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Preimplantation embryo

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100115/paternal-age-is-not-associated-with-pregnancy-outcomes-after-single-thawed-euploid-blastocyst-transfer
#1
Ashley W Tiegs, Nidhee M Sachdev, Jamie A Grifo, David H McCulloh, Frederick Licciardi
Although controversial, increasing paternal age has been shown to negatively affect assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes and success rates. Most studies investigating the effect of paternal age on ART outcomes use a donor oocyte model to minimize maternal aneuploidy contribution. This study sought to determine whether increasing paternal age is associated with adverse in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes when aneuploidy is minimized using preimplantation genetic screening. There were 573 single thawed euploid embryo transfers from 473 patients undergoing oocyte donor and autologous IVF cycles...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099679/clinical-outcomes-for-couples-containing-a-reciprocal-chromosome-translocation-carrier-without-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis
#2
Biao Yin, Yuanchang Zhu, Tonghua Wu, Shuqiu Shen, Yong Zeng, Desheng Liang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pregnancy outcomes of couples containing a carrier of a reciprocal chromosome translocation (RCT) after assisted reproductive technology without preimplantation genetic diagnosis. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed using data for couples with an RCT carrier and control couples with a normal karyotype (1:4 ratio) who underwent assisted reproductive technology cycles at a Chinese fertility center in 2010-2011. The embryos were fertilized via in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096211/primate-embryogenesis-predicts-the-hallmarks-of-human-na%C3%A3-ve-pluripotency
#3
REVIEW
Thorsten Boroviak, Jennifer Nichols
Naïve pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) resemble the preimplantation epiblast and efficiently contribute to chimaeras. Primate ESCs correspond to the postimplantation embryo and fail to resume development in chimaeric assays. Recent data suggest that human ESCs can be 'reset' to an earlier developmental stage, but their functional capacity remains ill defined. Here, we discuss how the naïve state is inherently linked to preimplantation epiblast identity in the embryo. We hypothesise that distinctive features of primate development provide stringent criteria to evaluate naïve pluripotency in human and other primate cells...
January 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073983/a-novel-embryo-culture-media-supplement-that-improves-pregnancy-rates-in-mice
#4
A R Highet, T Bianco-Miotto, K G Pringle, A Peura, S Bent, J Zhang, M B Nottle, J G Thompson, C T Roberts
The preimplantation embryo in vivo is exposed to numerous growth factors in the female reproductive tract, which are not recapitulated in embryo culture media in vitro The IGF2 and plasminogen activator systems facilitate blastocyst development. We hypothesized that the addition of IGF2 in combination with urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen could improve rates of blastocyst hatching and implantation in mice. B6BcF1 and CBAB6F2 mouse embryos were divided into one of four supplemented culture media treatment groups: (1) control (media only); (2) 12...
March 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070710/the-accumulation-of-vitrified-oocytes-is-a-strategy-to-increase-the-number-of-euploid-available-blastocysts-for-transfer-after-preimplantation-genetic-testing
#5
Sandrine Chamayou, Maria Sicali, Carmelita Alecci, Carmen Ragolia, Annalisa Liprino, Daniela Nibali, Giorgia Storaci, Antonietta Cardea, Antonino Guglielmino
PURPOSE: In a preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy (PGD-A) program, the more embryos available for biopsy, consequently increases the chances of obtaining euploid embryos to transfer. The aim was to increase the number of viable euploid blastocysts in patients undergoing PGD-A using fresh oocytes together with previously accumulated vitrified oocytes. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients with normal ovarian reserve underwent PGD-A for repeated implantation failure or recurrent pregnancy loss indication...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069986/mechanisms-involved-in-porcine-early-embryo-survival-following-ethanol-exposure
#6
Florence Pagé-Larivière, Céline Campagna, Marc-André Sirard
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is still a cause of preventable birth defects and developmental disabilities. However, little is known about the impact of ethanol on preimplantation embryos and the molecular mechanisms involved. We aimed to determine the toxicogenomic impacts and the mechanisms involved in preimplantation embryonic survival following 0.2% ethanol exposure in porcine embryos. Gene expression changes were measured with a porcine embryo specific microarray and confirmed by RT-qPCR. Compared to control, ethanol exposure led to a 43% decrease in blastocyst rate and activated pathways associated with oxidative stress and nervous system damage, such as TP53 and TGF...
January 9, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069902/wnt-regulation-of-embryonic-development-likely-involves-pathways-independent-of-nuclear-ctnnb1
#7
Paula Tribulo, James I Moss, Manabu Ozawa, Zongliang Jiang, Cindy Tian, Peter J Hansen
The bovine was used to examine potential for WNT signaling to affect the preimplantation embryo. Expression of seven key genes involved in canonical WNT signaling declined to a nadir at the morula or blastocyst stage. Expression of 80 genes associated with WNT signaling in the morula and inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) of the blastocyst was also evaluated. Many genes associated with WNT signaling were characterized by low transcript abundance. Seven genes were different between ICM and TE, and all of them were overexpressed in TE as compared to ICM, including WNT6, FZD1, FZD7, LRP6, PORCN, APC, and SFRP1...
January 9, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069183/evaluation-of-in%C3%A2-vitro-fertilization-outcomes-using-interleukin-8-in-culture-medium-of-human-preimplantation-embryos
#8
Guanyou Huang, Congrong Zhou, Chi-Ju Wei, Shuyun Zhao, Fa Sun, Hua Zhou, Wenjie Xu, Jun Liu, Chao Yang, Lingfei Wu, Guidan Ye, Zhuo Chen, Yongli Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether selected cytokines are detectable in the embryo culture medium (EM) of human preimplantation embryos (HPE) and what the relationship is of the cytokines with clinical outcomes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University-affiliated tertiary teaching hospital. PATIENT(S): Three-hundred and thirty infertile women who underwent fresh cycle in vitro fertilization (IVF) between January and December 2014...
January 6, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050628/epigenetic-modifications-and-reprogramming-in-paternal-pronucleus-sperm-preimplantation-embryo-and-beyond
#9
REVIEW
Yuki Okada, Kosuke Yamaguchi
Pronuclear/zygotic stage is the very first stage of life. In this period, paternal pronucleus undergoes massive chromatin remodeling called "paternal reprogramming" including protamine-histone replacement and subsequent acquisition of epigenetic modifications. Although these consecutive events are required for the initiation of maternal-zygotic transition, the precise role of paternal reprogramming and its effect on subsequent embryonic development has been largely unknown to date. Recently, various new techniques, especially next-generation sequencing (NGS) and RNAi microinjection contribute to unveil the epigenetic transition from both paternal and maternal to early preimplantation embryos, suggesting not only the simple transcriptional regulation by transcription factors but also dynamic structural alteration of chromatin to initiate the wave of zygotic gene transcription...
January 3, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043375/comparative-dynamics-of-5-methylcytosine-reprogramming-and-tet-family-expression-during-preimplantation-mammalian-development-in-mouse-and-sheep
#10
F Jafarpour, S M Hosseini, S Ostadhosseini, H Abbasi, A Dalman, M H Nasr-Esfahani
Despite previous assumption that paternal active DNA demethylation is an evolutionary conserved phenomenon in mammals, emerging studies in other species, particularly sheep, do not support this issue. Recently, ten eleven translocation (TET) enzymes have been suggested as intermediates in genome-wide DNA demethylation through the iterative conversion of five methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC)/5-formylcytosine/5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) derivatives. This study investigated whether TET enzymes and 5mC derivatives are also involved in dynamic reprogramming of early sheep embryos derived by fertilization...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043361/time-of-early-cleavage-affects-the-developmental-potential-of-feline-preimplantation-embryos-in%C3%A2-vitro
#11
Małgorzata Ochota, Wojciech Niżański
The study compared developmental competence of embryos, based on the timing of the first cleavage and morula formation, with their subsequent ability to reach the blastocyst stage and the resulting blastocyst morphology and quality. Cleaved embryos were separated at 18 hours post insemination (hpi), 24 hpi, and 30 hpi and then cultured in droplets to follow the individual embryo development. The significantly higher percentage of the blastocyst formation was noted in the group I of embryos cleaving within less than 18 hpi (12...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040094/introduction-subchromosomal-abnormalities-in-preimplantation-embryonic-aneuploidy-screening
#12
Richard T Scott
The application of next generation sequencing platforms for embryonic aneuploidy screening provides enhanced resolution that allows routine evaluation of subchromosomal copy number abnormalities and mosaicism. Approximately 20% of embryos that would be designated as euploid using the conventional 24-chromosome aneuploidy screening will have evidence of a subchromosomal abnormality or mosaicism. This new information brings many challenges. Understanding the impact of these abnormalities on implantation and delivery rates is key to optimizing clinical counseling and management...
January 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040093/diagnosis-and-clinical-management-of-duplications-and-deletions
#13
REVIEW
Antonio Capalbo, Laura Rienzi, Filippo Maria Ubaldi
Chromosome deletions and duplications-copy number variations (CNVs)-are a major contribution to the genome variability and can be either pathogenic or not. A particular class, the microdeletions and microduplications, which alter <5 Mb, have been extensively associated with developmental delay and intellectual disability. Although their prevalence in pregnancies and newborn is relatively low, their estimates in preimplantation embryos are poorly defined. The introduction of novel technologies for preimplantation genetic diagnosis of aneuploidies (PGD-A) caused new possibilities and challenges associated with diagnosis of subchromosomal CNVs...
January 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035666/roles-and-regulations-of-hippo-signaling-during-preimplantation-mouse-development
#14
REVIEW
Hiroshi Sasaki
During preimplantation development, mouse embryos form two types of cells, the trophoectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM), by the early blastocyst stage. This process does not require maternal factors localized in the zygotes, and embryos self-organize at the blastocyst stage through intercellular communications. In terms of the mechanisms of cell fate specification, three historical models have been proposed: the positional model, and the original and newer versions of the polarity model. Recent studies have revealed that the intercellular Hippo signaling pathway plays a central role in the specification of the first cell fates...
December 30, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033492/how-cells-change-shape-and-position-in-the-early-mammalian-embryo
#15
REVIEW
Melanie D White, Jennifer Zenker, Stephanie Bissiere, Nicolas Plachta
During preimplantation development, cells of the mammalian embryo must resolve their shape and position to ensure the future viability of the fetus. These initial changes are established as the embryo expands from one to thirty-two cells, and a group of originally spherical cells is transformed into a more polarized structure with distinct cell geometries and lineages. Recent advances in the application of non-invasive imaging technologies have enabled the discovery of mechanisms regulating patterning of the early mammalian embryo...
December 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032673/dental-pulp-stem-cells-model-early-life-and-imprinted-dna-methylation-patterns
#16
Keith Dunaway, Sarita Goorha, Lauren Matelski, Nora Urraca, Pamela J Lein, Ian Korf, Lawrence T Reiter, Janine M LaSalle
Early embryonic stages of pluripotency are modeled for epigenomic studies primarily with human embryonic stem cells (ESC) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). For analysis of DNA methylation however, ESCs and iPSCs do not accurately reflect the DNA methylation levels found in preimplantation embryos. Whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) approaches have revealed the presence of large partially methylated domains (PMDs) covering 30%-40% of the genome in oocytes, preimplantation embryos, and placenta...
December 29, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017685/physical-exercise-before-pregnancy-helps-the-development-of-mouse-embryos-produced-in-vitro
#17
Wen Hai Xu, Hao Wu, Wei Lan Xia, Hui Lan, Yongsheng Wang, Yong Zhang, Song Hua
Effects of pre-gestational physical activity on the later development of embryos generated in vitro were evaluated. Kunming mice were divided into two groups, namely exercised and unexercised, with the former undergoing physical training on a motor-driven leveled treadmill over a period of 4weeks (5days/week and 60min/day). After that, following superovulation, collection of oocytes from both groups was performed for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Notably and specifically, natural mating between the unexercised mice was also done for in vivo fertilization (IVIF)...
December 23, 2016: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004977/establishment-of-transgenic-porcine-fibroblasts-expressing-a-human-klotho-gene-and-its-effects-on-gene-expression-and-preimplantation-development-of-cloned-embryos
#18
Sanghoon Lee, Joon Ho Moon, Kilyoung Song, Anukul Taweechaipaisankul, Young Kwang Jo, Hyun Ju Oh, Se Chang Park, Byeong Chun Lee
Even though the functions of the klotho gene in aging of small animals such as mice have been well investigated, studies using large animal models such as pigs, which have many similarities to humans, have been limited due to the absence of cell lines or animal models. Therefore, the objective of this study was to generate porcine cell lines overexpressing human klotho (hKlotho) and tetracycline (Tet)-inducible hKlotho and to produce cloned embryos from these cell lines. We designed vectors for hKlotho overexpression (CA-Klotho) under control of CMV enhancer/chicken β-actin (CAG) promoter and Tet-inducible hKlotho overexpression (Tet-Klotho, under control of doxycycline-dependent promoter)...
January 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991575/efficient-derivation-of-extraembryonic-endoderm-stem-cell-lines-from-mouse-postimplantation-embryos
#19
Jiangwei Lin, Mona Khan, Bolek Zapiec, Peter Mombaerts
Various types of stem cell lines have been derived from preimplantation or postimplantation mouse embryos: embryonic stem cell lines, epiblast stem cell lines, and trophoblast stem cell lines. It is not known if extraembryonic endoderm stem (XEN) cell lines can be derived from postimplantation mouse embryos. Here, we report the derivation of 77 XEN cell lines from 85 postimplantation embryos at embryonic day E5.5 or E6.5, in parallel to the derivation of 41 XEN lines from 69 preimplantation embryos at the blastocyst stage...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989225/-unaffected-child-born-following-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-with-karyomapping
#20
László Nánássy, Gyöngyvér Téglás, Marianna Csenki, Attila Vereczkey
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for single gene defects is a well established method in assisted reproductive technologies. Karyomapping is a genome wide parental haplotyping using a high density single nucleotide polymorphism array that allows the diagnosis of any single gene defects. A couple with an affected child with primary congenital glaucoma attended at our clinic. Six oocyte-cumulus-complex was retrieved and all three mature oocytes were inseminated. One zygote showed the signs of normal fertilization and was cultured for five days...
December 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
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