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Ashleigh A McGirr, Kevin L Schwartz, Upton Allen, Melinda Solomon, Beate Sander
Background Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at higher risk of severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, which can lead to a decline in lung function. A monoclonal antibody, palivizumab (PMB), effectively prevents RSV hospitalizations; however, the high cost of PMB, approximately C$10,000 per patient per RSV season, limits its widespread use. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PMB prophylaxis in CF children less than 2 years of age from the Canadian healthcare payer's perspective. Methods In 2014, a Markov cohort model of CF disease and infant RSV infections in the Canadian setting was developed based on literature data...
October 21, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Abby Li, Daniel Y Wang, Krista L Lanctôt, Ian Mitchell, Bosco A Paes
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization (RSVH) rates in children less than <2 years of age with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease (HSCHD) are 2-4 fold higher compared with healthy term infants. Pediatric recommendations differ as to whether palivizumab is beneficial beyond 1 year of age. The objective was to determine whether differences exist in respiratory-related illness hospitalization (RIH) and RSVH in HSCHD infants receiving palivizumab during the first year versus second year of life in the Canadian Registry of Palivizumab (CARESS)...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ah Young Kim, Se Yong Jung, Jae Young Choi, Gi Beom Kim, Young-Hwue Kim, Woo Sup Shim, I-Seok Kang, Jo Won Jung
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of current data on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis with palivizumab, in Korean children with congenital heart diseases (CHD). In 2009, the Korean guideline for RSV prophylaxis had established up to five shots monthly per RSV season, only for children <1 year of age with hemodynamic significance CHD (HS-CHD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: During the RSV seasons in 2009-2015, we performed a retrospective review of data for 466 infants with CHD, examined at six centers in Korea...
September 2016: Korean Circulation Journal
Jeremy A Franklin, Evan J Anderson, Xionghua Wu, Christopher S Ambrose, Eric A F Simões
Background.  Database studies have identified that public health insurance status is associated with an increased risk of severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease in US infants. However, these studies did not adjust for the presence of other risk factors and did not evaluate the risk in preterm infants. Methods.  In this study, we evaluate the independent association between public insurance and severe RSV disease outcomes adjusting for other risk factors. The prospective, observational RSV Respiratory Events among Preterm Infants Outcomes and Risk Tracking (REPORT) study was conducted over 2 consecutive RSV seasons at 188 US clinical sites that enrolled preterm infants born at 32-35 wGA who had not received RSV immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Asuncion Mejias, Cristina Garcia-Maurino, Rosa Rodriguez-Fernandez, Mark E Peeples, Octavio Ramilo
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children, immunocompromised patients and the elderly. Despite the high disease burden, an effective and safe vaccine is lacking, although several candidates are currently in development. Current treatment for RSV infection remains largely supportive and RSV-specific options for prophylaxis are limited to palivizumab. In the past few years, novel therapeutic options including nanobodies, polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have emerged and there are several products in preclinical and Phase-I, -II or -III clinical trials...
September 27, 2016: Vaccine
Ann Haerskjold, Marie Linder, Lonny Henriksen, Simon Francis Thomsen, Helle Kieler, Henrik Ravn, Lone Graff Stensballe
BACKGROUND: Treatment with biologic pharmaceuticals may be associated with an increased risk of immune-mediated disease. Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed to provide passive immunity against respiratory syncytial virus infection. Palivizumab is primarily used in preterm children known to be immunologically immature. The long-term effect of palivizumab in terms of autoimmune diseases has not yet been investigated. AIM: Our objective was to investigate whether exposure to palivizumab was associated with the development of autoimmune diseases in children...
September 24, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Paolo Manzoni, Bosco Paes, Krista L Lanctôt, Alberto DallʼAgnola, Ian Mitchell, Sara Calabrese, Milena Maule, Elisa Girardi, Tetsuhiro Harimoto, Abby Li
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection frequently results in RSV-related hospitalization (RSVH) in young infants. We examined the outcomes of palivizumab recipients within the Canadian Registry (CARESS) and the Torino-Verona Italian Registry over the 2002-2014 RSV seasons. METHODS: RSVHs were captured during the study seasons. Premature infants who received palivizumab (≤35 completed weeks gestational age (wGA); Group1) were compared with infants given palivizumab for underlying disorders regardless of gestational age (Group2)...
September 19, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Maria Serenella Pignotti, Maria Carmela Leo, Alessandra Pugi, Salvatore De Masi, Klaus Peter Biermann, Luisa Galli, Giovanni Vitali Rosati, Giuseppe Buonocore, Alessandro Mugelli, Carlo Dani, Ersilia Lucenteforte, Francesca Bellini, Giampaolo Donzelli
Respiratory syncytial virus infection represents a clinical burden among young children under 24 months. Palivizumab is the only drug licensed in Italy for the prevention of serious lower respiratory tract disease requiring hospitalization caused by respiratory syncytial virus in children at high risk. However recommendations for palivizumab prophylaxis are heterogeneous. Not all the published documents agree about the clinical indications of palivizumab; this could lead to different clinical practices and concerns about the appropriateness of prophylaxis...
October 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Eduardo Narbona-Lopez, Jose Uberos, Ana Checa-Ros, Rocio Rodriguez-Belmonte, Antonio Muñoz-Hoyos
BACKGROUND: The use of Palivizumab has been recommended to prevent Syncytial Respiratory Virus infection in vulnerable children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of hospital admissions for bronchiolitis from 2000 to 2012 in the context of a prevention study with Palivizumab in at-risk newborns. RESULTS: A total of 952 children (59.5% males) were admitted due to bronchiolitis. Admissions occurred in younger children in the SRV+ cases compared to the SRV- cases (p < 0...
September 6, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Giacomo Pongiglione, Alessandro Possidoni, Umberto di Luzio Paparatti, Anna Maria Costanzo, Giuliana Gualberti, Marco Bonvicini, Alessandro Rimini, Gabriella Agnoletti, Maria Pia Calabrò, Marco Pozzi, Roberto Tumbarello, Patrizia Salice, Patrizio Fiorini, Maria Giovanna Russo, Ornella Milanesi
Children affected by hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease (HSCHD) experience severe respiratory complications that can increase the frequency of hospitalizations. The aim of the SINERGY study was to describe the incidence of respiratory diseases and to collect information on active and passive immunoprophylaxis in the first 2 years of life. In this retrospective, multicenter, and epidemiologic study, children with HSCHD were enrolled across 11 Italian sites. Children born between December 31, 2007, and December 31, 2012, were observed during their first 2 years of life...
August 29, 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
Pierre-Louis Hervé, Charlotte Deloizy, Delphyne Descamps, Marie-Anne Rameix-Welti, Jenna Fix, Jason S McLellan, Jean-François Eléouët, Sabine Riffault
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute respiratory infections in children, yet no vaccine is available. The sole licensed preventive treatment against RSV is composed of a monoclonal neutralizing antibody (palivizumab), which targets a conformational epitope located on the fusion protein (F). Palivizumab reduces the burden of bronchiolitis but does not prevent infection. Thus, the development of RSV vaccines remains a priority. We previously evaluated nanorings formed by RSV nucleoprotein (N) as an RSV vaccine, as well as an immunostimulatory carrier for heterologous antigens...
August 20, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Karen Whitfield, Claudia Barkeij, Angela North
AIM: To present a case of an extremely premature infant and the role that the specialist neonatal pharmacist has on the quality of care of these patients. METHOD: Interventions and recommendations made by the pharmacists over the admission of a triplet born at 23 weeks and 5 days gestation were recorded. The type of interventions were categorised and classified for risk using a consequence/probability matrix.1 RESULTS: The patient required admission to the intensive care unit and subsequently the special care unit for a period of 163 days before discharge home...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Amy G Feldman, Allison Kempe, Brenda L Beaty, Shikha S Sundaram
Vaccination of pediatric liver transplant candidates and recipients represents an opportunity to decrease infectious complications following transplant. Although vaccine recommendations exist, studies have shown that many transplant candidates and recipients are under-immunized. The goals of this study were to assess among pediatric transplant hepatologists: (i) current immunization practices before and after transplantation, (ii) involvement of an ID physician in the transplant evaluation, and (iii) perceptions about vaccine safety and barriers to immunization...
July 22, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Karen A Robinson, Olaide A Odelola, Ian J Saldanha
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus infection causes acute lung infection in infants and young children worldwide, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Children with cystic fibrosis are prone to recurrent lung inflammation, bacterial colonisation and subsequent chronic airway disease, putting them at risk for severe respiratory syncytial virus infections requiring intensive care and respiratory support. No treatment currently exists, hence prevention is important. Palivizumab is effective in reducing respiratory syncytial virus hospitalisation rates and is recommended for prophylaxis in high-risk children with other conditions...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Carrie L Byington, Flor M Munoz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Pediatrics
Harold J Farber, Frederick J Buckwold, Barry Lachman, J Scott Simpson, Ernest Buck, Matha Arun, Adolfo M Valadez, Teresa Ruiz, Joy Alonzo, Andrea Henry, Nneka Cos-Okpalla, Kelsey Nguyen, William Brendel, James Small, William Brendle Glomb
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common reason for hospitalization of infants. In clinical trials, palivizumab reduced RSV hospitalization rates for premature infants. The 2014 American Academy of Pediatrics clinical practice guideline advised against use of palivizumab for otherwise healthy infants ≥29 weeks' gestation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of palivizumab administration on hospitalization rates for RSV and bronchiolitis without RSV diagnosis among infants 29 to 36 weeks' gestation who do not have chronic illness...
August 2016: Pediatrics
Ashley Teusink-Cross, Stella M Davies, Lara Danziger-Isakov, Javier El-Bietar, Michael S Grimley
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of infection in immunocompromised patients and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients and patients with a primary immune deficiency (PID). Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the F glycoprotein on the surface of the RSV virus, preventing RSV replication. Palivizumab was initially licensed for the prevention of RSV infections in children at high risk of severe disease...
October 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Charles Hui, Bosco Paes, Jesse Papenburg, Ian Mitchell, Abby Li, Krista L Lanctôt
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal infants are at risk for serious respiratory infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the hazard rate (HR) for respiratory-related illness (RIH) and RSV-specific infection (RSVH) hospitalization in Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal children receiving palivizumab and the effect of adherence on hospitalization. METHODS: Palivizumab recipients in the Canadian registry from 2005-2014 were included. Adherence was determined by the number of palivizumab doses received during the RSV season and inter-dose time interval...
June 21, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Richard L Wasserman, William Lumry, James Harris, Robyn Levy, Mark Stein, Lisa Forbes, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles, Isaac Melamed, Ai Lan Kobayashi, Wei Du, Roger Kobayashi
PURPOSE: Immune globulins for IgG supplementation have been produced for over 35 years with essentially no differentiating features regarding their specific antibody composition. Furthermore, the compositions of plasma donor pools used for IG manufacturing are not standardized. While all immune globulin products meet the specifications set by the US FDA for antibodies to pathogens like measles and polio, they have variable levels of antibodies to other important viruses and infectious pathogens, particularly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
H J Zar, S A Madhi, D A White, R Masekela, S Risenga, H Lewis, C Feldman, B Morrow, P Jeena
Management of acute viral bronchiolitis is largely supportive. There is currently no proven effective therapy other than oxygen for hypoxic children. The evidence indicates that there is no routine benefit from inhaled, rapid short-acting bronchodilators, adrenaline or ipratropium bromide for children with acute viral bronchiolitis. Likewise, there is no demonstrated benefit from routine use of inhaled or oral corticosteroids, inhaled hypertonic saline nebulisation, montelukast or antibiotics. The last should be reserved for children with severe disease, when bacterial co-infection is suspected...
April 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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