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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526407/sirtuin-inhibition-leads-to-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-porcine-preimplantation-blastocysts
#1
Min Gyeong Kim, Duk Hyoun Kim, Hye Ran Lee, Jun Sung Lee, Su Jin Jin, Hoon Taek Lee
Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dependent class III histone deacetylase proteins that play a crucial role in several cellular processes, including DNA repair, apoptosis, and lifespan. Previous studies have shown that sirtuin inhibition leads to embryonic developmental arrest and oxidative stress in porcine and murine. However, sirtuin-mediated mechanisms have not been examined in porcine preimplantation blastocysts. We therefore investigated the relationship between sirtuins and autophagy. Embryos were cultured with 100 μM sirtinol (SIRT1/2 inhibitor) in NCSU-23 media after in vitro fertilization...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513911/sperm-capacitation-pretreatment-positively-impacts-bovine-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection
#2
L Águila, F Zambrano, M E Arias, Felmer R
The efficiency of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in bovines is low compared to other species due in part to inadequate egg activation and sperm nucleus decondensation after injection. We hypothesized that this low efficiency is due to the lack of complete sperm capacitation, so we evaluated the effects of isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) on bovine sperm capacitation and on the preimplantation developmental potential of bovine embryos generated by ICSI. Treatment with IBMX and MβCD decreased sperm viability (between 13 to 30%); nevertheless, 0...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498723/advances-in-preimplantation-genetic-testing-for-monogenic-disease-and-aneuploidy
#3
Nathan R Treff, Rebekah S Zimmerman
Genetic testing of preimplantation embryos promises to prevent monogenic disease in children born to at-risk couples, the transfer of unbalanced embryos to patients carrying a balanced translocation, and the use of aneuploid embryos created during in vitro fertilization. Technologies have evolved from fluorescence in situ hybridization to next-generation-sequencing-based aneuploidy screening and allow for simultaneous testing of multiple genetic abnormalities in a single biopsy. The field has also shifted away from polar body or blastomere biopsy and toward trophectoderm biopsy as the new standard...
May 12, 2017: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497410/could-monopronucleated-icsi-zygotes-be-considered-for-transfer-analysis-through-time-lapse-monitoring-and-pgs
#4
S Mateo, F Vidal, M Parriego, I Rodríguez, V Montalvo, A Veiga, M Boada
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the chromosomal constitution and the developmental potential of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) deriving embryos displaying a single pronucleus at the zygote stage. METHODS: Eighty-eight embryos from single pronucleus (1PN) two polar bodies (2PB) ICSI zygotes from 64 preimplantational genetic screening (PGS) cycles (October 2012-December 2014), were retrospectively analyzed. Zygotes were cultured in a time-lapse incubator...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496018/effects-of-heat-stress-on-bovine-preimplantation-embryos-produced-in-vitro
#5
Miki Sakatani
Summer heat stress decreases the pregnancy rate in cattle and has been thought to be associated with the early embryonic death caused by the elevation of maternal body temperature. In vitro cultures have been widely used for the evaluation of effects of heat stress on oocytes, fertilization, preimplantation, and embryonic development. Susceptibility to heat stress is present in developmental stages from oocytes to cleavage-stage (before embryonic gene activation, EGA) embryos, leading to a consequent decrease in developmental competence...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494860/overexpression-of-trophoblast-stem-cell-enriched-micrornas-promotes-trophoblast-fate-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#6
Ursula Nosi, Fredrik Lanner, Tsu Huang, Brian Cox
The first cell fate choice of the preimplantation embryo generates the extraembryonic trophoblast and embryonic epiblast lineages. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) can be utilized to investigate molecular mechanisms of this first cell fate decision. It has been established that ESCs can be induced to acquire trophoblast lineage characteristics upon manipulation of lineage-determining transcription factors. Here, we have interrogated the potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) to drive trans-differentiation of ESCs into the trophoblast lineage...
May 9, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481181/a-diabetic-pregnancy-alters-the-expression-of-stress-related-receptors-in-gastrulating-rabbit-blastocyst-and-in-the-reproductive-tract
#7
Tom Seeling, Štefan Čikoš, Katarzyna J Grybel, Žofia Janštová, S Mareike Pendzialek, Maria Schindler, Alexandra Špirková, Anne Navarrete Santos
The incidence of diabetes mellitus for young people rises since years. A preconceptional diabetes mellitus leads to subfertility. Most of the causes for a diabetic subfertility are still unknown. Stress can significantly deteriorate glycemic control in diabetes. Several mechanisms by which "stress hormones", like adrenaline and cortisol or corticosterone, can contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis have been identified. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we examined the expression of adrenergic receptors and the glucocorticoid receptor transcripts in the female rabbit reproductive tract and in gastrulating blastocysts developed in normoinsulinemic mothers and in mothers with experimentally induced diabetes mellitus type 1...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476180/transferring-embryos-with-genetic%C3%A2-anomalies-detected-in-preimplantation-testing-an-ethics-committee-opinion
#8
(no author information available yet)
Patient requests for transfer of embryos with genetic anomalies linked to serious health-affecting disorders detected in preimplantation testing are rare but do exist. This Opinion sets out the possible rationales for a provider's decision to assist or decline to assist in such transfers. The Committee concludes in most clinical cases it is ethically permissible to assist or decline to assist in transferring such embryos. In circumstances in which a child is highly likely to be born with a life-threatening condition that causes severe and early debility with no possibility of reasonable function, provider transfer of such embryos is ethically problematic and highly discouraged...
May 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476179/current-experience-concerning-mosaic-embryos-diagnosed-during-preimplantation-genetic-screening
#9
REVIEW
Gary L Harton, Cengiz Cinnioglu, Francesco Fiorentino
The concept of embryos containing multiple cell lines (mosaicism) is not new, but much attention has been paid to this concept recently owing to recent advances in molecular techniques to analyze human embryos. Mosaicism in embryos has been known and reported for some time, originally in early cleavage-stage embryos diagnosed with the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). However, the early data have come under attack owing to the limited ability of FISH to reliably detect the actual copy number count of chromosomes as well as potential ascertainment bias of those early studies, which were all performed on already analyzed embryos found to be aneuploid...
May 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472298/adiponectin-stimulates-lipid-metabolism-via-ampk-in-rabbit-blastocysts
#10
Maria Schindler, Mareike Pendzialek, Katarzyna Joanna Grybel, Tom Seeling, Jacqueline Gürke, Bernd Fischer, Anne Navarrete Santos
STUDY QUESTION: How does a maternal diabetic hyperadiponectineamia affect signal transduction and lipid metabolism in rabbit preimplantation blastocysts? SUMMARY ANSWER: In a diabetic pregnancy increased levels of adiponectin led to a switch in embryonic metabolism towards a fatty acid-dependent energy metabolism, mainly affecting genes that are responsible for fatty acid uptake and turnover. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although studies in cell culture experiments have shown that adiponectin is able to regulate lipid metabolism via 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), data on the effects of adiponectin on embryonic lipid metabolism are not available...
May 4, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470749/noninvasive-imaging-systems-for-gametes-and-embryo-selection-in-ivf-programs-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Marjan Omidi, Azita Faramarzi, Azam Agharahimi, Mohammad Ali Khalili
Optimizing the efficiency of the in vitro fertilization procedure by improving pregnancy rates and reducing the risks of multiple pregnancies simultaneously are the primary goals of the current assisted reproductive technology program. With the move to single embryo transfers, the need for more cost-effective and noninvasive methods for embryo selection prior to transfer is paramount. These aims require advancement in a more acquire gametes/embryo testing and selection procedures using high-tech devices. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to evaluate the efficacy of noninvasive imaging systems in the current literatures, focusing on the potential clinical application in infertile patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatments...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461656/shipment-of-live-preimplantation-stage-mouse-embryos
#12
Richard Behringer, Marina Gertsenstein, Kristina Vintersten Nagy, Andras Nagy
Sharing genetically modified mouse models is a very important part of collaboration between researchers. Shipping live animals around the world is inconvenient, expensive, and cumbersome because of the variety of international regulations and paperwork. The issue of health status differences between animal facilities is of great importance; traditionally, imported animals are quarantined to determine their health status and avoid the introduction of undesirable pathogens. The shipment of preimplantation-stage embryos for immediate transfer into pseudopregnant recipients upon arrival is a commonly used method for transportation...
May 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459457/conserved-roles-of-mouse-dux-and-human-dux4-in-activating-cleavage-stage-genes-and-mervl-hervl-retrotransposons
#13
Peter G Hendrickson, Jessie A Doráis, Edward J Grow, Jennifer L Whiddon, Jong-Won Lim, Candice L Wike, Bradley D Weaver, Christian Pflueger, Benjamin R Emery, Aaron L Wilcox, David A Nix, C Matthew Peterson, Stephen J Tapscott, Douglas T Carrell, Bradley R Cairns
To better understand transcriptional regulation during human oogenesis and preimplantation development, we defined stage-specific transcription, which highlighted the cleavage stage as being highly distinctive. Here, we present multiple lines of evidence that a eutherian-specific multicopy retrogene, DUX4, encodes a transcription factor that activates hundreds of endogenous genes (for example, ZSCAN4, KDM4E and PRAMEF-family genes) and retroviral elements (MERVL/HERVL family) that define the cleavage-specific transcriptional programs in humans and mice...
May 1, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459185/karyomapping-and-how-is-it-improving-preimplantation-genetics
#14
Rebecca L Gould, Darren K Griffin
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening (PGD/PGS) has been applied clinically for >25 years however inherent drawbacks include the necessity to tailor each case to the trait in question, and that technology to detect monogenic and chromosomal disorders respectively is fundamentally different. Areas covered: The area of preimplantation genetics has evolved over the last 25 years, adapting to changes in technology and the need for more efficient, streamlined diagnoses. Karyomapping allows the determination of inheritance from the (grand)parental haplobocks through assembly of inherited chromosomal segments...
May 15, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457629/mosaicism-in-preimplantation-human-embryos-when-chromosomal-abnormalities-are-the-norm
#15
REVIEW
Rajiv C McCoy
Along with errors in meiosis, mitotic errors during post-zygotic cell division contribute to pervasive aneuploidy in human embryos. Relatively little is known, however, about the genesis of these errors or their fitness consequences. Rapid technological advances are helping to close this gap, revealing diverse molecular mechanisms contributing to mitotic error. These include altered cell cycle checkpoints, aberrations of the centrosome, and failed chromatid cohesion, mirroring findings from cancer biology. Recent studies are challenging the idea that mitotic error is abnormal, emphasizing that the fitness impacts of mosaicism depend on its scope and severity...
April 27, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456971/use-of-histone-k-m-mutants-for-the-analysis-of-transcriptional-regulation-in-mouse-zygotes
#16
Keisuke Aoshima, Takashi Kimura, Yuki Okada
Histone modifications are dramatically altered during the pronuclear (PN) stage of zygotes, and more markedly in paternal than maternal pronuclei. Among various types of histone modifications, lysine methylation exhibits the most dynamic changes in the PN stage . To analyze the physiological functions of histone methylations, it is therefore important to elucidate the mechanism of epigenetic reprogramming. However, loss-of-function approaches using mutant histones whose lysine residues have been substituted with arginine residues are unable to erase histone modifications at all levels, since they are incapable of entirely replacing endogenous histones...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456965/single-cell-restriction-enzyme-based-analysis-of-methylation-at-genomic-imprinted-regions-in-preimplantation-mouse-embryos
#17
Ka Yi Ling, Lih Feng Cheow, Stephen R Quake, William F Burkholder, Daniel M Messerschmidt
The methylation of cytosines in DNA is a fundamental epigenetic regulatory mechanism. During preimplantation development, mammalian embryos undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming, including the global erasure of germ cell-specific DNA methylation marks, to allow for the establishment of the pluripotent state of the epiblast. However, DNA methylation marks at specific regions, such as imprinted gene regions, escape this reprogramming process, as their inheritance from germline to soma is paramount for proper development...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456964/immunological-staining-of-global-changes-in-dna-methylation-in-the-early-mammalian-embryo
#18
Yan Li, Christopher O'Neill
The structural complexity of chromatin can make antibody access to some nuclear antigens energetically unfavorable. This can limit the usefulness and reliability of immunostaining unless validated methods of epitope retrieval are applied. We found that denaturation of chromatin by sequential use of acidification and tryptic digestion of fixed cells is required to reliably detect DNA methylation in the embryo. Using this method to unmask the epitope revealed an unexpected pattern of reprogramming of global patterns of DNA methylation in the preimplantation embryo...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456962/rna-fish-to-study-zygotic-genome-activation-in-early-mouse-embryos
#19
Noémie Ranisavljevic, Ikuhiro Okamoto, Edith Heard, Katia Ancelin
Characterizing the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is a central question in embryogenesis, and is critical for our understanding of early post-fertilization events in mammals. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA Seq) of mouse oocytes and early embryos has recently revealed that elaborate transcription patterns of genes and repeats are established post-fertilization. This occurs in the context of the gradually depleted maternal pool of RNA provided by the oocyte, which can confound the accurate analysis of the zygotic genome activation when the mRNA population is sequenced...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456959/detection-of-bidirectional-promoter-derived-lncrnas-from-small-scale-samples-using-pre-amplification-free-directional-rna-seq-method
#20
Nobuhiko Hamazaki, Kinichi Nakashima, Katsuhiko Hayashi, Takuya Imamura
Development of high-throughput sequencing technologies has uncovered the immensity of the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) world. Divergently transcribed lncRNAs from bidirectional gene promoters, called promoter-associated noncoding RNAs (pancRNAs), account for ~20% of the total number of lncRNAs, and this major fraction is involved in many biological processes, such as development and cancer formation. Recently, we have found that the pancRNAs activate their partner genes, as represented by the fact that pancIl17d, a pancRNA that is transcribed from the antisense strand of the promoter region of Interleukin 17d (Il17d) at the onset of zygotic gene activation (ZGA), is essential for mouse preimplantation development through Il17d upregulation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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