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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343373/weighted-win-loss-approach-for-analyzing-prioritized-outcomes
#1
Xiaodong Luo, Junshan Qiu, Steven Bai, Hong Tian
To analyze prioritized outcomes, Buyse (2010) and Pocock et al. (2012) proposed the win loss approach. In this paper, we first study the relationship between the win loss approach and the traditional survival analysis on the time to the first event. We then propose the weighted win loss statistics to improve the efficiency of the unweighted methods. A closed-form variance estimator of the weighted win loss statistics is derived to facilitate hypothesis testing and study design. We also calculated the contribution index to better interpret the results of the weighted win loss approach...
March 26, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343360/tsunami-run-up-and-inundation-along-the-coast-of-sabah-and-sarawak-malaysia-due-to-a-potential-brunei-submarine-mass-failure
#2
Wai Kiat Tan, Su Yean Teh, Hock Lye Koh
Submarine landslides, also known as submarine mass failures (SMFs), are major natural marine disasters that could critically damage coastal facilities such as nuclear power plants and oil and gas platforms. It is therefore essential to investigate submarine landslides for potential tsunami hazard assessment. Three-dimensional seismic data from offshore Brunei have revealed a giant seabed mass deposited by a previous SMF. The submarine mass extends over 120 km from the continental slope of the Baram Canyon at 200 m water depth to the deep basin floor of the Northwest Borneo Trough...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343349/modernizing-quality-of-life-assessment-development-of-a-multidimensional-computerized-adaptive-questionnaire-for-patients-with-schizophrenia
#3
Pierre Michel, Karine Baumstarck, Christophe Lancon, Badih Ghattas, Anderson Loundou, Pascal Auquier, Laurent Boyer
OBJECTIVE: Quality of life (QoL) is still assessed using paper-based and fixed-length questionnaires, which is one reason why QoL measurements have not been routinely implemented in clinical practice. Providing new QoL measures that combine computer technology with modern measurement theory may enhance their clinical use. The aim of this study was to develop a QoL multidimensional computerized adaptive test (MCAT), the SQoL-MCAT, from the fixed-length SQoL questionnaire for patients with schizophrenia...
March 25, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343335/a-new-infant-hybrid-respiratory-simulator-preliminary-evaluation-based-on-clinical-data
#4
Barbara Stankiewicz, Krzysztof J Pałko, Marek Darowski, Krzysztof Zieliński, Maciej Kozarski
A new hybrid (numerical-physical) simulator of the respiratory system, designed to simulate spontaneous and artificial/assisted ventilation of preterm and full-term infants underwent preliminary evaluation. A numerical, seven-compartmental model of the respiratory system mechanics allows the operator to simulate global and peripheral obstruction and restriction of the lungs. The physical part of the simulator is a piston-based construction of impedance transformer. LabVIEW real-time software coordinates the work of both parts of the simulator and its interaction with a ventilator...
March 25, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343294/neuroprotective-role-of-exogenous-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-hypoxia-hypoglycemia-induced-hippocampal-neuron-injury-via-regulating-trkb-mir134-signaling
#5
Weidong Huang, Facai Meng, Jie Cao, Xiaobin Liu, Jie Zhang, Min Li
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is an important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported to play a neuroprotective role in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury; however, the specific effects and mechanism of BDNF on hypoxic-hypoglycemic hippocampal neuron injury remains unknown. The current study investigated the action of BDNF in regulating cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury by simulating hippocampal neuron ischemia and hypoxia. We found that BDNF, p-Trkb, and miR-134 expression levels decreased, and that exogenous BDNF increased survival and reduced apoptosis in hypoxic-hypoglycemic hippocampal neurons...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343282/effective-chemotherapy-of-heterogeneous-and-drug-resistant-early-colon-cancers-by-intermittent-dose-schedules-a-computer-simulation-study
#6
David E Axelrod, Sudeepti Vedula, James Obaniyi
PURPOSE: The effectiveness of cancer chemotherapy is limited by intra-tumor heterogeneity, the emergence of spontaneous and induced drug-resistant mutant subclones, and the maximum dose to which normal tissues can be exposed without adverse side effects. The goal of this project was to determine if intermittent schedules of the maximum dose that allows colon crypt maintenance could overcome these limitations, specifically by eliminating mixtures of drug-resistant mutants from heterogeneous early colon adenomas while maintaining colon crypt function...
March 25, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343259/numerical-and-experimental-analysis-of-the-transitional-flow-across-a-real-stenosis
#7
R Agujetas, C Ferrera, A C Marcos, J P Alejo, J M Montanero
In this paper, we present a numerical study of the pulsatile transitional flow crossing a severe real stenosis located right in front of the bifurcation between the right subclavian and right common carotid arteries. The simulation allows one to determine relevant features of this subject-specific flow, such as the pressure waves in the right subclavian and right common carotid arteries. We explain the subclavian steal syndrome suffered by the patient in terms of the drastic pressure drop in the right subclavian artery...
March 25, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343228/focal-brain-injury-associated-with-a-model-of-severe-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-in-nonhuman-primates
#8
Ryan M McAdams, Ronald J McPherson, Raj P Kapur, Sandra E Juul
Worldwide, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. To better understand the mechanisms contributing to brain injury and improve outcomes in neonates with HIE, better preclinical animal models that mimic the clinical situation following birth asphyxia in term newborns are needed. In an effort to achieve this goal, we modified our nonhuman primate model of HIE induced by in utero umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) to include postnatal hypoxic episodes, in order to simulate apneic events in human neonates with HIE...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343219/simulation-based-training-in-flexible-bronchoscopy-and-endobronchial-ultrasound-guided-transbronchial-needle-aspiration-ebus-tbna-a-systematic-review
#9
Therese Maria Henriette Naur, Philip Mørkeberg Nilsson, Pia Iben Pietersen, Paul Frost Clementsen, Lars Konge
BACKGROUND: The use of simulators in a training programme for technically challenging procedures has the advantages of lowering the risk of patient complications while helping the trainees with the initial part of their learning curve. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of simulation-based training in flexible bronchoscopy and endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS). METHODS: We identified 1,006 publications in the PubMed database and included publications on flexible bronchoscopy below the carina and EBUS involving hands-on simulation-based training...
March 25, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343169/a-bayesian-semiparametric-factor-analysis-model-for-subtype-identification
#10
Jiehuan Sun, Joshua L Warren, Hongyu Zhao
Disease subtype identification (clustering) is an important problem in biomedical research. Gene expression profiles are commonly utilized to infer disease subtypes, which often lead to biologically meaningful insights into disease. Despite many successes, existing clustering methods may not perform well when genes are highly correlated and many uninformative genes are included for clustering due to the high dimensionality. In this article, we introduce a novel subtype identification method in the Bayesian setting based on gene expression profiles...
March 25, 2017: Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343164/a-quantitative-concordance-measure-for-comparing-and-combining-treatment-selection-markers
#11
Zhiwei Zhang, Shujie Ma, Lei Nie, Guoxing Soon
Motivated by an HIV example, we consider how to compare and combine treatment selection markers, which are essential to the notion of precision medicine. The current literature on precision medicine is focused on evaluating and optimizing treatment regimes, which can be obtained by dichotomizing treatment selection markers. In practice, treatment decisions are based not only on efficacy but also on safety, cost and individual preference, making it difficult to choose a single cutoff value for all patients in all settings...
March 25, 2017: International Journal of Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343130/computational-study-of-ibuprofen-removal-from-water-by-adsorption-in-realistic-activated-carbons
#12
Daniel Bahamon, Leticia Carro, Sonia Guri, Lourdes F Vega
Molecular simulations using the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) method have been performed in order to obtain physical insights on how the interaction between ibuprofen (IBP) and activated carbons (ACs) in aqueous mixtures affects IBP removal from water by ACs. A nanoporous carbon model based on units of polyaromatic molecules with different number of rings, defects and polar-oxygenated sites is described. Individual effects of factors such as porous features and chemical heterogeneities in the adsorbents are investigated and quantified...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343125/structural-modeling-of-human-organic-cation-transporters
#13
Tikam Chand Dakal, Rajender Kumar, Dindial Ramotar
Human organic cation transporters (hOCTs) belong to solute carriers (SLC) 22 family of membrane proteins that play a central role in transportation of chemotherapeutic drugs for several clinical and pathological conditions, including cancer and diabetes. These transporters mediate drug transport; however, the precise mechanism of drug-binding and transport by them is not fully uncovered yet, partly due to unavailability of any crystal structure record. In this work, we performed a multi-phasic approach to compute the 3D structural models of seven human organic cation transporters (hOCTs) starting from primary protein sequence...
March 18, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343124/effects-of-acute-alcohol-consumption-on-measures-of-simulated-driving-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Christopher Irwin, Elizaveta Iudakhina, Ben Desbrow, Danielle McCartney
Driving simulators are used in a wide range of research settings to help develop an understanding of driver behavior in complex environments. Acute alcohol impairment is an important research topic for traffic safety and a large number of studies have indicated levels of simulated driving impairment imposed by alcohol across a range of performance outcome variables. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of acute alcohol consumption on simulated driving performance by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence...
March 23, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343100/the-potential-of-l-%C3%A2-scoparium-k-%C3%A2-robusta-and-p-%C3%A2-radiata-to-mitigate-n-losses-in-silvopastural-systems
#15
J Esperschuetz, N Balaine, T Clough, S Bulman, N M Dickinson, J Horswell, B H Robinson
Silvopastoral systems aim to enhance economic, cultural and social principles by sustainably combining forest management with agriculture. In these typically high-nitrogen (N) environments, plant species selection can profoundly influence N fluxes. For grazed pastures, plants may be exposed to urine patches that have received the equivalent of up to 1000 kg N ha(-1). We aimed to determine the growth and N fluxes in three potential trees that may be used in silvopastoral systems: L. scoparium, K. robusta and P...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343098/developmental-validation-of-qiagen-investigator-%C3%A2-24plex-qs-kit-and-investigator-%C3%A2-24plex-go-kit-two-6-dye-multiplex-assays-for-the-extended-codis-core-loci
#16
Melanie Kraemer, Anke Prochnow, Michael Bussmann, Mario Scherer, Ralf Peist, Carolyn Steffen
The original CODIS database based on 13 core STR loci has been overwhelmingly successful for matching suspects with evidence. In order to increase the power of discrimination, reduce the possibility of adventitious matches, and expand global data sharing, the CODIS Core Loci Working Group determined the expansion of the CODIS core loci to 20 STR plus three additional "highly recommended" loci (SE33, DY391, Amelogenin) Hares, 2015, 2012 [1,2]. The QIAGEN Investigator 24plex QS and Investigator 24plex GO! Kits are 6-dye multiplex assays that contain all markers of the expanded 23 CODIS core loci along with a unique internal performance control that is co-amplified with the STR markers...
March 12, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343059/internal-cycling-not-external-loading-decides-the-nutrient-limitation-in-eutrophic-lake-a-dynamic-model-with-temporal-bayesian-hierarchical-inference
#17
Zhen Wu, Yong Liu, Zhongyao Liang, Sifeng Wu, Huaicheng Guo
Lake eutrophication is associated with excessive anthropogenic nutrients (mainly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) and unobserved internal nutrient cycling. Despite the advances in understanding the role of external loadings, the contribution of internal nutrient cycling is still an open question. A dynamic mass-balance model was developed to simulate and measure the contributions of internal cycling and external loading. It was based on the temporal Bayesian Hierarchical Framework (BHM), where we explored the seasonal patterns in the dynamics of nutrient cycling processes and the limitation of N and P on phytoplankton growth in hyper-eutrophic Lake Dianchi, China...
March 19, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343056/preliminary-investigation-of-the-microwave-pyrolysis-mechanism-of-sludge-based-on-high-frequency-structure-simulator-simulation-of-the-electromagnetic-field-distribution
#18
Rui Ma, Nana Yuan, Shichang Sun, Peixin Zhang, Lin Fang, Xianghua Zhang, Xuxin Zhao
Under microwave irradiation, raw sludge was pyrolyzed mainly by evaporation of water, with a weight loss ratio of 84.8% and a maximum temperature not exceeding 200°C. High-temperature pyrolysis of SiC sludge could be realized, with a weight loss ratio of 93.4% and a final pyrolysis temperature of 1131.7°C. Variations between the electric field intensity distribution are the main reason for the differences of pyrolysis efficiencies. HFSS simulation showed that the electric field intensity of the raw sludge gradually decreased from 2...
February 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343044/a-system-of-containment-to-prevent-oil-spills-from-sunken-tankers
#19
Antonio García-Olivares, Almudena Agüero, Bernd J Haupt, María J Marcos, María V Villar, José L de Pablos
Worldwide tank spills represent 10% of the average annual input of oil in the sea. When such spills arise from wrecks at depth, neutralisation of environmental impacts is difficult to achieve. Extracting oil from sunken tankers is expensive, and, unfortunately, all of the oil cannot be extracted, as the Prestige case demonstrates. We propose an environmentally appropriate, cost-effective and proactive method to stop the long-term problem of leaks from sunken tankers similar to the Prestige. This method confines the wreck with a "sediment" capping of sepiolite mineral that emulates a natural sediment...
March 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343043/clonal-integration-increases-tolerance-of-a-phalanx-clonal-plant-to-defoliation
#20
Pu Wang, Huan Li, Xiao-Yu Pang, Ao Wang, Bi-Cheng Dong, Jing-Pin Lei, Fei-Hai Yu, Mai-He Li
Defoliation by herbivores commonly imposes negative effects on plants, and physiological integration (resource sharing) can enhance the ability of guerilla clonal plants to tolerate stresses. Here we examined whether physiological integration can increase the ability of phalanx clonal plants to withstand defoliation. On a high mountain grassland in southwestern China, we subjected the phalanx clonal plant Iris delavayi within 10cm×10cm plots to three levels of defoliation intensity, i.e., control (no defoliation), moderate (50% shoot removal to simulate moderate herbivory) and heavy defoliation (100% shoot removal to simulate heavy herbivory), and kept rhizomes at the plot edges connected (allowing physiological integration) or disconnected (preventing integration) with intact ramets outside the plots...
March 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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