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Medical student accountability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099178/clinical-performance-evaluations-of-third-year-medical-students-and-association-with-student-and-evaluator-gender
#1
Alison Riese, Leah Rappaport, Brian Alverson, Sangshin Park, Randal M Rockney
PURPOSE: Clinical performance evaluations are major components of medical school clerkship grades. But are they sufficiently objective? This study aimed to determine whether student and evaluator gender is associated with assessment of overall clinical performance. METHOD: This was a retrospective analysis of 4,272 core clerkship clinical performance evaluations by 829 evaluators of 155 third-year students, within the Alpert Medical School grading database for the 2013-2014 academic year...
January 17, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098483/academic-performance-on-first-year-medical-school-exams-how-well-does-it-predict-later-performance-on-knowledge-based-and-clinical-assessments
#2
Edward Krupat, Stephen R Pelletier, Jules L Dienstag
Number of appearances in the bottom quartile of 1st-year medical school exams were used to represent the extent to which students were having academic difficulties. Medical educators have long expressed a desire to have indicators of medical student performance that have strong predictive validity. Predictors traditionally used fell into 4 general categories: demographic (e.g., gender), other background factors (e.g., college major), performance/aptitude (e.g., medical college admission test scores), and noncognitive factors (e...
January 18, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056972/perceived-stress-in-first-year-medical-students-associations-with-personal-resources-and-emotional-distress
#3
Ines Heinen, Monika Bullinger, Rüya-Daniela Kocalevent
BACKGROUND: Medical students have been found to report high levels of perceived stress, yet there is a lack of theoretical frameworks examining possible reasons. This cross-sectional study examines correlates of perceived stress in medical students on the basis of a conceptual stress model originally developed for and applied to the general population. The aim was to identify via structural equation modeling the associations between perceived stress and emotional distress (anxiety and depression), taking into account the activation of personal resources (optimism, self-efficacy and resilient coping)...
January 6, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048025/tu-d-201-09-is-the-ms-degree-still-a-viable-option-for-clinical-medical-physics-education-and-training
#4
B Loughery, J Burmeister
PURPOSE: Recent publications have questioned the value of the MS degree and its future in medical physics education. This study investigates the residency placement rate (RPR) for CAMPEP-accredited MS programs as a metric to evaluate this degree as judged by residency programs. METHODS: By CAMPEP Standard 2.10, accredited graduate programs must present placement data on their program webpage and update it annually. We used these data to calculate the RPR of 43 programs into CAMPEP-accredited residency programs over a five year period (2010-2014)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047136/th-ab-209-03-overcoming-resolution-limitations-of-diffuse-optical-signals-in-x-ray-induced-luminescence-xil-imaging-via-selective-plane-illumination-and-2d-deconvolution
#5
B Quigley, C Smith, P La Riviere
PURPOSE: To evaluate the resolution and sensitivity of XIL imaging using a surface radiance simulation based on optical diffusion and maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) image reconstruction. XIL imaging seeks to determine the distribution of luminescent nanophosphors, which could be used as nanodosimeters or radiosensitizers. METHODS: The XIL simulation generated a homogeneous slab with optical properties similar to tissue. X-ray activated nanophosphors were placed at 1...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978819/the-experiences-of-high-school-students-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-china-a-qualitative-study
#6
Shaoru Zhang, Xiaohong Li, Tianhua Zhang, Yahui Fan, Yuelu Li
BACKGROUND: Clustered tuberculosis (TB) still occurred nationally in Chinese schools every year, where high school students patients accounts for the highest proportion. These young TB patients are in a critical period of physical and psychological growth. Research on their illness experience and analysis of underlying causes remains blank. The purpose of this study is to explore the overall illness experience of Chinese high school TB patients and to investigate the individual and social causes of such experience...
December 15, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930278/for-love-not-money-the-financial-implications-of-surgical-fellowship-training
#7
Paul M Inclan, Adam S Hyde, Michael Hulme, Jeffrey E Carter
Surgical residents cite increased income potential as a motivation for pursuing fellowship training, despite little evidence supporting this perception. Thus, our goal is to quantify the financial impact of surgical fellowship training on financial career value. By using Medical Group Management Association and Association of American Medical Colleges physician income data, and accounting for resident salary, student debt, a progressive tax structure, and forgone wages associated with prolonged training, we generated a net present value (NPV) for both generalist and subspecialist surgeons...
September 2016: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903757/beyond-hand-hygiene-a-qualitative-study-of-the-everyday-work-of-preventing-cross-contamination-on-hospital-wards
#8
Su-Yin Hor, Claire Hooker, Rick Iedema, Mary Wyer, Gwendolyn L Gilbert, Christine Jorm, Matthew Vincent Neil O'Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infections are the most common adverse event for inpatients worldwide. Efforts to prevent microbial cross-contamination currently focus on hand hygiene and use of personal protective equipment (PPE), with variable success. Better understanding is needed of infection prevention and control (IPC) in routine clinical practice. METHODS: We report on an interventionist video-reflexive ethnography study that explored how healthcare workers performed IPC in three wards in two hospitals in New South Wales, Australia: an intensive care unit and two general surgical wards...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862543/interest-in-rural-clinical-school-is-not-enough-participation-is-necessary-to-predict-an-ultimate-rural-practice-location
#9
Denese Playford, Ian B Puddey
OBJECTIVE: Rural exposure during medical school is associated with increased rural work after graduation. How much of the increase in rural workforce by these graduates is due to pre-existing interest and plans to work rurally and how much is related to the extended clinical placement is not known. DESIGN: This cohort study compared the employment location of medical graduates who professed no rural interest as undergraduates (negative control), with those who applied but did not participate in Rural Clinical School of Western Australia (RCSWA) (positive control), and those who applied and participated in RCSWA (participants)...
November 16, 2016: Australian Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844179/-it-s-making-contacts-notions-of-social-capital-and-implications-for-widening-access-to-medical-education
#10
S Nicholson, J A Cleland
In the UK widening access (WA) activities and policies aim to increase the representation from lower socio-economic groups into Higher Education. Whilst linked to a political rhetoric of inclusive education such initiatives have however failed to significantly increase the number of such students entering medicine. This is compounded by a discourse that portrays WA applicants and students as lacking the essential skills or attributes to be successful in medical education. Much of the research in this area to date has been weak and it is critical to better understand how WA applicants and students negotiate medical admissions and education to inform change...
November 14, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842590/the-prevalence-and-cost-of-medical-student-visiting-rotations
#11
Matthew Winterton, Jaimo Ahn, Joseph Bernstein
BACKGROUND: Performance on visiting rotations during the senior year of medical school is consistently cited by residency program directors as a critical factor in selecting residents. Nevertheless, the frequency with which visiting rotations are undertaken and the associated financial costs they impose have not been systematically examined. METHOD: Under the auspices of the Electronic Residency Application Service, a survey was sent in March 2015 to all U.S. applicants for residency programs in the 2014-15 academic year...
November 14, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812820/who-do-you-think-you-are-medical-student-socioeconomic-status-and-intention-to-work-in-underserved-areas
#12
Barbara Griffin, Erik Porfeli, Wendy Hu
A frequently cited rationale for increasing the participation of students from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds is that it will create a workforce who will choose to work in low SES and medically underserviced communities. Two theoretical arguments, one that supports and one that contradicts this assumption, are proposed to explain the practice location intentions of medical students which we examine in a longitudinal analysis. SES background and future intentions of 351 applicants to an undergraduate medical degree were assessed at Time 1, with intentions re-assessed one year later for 96% of those who were enrolled as medical students...
November 3, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805952/improving-learner-handovers-in-medical-education
#13
Eric J Warm, Robert Englander, Anne Pereira, Paul Barach
Multiple studies have demonstrated that the information included in the Medical Student Performance Evaluation fails to reliably predict medical students' future performance. This faulty transfer of information can lead to harm when poorly prepared students fail out of residency or, worse, are shuttled through the medical education system without an honest accounting of their performance. Such poor learner handovers likely arise from two root causes: (1) the absence of agreed-on outcomes of training and/or accepted assessments of those outcomes, and (2) the lack of standardized ways to communicate the results of those assessments...
November 1, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797293/the-impact-of-socially-accountable-health-professional-education-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#14
Carole Reeve, Torres Woolley, Simone J Ross, Leila Mohammadi, Servando Ben Halili, Fortunato Cristobal, Jusie Lydia J Siega-Sur, A-J Neusy
This literature review describes the impact of health professional schools with a social accountability mandate by identifying characteristics of medical education found to impact positively on medical students, health workforce, and health outcomes of disadvantaged communities. A critical appraisal tool was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the published articles. Data are presented as a narrative synthesis due to the variety of methodologies in the studies, and characterized using a logic model...
October 31, 2016: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795969/reflection-on-the-future-of-medical-care-challenges-of-social-accountability-from-the-viewpoints-of-care-providers-and-patients
#15
Masumeh Sanaii, Leili Mosalanejad, Saideh Rahmanian, Alireza Sahraieyan, Ali Dehghani
INTRODUCTION: Clearly, there are some challenges and difficulties in fulfilling social accountability which should be identified and dealt with in order to reach the ultimate goal. The main objective of this study was to identify the challenges associated with social accountability. METHODS: In this qualitative study, focus groups and in-depth semi-structured interview were used to obtain the opinions and experiences of 35 people with 4 focus groups of students, faculty members, patients and their companions in Jahrom University of Medical Sciences...
October 2016: Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793155/off-label-use-of-orphan-medicinal-products-a-belgian-qualitative-study
#16
Marc Dooms, David Cassiman, Steven Simoens
BACKGROUND: Off-label use of (orphan) medicinal products for (rare) diseases is quite common but not underpinned by clinical studies to confirm efficacy and safety. No risk-analyses by regulatory agencies are carried out. The objective of this study was to map off-label use of orphan medicinal products in Belgium in terms of attitude towards off-label prescribing, factors influencing off-label prescribing, disclosure of information towards the patient, reporting of off-label use, risks and consequences...
October 28, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785343/auditing-sex-and-gender-based-medicine-sgbm-content-in-medical-school-curriculum-a-student-scholar-model
#17
EDITORIAL
Michael M Song, Betsy G Jones, Robert A Casanova
BACKGROUND: Sex- and gender-based medicine (SGBM) aims to (1) delineate and investigate sex- and gender-based differences in health, disease, and response to treatment and (2) apply that knowledge to clinical care to improve the health of both women and men. However, the integration of SGBM into medical school curricula is often haphazard and poorly defined; schools often do not know the current status of SGBM content in their curricula, even if they are committed to addressing gaps and improving SGBM delivery...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779510/individual-and-institutional-components-of-the-medical-school-educational-environment
#18
Larry D Gruppen, R Brent Stansfield
PURPOSE: To examine, using a systems framework, the relative influence of individual-level and institution-level factors on student perceptions of the medical school educational environment. METHOD: A series of hierarchical linear models were fit to a large, 18-school longitudinal dataset of student perceptions of the educational environment, various demographics, and student empathy, tolerance of ambiguity, coping, and patient-provider orientation. Separate models were evaluated for individual-level factors alone, institution-level factors alone, and the combination of individual- and institution-level factors...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760535/the-haiti-medical-education-project-development-and-analysis-of-a-competency-based-continuing-medical-education-course-in-haiti-through-distance-learning
#19
EDITORIAL
Robert Battat, Marc Jhonson, Lorne Wiseblatt, Cruff Renard, Laura Habib, Manouchka Normil, Brian Remillard, Timothy F Brewer, Galit Sacajiu
BACKGROUND: Recent calls for reform in healthcare training emphasize using competency-based curricula and information technology-empowered learning. Continuing Medical Education programs are essential in maintaining physician accreditation. Haitian physicians have expressed a lack access to these activities. The Haiti Medical Education Project works in alliance with Haitian medical leadership, faculty and students to support the Country's medical education system. We present the creation, delivery and evaluation of a competency-based continuing medical education curriculum for physicians in rural Haiti...
October 19, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753823/sy-01-1-adaptation-of-major-guidelines-for-regional-applications
#20
Ernesto Schiffrin
Clinical practice guidelines, which are systematically developed statements aimed at helping people make clinical, policy-related and system-related decisions, frequently vary widely in quality. A strategy is needed to differentiate among guidelines and ensure that those of the highest quality are implemented. Hypertension Canada provides annually updated standardized recommendations and clinical practice guidelines to detect, treat and control hypertension. The annual, evidence-based recommendations are developed through intense discussion of the clinical implications via a systematic review of the literature followed by critical appraisals of all the new clinical research, taking into account the assessment criteria in the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument that evaluates the process of practice guideline development and the quality of reporting...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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