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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768937/cotton-rat-model-for-testing-vaccines-and-antivirals-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#1
M S Boukhvalova, K C Yim, Jcg Blanco
Respiratory syncytial virus is the leading cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants and is a serious health risk for elderly and immunocompromised individuals. No vaccine has yet been approved to prevent respiratory syncytial virus infection and the only available treatment is immunoprophylaxis of severe respiratory syncytial virus disease in high-risk infants with Palivizumab (Synagis® ). The development of respiratory syncytial virus vaccine has been hampered by the phenomenon of enhanced respiratory syncytial virus disease observed during trials of a formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus in 1960s...
January 2018: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750895/predictors-and-incidence-of-hospitalization-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-associated-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-lrti-in-non-prophylaxed-moderate-to-late-preterm-infants-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#2
Hajrija Maksić, Suada Heljić, Fahrija Skokić, Darinka Šumanović-Glamuzina, Veroslava Milošević, Almir Zlatanović, Notario Gerard
Prematurity is a risk factor for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), due to immature humoral and cell-mediated immune system in preterm newborns, as well as their incomplete lung development. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the F glycoprotein of RSV, is licensed for the prevention of severe RSV LRTI in children at high risk for the disease. This study is a part of a larger observational, retrospective-prospective epidemiological study (PONI) conducted at 72 sites across 23 countries in the northern temperate zone...
April 27, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743373/five-residues-in-the-apical-loop-of-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein-f-2-subunit-are-critical-for-its-fusion-activity
#3
Stephanie N Hicks, Supranee Chaiwatpongsakorn, Heather M Costello, Jason S McLellan, William Ray, Mark E Peeples
The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein is a trimeric, membrane-anchored glycoprotein capable of mediating both viral-target cell membrane fusion to initiate infection and cell-cell fusion, even in the absence of the attachment glycoprotein. The F protein is initially expressed in a precursor form, whose functional capabilities are activated by proteolysis at two sites between the F1 and F2 subunits. This cleavage results in expression of the metastable and high-energy prefusion conformation...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728782/respiratory-syncytial-virus-prophylaxis-in-cystic-fibrosis-the-canadian-registry-of-palivizumab-data-2005-2016
#4
Ian Mitchell, S K Wong, B Paes, M Ruff, C Bjornson, A Li, K L Lanctôt
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) may cause severe illness in cystic fibrosis (CF) children, but recommendations vary on prophylaxis. CARESS is a prospective registry of children who received palivizumab in 32 Canadian sites from 2005 to 2016. Demographic data were collected at enrollment and respiratory illness-related events recorded monthly. We reviewed respiratory illness hospitalization (RIH) and RSV hospitalization (RSVH) in CF children aged < 24 months versus those prophylaxed for standard indications (SI; prematurity, chronic lung disease [CLD] and congenital heart disease [CHD]), and complex medical disorders (CM)...
May 4, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692622/identifying-agents-triggering-bronchiolitis-in-the-state-of-qatar
#5
Mohamed A Hendaus, Ahmed H Alhammadi, Prem Chandra, Eshan Muneer, Mohamed S Khalifa
Background: Bronchiolitis is considered as the most frequent lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. This disorder is marked by acute inflammation, edema, damage of epithelial cells lining small airways, and augmentation of mucus production. Objective: The goal of the study was to identify agents triggering bronchiolitis in the State of Qatar. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was performed at Hamad Medical Corporation, the only tertiary and academic medical center in the State of Qatar...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678551/anti-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-g-monoclonal-antibodies-reduce-lung-inflammation-and-viral-lung-titers-when-delivered-therapeutically-in-a-balb-c-mouse-model
#6
Hayat Caidi, Congrong Miao, Natalie J Thornburg, Ralph A Tripp, Larry J Anderson, Lia M Haynes
RSV continues to be a high priority for vaccine and antiviral drug development. Unfortunately, no safe and effective RSV vaccine is available and treatment options are limited. Over the past decade, several studies have focused on the role of RSV G protein on viral entry, viral neutralization, and RSV-mediated pathology. Anti-G murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) 131-2G treatment has been previously shown to reduce weight loss, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell number, airway reactivity, and Th2-type cytokine production in RSV-infected mice more rapidly than a commercial humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) against RSV F protein (Palivizumab)...
April 17, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660756/use-of-palivizumab-in-germany-report-from-the-german-synagis%C3%A2-registry-2009-2016
#7
Arne Simon, Susanne Gehrmann, Gudrun Wagenpfeil, Stefan Wagenpfeil
BACKGROUND: Following national recommendations, palivizumab is administered in Germany to high-risk infants to prevent hospitalizations related to Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection. METHODS: In this post marketing observational study (German SYNAGIS™ Registry) data on risk factors and the clinical course of children, who received at least one palivizumab injection between 2009-2016 (01 September to June 30) were entered into an internet-based data entry system by the attending physicians after informed consent...
April 16, 2018: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651734/palivizumab-use-in-infants-with-down-syndrome-report-from-the-german-synagis%C3%A2-registry-2009-2016
#8
Arne Simon, Susanne Gehrmann, Gudrun Wagenpfeil, Stefan Wagenpfeil
Infants with Down syndrome (DS) face an increased risk of respiratory tract infections. Recent studies describe DS as independent risk factor for a complicated clinical course in infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. The prospective observational German Synagis™ Registry comprises data from 249 children below 25 months of age with DS and palivizumab prophylaxis 2009-2016 (1191 administrations; mean 4.8 per patient and season). The median gestational age and the birth weight in patients without and with DS were 31 versus 37 weeks (P < 0...
June 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573141/a-multicenter-investigation-of-respiratory-syncytial-viral-infection-in-children-with-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#9
Courtney M Rowan, Shira J Gertz, Matt S Zinter, Jerelyn Moffet, Rajinder Ps Bajwa, Jessie L Barnum, Michele Kong
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) may be a risk factor for morbidity and mortality from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Previous studies have been limited by small sample size. We took a multicenter approach with the goal of better understanding the epidemiology, risk factors, treatment, morbidity and mortality associated with RSV infections among children with HCT in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective, multicenter, cohort study of pediatric HCT recipients diagnosed with RSV infection between January 2010 and December 2014...
March 23, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570593/initial-palivizumab-dose-administration-in-outpatient-clinic-after-hospital-discharge
#10
Winifred Stockton, Yanjun Chen, Allison Jun, Tina Lee, Michelle Chilvers Murphy, Grace Magedman
BACKGROUND: Palivizumab provides passive immunity for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), but poor adherence compromises protection. A hospital initiative promoted administration of first palivizumab doses at an outpatient clinic immediately after discharge. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of the initiative on location and timing of first palivizumab dose, patient adherence, reimbursement, acquisition cost, and RSV-positive hospital readmissions. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included pediatric patients who received palivizumab from 2012 to 2016...
March 21, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557081/palivizumab-prophylaxis-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis-is-there-a-need
#11
Candice Bjornson, Parco Chan, Abby Li, Bosco Paes, Krista L Lanctôt, Ian Mitchell
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) infants is associated with significant morbidities. This study's objective is to evaluate the effectiveness and adverse events related to palivizumab (PVZ) in CF infants. Data on respiratory-related illness (RIH) and RSV hospitalizations (RSVH) were collected retrospectively in CF infants aged < 2 years in Alberta, Canada, from 2000 to 2017. Logistic regression models were used to compare the odds of RSVH or RIH in PVZ infants from the Canadian registry of palivizumab (CARESS) versus untreated (UPVZ) infants from Alberta, after adjusting for potential confounders...
March 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553863/reformatting-palivizumab-and-motavizumab-from-igg-to-human-iga-impairs-their-efficacy-against-rsv-infection-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Shamir R Jacobino, Maaike Nederend, J Frederiek Reijneveld, Daan Augustijn, J H Marco Jansen, Jan Meeldijk, Karli R Reiding, Manfred Wuhrer, Frank E J Coenjaerts, C Erik Hack, Louis J Bont, Jeanette H W Leusen
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality in young children. Protective therapy options are limited. Currently, palivizumab, a monoclonal IgG1 antibody, is the only licensed drug for RSV prophylaxis, although other IgG antibody candidates are being evaluated. However, at the respiratory mucosa, IgA antibodies are most abundant and act as the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Therefore, it would be logical to explore the potential of recombinant human IgA antibodies to protect against viral respiratory infection, but very little research on the topic has been published...
March 19, 2018: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551617/the-effect-of-palivizumab-prophylaxis-on-respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-hospitalizations-in-infants-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#13
EDITORIAL
Pei-Lan Shao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516023/palivizumab-prophylaxis-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-examining-the-evidence-around-value
#14
REVIEW
Natalia Olchanski, Ryan N Hansen, Elle Pope, Brittany D'Cruz, Jaime Fergie, Mitchell Goldstein, Leonard R Krilov, Kimmie K McLaurin, Barbara Nabrit-Stephens, Gerald Oster, Kenneth Schaecher, Fadia T Shaya, Peter J Neumann, Sean D Sullivan
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection and the leading cause of hospitalization among young children, incurring high annual costs among US children under the age of 5 years. Palivizumab has been found to be effective in reducing hospitalization and preventing serious lower respiratory tract infections in high-risk infants. This paper presents a systematic review of the cost-effectiveness studies of palivizumab and describes the main highlights of a round table discussion with clinical, payer, economic, research method, and other experts...
March 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500030/respiratory-syncytial-virus-prevention-and-asthma-in-healthy-preterm-infants-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Nienke M Scheltema, Elisabeth E Nibbelke, Juliëtte Pouw, Maarten O Blanken, Maroeska M Rovers, Christiana A Naaktgeboren, Natalie I Mazur, Joanne G Wildenbeest, Cornelis K van der Ent, Louis J Bont
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is associated with subsequent wheeze and asthma. We previously reported on the causal relationship between prevention of RSV infection during infancy and reduced frequency of subsequent wheeze using a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial (MAKI). We continued follow-up and analysed the effect of RSV prevention during infancy on asthma and lung function at age 6 years. METHODS: We studied 429 infants born at 32-35 weeks of gestation between 2008-10 who had randomly received either palivizumab for RSV immunoprophylaxis or placebo during the RSV season of their first year of life...
April 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470837/past-present-and-future-approaches-to-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-children
#16
REVIEW
Eric A F Simões, Louis Bont, Paolo Manzoni, Brigitte Fauroux, Bosco Paes, Josep Figueras-Aloy, Paul A Checchia, Xavier Carbonell-Estrany
INTRODUCTION: The REGAL (RSV Evidence - A Geographical Archive of the Literature) series has provided a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Western countries over the last 20 years. This seventh and final publication covers the past, present and future approaches to the prevention and treatment of RSV infection among infants and children. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken of publications between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2017 across PubMed, Embase and The Cochrane Library...
March 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464672/assessing-variation-in-the-cost-of-palivizumab-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-prevention-in-preterm-infants
#17
Ahva Shahabi, Desi Peneva, Devin Incerti, Kimmie McLaurin, Warren Stevens
BACKGROUND: The variability in cost of palivizumab treatment, indicated for prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in high-risk infants, has not been robustly estimated in prior studies. This study aimed to determine the cost variations of palivizumab from a US payer perspective for otherwise healthy preterm infants born 29-35 weeks gestational age (wGA) using infant characteristics and applied dosing regimens. METHODS: Fenton Growth Charts were merged with World Health Organization Child Growth Standards to estimate preterm infant growth patterns...
March 2018: PharmacoEconomics Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463335/safety-of-palivizumab-stewardship-in-conjunction-with-infection-prevention-and-control-strategies-for-healthcare-associated-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infections
#18
Rupal M Patel, Larry K Kociolek, Emily Merrick, Caroline Reuter, Kenny Kronforst, Xiaotian Zheng, Sameer J Patel
Transitioning from administration of monthly palivizumab to a single dose at discharge was associated with substantial pharmacy cost savings. With the concurrent adoption of private hospital rooms and visitor restriction policies, hospital-wide and neonatal intensive care unit healthcare-associated respiratory syncytial virus infections decreased following these changes. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:485-487.
April 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436781/rsv-prophylaxis-guideline-changes-and-outcomes-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#19
Adam S Walpert, Ian D Thomas, Merlin C Lowe, Michael D Seckeler
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare inpatient outcomes and costs for children with respiratory syncytial virus and congenital heart disease before and after the change in management guidelines for respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis. DESIGN: Hospital discharge data from the Vizient (formerly University HealthSystem Consortium) were queried from October 2012 to June 2014 (Era 1) and July 2014 to April 2016 (Era 2) for patients aged <24 months with an any International Classification of Disease (ICD)-9 or ICD-10 code for congenital heart disease (745-747...
February 13, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430194/effectiveness-of-palivizumab-immunoprophylaxis-in-preterm-infants-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease-in-qatar
#20
Ahmad Abushahin, Ibrahim Janahi, Amjad Tuffaha
Objective: The primary objective of this study was to document the hospitalization rate due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and compliance with palivizumab use in preterm infants receiving palivizumab immunoprophylaxis during 2009-2012 RSV seasons. Design: This is a descriptive single-center cohort study. Infants who were ≤35-week gestational age were eligible for enrollment if they received the first palivizumab dose between November 1 and March 31 (2009-2010, 2010-2011, 2011-2012)...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
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