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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539438/discovery-of-a-prefusion-rsv-f-specific-monoclonal-antibody-that-provides-greater-in-vivo-protection-than-the-murine-precursor-of-palivizumab
#1
Min Zhao, Zi-Zheng Zheng, Man Chen, Kayvon Modjarrad, Wei Zhang, Lu-Ting Zhan, Jian-Li Cao, Yong-Peng Sun, Jason S McLellan, Barney S Graham, Ning-Shao Xia
Palivizumab, a humanized murine monoclonal antibody that recognizes antigenic site II on both the prefusion (pre-F) and postfusion (post-F) conformations of the RSV F glycoprotein, is the only prophylactic agent approved for RSV. However, its relatively low neutralizing potency and high cost has limited its use to a restricted population of infants at high risk of severe disease. Previously, we isolated a high potency neutralizing antibody, 5C4, that specifically recognizes antigenic site Ø at the apex of the pre-F trimer...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525961/passive-and-active-immunization-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-for-the-young-and-old
#2
Tonya Villafana, Judith Falloon, M Pamela Griffin, Qing Zhu, Mark T Esser
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants worldwide and also causes significant disease in the elderly. Despite 60 years of RSV research and vaccine development, there is only one approved medicine to prevent RSV infections. Palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the RSV fusion (F) protein, is indicated for preterm infants and children at high-risk for RSV infections. It is an active time in RSV vaccine and mAb development with 14 vaccines and 2 mAbs currently being tested in clinical trials as of 13 February 2017...
May 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508992/palivizumab-prophylaxis-in-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis-does-not-delay-first-isolation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-or-staphylococcus-aureus
#3
Clélia Buchs, Marie-Laure Dalphin, Stéphane Sanchez, Marie Perceval, Laurianne Coutier, Catherine Mainguy, Behrouz Kassaï-Koupaï, Philippe Reix
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections may worsen cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease and favor Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) or Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) acquisition, which is of particular importance in the youngest patients. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of PVZ on microbiological outcomes in young children with CF. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to compare these outcomes in children who systematically received PVZ (PVZ+; n = 40) or not (PVZ-; n = 140). One case was matched with at least three same-gender controls born the same year and month...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500974/ongoing-developments-in-rsv-prophylaxis-a-clinician-s-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Fariba Rezaee, Debra T Linfield, Terri J Harford, Giovanni Piedimonte
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common respiratory pathogen in infants and young children worldwide. Lower respiratory tract infection due to RSV is one of the most common causes of hospitalization for infants, especially those born premature or with chronic lung or heart disease. Furthermore, RSV infection is an important cause of morbidity in adults, particularly in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The acute phase of this infection is often followed by episodes of wheezing that recur for months or years and usually lead to a physician diagnosis of asthma...
May 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469033/a-highly-potent-extended-half-life-antibody-as-a-potential-rsv-vaccine-surrogate-for-all-infants
#5
Qing Zhu, Jason S McLellan, Nicole L Kallewaard, Nancy D Ulbrandt, Susan Palaszynski, Jing Zhang, Brian Moldt, Anis Khan, Catherine Svabek, Josephine M McAuliffe, Daniel Wrapp, Nita K Patel, Kimberly E Cook, Bettina W M Richter, Patricia C Ryan, Andy Q Yuan, JoAnn A Suzich
Prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) illness in all infants is a major public health priority. However, no vaccine is currently available to protect this vulnerable population. Palivizumab, the only approved agent for RSV prophylaxis, is limited to high-risk infants, and the cost associated with the requirement for dosing throughout the RSV season makes its use impractical for all infants. We describe the development of a monoclonal antibody as potential RSV prophylaxis for all infants with a single intramuscular dose...
May 3, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467807/the-antigen-binding-fragment-of-human-gamma-immunoglobulin-prevents-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-folding-into-%C3%AE-sheet-to-form-oligomers
#6
Victòria Valls-Comamala, Biuse Guivernau, Jaume Bonet, Marta Puig, Alex Perálvarez-Marín, Ernest Palomer, Xavier Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier Altafaj, Marta Tajes, Albert Puig-Pijoan, Rubén Vicente, Baldomero Oliva, Francisco J Muñoz
The amyloid beta-peptide (Aβ) plays a leading role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) physiopathology. Even though monomeric forms of Aβ are harmless to cells, Aβ can aggregate into β-sheet oligomers and fibrils, which are both neurotoxic. Therefore, one of the main therapeutic approaches to cure or delay AD onset and progression is targeting Aβ aggregation. In the present study, we show that a pool of human gamma immunoglobulins (IgG) protected cortical neurons from the challenge with Aβ oligomers, as assayed by MTT reduction, caspase-3 activation and cytoskeleton integrity...
April 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444095/judicial-demand-of-medications-through-the-federal-justice-of-the-state-of-paran%C3%A3
#7
Renato Mitsunori Nisihara, Ana Carolina Possebom, Luiza de Martino Cruvinel Borges, Ana Claudia Athanasio Shwetz, Fernanda Francis Benevides Bettes
Objective: To describe the profile of lawsuits related to drug requests filled at the Federal Justice of the State of Paraná. Methods: A cross-sectional study, and the data were obtained through consulting the lawsuits at the online system of the Federal Justice of Paraná. Results: Out of 347 lawsuits included in the study, 55% of plaintiffs were women, with a median age of 56 years. Oncology was the field with more requests (23.6%), and the highest mean costs...
January 2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443266/cost-effectiveness-of-palivizumab-compared-to-no-prophylaxis-in-term-infants-residing-in-the-canadian-arctic
#8
Anna Banerji, Kaspar Ng, Theo J Moraes, Vladimir Panzov, Joan Robinson, Bonita E Lee
BACKGROUND: Hospital admissions for respiratory syncytial virus infection result in large health expenditures for Inuit infants. Palivizumab has been shown to be highly effective in reducing such admissions in preterm Inuit infants. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis estimating the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for palivizumab prophylaxis per admission related to respiratory syncytial virus avoided in healthy term infants across the Canadian Arctic. METHODS: We compared universal palivizumab prophylaxis in term infants less than 6 months of age to no prophylaxis in 8 Arctic regions: the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Nunavut without Iqaluit, the 3 subregions of Nunavut (Kitikmeot, Kivalliq and Qikiqtaaluk), the Qikiqtaaluk Region without Iqaluit, and Nunavik (northern Quebec)...
October 2016: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437470/respiratory-syncytial-virus-neutralizing-serum-antibody-titers-in-infants-following-palivizumab-prophylaxis-with-an-abbreviated-dosing-regimen
#9
Jennifer Claydon, Amitava Sur, Allison Callejas, Mihoko Ladd, Eddie Kwan, Richard Taylor, Stuart E Turvey, Alfonso Solimano, Pascal M Lavoie, Nico Marr
BACKGROUND: Monthly injections of palivizumab during the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) season in at-risk infants reduces RSV-associated hospitalizations. However, the additive effect of naturally acquired immunity remains unclear. The objective of this study was to assess total neutralizing serum antibodies (NAb) against RSV in at-risk infants who had received an abbreviated course of palivizumab prophylaxis. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from infants enrolled in the RSV Immunoprophylaxis Program in British Columbia, Canada over 2 consecutive RSV seasons (2013 to 2015)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437435/infective-respiratory-syncytial-virus-is-present-in-human-cord-blood-samples-and-most-prevalent-during-winter-months
#10
Angela Mary Fonceca, Abha Chopra, Avram Levy, Paul Stanton Noakes, Matthew Wee-Peng Poh, Natasha Leanne Bear, Susan Prescott, Mark Lloyd Everard
BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease amongst infants, and continues to cause annual epidemics of respiratory disease every winter worldwide. Demonstrating placental transmission of viable RSV in human samples is a major paradigm shift in respiratory routes considered likely for RSV transmission. METHODS: Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used to identify RSV present in cord blood mononucleocytes (CBM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425254/wheezing-asthma-and-atopy-in-premature-infants-at-2-years-of-age
#11
Sevim Ünal, Ayşenur Kaya, Leyla Bilgin, Emine Misirlioğlu, Can Naci Kocabaş
BACKGROUND/AIM: We aimed to evaluate wheezing, bronchial asthma (BA), and atopy in premature infants at 2 years of age via a cross-sectional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Premature infants at <37 weeks of gestational age (GA) were assessed for atopy by skin-prick test and serum immunoglobulin E level at 2 years of age. The family's and infant's histories of allergy, BA, atopy, and wheezing were obtained by questionnaire and from hospital records. RESULTS: There were 98 infants, with mean birth weight (BW) 1517...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423192/systematic-review-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-palivizumab-among-infants-and-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#12
Kok Pim Kua, Shaun Wen Huey Lee
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF). The use of palivizumab prophylaxis for RSV infection as the standard of care for infants with CF remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of palivizumab in reducing the incidence of RSV hospitalization in children with CF who are younger than 2 years of age. METHODS: Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL) were searched from inception until January 31, 2017 for clinical studies investigating the use of palivizumab in infants with CF aged less than 2 years...
April 19, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414106/molecular-evolution-of-the-fusion-protein-f-gene-in-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-subgroup-b
#13
Hirokazu Kimura, Koo Nagasawa, Ryusuke Kimura, Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi, Yuki Matsushima, Kiyotaka Fujita, Eiko Hirano, Naruhiko Ishiwada, Takako Misaki, Kazunori Oishi, Makoto Kuroda, Akihide Ryo
In this study, we examined the molecular evolution of the fusion protein (F) gene in human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup B (HRSV-B). First, we performed time-scale evolution analyses using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. Next, we performed genetic distance, linear B-cell epitope prediction, N-glycosylation, positive/negative selection site, and Bayesian skyline plot analyses. We also constructed a structural model of the F protein and mapped the amino acid substitutions and the predicted B-cell epitopes...
April 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413427/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein-rsv-f-nanoparticle-vaccine-in-older-adults
#14
Louis Fries, Vivek Shinde, Jeffrey J Stoddard, D Nigel Thomas, Eloi Kpamegan, Hanxin Lu, Gale Smith, Somia P Hickman, Pedro Piedra, Gregory M Glenn
BACKGROUND: A preventative strategy for Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection constitutes an under-recognized unmet medical need among older adults. Four formulations of a novel recombinant RSV F nanoparticle vaccine (60 or 90 μg RSV F protein, with or without aluminum phosphate adjuvant) administered concurrently with a licensed inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in older adult subjects were evaluated for safety and immunogenicity in this randomized, observer-blinded study...
2017: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403044/comparing-first-and-second-year-palivizumab-prophylaxis-in-patients-with-hemodynamically-significant-congenital-heart-disease-in-the-caress-database-2005-2015
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Abby Li, Daniel Y Wang, Krista L Lanctôt, Ian Mitchell, Bosco A Paes
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization (RSVH) rates in children <2 years of age with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease (HSCHD) are 2- to 4-fold higher compared with healthy term infants. Pediatric recommendations differ as to whether palivizumab is beneficial beyond 1 year of age. The objective of this study was to determine whether differences exist in respiratory-related illness hospitalization (RIH) and RSVH in HSCHD infants receiving palivizumab during the first year versus second year of life in the Canadian Registry of Palivizumab...
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391538/efficacy-of-palivizumab-prophylaxis-on-the-frequency-of-rsv-associated-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-preterm-infants-determination-of-the-ideal-target-population-for-prophylaxis
#16
M Cetinkaya, T K Oral, S Karatekin, B Cebeci, A Babayigit, Y Yesil
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis in high-risk infants is an effective intervention for the prevention of severe disease. The aim of this study was to determine the ideal target preterm population that might benefit from palivizumab prophylaxis by establishing the main risk factors for acute RSV-related infections. Former premature infants born with a gestational age ≤37 weeks and ≤1 year of age at the beginning of the RSV season and admitted with respiratory infection were included. RSV status was evaluated by RSV strip test in all infants...
April 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381595/rsv-hospitalizations-in-comparison-with-regional-rsv-activity-and-inpatient-palivizumab-administration-2010-2013
#17
Alexander F Glick, Stephanie Kjelleren, Annika M Hofstetter, Anupama Subramony
OBJECTIVES: To compare pediatric respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalizations in the United States to regional RSV activity and inpatient palivizumab administration. METHODS: We characterized inpatients, excluding newborns, with RSV from the Pediatric Health Information System (July 2010-June 2013). RSV regional activity timing was defined by the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System. RSV hospitalization season (defined by at least 3 SDs more than the mean regional baseline number of RSV hospitalizations for 3 consecutive weeks) was compared with RSV regional activity season (2 consecutive weeks with ≥10% RSV-positive testing)...
April 5, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348428/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-rates-with-limited-use-of-palivizumab-for-infants-born-at-29-to-31-6-7-weeks-gestational-age
#18
Brandi Newby, Todd Sorokan
BACKGROUND: Immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab can reduce respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections and hospitalizations. Criteria in British Columbia limit the use of palivizumab to infants born at 29 to 31+6/7 weeks gestational age, which differ from guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the limited use of palivizumab affected the frequency of hospital visits by RSV-positive infants (termed "RSV-positive hospital visits") who received approval for palivizumab and those who met the AAP/CPS criteria but did not receive approval for palivizumab...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324595/recent-advances-in-developing-antiviral-therapies-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#19
REVIEW
Brian C Shook, Kai Lin
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection presents a significant health challenge in small children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. There is still a high unmet medical need among patients with RSV infection, and no specific antiviral therapy is available. The only approved agents are palivizumab, which has to be given prophylactically, mainly in high-risk infants, and ribavirin, which is rarely used due to toxicity concerns and questionable benefits. Efforts to develop new antiviral agents have been hampered by the perceived need for high safety hurdles in pediatric patient populations use and the lack of well-characterized druggable targets...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303835/trends-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-sub-types-in-children-hospitalised-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-jaipur-during-2012-2014
#20
M Anjaneya Swamy, Bharti Malhotra, P V Janardhan Reddy, Jitendra Kumar Tiwari, Neeraj Kumar, Manohar Lal Gupta
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes high mortality and morbidity in infants. The study was planned to determine the trends of RSV sub-types in hospitalised children. Nasopharyngeal aspirate and throat swabs were collected from the hospitalised children up to 5 years of age. Viral nucleic acid was extracted using easyMAG automated extraction system, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed. Total positivity for RSV was found to be 25.40%, predominantly for RSV B (20.03%), followed by RSV A (2...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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