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Preimplantation embryo

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135280/factors-affecting-mouse-somatic-cell-nuclear-reprogramming-by-rabbit-ooplasms
#1
Xia Huang, Lili Song, Zhiyan Zhan, Haihui Gu, Haizhong Feng, Yanxin Li
Successful development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos depends on compatibilities between ooplasmic and nuclear components. However, the mechanisms by which the compatibilities are regulated are still unknown. In this study, using mouse Oct4-green fluorescent protein (GFP) cells as donors and rabbit oocytes as recipients, we show that Oct4 and other pluripotency related genes were reactivated in some of mouse-rabbit iSCNT embryos, which could also activate Oct4 promoter-driven GFP reporter gene expression...
November 14, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129123/opinions-of-nurses-regarding-conscientious-objection
#2
Rafael Toro-Flores, Pilar Bravo-Agüi, María Victoria Catalán-Gómez, Marisa González-Hernando, María Jesús Guijarro-Cenisergue, Margarita Moreno-Vázquez, Isabel Roch-Hamelin, Tamara Raquel Velasco-Sanz
BACKGROUND: In the last decades, there have been important developments in the scientific and technological areas of healthcare. On certain occasions this provokes conflict between the patients' rights and the values of healthcare professionals which brings about, within this clinical relationship, the problem of conscientious objection. AIMS: To learn the opinions that the Nurses of the Madrid Autonomous Community have regarding conscientious objection. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-cutting descriptive study...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128220/identification-of-potential-embryokines-in-the-bovine-reproductive-tract
#3
P Tríbulo, L G B Siqueira, L J Oliveira, T Scheffler, P J Hansen
Knowledge of the molecules used by the maternal reproductive tract to regulate development of the preimplantation embryo is largely incomplete. The goal of the present experiment was to identify candidates for this function. The approach was to assess expression patterns in the endometrium and oviduct of 93 genes encoding for hormones, growth factors, chemokines, cytokines, and WNT-related molecules. Results show that all of the genes were expressed in the reproductive tract. Expression in oviduct was affected by day of the estrous cycle for 21 genes with 11 genes having highest expression at estrus (CCL21, CTGF, CXCL10, CXCL16, DKK3, FGF10, IL18, IL33, IL34, PGF, and SFRP2), one gene at d 3 (WNT4), 8 at d 5 (BMP7, HGF, IL6, SFRP1, TGFB1, WIF1, WNT2, and WNT5A), and one at d 7 (IK)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126206/the-incidence-and-origin-of-segmental-aneuploidy-in-human-oocytes-and-preimplantation-embryos
#4
D Babariya, E Fragouli, S Alfarawati, K Spath, D Wells
STUDY QUESTION: What is the incidence, origin and clinical significance of segmental aneuploidy in human oocytes and preimplantation embryos? SUMMARY ANSWER: Segmental aneuploidy occurs at a considerable frequency in preimplantation embryos with a majority being mitotic in origin. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In recent years, accurate techniques for the detection of aneuploidy in single cells have been developed. Research using such methods has confirmed that aneuploidy is a common feature of human oocytes and preimplantation embryos...
November 8, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122660/a-potential-role-of-galectin-1-in-promoting-mouse-trophoblast-stem-cell-differentiation
#5
Jia-Li You, Wei Wang, Min-Yue Tang, Ying-Hui Ye, Ai-Xia Liu, Yi-Min Zhu
Galectin-1 is highly expressed in blastocysts and trophoblast giant cells during implantation, and dysregulated galectin-1 is associated with many pregnancy-related abnormalities. Elevated galectin-1 contributes to cancer cells invasion. Here, we found that galectin-1 is expressed in mouse oocytes, preimplantation embryos (all stages), and trophoblast stem (TS) cells. Peak levels of galectin-1 mRNA and protein were detected on day 4 and day 5 after the induction of TS cells differentiation. Overexpression of galectin-1 increased TS cells migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of galectin-1 attenuated these effects...
November 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120067/review-of-patient-decision-making-factors-and-attitudes-regarding-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis
#6
REVIEW
Margaux C Genoff Garzon, Lisa R Rubin, Marci Lobel, James Stelling, Lisa M Pastore
The increasing technical complexity and evolving options for repro-genetic testing have direct implications for information processing and decision-making, yet the research among patients considering preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is narrowly focused. This review synthesizes the literature regarding patient PGD decision-making factors, and illuminates gaps for future research and clinical translation. Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria for evaluating experiences and attitudes of patients directly involved in PGD as an intervention or considering using PGD...
November 9, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118980/sirt1-dependent-modulation-of-methylation-and-acetylation-of-histone-h3-on-lysine-9-h3k9-in-the-zygotic-pronuclei-improves-porcine-embryo-development
#7
Katerina Adamkova, Young-Joo Yi, Jaroslav Petr, Tereza Zalmanova, Kristyna Hoskova, Pavla Jelinkova, Jiri Moravec, Milena Kralickova, Miriam Sutovsky, Peter Sutovsky, Jan Nevoral
Background: The histone code is an established epigenetic regulator of early embryonic development in mammals. The lysine residue K9 of histone H3 (H3K9) is a prime target of SIRT1, a member of NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase family of enzymes targeting both histone and non-histone substrates. At present, little is known about SIRT1-modulation of H3K9 in zygotic pronuclei and its association with the success of preimplantation embryo development. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of SIRT1 activity on H3K9 methylation and acetylation in porcine zygotes and the significance of H3K9 modifications for early embryonic development...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109119/causes-and-consequences-of-chromosome-segregation-error-in-preimplantation-embryos
#8
Cayetana Vázquez-Diez, Greg FitzHarris
Errors in chromosome segregation are common during the mitotic divisions of preimplantation development in mammalian embryos, giving rise to so-called 'mosaic' embryos possessing a mixture of euploid and aneuploid cells. Mosaicism is widely considered to be detrimental to embryo quality, and is frequently used as criteria to select embryos for transfer in human fertility clinics. However, despite the clear clinical importance, the underlying defects in cell division that result in mosaic aneuploidy remain elusive...
November 6, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108044/consequences-of-exposure-of-embryos-produced-in-vitro-in-a-serum-containing-medium-to-dickkopf-related-protein-1-and-colony-stimulating-factor-2-on-blastocyst-yield-pregnancy-rate-and-birth-weight
#9
P Tríbulo, B H Bernal Ballesteros, A Ruiz, A Tríbulo, R J Tríbulo, H E Tríbulo, G A Bo, P J Hansen
Embryokines are molecules secreted by the mother that regulate embryonic development. Among these molecules in cattle are colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) and dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1). Here, we evaluated actions of CSF2 and DKK1 alone or in combination on characteristics of embryos produced in vitro in the presence of serum. A total of 70 beef cows from 4 farms were subjected to oocyte retrieval on 1 to 4 occasions. Within each farm, donors were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups (vehicle, CSF2, DKK1, CSF2 + DKK1)...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104727/comparative-analysis-of-age-and-rage-levels-in-human-somatic-and-embryonic-stem-cells-under-h2o2-induced-noncytotoxic-oxidative-stress-conditions
#10
Maria Barandalla, Elisa Haucke, Bernd Fischer, Alexander Navarrete Santos, Silvia Colleoni, Cesare Galli, Anne Navarrete Santos, Giovanna Lazzari
The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) occurs in ageing and in many degenerative diseases as a final outcome of persistent oxidative stress on cells and organs. Environmental alterations taking place during early embryonic development can also lead to oxidative damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and AGE accumulation. Whether similar mechanisms act on somatic and embryonic stem cells (ESC) exposed to oxidative stress is not known; and therefore, the modelling of oxidative stress in vitro on human ESC has been the focus of this study...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101999/mitochondrial-dna-quantity-as-a-biomarker-for-blastocyst-implantation-potential
#11
REVIEW
Dagan Wells
Of all the factors currently available for the evaluation of embryonic potential, chromosomal status appears to be the most definitive. The debate around this hotly contested issue does not focus on the question of whether aneuploidy is detrimental to development, but on whether current preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy methods are capable of accurately determining whether an embryo is chromosomally normal, aneuploid or a mixture of normal and abnormal cells (i.e., mosaic). Despite the importance of aneuploidy, it is clear that this is only one factor amongst many of relevance to embryo viability, as evidenced by the fact that even the transfer of a chromosomally normal embryo cannot guarantee a pregnancy...
November 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101998/will-noninvasive-methods-surpass-invasive-for-assessing-gametes-and-embryos
#12
REVIEW
Tim Sanchez, Emily A Seidler, David K Gardner, Daniel Needleman, Denny Sakkas
The need to identify the most viable embryo following in vitro fertilization (IVF) was established early in the history of human IVF. The stalwart of identifying the best embryos has been morphology. Other techniques have however seen wide acceptance, including the use of preimplantation genetic screening, even though concerns exist over the invasive nature of the technique. Alternatively, noninvasive assessment technologies have tried to determine an embryo's viability through measurements of factors in the media or by imaging of the embryo...
November 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101997/assessment-of-embryo-morphology-and-developmental-dynamics-by-time-lapse-microscopy-is-there-a-relation-to-implantation-and-ploidy
#13
REVIEW
Nikica Zaninovic, Mohamad Irani, Marcos Meseguer
Time-lapse microscopy (TLM) is an exciting novel technology with great potential for enhancing embryo selection in the embryology laboratory. This non-invasive objective assessment of embryos has provided a new tool for predicting embryo development and implantation potential. TLM detects several morphological phenomena that are often missed with static observations using conventional incubators, such as irregular divisions, blastocyst collapse and re-expansion, timing of blastocoel appearance, and timing of formation and internalization of fragments...
November 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100625/impact-of-multiple-blastocyst-biopsy-and-vitrification-warming-procedures-on-pregnancy-outcomes
#14
Cara K Bradley, Mark Livingstone, Maria V Traversa, Steven J McArthur
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of multiple blastocyst biopsy and vitrification-warming procedures on clinical outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Private fertility clinic. PATIENT(S): Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) patients undergoing comprehensive chromosome screening, including monogenic disorder and chromosome rearrangement cases. INTERVENTION(S): Warming and transfer of euploid blastocysts biopsied and vitrified-warmed once (group 1 [G1, control]; n = 2,130), biopsied once but vitrified-warmed twice (group 2 [G2]; n = 34), or biopsied and vitrified-warmed twice (group 3 [G3]; n = 29)...
October 31, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100008/at-last-gene-editing-in-human-embryos-to-understand-human-development
#15
Albert Ruzo, Ali H Brivanlou
Our understanding of early human development is typically based on inference from animal models, which may not fully recapitulate human embryonic features. As proof of concept, Fogarty et al. (2017) used CRISPR/Cas9 to genetically ablate the OCT4 gene in human preimplantation embryos and found key differences from its function in model systems.
November 2, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089420/genomic-imprinting-of-xist-by-maternal-h3k27me3
#16
Azusa Inoue, Lan Jiang, Falong Lu, Yi Zhang
Maternal imprinting at the Xist gene is essential to achieve paternal allele-specific imprinted X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in female mammals. However, the mechanism underlying Xist imprinting is unclear. Here we show that the Xist locus is coated with a broad H3K27me3 domain that is established during oocyte growth and persists through preimplantation development in mice. Loss of maternal H3K27me3 induces maternal Xist expression and maternal XCI in preimplantation embryos. Our study thus identifies maternal H3K27me3 as the imprinting mark of Xist...
October 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081452/reduced-glutathione-alleviates-tunicamycin-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-mouse-preimplantation-embryos
#17
Ihsan Ali, Hai Xing Liu, Li Zhong-Shu, Ma Dong-Xue, Lijie Xu, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Obaid Ullah, Fang Nan-Zhu
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a dysfunction in protein-folding capacity, is involved in many pathological and physiological responses, including embryonic development. This study aims to determine the developmental competence, apoptosis, and stress-induced gene expression in mouse preimplantation embryos grown in an in vitro culture medium supplemented with different concentrations of the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (TM) and the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Treatment of zygotes with 0.5 µg/ml TM significantly decreased (P < 0...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080869/-metabolomic-profiling-in-culture-media-of-day-5-human-embryos
#18
I M Zorina, C M Eldarov, S A Yarigina, N P Makarova, D Yu Trofimov, V Yu Smolnikova, E A Kalinina, M Yu Bobrov
The aim of this study was to determine the changes of metabolomic profiles in embryonic culture media (ECM) for the evaluation of quality and implantation potential of human embryos. ECM (n=163) were collected on day 5 before transfer or cryopreservation. Some embryos were used in preimplantation genetic screening for detection of aneuploidy karyotypes. Samples were subdivided into groups according to embryo morphological classification (by Gardner), genetic analysis and implantation data. ECM were extracted with methanol, precipitates were separated by centrifugation and metabolite production of individual embryo was analysed by LC-MS (the positive ion mode)...
October 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076502/derivation-of-hypermethylated-pluripotent-embryonic-stem-cells-with-high-potency
#19
Siqin Bao, Walfred Wc Tang, Baojiang Wu, Shinseog Kim, Jingyun Li, Lin Li, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Caroline Lee, Yanglin Chen, Mengyi Wei, Shudong Li, Sabine Dietmann, Fuchou Tang, Xihe Li, M Azim Surani
Naive hypomethylated embryonic pluripotent stem cells (ESCs) are developmentally closest to the preimplantation epiblast of blastocysts, with the potential to contribute to all embryonic tissues and the germline, excepting the extra-embryonic tissues in chimeric embryos. By contrast, epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) resembling postimplantation epiblast are relatively more methylated and show a limited potential for chimerism. Here, for the first time, we reveal advanced pluripotent stem cells (ASCs), which are developmentally beyond the pluripotent cells in the inner cell mass but with higher potency than EpiSCs...
October 27, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074360/perivitelline-threads-in-cleavage-stage-human-embryos-observations-using-time-lapse-imaging
#20
Louise Kellam, Laura M Pastorelli, Angel M Bastida, Amy Senkbeil, Sue Montgomery, Simon Fishel, Alison Campbell
Time-lapse imaging of the human preimplantation embryo in vitro has revealed a transient phenomenon involving the appearance of perivitelline threads, commonly observed at the two-cell stage. These threads span the perivitelline space, arising at the specific area where the cytoplasmic membrane contacts the zona pellucida, before any perivitelline space is formed. The threads persist as the cytoplasmic membrane retracts from the zona pellucida to form the first cleavage furrow. In this observational report, these structures and their incidence are described...
September 28, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
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