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Jian Liu, Gang Ye, Bas van der Zee, Jingjin Dong, Xinkai Qiu, Yuru Liu, Giuseppe Portale, Ryan C Chiechi, L Jan Anton Koster
It is demonstrated that the n-type thermoelectric performance of donor-acceptor (D-A) copolymers can be enhanced by a factor of >1000 by tailoring the density of states (DOS). The DOS distribution is tailored by embedding sp2 -nitrogen atoms into the donor moiety of the D-A backbone. Consequently, an electrical conductivity of 1.8 S cm-1 and a power factor of 4.5 µW m-1 K-2 are achieved. Interestingly, an unusual sign switching (from negative to positive) of the Seebeck coefficient of the unmodified D-A copolymer at moderately high dopant loading is observed...
September 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Suman Chakraborty
Microfluidics based lab-on-a-chip technology holds tremendous promises towards point-of-care diagnosis of diseases as well was for developing engineered devices aimed towards replicating the intrinsic functionalities of human bodies as mediated by blood vessel-mimicking circulatory networks. While the analysis of transport of blood including its unique cellular constituents has remained to be the focus of many reported studies, a progressive interest on understanding the interplay between electric field and blood flow dynamics has paved a new way towards further developments from scientific, engineering as well as clinical viewpoint...
September 17, 2018: Electrophoresis
Mark D Fletcher, Sean R Mills, Tobias Goehring
Many cochlear implant (CI) users achieve excellent speech understanding in acoustically quiet conditions but most perform poorly in the presence of background noise. An important contributor to this poor speech-in-noise performance is the limited transmission of low-frequency sound information through CIs. Recent work has suggested that tactile presentation of this low-frequency sound information could be used to improve speech-in-noise performance for CI users. Building on this work, we investigated whether vibro-tactile stimulation can improve speech intelligibility in multi-talker noise...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Gustavo Chau, Marko Jakovljevic, Roberto Lavarello, Jeremy Dahl
Phase aberration is a phenomenon caused by heterogeneity of the speed of sound in tissue, in which the actual speed of sound of the tissue is different than the assumed speed of sound used for beamforming. It reduces the quality and resolution of ultrasonic images and impairs clinical diagnostic capabilities. Although phase aberration correction (PAC) methods can reduce these detrimental effects, most practical implementations of PAC methods are based on the near field phase screen model, which have limited ability to represent the true aberration induced by inhomogeneous tissue...
September 15, 2018: Ultrasonic Imaging
Sarah A Saslow, Wooyong Um, Carolyn I Pearce, Mark E Bowden, Mark H Engelhard, Wayne W Lukens, Dong-Sang Kim, Michael J Schweiger, Albert A Kruger
Here, Cr(VI) effects on Tc-immobilization by Fe(OH)2(s) are investigated while assessing Fe(OH)2(s) as a potential treatment method for Hanford low-activity waste destined for vitrification. Batch studies using simulated low-activity waste indicate that Tc(VII) and Cr(VI) removal is contingent on reduction to Tc(IV) and Cr(III). Furthermore, complete removal of both Cr and Tc depends on the amount of Fe(OH)2(s) present, where complete Cr and Tc removal requires more Fe(OH)2(s) (~200 g/L of simulant), than removing Cr alone (~50 g/L of simulant)...
September 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Hui Wang, Enze Xu, Shimeng Yu, Danting Li, Junjie Quan, Li Xu, Li Wang, Yang Jiang
Low cost manganese hexacyanoferrate (NMHCF) possesses some favorable advantages including high theoretical capacity, ease of preparation and robust open channels that enables faster Na+ diffusion kinetics. However, high lattice water and low electronic conductivity are the main bottlenecks to their pragmatic realization. Here, we present a strategy by anchoring NMHCF on RGO to alleviate these problems. Accordingly, the composite yields a specific discharge capacity of 161/121 mAh g-1 at the current density of 20/200 mA g-1...
September 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Anna Kaplinsky, Vera Pyatigorskaya, Hila Granot, Ilana Gelernter, Maoz Ben-Ayun, Dror Alezra, Shira L Galper, Zvi Symon, Merav A Ben-David
BACKGROUND: Adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer reduces local recurrence and improves survival. In patients with left sided breast cancer, anterior heart position or medial tumor location may cause inadequate breast coverage due to heart shielding. Respiration gating using the Real-time Position Management (RPM) system enables pushing the heart away from the tangential fields during inspiration, thus optimizing the treatment plan. OBJECTIVES: To compare breathing inspiration gating (IG) techniques with free breathing (FB), focusing on breast coverage...
September 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Jianguo Li, Mark Lovern, Michelle L Green, Joannellyn Chiu, Diansong Zhou, Craig Comisar, Yuan Xiong, Jeremy Hing, Merran MacPherson, James G Wright, Todd Riccobene, Timothy J Carrothers, Shampa Das
Ceftazidime-avibactam is a novel β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination for the treatment of serious infections caused by resistant Gram-negative pathogens. Population pharmacokinetic (PK) models were built to incorporate PK data from five Phase III trials in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infection, complicated urinary tract infection or nosocomial (including ventilator-associated) pneumonia. Ceftazidime and avibactam PK were well-described by two-compartment disposition models, with creatinine clearance (CrCL) the key covariate determining clearance variability...
September 17, 2018: Clinical and Translational Science
Mary Ellen Smith Glasgow, Alison Colbert, John Viator, Stephen Cavanagh
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to describe two innovative biomedical engineering and nursing collaborations designed to educate a new cadre of professionals and develop new knowledge and innovations (robots, patient care devices, and computer simulation). ORGANIZING CONSTRUCT: Complex health problems demand a highly skilled response that uses teams of professionals from various disciplines. When the biomedical engineering lens is expanded to include the practical perspective of nursing, opportunities emerge for greater technology-nurse interface and subsequent innovation...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Michele M Figliuzzi, Maria Altilia, Laura Mannarino, Amerigo Giudice, Leonzio Fortunato
AIM: Combined surgical-orthodontic treatment of impacted maxillary canines has developed significantly in the last few years, regarding management of both hard and soft tissues and forces of traction. The aim of this report is to describe a combined surgical-orthodontic approach used to treat an impacted maxillary canine and to value the functional and esthetic results after 5 years of followup. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 13-year-old boy had been seen by surgeons in the Operative Unit of Orthodontics of Policlinico Tor Vergata in Rome...
July 23, 2018: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Jiawei Cao, Wenyu Liang, Jian Zhu, Qinyuan Ren
Soft actuators have played an indispensable role in generating compliant motions of soft robots. Among the various soft actuators explored for soft robotic applications, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) have caught the eye with their intriguing attributes similar to biological muscles. However, the control challenge of DEAs due to their strong nonlinear behaviors has hindered the development of DEA-based soft robots. To overcome the control challenge, this paper proposes a bioinspired control approach of DEAs...
September 17, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Yuxiao Yang, Allison T Connolly, Maryam M Shanechi
OBJECTIVE: Closed-loop electrical brain stimulation systems may enable a precisely-tailored treatment for neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders by controlling the stimulation based on neural activity feedback in real time. Developing model-based closed-loop systems requires a principled system identification framework to quantify the effect of input stimulation on output neural activity by learning an input-output (IO) dynamic model from data. Further, developing these systems needs a realistic clinical simulation testbed to design and validate the closed-loop controllers derived from the IO models before testing in human patients...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Yanbin Wang, Shayandev Sinha, Parth Rakesh Desai, Haoyuan Jing, Siddhartha Das
Recent simulations provide the energetics of ion adsorption at the air-water (a/w) interface: the presence of the ion at the interface suppresses the fluctuations of the capillary waves (CWs) reducing the entropy and also displaces the weakly interacting water molecules to the bulk causing a reduction in the enthalpy. Here we provide atomistic simulation-based evidence that the inferences of the existing studies stem from considering a small simulation volume that pins the CWs. For an appropriate size of the simulation system, ion at the a/w interface enhances the CW fluctuations...
September 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ibrahim Turkoz, Marc Sobel, Larry Alphs
Disease modification is a primary therapeutic aim when developing treatments for most chronic progressive diseases. The best treatments do not simply affect disease symptoms but fundamentally improve disease course by slowing, halting, or reversing disease progression. One of many challenges for establishing disease modification relates to the identification of adequate analytic tools to show differences in a disease course following intervention. Traditional approaches rely on the comparisons of slopes or noninferiority margins...
September 16, 2018: Pharmaceutical Statistics
Hui Quan, Yi Xu, Yixin Chen, Lei Gao, Xun Chen
Patient recruitment is challenging in rare disease clinical trials. To save time and resources, an inferential seamless phase II/III clinical trial design is considered for a clinical trial in a rare disease area. In particular, 2 doses compared to a placebo control are evaluated at phase II (ie, stage I). Based on the results of a phase II intermediate endpoint, additional patients may be enrolled into the 2 doses and control, 1 selected dose and control, or none of the 3 treatment arms at stage II. All patients including those of unselected dose (s) will be followed for the measurements of the phase III (ie, stage II) primary and secondary endpoints and incorporated in the final analysis...
September 16, 2018: Pharmaceutical Statistics
Guo-Jun Liao, Sabine H L Klapp
We perform Brownian dynamics simulations in two dimensions to study the collective behavior of circle swimmers, which are driven by both, an (effective) translational and rotational self-propulsion, and interact via steric repulsion. We find that active rotation generally opposes motility-induced clustering and phase separation, as demonstrated by a narrowing of the coexistence region upon increase of the propulsion angular velocity. Moreover, although the particles are intrinsically assigned to rotate counterclockwise, a novel state of clockwise vortices emerges at an optimal value of the effective propulsion torque...
September 17, 2018: Soft Matter
Matthew J Abplanalp, Sándor Góbi, Ralf I Kaiser
Pure methane (CH4) ices processed by energetic electrons under ultra-high vacuum conditions to simulate secondary electrons formed via galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) penetrating interstellar ice mantles have been shown to produce an array of complex hydrocarbons with the general formulae: CnH2n+2 (n = 4-8), CnH2n (n = 3-9), CnH2n-2 (n = 3-9), CnH2n-4 (n = 4-9), and CnH2n-6 (n = 6-7). By monitoring the in situ chemical evolution of the ice combined with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies and tunable single photon ionization coupled to a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer, specific isomers of C3H4, C3H6, C4H4, and C4H6 were probed...
September 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Huiqiao Xie, Tianye Niu, Shaojie Tang, Xiaofeng Yang, Nadja Kadom, Xiangyang Tang
PURPOSE: Denoising has been a challenging research subject in medical imaging, since the suppression of noise conflicts with the preservation of texture and edges. To address this challenge, we develop a content-oriented sparse representation (COSR) method for denoising in CT. METHODS: An image is segmented into a number of content-areas and each of them consists of similar material. Having been ex-painted, each content-area is sparsely coded using the dictionary learnt from patches extracted from the corresponding content-area...
September 16, 2018: Medical Physics
Qian Wu, Xinwei Wei, Yuxiang Pan, Yingchang Zou, Ning Hu, Ping Wang
To perform the drug screening, planar cultured cell models are commonly applied to test efficacy and toxicity of drugs. However, planar cultured cells are different from the human 3D organs or tissues in vivo. To simulate the human 3D organs or tissues, 3D spheroids are developed by culturing a small aggregate of cells which reside around the extracellular matrix and interact with other cells in liquid media. Here we apply lung carcinoma cell lines to engineer the 3D lung cancer spheroid-based biosensor using the interdigitated electrodes for drug efficacy evaluation...
September 15, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
Kavita Sharma, Sampan Attri, Gunjan Goel
The present study aimed to isolate and identify the potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from traditionally fermented wheat flour dough known as "babroo." A total of 26 lactic isolates were obtained from 50 different samples collected from different locations of the Himalayan province (Himachal Pradesh). To ascertain non-pathogenic nature, the isolates were screened by hemolytic activity leading to 20 non-hemolytic strains which were subjected to tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions...
September 15, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
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