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forensic medicin

Yu I Pigolkin, Yu V Lomakin, A V Khodulapov
This article is devoted to the life and professional activities of the internationally renowned forensic doctor Ivan Ivanovich Neiding who became widely known in the early youth as the discoverer of the microscopic diagnostic features of the constriction marks formed in association with hanging and strangulation. During more than 22 years (from 1878 till 1900), I.I. Neiding acted as the head of the Department of Forensic medicine at the Moscow University where a large number of investigations on forensic medical ballistics, toxicology, obstetric and gynecological expertise were carried out under his supervision...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
I Yu Makarov, A V Svetlakov, A V Sotin, S V Shigeev, A A Gusarov, S A Smirenin, V V Emelin, V B Stragis, V A Fetisov
To-day, the computer-assisted 3D-technologies for the mathematical simulation of the engineering facilities are extensively used for the purpose of technical calculations in all branches of industry and building. The positive experience gained with the application of the 3D-models finds wide application in the joined investigations on the topical problems of the prosthetic and surgical treatment of bones, teeth, joints, cardiac valves, blood vessels, etc. The objective of the present study was the analysis of the positive experience with the involvement of the specialists in the design and practical application of 3D-models for the solution of problems facing the medical prosthetics and the management of various pathological conditions...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Flavian Ruff, Alexander Hemmer, Christine Bartsch, Nadine Glasow, Thomas Reisch
OBJECTIVE: To analyze characteristics of suicide methods of psychiatric inpatients that were carried out within and outside of psychiatric hospitals in order to identify adequate suicide prevention measures. METHODS: Data of 436 inpatient suicides were included in the data base of all institutes of forensic medicine in Switzerland for the years 2000 - 2010. We compared details of suicide methods that were applied within and outside psychiatric hospitals. RESULTS: About two thirds of all suicides were carried out outside psychiatric hospitals...
April 17, 2018: Psychiatrische Praxis
James R Wright
Bodysnatching was an illegal way to procure cadavers for anatomical dissection before the existence of effective anatomy legislation. As knowledge of anatomy was fundamental to medical practice, many famous 19th century physicians turned a blind eye to this activity or even participated. Sir William Osler, perhaps the most revered physician of all time, received his medical degree from McGill University in 1872 and then served as pathologist at Montreal General Hospital from 1874 to 1884, where he began a career which culminated in him becoming both the first Professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins and then Regius Professor at Oxford...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Jérémie Decouchant, Maria Fernandes, Marcus Völp, Francisco M Couto, Paulo Esteves-Veríssimo
Sequencing thousands of human genomes has enabled breakthroughs in many areas, among them precision medicine, the study of rare diseases, and forensics. However, mass collection of such sensitive data entails enormous risks if not protected to the highest standards. In this article, we follow the position and argue that post-alignment privacy is not enough and that data should be automatically protected as early as possible in the genomics workflow, ideally immediately after the data is produced. We show that a previous approach for filtering short reads cannot extend to long reads and present a novel filtering approach that classifies raw genomic data (i...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Jun Hai, Tianrong Li, Junxia Su, Wensheng Liu, Yanmin Ju, Baodui Wang, Yanglong Hou
Fingerprint fluorescence imaging has become one of the most prominent technologies in the field of forensic medicine, but it seldom considers the security protection of detection information, which is of great importance in modern society. Here we demonstrate that ClO-/SCN- reversibly responsive luminescent Tb(III) carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) complex-binding aptamer hydrogels can be used to realize selective detection, protection, and storage of fingerprint information. The imaging information of the fingerprint can be quenched and recovered by using ClO-/SCN- regulation, respectively, resulting in reversible on/off conversion of the luminescent signals in the process of encryption and decryption of multiple information...
April 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
V Keerthi Narayan, V K Varsha, H C Girish, Sanjay Murgod
Introduction: Age has been considered as a reliable marker for establishing the identity of a person in the field of forensic medicine. Teeth are useful skeletal indicators of age at death since it can survive for decades. Nondestructive methods ensure the evident preservation of dental hard tissues that reflect age changes from the cradle to the grave. Therefore, an attempt was made for estimating the age using the nondestructive method. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study to assess whether physiological changes of the teeth allow possible correlation for accurate age estimation and to establish a graduation standard by microscopic observation for a better age correlation...
September 2017: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Nisha Singh, Shrinivas Chaudhari, Rohan Chaudhari, Sagar Nagare, Abhay Kulkarni, Pratik Parkarwar
Purpose: It is a well-known fact that nature tries to eliminate what is not in use. Because of this, the number of certain teeth which are no longer necessary for function are either getting increasingly impacted or are not developing at all. This is especially the case where third molars are concerned. Furthermore, the presence or absence of the third molar is significant to all branches of dentistry and in particular, forensic dentistry. Objectives: The objectives of this study is to assess (1) The prevalence of third molar agenesis in population of age group 18-25 years...
September 2017: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Ankita Singh, Gadiputi Sreedhar, Jiji George, Abhilasha Shukla, Vaibhav Vashishta, M P S Negi
Background: Gender is one of the main characteristics analyzed for positive human identification in forensic medicine. The methods involving physical anthropology present high rate of accuracy for human identification and gender estimation. Aim: This study aimed to determine gender through different craniofacial variables using physical anthropometric methods. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 individuals (50 males and 50 females) in Lucknow...
September 2017: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Andrea Franco Amoras Magalhães, Eloisa Dutra Caldas
Poisoning is a worldwide problem that involves individuals of all ages and a range of chemicals. In this study, fatal poisoning cases that occurred in the Federal District of Brazil (DF) from 2009 to 2013 were described using information from four systems, and the reasons for underreporting of each system were discussed. Data were obtained from the mortality information system (SIM), the notifiable disease information system (SINAN), the poison information center (CIT), and the forensic medicine institute (IML) of the DF...
April 4, 2018: Forensic Science International
Soraia M Antunes, Cristina Cordeiro, Helena M Teixeira
Tractors have been described as one of the deadliest farming implements concerning agricultural activity. In Portugal, the scientific investigations about this problem are practically non-existent, with only statistical studies performed by entities related to road traffic safety, not in accordance to the study now performed, pinpointing the possibility of an underreporting of these accidents. This work aims to characterize the fatal tractor accidents in Portugal, autopsied at the Forensic Pathology Department of the Centre Branch of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal, analysing several variables: gender, age, occupation, survival time, the victim position in the tractor, cause of death, toxicological and histological exams, year/month/day of the week, type of agricultural machine, existence of rollover protective structures (ROPS), type of accident, ground conditions, circumstantial information and geographic distribution of the accidents...
April 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Di Peng, Xiang Liu, Mengjun Huang, Dan Wang, Renlong Liu
Solid powder fluorescence shows great potential for application in medicine, biology, and engineering, especially in the identification of latent fingermarks in forensic science. However, conventional developing methods suffer from some drawbacks, such as low contrast, low sensitivity, low selectivity, and high toxicity. To conquer these challenges, novel SiO2@C-dot microspheres were prepared via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method by using citric acid as a carbon source and aminosilane as a nitrogen source...
April 12, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Luciana Domingues Conceição, Isadora Augusta da Silveira, Gustavo Giacomelli Nascimento, Rafael Guerra Lund, Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva, Fábio Renato Manzolli Leite
Aim: The etiology and epidemiology of maxillofacial injuries varies widely in different regions of the world due to socioeconomic status, cultural aspects in addition to road traffic and drug consumption. The aim of this study is to determine major causes and epidemiological characteristics of maxillofacial trauma in a 5-year period. Materials and methods: Reports of corporal trauma (n = 25,632) from 2007 to 2011 in the Department of Forensic Medicine were analyzed as to the presence of maxillofacial injuries...
June 2018: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
John L Young
Among the strengths of forensic psychiatry as a profession is its ability to support lively discussion of critical questions, such as how to characterize its own essence and whether it belongs to the practice of medicine. The American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law is fortunate that Michael Norko has taken the occasion of his presidential address to describe in depth the results of the advanced stage of his probing on a truly spiritual level the fundamental place of compassion in the practice of forensic psychiatry...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Michael A Norko
The search for truth is a foundational aim and value of forensic psychiatry. It is also a deeply spiritual exercise. It must, therefore, be possible to describe a spirituality of forensic psychiatry, which I attempt to begin in this article. This exploration opens with a discussion of spirituality and its contexts. I then examine the nature of vocation in its application to medicine, psychiatry and the law. This proceeds to a close evaluation of the attitudes and activities that I will argue occupy the groundwork of forensic practice and form pathways to truth: presence, empathy, compassion, and centering...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Mobin Inam Pal, Altaf Pervez Qasim, Mohammad Naeem, Humera Arshad, Ahmad Saeed
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of violent asphyxial deaths in Faisalabad over a span of a decade; and assessing the age and gender vulnerability. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Punjab Medical College, Faisalabad, from January 2007 to December 2016. METHODOLOGY: Cases identified as violent asphyxial deaths according to police inquests and findings of the medico-legal examiners were computed...
April 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Hiroki Tanaka, Katsuhiro Okuda, Seiji Ohtani, Masaru Asari, Kie Horioka, Shotaro Isozaki, Akira Hayakawa, Katsuhiro Ogawa, Shiono Hiroshi, Keiko Shimizu
Electrical injury is damage caused by an electrical current passing through the body. We have previously reported that irregular stripes crossing skeletal muscle fibers (python pattern) and multiple small nuclei arranged in the longitudinal direction of the muscle fibers (chained nuclear change) are uniquely observed by histopathological analysis in the skeletal muscle tissues of patients with electrical injury. However, it remains unclear whether these phenomena are caused by the electrical current itself or by the joule heat generated by the electric current passing through the body...
November 2, 2017: Legal Medicine
C Y Tu, K D Jin, C C Shao, B N Liu, Y Q Zhang, J H Xie, Y W Shen
Circular RNA (circRNA) is a type of noncoding RNA with tissue specificity and high stability, which forms a closed continuous loop and is abundantly expressed in tissue cells. According to recent research, the regulatory function of circRNA elucidating in the occurrence and development of disease shows a potential for diagnosing clinical disease and revealing disease mechanism. This paper reviews the biological characteristics, analysis methods of circRNA and its research progress in clinical application as biomarker, and outlooks its application in the field of forensic medicine...
February 2018: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
T H Hu, Z Huo, T A Liu, F Wang, L Wan, M W Wang, T Chen, Y H Wang
OBJECTIVES: To realize the automated bone age assessment by applying deep learning to digital radiography (DR) image recognition of left wrist joint in Uyghur teenagers, and explore its practical application value in forensic medicine bone age assessment. METHODS: The X-ray films of left wrist joint after pretreatment, which were taken from 245 male and 227 female Uyghur nationality teenagers in Uygur Autonomous Region aged from 13.0 to 19.0 years old, were chosen as subjects...
February 2018: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Markus Auf der Mauer, Dennis Säring, Ben Stanczus, Jochen Herrmann, Michael Groth, Eilin Jopp-van Well
Age estimation is an actual topic in the area of forensic medicine with a special focus on the age limits of 16 and 18 years. Current research on this topic relies on retrospective data of inhomogeneous populations relating to sex, age range, and socioeconomic status. In this work, we present a 2-year follow-up study for the evaluation of an age estimation method on a prospective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) knee data collective of a homogeneous population. The study includes 40 male subjects from northern Germany aged 14 to 21 years...
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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