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Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527301/exploration-of-dietary-patterns-and-alcohol-consumption-in-pregnant-women-in-the-uk-a-mixed-methods-study
#1
Victoria Coathup, Lesley Smith, Mary Boulton
BACKGROUND: fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders is a term used to describe a range of physical, cognitive and behavioural deficits in the offspring of women who drank alcohol during pregnancy. A growing body of evidence suggests alcohol consumption in the presence of poor maternal nutrition may increase the risk of harm to the developing fetus. OBJECTIVE: to investigate relationships between maternal dietary patterns and alcohol consumption, and explore which factors influence women's decisions about what to eat and drink during pregnancy...
April 27, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521112/prevalence-of-externalizing-disorders-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-among-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Shannon Lange, Jürgen Rehm, Evdokia Anagnostou, Svetlana Popova
Due to their central nervous system impairments, children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) commonly exhibit externalizing behaviours such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or delinquency. The purpose of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders with prominent externalizing behaviours, namely Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Conduct Disorder (CD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), as well as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) among children with FASD...
May 18, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518477/acute-oligodendrocyte-loss-with-persistent-white-matter-injury-in-a-third-trimester-equivalent-mouse-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#3
Jessie Newville, Carlos Fernando Valenzuela, Lu Li, Lauren L Jantzie, Lee Anna Cunningham
Alcohol exposure during central nervous system (CNS) development can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Human imaging studies have revealed significant white matter (WM) abnormalities linked to cognitive impairment in children with FASD; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we evaluated both the acute and long-term impacts of alcohol exposure on oligodendrocyte number and WM integrity in a third trimester-equivalent mouse model of FASD, in which mouse pups were exposed to alcohol during the first 2 weeks of postnatal development...
May 18, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504423/genetic-vulnerabilities-to-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-limb-defects-in-sonic-hedgehog-and-gli2-heterozygous-mice
#4
Eric W Fish, Laura B Murdaugh, Kathleen K Sulik, Kevin P Williams, Scott E Parnell
BACKGROUND: Genetic factors influence the physical and neurobehavioral manifestations of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Animal models allow the investigation of specific genes that confer vulnerability to, or protection from, birth defects associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). The objective of the present experiments was to determine if genetic alterations in the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathways affect the vulnerability to PAE-induced skeletal defects involving the forelimbs and/or hindlimbs...
May 15, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502700/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-fasd-and-competency-to-stand-trial-cst-suggestions-for-a-best-practices-approach-to-forensic-evaluation
#5
REVIEW
Jerrod M Brown, Jeffrey Haun, Patricia A Zapf, Natalie Novick Brown
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), an umbrella term for neurodevelopmental conditions caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, is overrepresented in the U.S. juvenile and adult criminal justice systems. The brain damage in FASD manifests in a combination of cognitive and adaptive impairments that potentially reduce ability to function adequately during the criminal justice process, including capacity to stand trial (CST). Despite the high risk of arrest and conviction in this population, relatively little research guides CST assessment for defendants who have or may have FASD...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499185/prevalence-and-profile-of-neurodevelopment-and-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-fasd-amongst-australian-aboriginal-children-living-in-remote-communities
#6
James P Fitzpatrick, Jane Latimer, Heather Carmichael Olson, Maureen Carter, June Oscar, Barbara R Lucas, Robyn Doney, Claire Salter, Julianne Try, Genevieve Hawkes, Emily Fitzpatrick, Marmingee Hand, Rochelle E Watkins, Tracey W Tsang, Carol Bower, Manuela L Ferreira, John Boulton, Elizabeth J Elliott
BACKGROUND: Despite multiple risk factors for neurodevelopmental vulnerability, few studies have assessed neurodevelopmental performance of Australian Aboriginal children. An important risk factor for neurodevelopmental vulnerability is prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), which places children at risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). AIMS: This study assesses neurodevelopment outcomes in a population of Australian Aboriginal children with and without PAE...
May 9, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498341/replication-of-high-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-prevalence-rates-child-characteristics-and-maternal-risk-factors-in-a-second-sample-of-rural-communities-in-south-africa
#7
Philip A May, Marlene M De Vries, Anna-Susan Marais, Wendy O Kalberg, David Buckley, Colleen M Adnams, Julie M Hasken, Barbara Tabachnick, Luther K Robinson, Melanie A Manning, Heidre Bezuidenhout, Margaret P Adam, Kenneth L Jones, Soraya Seedat, Charles D H Parry, H Eugene Hoyme
Background: Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and total fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were studied in a second sample of three South African rural communities to assess change. Methods: Active case ascertainment focused on children with height, weight and/or head circumference ≤25th centile and randomly-selected children. Final diagnoses were based on dysmorphology, neurobehavioral scores, and maternal risk interviews. Results: Cardinal facial features, head circumference, and total dysmorphology scores differentiated specific FASD diagnostic categories in a somewhat linear fashion but all FASD traits were significantly worse than those of randomly-selected controls...
May 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492482/chromatin-switches-during-neural-cell-differentiation-and-their-dysregulation-by-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#8
REVIEW
David P Gavin, Dennis R Grayson, Sajoy P Varghese, Marina Guizzetti
Prenatal alcohol exposure causes persistent neuropsychiatric deficits included under the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Cellular identity emerges from a cascade of intrinsic and extrinsic (involving cell-cell interactions and signaling) processes that are partially initiated and maintained through changes in chromatin structure. Prenatal alcohol exposure influences neuronal and astrocyte development, permanently altering brain connectivity. Prenatal alcohol exposure also alters chromatin structure through histone and DNA modifications...
May 11, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476615/deficits-in-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-adult-mice-following-acute-low-or-moderate-levels-of-prenatal-ethanol-exposure-during-gastrulation-or-neurulation
#9
Uta B Schambra, C Nicole Lewis, Theresa A Harrison
Debate continues on the merits of strictly limiting alcohol consumption during all of pregnancy, and whether "safe" consumption levels and/or times exist. Only a relatively few experimental studies have been conducted that limit the timing of exposure to specific events during development and the exposure level to one that might model sporadic, incidental drinking during pregnancy. In the present study, the effects of two acute gavage exposures to low and moderate levels of ethanol (peak blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of 104 and 177mg/dl, respectively) either during gastrulation on gestational day (GD) 7 (at GD7:0h and GD7:4h) or during neurulation on GD8 (at GD8:6h and GD8:10h) on the spatial learning and memory abilities of adult mice in the radial arm maze (RAM) were examined...
May 2, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460370/comorbid-mental-disorders-in-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-a-systematic-review
#10
Deland Weyrauch, Megan Schwartz, Brandon Hart, Marilyn G Klug, Larry Burd
OBJECTIVE: A systematic review of published literature to estimate prevalence of comorbid mental disorders in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and compare with general population prevalence estimates. METHODS: A PubMed search was used to locate articles reporting on FASD and mental disorders published through June 2015. Next, lists of published studies from all issues of the National Organisation for Foetal Alcohol Syndrome-UK publication Fetal Alcohol Forum-were searched...
May 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446117/prevalence-of-microcephaly-in-an-australian-population-based-birth-defects-register-1980-2015
#11
Michele Hansen, Paul K Armstrong, Carol Bower, Gareth S Baynam
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence and characteristics of microcephaly in a geographically defined Australian population. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Descriptive epidemiological study of microcephaly cases ascertained by the Western Australian Register of Developmental Anomalies, 1980-2015, defining microcephaly as an occipito-frontal head circumference below the third percentile or more than two standard deviations below the mean sex- and age-appropriate distribution curve...
May 1, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440861/findings-from-the-families-on-track-intervention-pilot-trial-for-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-and-their-families
#12
Christie L M Petrenko, Mary E Pandolfino, Luther K Robinson
BACKGROUND: Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are at high risk for costly, debilitating mental health problems and secondary conditions, such as school disruption, trouble with the law, and substance use. The study objective was to pilot a multi-component intervention designed to prevent secondary conditions in children with FASD and improve family adaptation. METHODS: Thirty children with FASD or prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) (ages 4 to 8) and their primary caregivers were enrolled...
April 25, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438527/the-baf-brg1-brm-associated-factor-chromatin-remodeling-complex-exhibits-ethanol-sensitivity-in-fetal-neural-progenitor-cells-and-regulates-transcription-at-the-mir-9-2-encoding-gene-locus
#13
Sasha G Burrowes, Nihal A Salem, Alexander M Tseng, Sridevi Balaraman, Marisa R Pinson, Cadianna Garcia, Rajesh C Miranda
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are a leading cause of intellectual disability worldwide. Previous studies have shown that developmental ethanol exposure results in loss of microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-9, and loss of these miRNAs, in turn, mediates some of ethanol's teratogenic effects in the developing brain. We previously found that ethanol increased methylation at the miR-9-2 encoding gene locus in mouse fetal neural stem cells (NSC), advancing a mechanism for epigenetic silencing of this locus and consequently, miR-9 loss in NSCs...
May 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433422/postnatal-choline-supplementation-selectively-attenuates-hippocampal-microrna-alterations-associated-with-developmental-alcohol-exposure
#14
Sridevi Balaraman, Nirelia M Idrus, Rajesh C Miranda, Jennifer D Thomas
Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in a range of physical, neuropathological, and behavioral alterations, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We have shown that supplementation with the nutrient choline reduces the severity of developmental alcohol-associated deficits in hippocampal-dependent behaviors and normalizes some aspects of hippocampal cholinergic development and DNA methylation patterns. Alcohol's developmental effects may also be mediated, in part, by altering microRNAs (miRNAs) that serve as negative regulators of gene translation...
May 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433420/dna-methylation-program-in-normal-and-alcohol-induced-thinning-cortex
#15
Nail Can Öztürk, Marisol Resendiz, Hakan Öztürk, Feng C Zhou
While cerebral underdevelopment is a hallmark of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), the mechanism(s) guiding the broad cortical neurodevelopmental deficits are not clear. DNA methylation is known to regulate early development and tissue specification through gene regulation. Here, we examined DNA methylation in the onset of alcohol-induced cortical thinning in a mouse model of FASD. C57BL/6 (B6) mice were administered a 4% alcohol (v/v) liquid diet from embryonic (E) days 7-16, and their embryos were harvested at E17, along with isocaloric liquid diet and lab chow controls...
May 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431793/alcohol-effects-on-the-epigenome-in-the-germline-role-in-the-inheritance-of-alcohol-related-pathology
#16
REVIEW
Lucy G Chastain, Dipak K Sarkar
Excessive alcohol exposure has severe health consequences, and clinical and animal studies have demonstrated that disruptions in the epigenome of somatic cells, such as those in brain, are an important factor in the development of alcohol-related pathologies, such as alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). It is also well known that alcohol-related health problems are passed down across generations in human populations, but the complete mechanisms for this phenomenon are currently unknown...
May 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431792/changes-to-histone-modifications-following-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-an-emerging-picture
#17
REVIEW
Eric J Chater-Diehl, Benjamin I Laufer, Shiva M Singh
Epigenetic mechanisms are important for facilitating gene-environment interactions in many disease etiologies, including Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Extensive research into the role of DNA methylation and miRNAs in animal models has illuminated the complex role of these mechanisms in FASD. In contrast, histone modifications have not been as well researched, due in part to being less stable than DNA methylation and less well-characterized in disease. It is now apparent that even changes in transient marks can have profound effects if they alter developmental trajectories...
May 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413697/acute-ethanol-exposure-during-late-mouse-neurodevelopment-results-in-long-term-deficits-in-memory-retrieval-but-not-in-social-responsiveness
#18
Katherine Houlé, Myshake Abdi, Erin B D Clabough
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in neurological changes in affected individuals and may result in the emergence of a broad spectrum of neurobehavioral abnormalities termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The effects of ethanol exposure during development are both time and dose dependent. Although many animal models of FASD use more chronic ethanol exposure, acute developmental alcohol exposure may also cause long-lasting neuronal changes. Our research employed behavioral measures to assess the effects of a single early postnatal ethanol intoxication event in mice...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401132/comparing-diagnostic-classification-of-neurobehavioral-disorder-associated-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-with-the-canadian-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-guidelines-a-cohort-study
#19
James L Sanders, Rebecca E Hudson Breen, Nicole Netelenbos
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic criteria have recently been introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5), for neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (ND-PAE). The purpose of this study is to assess the classification of this condition using the Canadian fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) multidisciplinary diagnostic guidelines as the standard of comparison. First, classification of ND-PAE was compared with Canadian FASD diagnoses of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder...
January 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381366/nocturnal-incontinence-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-fasd-in-a-south-african-cohort
#20
Sylvia Roozen, Leana Olivier, Justine Niemczyk, Alexander von Gontard, Gjalt-Jorn Y Peters, Gerjo Kok, Denis Viljoen, Leopold Curfs
INTRODUCTION: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are one of the leading preventable causes of intellectual disabilities (ID). Not much is known about the topic of pediatric incontinence related to FASD, for example nocturnal enuresis (NE), daytime urinary incontinence (DUI), and fecal incontinence (FI). So far, incontinence problems have been examined among children with other specific syndromes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible presence of incontinence among children with FASD in a South African cohort...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
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