and caregivers learned a metacognitive strategy (FAR) designed to improve cognitive control of behavior and adaptive functioning and practiced it during behavior analog therapy...
January 9, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304784/ethical-aspects-of-diagnosis-and-interventions-for-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-fasd-and-their-families
#5
Gert Helgesson, Göran Bertilsson, Helena Domeij, Gunilla Fahlström, Emelie Heintz, Anders Hjern, Christina Nehlin Gordh, Viviann Nordin, Jenny Rangmar, Ann-Margret Rydell, Viveka Sundelin Wahlsten, Monica Hultcrantz
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term covering several conditions for which alcohol consumption during pregnancy is taken to play a causal role. The benefit of individuals being identified with a condition within FASD remains controversial. The objective of the present study was to identify ethical aspects and consequences of diagnostics, interventions, and family support in relation to FASD. METHODS: Ethical aspects relating to diagnostics, interventions, and family support regarding FASD were compiled and discussed, drawing on a series of discussions with experts in the field, published literature, and medical ethicists...
January 5, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283403/preliminary-findings-that-a-targeted-intervention-leads-to-altered-brain-function-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#6
Kelly Nash, Sara Stevens, Hayyah Clairman, Joanne Rovet
Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) exhibit behavioral dysregulation, executive dysfunction, and atypical function in associated brain regions. Previous research shows early intervention mitigates these outcomes but corresponding brain changes were not studied. Given the Alert® Program for Self-Regulation improves behavioral regulation and executive function in children with FASD, we asked if this therapy also improves their neural functioning in associated regions. Twenty-one children with FASD aged 8-12 years were randomized to the Alert®-treatment (TXT; n = 10) or waitlist-control (WL; n = 11) conditions...
December 28, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274031/sex-differences-in-early-postnatal-microglial-colonization-of-the-developing-rat-hippocampus-following-a-single-day-alcohol-exposure
#7
M J Ruggiero, K E Boschen, T L Roth, A Y Klintsova
Microglia are involved in various homeostatic processes in the brain, including phagocytosis, apoptosis, and synaptic pruning. Sex differences in microglia colonization of the developing brain have been reported, but have not been established following alcohol insult. Developmental alcohol exposure represents a neuroimmune challenge that may contribute to cognitive dysfunction prevalent in humans with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and in rodent models of FASD. Most studies have investigated neuroimmune activation following adult alcohol exposure or following multiple exposures...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242902/effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-on-the-visual-system-of-monkeys-measured-at-different-stages-of-development
#8
Vanessa Harrar, Laurent Elkrief, Joseph Bouskila, Ryan Kucera, Anders Fink-Jensen, Jean-François Bouchard, Roberta Palmour, Maurice Ptito
Purpose: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a developmental disease characterized by behavioral problems and physical defects including malformations of the eye and associated optical defects. How these malformations affect retinal functioning is not well known, although animal models have suggested that scotopic vision is particularly deficient. Age is also known to affect scotopic vision. Here, we determined the combined effects of age and fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) on retinal function using full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) in monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus)...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241721/screening-for-alcohol-misuse-practices-among-u-s-primary-care-providers-docstyles-2016
#9
Cheryl H Tan, Daniel W Hungerford, Clark H Denny, Lela R McKnight-Eily
INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol use is associated with car crashes, violence, and multiple disease conditions, including fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that primary care providers screen all adults and conduct brief counseling interventions with those who misuse alcohol. The USPSTF prefers use of three screening tools that measure alcohol consumption (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption, and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Single Question) because these tools detect the full spectrum of alcohol misuse in adults...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230167/changes-in-the-cholinergic-catecholaminergic-orexinergic-and-serotonergic-structures-forming-part-of-the-sleep-systems-of-adult-mice-exposed-to-intrauterine-alcohol
#10
Oladiran I Olateju, Adhil Bhagwandin, Amadi O Ihunwo, Paul R Manger
We examined the effect of chronic prenatal alcohol exposure on certain neuronal systems involved with the sleep-wake cycle of C57BL/6J mice exposed to prenatal alcohol once they had reached 56 days post-natal. Pregnant mice were exposed to alcohol, through oral gavage, on gestational days 7-16, with recorded blood alcohol concentration (BAC)s averaging 1.84 mg/ml (chronic alcohol group, CA). Two control groups, an oral gavage sucrose control group (chronic alcohol control group, CAc) and a non-treated control group (NTc), were also examined...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225110/assessment-of-the-cerebellar-neurotoxic-effects-of-nicotine-in-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-rats
#11
Dwipayan Bhattacharya, Mohammed Majrashi, Sindhu Ramesh, Manoj Govindarajulu, Jenna Bloemer, Ayaka Fujihashi, Bailee-Ryan Crump, Harrison Hightower, Subhrajit Bhattacharya, Timothy Moore, Vishnu Suppiramaniam, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran
The adverse effects of prenatal nicotine and alcohol exposure on human reproductive outcomes are a major scientific and public health concern. In the United States, substantial percentage of women (20-25%) of childbearing age currently smoke cigarettes and consume alcohol, and only a small percentage of these individuals quit after learning of their pregnancy. However, there are very few scientific reports on the effect of nicotine in prenatal alcohol exposure on the cerebellum of the offspring. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the cerebellar neurotoxic effects of nicotine in a rodent model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)...
December 7, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222557/accentuate-the-negative-grammatical-errors-during-narrative-production-as-a-clinical-marker-of-central-nervous-system-abnormality-in-school-aged-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#12
John C Thorne
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine (a) whether increased grammatical error rates during a standardized narrative task are a more clinically useful marker of central nervous system abnormality in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) than common measures of productivity or grammatical complexity and (b) whether combining the rate of grammatical errors with the rate of cohesive referencing errors can improve utility of a standardized narrative assessment task for FASD diagnosis...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194345/embryonic-ethanol-exposure-affects-early-and-late-added-cardiac-precursors-and-produces-long-lasting-heart-chamber-defects-in-zebrafish
#13
Swapnalee Sarmah, James A Marrs
Drinking mothers expose their fetuses to ethanol, which produces birth defects: craniofacial defects, cognitive impairment, sensorimotor disabilities and organ deformities, collectively termed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Various congenital heart defects (CHDs) are present in FASD patients, but the mechanisms of alcohol-induced cardiogenesis defects are not completely understood. This study utilized zebrafish embryos and older larvae to understand FASD-associated CHDs. Ethanol-induced cardiac chamber defects initiated during embryonic cardiogenesis persisted in later zebrafish life...
December 1, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187580/computer-aided-recognition-of-facial-attributes-for-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#14
Matthew Valentine, Dustin C J Bihm, Lior Wolf, H Eugene Hoyme, Philip A May, David Buckley, Wendy Kalberg, Omar A Abdul-Rahman
OBJECTIVES: To compare the detection of facial attributes by computer-based facial recognition software of 2-D images against standard, manual examination in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). METHODS: Participants were gathered from the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Epidemiology Research database. Standard frontal and oblique photographs of children were obtained during a manual, in-person dysmorphology assessment. Images were submitted for facial analysis conducted by the facial dysmorphology novel analysis technology (an automated system), which assesses ratios of measurements between various facial landmarks to determine the presence of dysmorphic features...
November 29, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186650/-survey-of-secondary-school-students-18-years-old-or-older-about-knowledge-on-risks-to-the-fetus-related-to-alcohol-consumption-during-pregnancy
#15
Valeria Traverso, Roberta Da Rin Della Mora
INTRODUCTION:  Being not perceived as risky for health, alcohol consumption is socially accepted worldwide. Nevertheless, related risks for the fetus are relevant, even for occasional use. In Italy there is a high consumption of alcohol among young people and pregnant women, and an increasing number of children born with alcohol-related disorders. AIM: To investigate the knowledge on fetal alcohol-related disorders among students over 18 years of age in a regional capital in the North of Italy...
July 2017: Professioni Infermieristiche
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164171/health-care-students-attitudes-about-alcohol-consumption-during-pregnancy-responses-to-narrative-vignettes
#16
Kelly D Coons, Shelley L Watson, Nicole M Yantzi, Nancy E Lightfoot, Sylvie Larocque
This article explores medical, midwifery, and nurse practitioner students' attitudes about women who may consume alcohol throughout their pregnancies. Twenty-one health care students responded to a scenario-based vignette addressing alcohol consumption during pregnancy, as well as a semistructured interview, which were analyzed using Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis approach. Two primary themes related to students' attitudes concerning alcohol consumption during pregnancy were identified: (a) divergent recommendations for different women, based on perceptions of their level of education, culture/ethnicity, and ability to stop drinking; and (b) understanding the social determinants of health, including the normalization of women's alcohol consumption and potential partner violence...
January 2017: Global Qualitative Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157212/fine-motor-skills-in-a-population-of-children-in-remote-australia-with-high-levels-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-and-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#17
Robyn Doney, Barbara R Lucas, Rochelle E Watkins, Tracey W Tsang, Kay Sauer, Peter Howat, Jane Latimer, James P Fitzpatrick, June Oscar, Maureen Carter, Elizabeth J Elliott
BACKGROUND: Many children in the remote Fitzroy Valley region of Western Australia have prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Individuals with PAE can have neurodevelopmental impairments and be diagnosed with one of several types of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Fine motor skills can be impaired by PAE, but no studies have developed a comprehensive profile of fine motor skills in a population-based cohort of children with FASD. We aimed to develop a comprehensive profile of fine motor skills in a cohort of Western Australian children; determine whether these differed in children with PAE or FASD; and establish the prevalence of impairment...
November 21, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146504/minocycline-protects-developing-brain-against-ethanol-induced-damage
#18
Xin Wang, Kai Zhang, Fanmuyi Yang, Zhenhua Ren, Mei Xu, Jacqueline A Frank, Zun-Ji Ke, Jia Luo
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are caused by ethanol exposure during the pregnancy and is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure during the development results in the loss of neurons in the developing brain, which may underlie many neurobehavioral deficits associated with FASD. It is important to understand the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced neuronal loss and develop appropriate therapeutic strategies. One of the potential mechanisms involves neuroimmune activation. Using a third trimester equivalent mouse model of ethanol exposure, we demonstrated that ethanol induced a wide-spread neuroapoptosis, microglial activation, and neuroinflammation in C57BL/6 mice...
February 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138110/neuronal-loss-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex-of-normal-and-bax-deficient-mice-effects-of-ethanol-exposure
#19
Sheena M Britton, Michael W Miller
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is associated with defects in neuronal generation, migration, and differentiation. The present study tested the hypothesis that ethanol exposure during the period of naturally occurring neuronal death causes a time- and Bax-dependent neuronal loss. Wild-type and Bax knockout mice were given a pair of injections (two hours apart) of ethanol (2.5 g/kg) or saline on postnatal day (P) 4, P7, P10, or P13. Mean blood ethanol concentration was 435 mg/dl one hour after the second injection...
November 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120886/comparison-of-alcohol-related-neurodevelopmental-disorders-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders-associated-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-diagnostic-criteria
#20
Sean Johnson, Chelsie Leigh Moyer, Marilyn G Klug, Larry Burd
OBJECTIVE: Recently, increased attention has been focused on the diagnosis of the most prevalent category of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders (ARNDs). In 2013, proposed criteria for neurodevelopmental disorders associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (ND-PAE) were included in the appendix of the latest revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The concordance of the 2 sets of criteria is unknown. This study examines the overlap in diagnostic criteria for ND-PAE and the ARND Behavioral Checklist in children...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
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