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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929162/in-vivo-validation-of-patellofemoral-kinematics-during-overground-gait-and-stair-ascent
#1
Samuel Pitcairn, Bryson Lesniak, William Anderst
BACKGROUND: The patellofemoral (PF) joint is a common site for non-specific anterior knee pain. The pathophysiology of patellofemoral pain may be related to abnormal motion of the patella relative to the femur, leading to increased stress at the patellofemoral joint. Patellofemoral motion cannot be accurately measured using conventional motion capture. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of a biplane radiography system for measuring in vivo PF motion during walking and stair ascent...
June 18, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929159/methodological-factors-influencing-inhalation-bioaccessibility-of-metal-loid-s-in-pm-2-5-using-simulated-lung-fluid
#2
Farzana Kastury, E Smith, Ranju R Karna, Kirk G Scheckel, A L Juhasz
In this study, methodological factors influencing the dissolution of metal(loid)s in simulated lung fluid (SLF) was assessed in order to develop a standardised method for the assessment of inhalation bioaccessibility in PM2.5 . To achieve this aim, the effects of solid to liquid (S/L) ratio (1:100 to 1:5000), agitation (magnetic agitation, occasional shaking, orbital and end-over-end rotation), composition of SLF (artificial lysosomal fluid: ALF; phagolysosomal simulant fluid: PSF) and extraction time (1-120 h) on metal(loid) bioaccessibility were investigated using PM2...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929141/performance-of-two-differently-designed-permeable-reactive-barriers-with-sulfate-and-zinc-solutions
#3
Norma Pérez, Alex O Schwarz, Esteban Barahona, Pamela Sanhueza, Isabel Diaz, Homero Urrutia
For the first time, this laboratory-scale study evaluates the feasibility of incorporating diffusive exchange in permeable reactive barriers. In order to do this, the performance of two permeable reactive barriers (PRB) with different internal substrate arrangements were compared during the administration of a sulfate solution without metals (for 163 days) and with metals (for 60 days), simulating groundwater contaminated with acid mine drainage (AMD). In order to simulate a traditional PRB, a homogeneous distribution was implemented in the first reactor and the other PRB reactor utilized diffusion-active technology (DAPRB)...
June 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929119/in-vitro-metabolomics-to-evaluate-toxicity-of-particulate-matter-under-environmentally-realistic-conditions
#4
Francisco Sánchez-Soberón, Matthias Cuykx, Noemí Serra, Victoria Linares, Montserrat Bellés, Adrian Covaci, Marta Schuhmacher
In this pilot study three fractions of particulate matter (PM0.25 , PM2.5-0.25 , and PM10-2.5 ) were collected in three environments (classroom, home, and outdoors) in a village located nearby an industrial complex. Time-activity pattern of 20 students attending the classroom was obtained, and the dose of particles reaching the children's lungs under actual environmental conditions (i.e. real dose) was calculated via dosimetry model. The highest PM concentrations were reached in the classroom. Simulations showed that heavy intensity outdoor activities played a major role in PM deposition, especially in the upper part of the respiratory tract...
June 10, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929103/high-solids-anaerobic-digestion-model-for-homogenized-reactors
#5
Vicente Pastor-Poquet, Stefano Papirio, Jean-Philippe Steyer, Eric Trably, Renaud Escudié, Giovanni Esposito
During high-solids anaerobic digestion (HS-AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), an important total solid (TS) removal occurs, leading to the modification of the reactor content mass/volume, in contrast to 'wet' anaerobic digestion (AD). Therefore, HS-AD mathematical simulations need to be approached differently than 'wet' AD simulations. This study aimed to develop a modelling tool based on the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1) capable of simulating the TS and the reactor mass/volume dynamics in HS-AD of OFMSW...
June 14, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929099/using-perceptual-cues-for-brake-response-to-a-lead-vehicle-comparing-threshold-and-accumulator-models-of-visual-looming
#6
Qingwan Xue, Gustav Markkula, Xuedong Yan, Natasha Merat
Previous studies have shown the effect of a lead vehicle's speed, deceleration rate and headway distance on drivers' brake response times. However, how drivers perceive this information and use it to determine when to apply braking is still not quite clear. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, a driving simulator experiment was performed where each participant experienced nine deceleration scenarios. Previously reported effects of the lead vehicle's speed, deceleration rate and headway distance on brake response time were firstly verified in this paper, using a multilevel model...
June 18, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929095/heavy-ion-irradiation-effects-on-u-3-o-8-incorporated-gd-2-zr-2-o-7-waste-forms
#7
Xirui Lu, Xiaoyan Shu, Shunzhang Chen, Kuibao Zhang, Fangtin Chi, Haibin Zhang, Dadong Shao, Xueli Mao
In this research, the heavy-ion irradiation effects of U-bearing Gd2 Zr2 O7 ceramics were explored for nuclear waste immobilization. U3 O8 was designed to be incorporated into Gd2 Zr2 O7 from two different routes in the form of (Gd1-4 x U2 x )2 (Zr1- x Ux )2 O7 (x = 0.1, 0.14). The self-irradiation of actinide nuclides was simulated by Xe20+ heavy-ion radiation under different fluences. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis reveals the relationship between radiation dose, damage and depth. The radiation tolerance is promoted with the increment of U3 O8 content in the discussed range...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929064/the-depersonalized-brain-new-evidence-supporting-a-distinction-between-depersonalization-and-derealization-from-discrete-patterns-of-autonomic-suppression-observed-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#8
Hayley Dewe, Derrick G Watson, Klaus Kessler, Jason J Braithwaite
Depersonalization and Derealization are characterised by feelings of detachment from one's bodily self/surroundings and a general emotional numbness. We explored predisposition to trait-based experiences of depersonalization/derealization-type experiences and autonomic arousal toward simulated body-threats, which were delivered to the participant's own body (i.e. Self) and when observed being delivered to another individual (i.e. Other). Ninety participants took part in an "Implied Body-Threat Illusion" task (Dewe, Watson, & Braithwaite, 2016) and autonomic arousal was recorded via standardised skin conductance responses and finger temperature...
June 18, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929042/iron-overload-involved-in-the-enhancement-of-unloading-induced-bone-loss-by-hypomagnetic-field
#9
Jiancheng Yang, Xiaofeng Meng, Dandan Dong, Yanru Xue, Xin Chen, Shenghang Wang, Ying Shen, Gejing Zhang, Peng Shang
During deep-space exploration missions, astronauts will be exposed to abnormal space environments including microgravity and hypomagnetic field (HyMF) that is 10,000 times weaker than geomagnetic field (GMF). It is well known that microgravity in space can induce bone loss; however, it is ill-defined whether HyMF involved in this process. Herein, we aimed to investigate the combined effects of HyMF and microgravity on bone loss. A mouse model of hindlimb suspension (HLU) was adopted to simulate microgravity-induced bone loss, that was exposed to a hypomagnetic field of <300 nanotesla (nT) generated by a geomagnetic field-shielding chamber...
June 18, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928984/investigation-of-molecular-mobility-of-pressure-sensitive-adhesive-in-oxybutynin-patch-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effect-of-sorbitan-monooleate-on-drug-release-and-patch-mechanical-property
#10
Wei Wang, Chao Liu, Zheng Luo, Xiaocao Wan, Liang Fang
The aim of present study was to develop an oxybutynin (OXY) transdermal patch with good permeation behavior and mechanical property. Special attention was paid to the effect of chemical enhancer on the molecular mobility of pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) at molecular level. PSAs and permeation enhancers were investigated through in vitro experiment using rat skin. The optimized formulation was evaluated through pharmacokinetic study using rat. In addition, the molecular mechanism of sorbitan monooleate (Span® 80) in the improvement of PSA molecular mobility was investigated using FT-IR, molecular dynamics simulation, DSC and rheological study...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928974/a-bio-guided-approach-for-the-development-of-a-chestnut-based-proanthocyanidin-enriched-nutraceutical-with-potential-anti-gastritis-properties
#11
Enrico Sangiovanni, Stefano Piazza, Urska Vrhovsek, Marco Fumagalli, Saba Khalilpour, Domenico Masuero, Chiara Di Lorenzo, Luca Colombo, Fulvio Mattivi, Emma De Fabiani, Mario Dell'Agli
Gastritis is a widely spread inflammatory disease, mostly caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. Release of IL-8 by the stomach epithelium is a hallmark of gastritis and contributes to the amplification of the inflammatory state. Pharmacological modulation of IL-8 release is a strategy to relieve gastric inflammation and prevent more severe clinical outcomes. In search of nutraceuticals with potential anti-gastritis properties we used a bio-guided approach based on IL-8 secretion by gastric cells to characterize extracts from the fruits of different chestnut varieties...
June 18, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928832/amalgam-alternatives-cost-effectiveness-and-value-of-information-analysis
#12
F Schwendicke, G Göstemeyer, M Stolpe, J Krois
We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of amalgam alternatives-namely, incrementally placed composites (IComp), composites placed in bulk (BComp), and glass ionomer cements (GIC). In a sensitivity analysis, we also included composite inlays (CompI) and incrementally placed bulk-fills (IBComp). Moreover, the value of information (VOI) regarding the effectiveness of all strategies was determined. A mixed public-private-payer perspective in the context of Germany was adopted. Bayesian network meta-analyses were performed to yield effectiveness estimates (relative risk [RR] of failure)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928806/development-of-new-transferable-coarse-grained-models-of-hydrocarbons
#13
Yaxin An, Karteek K Bejagam, Sanket A Deshmukh
We have utilized an approach that integrates molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to accelerate the development of coarse-grained (CG) models of hydrocarbons. Specifically, we have developed new transferable CG beads, which can be used to model the hydrocarbons (C5 to C17) and reproduce their experimental properties with good accuracy. Firstly, the PSO method was used to develop the CG beads of the decane model represented with 2:1 (2-2-2-2-2) mapping scheme. This was followed by the development of the nonane model described with hybrid 2-2-3-2, and 3:1 (3-3-3) mapping schemes...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928747/how-heterogeneous-susceptibility-and-recovery-rates-affect-the-spread-of-epidemics-on-networks
#14
Wei Gou, Zhen Jin
In this paper, an extended heterogeneous SIR model is proposed, which generalizes the heterogeneous mean-field theory. Different from the traditional heterogeneous mean-field model only taking into account the heterogeneity of degree, our model considers not only the heterogeneity of degree but also the heterogeneity of susceptibility and recovery rates. Then, we analytically study the basic reproductive number and the final epidemic size. Combining with numerical simulations, it is found that the basic reproductive number depends on the mean of distributions of susceptibility and disease course when both of them are independent...
August 2017: Infectious Disease Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928745/modeling-the-role-of-public-health-education-in-ebola-virus-disease-outbreaks-in-sudan
#15
Benjamin Levy, Christina Edholm, Orou Gaoue, Roselyn Kaondera-Shava, Moatlhodi Kgosimore, Suzanne Lenhart, Benjamin Lephodisa, Edward Lungu, Theresia Marijani, Farai Nyabadza
Public involvement in Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) prevention efforts is key to reducing disease outbreaks. Targeted education through practical health information to particular groups and sub-populations is crucial to controlling the disease. In this paper, we study the dynamics of Ebola virus disease in the presence of public health education with the aim of assessing the role of behavior change induced by health education to the dynamics of an outbreak. The power of behavior change is evident in two outbreaks of EVD that took place in Sudan only 3 years apart...
August 2017: Infectious Disease Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928744/a-new-epidemic-modeling-approach-multi-regions-discrete-time-model-with-travel-blocking-vicinity-optimal-control-strategy
#16
Omar Zakary, Mostafa Rachik, Ilias Elmouki
First, we devise in this paper, a multi-regions discrete-time model which describes the spatial-temporal spread of an epidemic which starts from one region and enters to regions which are connected with their neighbors by any kind of anthropological movement. We suppose homogeneous Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) populations, and we consider in our simulations, a grid of colored cells, which represents the whole domain affected by the epidemic while each cell can represent a sub-domain or region. Second, in order to minimize the number of infected individuals in one region, we propose an optimal control approach based on a travel-blocking vicinity strategy which aims to control only one cell by restricting movements of infected people coming from all neighboring cells...
August 2017: Infectious Disease Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928742/spatiotemporal-epidemic-models-for-rabies-among-animals
#17
REVIEW
Shigui Ruan
Rabies is a serious concern to public health and wildlife management worldwide. Over the last three decades, various mathematical models have been proposed to study the transmission dynamics of rabies. In this paper we provide a mini-review on some reaction-diffusion models describing the spatial spread of rabies among animals. More specifically, we introduce the susceptible-exposed-infectious models for the spatial transmission of rabies among foxes (Murray et al., 1986), the spatiotemporal epidemic model for rabies among raccoons (Neilan and Lenhart, 2011), the diffusive rabies model for skunk and bat interactions (Bonchering et al...
August 2017: Infectious Disease Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928666/a-program-director-survey-of-the-clinical-base-year-in-anesthesiology-residency-programs
#18
Agathe Streiff, Barbara Orlando, Bryan Mahoney
Background: To maintain compliance with the current shift towards competency-based milestone assessment in graduate medical education, residency training programs must reflect this emphasis in their curricula starting with the intern year of training.1 In working towards collaborative efforts in curricular development between Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) anesthesiology residency programs, understanding the structure and design of the clinical base year for anesthesiology residency programs nationwide will serve as a valuable initial step...
January 2018: Journal of Education in Perioperative Medicine: JEPM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928632/pencil-beam-fluence-evaluation-based-on-monte-carlo-simulations-algorithm-of-high-energetic-treatment-photons
#19
Hossam Donya
Background: The accurate calculation of doses during external radiotherapy sessions is necessary. Recently, the models used for this purpose have been the point kernel, pencil-beam, and collapsed cone superposition/convolution combination models. Methods: In this study, it is aimed to determine point/pencil-beam kernels to be used in dose calculations. For this purpose, tallying pencil-beam fluence based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations is investigated by scoring a volume of interest centered in a cubic water phantom at a depth of 10 cm and the irradiated field of 10 cm × 10 cm...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928605/hemodynamic-analysis-of-carotid-artery-after-endarterectomy-a-preliminary-and-quantitative-imaging-study-based-on-computational-fluid-dynamics-and-magnetic-resonance-angiography
#20
Yuanyuan Dai, Peng Lv, Ashkan Javadzadegan, Xiao Tang, Yi Qian, Jiang Lin
Background: The carotid blood flow following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is not fully understood. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a promising method to study blood flow. This study is to investigate local hemodynamic characteristics after CEA via the use of unenhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and CFD. Methods: Eight carotid arteries with atherosclerosis and sixteen normal carotid arteries were included in this study. Time-of-flight (TOF) and phase contrast (PC) MRA were applied for the measurement of three-dimensional artery geometries and velocity profile under CFD simulation...
May 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
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