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Myftar Torba, Arben Gjata, Francesco Rulli, Ilir Kajo, Sotir Ceka, Afron Mici
Blunt abdominal trauma following gunshot wound. Case report and literature review Introduction: Similarly to blast weapons, every firearm produces explosion at the moment of shooting, which can cause injuries in every region of the body. The aim of this paper is to present the mechanism of blunt abdominal injury following gunshot wounds, bringing this uncommon disease to the clinicians' attention and to review the literature available. CASE REPORT: A patient developed a delayed bowel perforation following a gunshot injury of the abdomen without breaking of the peritoneum...
April 20, 2018: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Rupert O J Norman, Thomas Millat, Klaus Winzer, Nigel P Minton, Charlie Hodgman
Since 2013, there has been an explosion in the number of research articles published on Clostridium autoethanogenum , an acetogen capable of producing platform chemicals such as ethanol and 2,3-butanediol from greenhouse gases. However, no review focusing solely on C. autoethanogenum has appeared in the literature. This review outlines the research conducted into this organism in three broad categories (Enzymology, Genetics, and Systems Biology) and suggestions for future research are offered.
April 17, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Ming-Kang Zhang, Xiao-Gang Wang, Jing-Yi Zhu, Miao-Deng Liu, Chu-Xin Li, Jun Feng, Xian-Zheng Zhang
This study reports a double-targeting "nanofirework" for tumor-ignited imaging to guide effective tumor-depth photothermal therapy (PTT). Typically, ≈30 nm upconversion nanoparticles (UCNP) are enveloped with a hybrid corona composed of ≈4 nm CuS tethered hyaluronic acid (CuS-HA). The HA corona provides active tumor-targeted functionality together with excellent stability and improved biocompatibility. The dimension of UCNP@CuS-HA is specifically set within the optimal size window for passive tumor-targeting effect, demonstrating significant contributions to both the in vivo prolonged circulation duration and the enhanced size-dependent tumor accumulation compared with ultrasmall CuS nanoparticles...
April 17, 2018: Small
Thomas P Forbes, Edward Sisco
Ambient mass spectrometry has evolved rapidly over the past decade, yielding a plethora of platforms and demonstrating scientific advancements across a range of fields from biological imaging to rapid quality control. These techniques have enabled real-time detection of target analytes in an open environment with no sample preparation and can be coupled to any mass analyzer with an atmospheric pressure interface; capabilities of clear interest to the defense, customs and border control, transportation security, and forensic science communities...
April 17, 2018: Analyst
Jeffrey D Rytlewski, Paul J Childress, David C Scofield, Faisal Khan, Marta B Alvarez, Aamir T Tucker, Jonathan S Harris, Jessica L Peveler, Debra L Hickman, Tien-Min G Chu, Melissa A Kacena
Spaceflight results in bone loss like that associated with osteoporosis or decreased weight-bearing (for example, high-energy trauma such as explosive injuries and automobile accidents). Thus, the unique spaceflight laboratory on the International Space Station presents the opportunity to test bone healing agents during weightlessness. We are collaborating with NASA and the US Army to study bone healing in spaceflight. Given the unique constraints of spaceflight, study design optimization was required. Male mice were selected primarily because their femur is larger than females', allowing for more reproducible surgical outcomes...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Massimo Bernardi, Piero Gianolla, Fabio Massimo Petti, Paolo Mietto, Michael J Benton
Dinosaurs diversified in two steps during the Triassic. They originated about 245 Ma, during the recovery from the Permian-Triassic mass extinction, and then remained insignificant until they exploded in diversity and ecological importance during the Late Triassic. Hitherto, this Late Triassic explosion was poorly constrained and poorly dated. Here we provide evidence that it followed the Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE), dated to 234-232 Ma, a time when climates switched from arid to humid and back to arid again...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Wynn C G Ho
Neutron stars are born in the supernova explosion of massive stars. Neutron stars rotate as stably as atomic clocks and possess densities exceeding that of atomic nuclei and magnetic fields millions to billions of times stronger than those created in laboratories on the Earth. The physical properties of neutron stars are determined by many areas of fundamental physics, and detection of gravitational waves can provide invaluable insights into our understanding of these areas. Here, we describe some of the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars and how traditional electromagnetic wave observations provide clues to the sorts of gravitational waves we expect from these stars...
May 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Ana Lorenzo-Hernando, Judit Martín-Juárez, Silvia Bolado-Rodríguez
Steam explosion (150-200 °C, 5-30 min) was performed on a commercial cellulose presented in two configurations (fiberized and compact sheet) and its effect on their chemical and physical properties was studied, along with the influence of two different preservation methods (acetone drying and freezing) after pretreatment. No degradation compounds were produced during pretreatment, although solid recovery (RS ) decreased with temperature from 90% to 62%. Similar particle size and surface conditions (increased porosity) were found for both types of pretreated samples despite the extremely different initial configuration...
July 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Peter Vdacný
Trichostome ciliates are among the most conspicuous protists in the gastrointestinal tract of a large variety of vertebrates. However, little is still known about phylogeny of the trichostome/vertebrate symbiotic systems, evolutionary correlations between trichostome extrinsic traits, and character-dependent diversification of trichostomes. These issues were investigated here, using the relaxed molecular clock technique along with stochastic mapping of character evolution, and binary-state speciation and extinction models...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Yu Li, Renmin Han, Chongwei Bi, Mo Li, Sheng Wang, Xin Gao
Motivation: Oxford Nanopore sequencing is a rapidly developed sequencing technology in recent years. To keep pace with the explosion of the downstream data analytical tools, a versatile Nanopore sequencing simulator is needed to complement the experimental data as well as to benchmark those newly developed tools. However, all the currently available simulators are based on simple statistics of the produced reads, which have difficulty in capturing the complex nature of the Nanopore sequencing procedure, the main task of which is the generation of raw electrical current signals...
April 6, 2018: Bioinformatics
Onder Ayyildiz, Ali Hakan Durukan
Objective This study was performed to compare the functional and anatomical results of endoscopic-assisted and temporary keratoprosthesis (TKP)-assisted vitrectomy in patients with combat ocular trauma (COT). Methods The medical records of 14 severely injured eyes of 12 patients who underwent endoscopy or TKP implantation in combination with vitreoretinal surgery from 2007 to 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. The patients' ocular history and functional and anatomic anterior and posterior segment results were analyzed...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Caleb Smith, Roohi Baveja, Teri Grieb, George A Mashour
Translational research as a discipline has experienced explosive growth over the last decade as evidenced by significant federal investment and the exponential increase in related publications. However, narrow project-focused or process-based measurement approaches have resulted in insufficient techniques to measure the translational progress of institutions or large-scale networks. A shift from traditional industrial engineering approaches to systematic investigation using the techniques of scientometrics and network science will be required to assess the impact of investments in translational research...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Science
Jin Wang
A near infrared (NIR) optical biosensor based on peptide functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) hybrids for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive detection was developed. The TNT binding peptide was directly anchored on the sidewall of the SWCNTs using the π-π interaction between the aromatic amino acids and SWCNTs, forming the peptide-SWCNTs hybrids for near infrared absorption spectra measurement. The evidence of the morphology of peptide-SWCNTs hybrids were obtained using Atomic force microscopy (AFM)...
April 12, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Masayuki Suzuki, Ozdal Boyraz, Hossein Asghari, Paul Trinh, Hiroto Kuroda, Bahram Jalali
Experimentally, we demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, the first observation of periodic spectrum changing via soliton explosion in a passively mode-locked fiber laser by a nonlinear polarization evolution. Using time stretch to capture 7220 consecutive single-shot spectra over a 100 μs time window in real time, the soliton explosions appear in a transition between two different mode-locking states. Simultaneous measurements of spectrum and pulse energy at three different output points in the laser cavity show that the soliton explosion's dynamics are related to residual dispersion...
April 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Lin Li, Hai Lu, Kai Ma, Yun-Yun Li, Hai-Yan Wang, Ning-Pu Liu
Objective: Patients with intraocular foreign bodies were retrospectively analyzed. Population characteristics, pathogenic factors, and the outcomes during the past ten years were discussed. Design: Retrospective case series study. Method: Medical records of 1340 patients hospitalized in Beijing Tongren Hospital from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2013, were collected. Results: Average age was 33.0 ± 13.8 (1-76) years old in 1340 patients...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
Zhen Wang, Xinxin Yuan, Shan Cong, Zhi-Gang Chen, Qingwen Li, Fengxia Geng, Zhigang Zhao
Air pollution is one of the most serious issues affecting the world today. Instead of expensive and energy-intensive air-filtering devices, fiber-based transparent air filter coated on window screen is seen as one of the state-of-the-art filtration technology to combat the seriously growing problem, delivering the advantages of simplicity, convenience and high filtering efficiency. However, such window screen is currently limited to particulate matter (PM) filtration, and ineffective with other air pollutants...
April 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ertugrul Kilic, Mesut Ortatatli, Sermet Sezigen, Rusen Koray Eyison, Levent Kenar
Sulfur mustard (SM) is an highly toxic and vesicant chemical weapon that was used in various military conflicts several times in the history. The severity of ocular, dermal, and pulmonary symptoms that may appear following a characteristic asymptomatic period are depending on the SM concentration and exposure duration. The aim of this study is to present the clinical features and share the intensive care unit (ICU) experiences for the medical management of mustard gas victims. Thirteen Free Syrian Army soldiers near Al-Bab region of North Syria were reportedly exposed to oily blackish smoke with garlic smell due to the explosion of a trapped bomb without causing any blast or thermal effect on 26th November 2016...
April 12, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Peter Žiak, Peter Mojžiš, Juraj Halička, David P Piñero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Trauma Case Reports
Gillian L McEneff, Bronagh Murphy, Tony Webb, Dan Wood, Rachel Irlam, Jim Mills, David Green, Leon P Barron
A new thin-film passive sampler is presented as a low resource dependent and discrete continuous monitoring solution for explosives-related vapours. Using 15 mid-high vapour pressure explosives-related compounds as probes, combinations of four thermally stable substrates and six film-based sorbents were evaluated. Meta-aramid and phenylene oxide-based materials showed the best recoveries from small voids (~70%). Analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-high resolution accurate mass spectrometry which also enabled tentative identification of new targets from the acquired data...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gillian L McEneff, Alexandra Richardson, Tony Webb, Dan Wood, Bronagh Murphy, Rachel Irlam, Jim Mills, David Green, Leon P Barron
The application of new sorbent-film coated passive samplers for capture of bulk commercial and military explosives vapours in operationally relevant spaces such as luggage, rooms, vehicles and shipping containers is presented. Samplers were easily integrated with in-service detection technologies with little/no sample preparation required. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was detected within 4 h in a container holding a suitcase packed with 0.2 kg Perunit 28E. Within a 22,000 dm3 room, 1 kg of concealed Seguridad was detected within 24 h and in an adjoining room within 7 days...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
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