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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932233/schizophrenia-risk-alleles-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-childhood-a-population-based-cohort-study
#1
Lucy Riglin, Stephan Collishaw, Alexander Richards, Ajay K Thapar, Barbara Maughan, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia typically onsets after puberty but is often preceded by observable childhood neurodevelopmental impairments. Whether these childhood antecedents index genetic liability is unknown. We used polygenic risk scores derived from a patient discovery sample as indicators of the genetic liability of schizophrenia. Our aim was to identify the early childhood manifestations of this liability in a UK population-based cohort. METHODS: The study sample was the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective population-based cohort study of 14701 children...
December 5, 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930939/guided-parent-delivered-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-childhood-anxiety-predictors-of-treatment-response
#2
Kerstin Thirlwall, Peter Cooper, Cathy Creswell
BACKGROUND: Guided Parent-delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (GPD-CBT) is a brief, effective treatment for childhood anxiety disorders, however not all children respond favourably. AIMS: To examine predictors of response to GPD-CBT. METHODS: Parents of 125 children (7-12 years) with an anxiety disorder received GPD-CBT over 2.6 or 5.3h. Recovery was measured post treatment and six months later. RESULTS: Younger children and those with primary Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) improved more post treatment, but older children and those without primary GAD had better outcomes at six month follow up...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930902/a-large-scale-national-study-of-gambling-severity-among-immigrant-and-non-immigrant-adolescents-the-role-of-the-family
#3
Natale Canale, Alessio Vieno, Mark D Griffiths, Alberto Borraccino, Giacomo Lazzeri, Lorena Charrier, Patrizia Lemma, Paola Dalmasso, Massimo Santinello
AIM: The primary aim of the present study was to examine the association between immigrant generation, family sociodemographic characteristics, and problem gambling severity in a large-scale nationally representative sample of Italian youth. METHOD: Data from the 2013-2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Survey were used for cross-sectional analyses of adolescent problem gambling. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by a representative sample of 20,791 15-year-old students...
November 24, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927912/gs-5759-a-bifunctional-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-agonist-and-phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-with-a-unique-mode-of-action-effects-on-gene-expression-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#4
Taruna Joshi, Dong Yan, Omar Hamed, Stacey L Tannheimer, Gary B Phillips, Clifford D Wright, Musong Kim, Michael Salmon, Robert Newton, Mark A Giembycz
GS-5759 is a bifunctional ligand composed of a quinolinone-containing pharmacophore (β2A) found in several β2-adrenoceptor agonists, including indacaterol, linked covalently to a phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor related to GSK 256066 by a pent-1-yn-1-ylbenzene spacer. GS-5759 had similar affinity for PDE4B1 and the native β2-adrenoceptor expressed on BEAS-2B human airway epithelial cells. However, compared to the monofunctional parent compound, β2A, the KA of GS-5759 for the β2-adrenoceptor was 35-fold lower...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925295/parents-perceptions-are-that-their-child-s-health-related-quality-of-life-is-more-impaired-when-they-have-a-wheat-rather-than-a-grass-allergy
#5
Nora Borres, Nora Nilsson, Isabel Drake, Sigrid Sjölander, Caroline Nilsson, Gunilla Hedlin, Björn Nordlund
AIM: It is unknown whether food allergies have greater impact on quality of life than respiratory allergies. This study compared health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children allergic to wheat or grass. METHODS: We surveyed 63 children with wheat allergies (median age of five) and 72 with grass allergies (median age 12), with their parents. The Child Health Questionnaires for parents (CHQ-PF28) and children (CHQ-CF87) were applied. RESULTS: The parents of children in the wheat group recorded significantly lower CHQ-PF28 scores for the impact of their child's allergy on general behaviour, general health perceptions, parental impact of emotions and time and family activities, than the parents of children with grass allergies (p values <0...
December 7, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922144/sleep-patterns-and-dysfunctions-in-children-with-learning-problems
#6
Ramkumar Aishworiya, Po Fun Chan, Jennifer Sh Kiing, Shang Chee Chong, Stacey Kh Tay
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the sleep patterns and dysfunctions in children with learning problems in comparison against a local population-based sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parents of 200 children with learning problems and 372 parents of a local population-based sample of typically developing (TD) children were recruited to complete a questionnaire on their child's sleep patterns and sleep problems. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) is a validated parent-reported sleep screening questionnaire that contains 54 items identifying sleep behaviours in children...
November 2016: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921139/reduced-inattention-and-hyperactivity-and-improved-cognition-after-marine-oil-extract-pcso-524%C3%A2-supplementation-in-children-and-adolescents-with-clinical-and-subclinical-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo
#7
James D Kean, Jerome Sarris, Andrew Scholey, Richard Silberstein, Luke A Downey, Con Stough
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the effects of a marine oil extract (PCSO-524®) on inattention, hyperactivity, mood and cognition in children and adolescents. PCSO-524® is a standardised lipid extract of the New Zealand green-lipped mussel and is an inflammatory modulator that inhibits the 5'-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways and decreases concentrations of the pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid (AA). METHODS: PCSO-524® or a matched placebo was administered for 14 weeks to 144 participants (123 males/21 females; mean age 8...
December 5, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919242/reducing-child-abuse-amongst-adolescents-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-pre-post-trial-in-south-africa
#8
Lucie Cluver, Franziska Meinck, Alexa Yakubovich, Jenny Doubt, Alice Redfern, Catherine Ward, Nasteha Salah, Sachin De Stone, Tshiamo Petersen, Phelisa Mpimpilashe, Rocio Herrero Romero, Lulu Ncobo, Jamie Lachman, Sibongile Tsoanyane, Yulia Shenderovich, Heidi Loening, Jasmina Byrne, Lorraine Sherr, Lauren Kaplan, Frances Gardner
BACKGROUND: No known studies have tested the effectiveness of child abuse prevention programmes for adolescents in low- or middle-income countries. 'Parenting for Lifelong Health' ( http://tiny.cc/whoPLH ) is a collaborative project to develop and rigorously test abuse-prevention parenting programmes for free use in low-resource contexts. Research aims of this first pre-post trial in South Africa were: i) to identify indicative effects of the programme on child abuse and related outcomes; ii) to investigate programme safety for testing in a future randomised trial, and iii) to identify potential adaptations...
July 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917470/a-harsh-parenting-team-maternal-reports-of-coparenting-and-coercive-parenting-interact-in-association-with-children-s-disruptive-behaviour
#9
Rachel M Latham, Katharine M Mark, Bonamy R Oliver
BACKGROUND: Parenting and coparenting are both important for children's adjustment, but their interaction has been little explored. Using a longitudinal design and considering two children per family, we investigated mothers' and fathers' perceptions of coparenting as moderators of associations between their coercive parenting and children's disruptive behaviour. METHODS: Mothers and fathers from 106 'intact' families were included from the Twins, Family and Behaviour study...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914239/sixth-graders-in-israel-recount-their-experience-of-verbal-abuse-by-teachers-in-the-classroom
#10
Brenda Geiger
AIM: This study adopts a children's rights perspective stated in Articles 3, 12, 19, 28 of the Convention on the Rights of Children (1989) with the goal of listening to Israeli children articulate their experience of verbal abuse by teachers in 6th grade classrooms METHODS: A purposeful sample of sixty students was individually interviewed and content analysis was performed following Strauss' (1987) constant comparative method. RESULTS: Students reported teachers' yelling, name-calling and put-downs when failing to pay attention, complete their work, or obtain good grades...
November 30, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913921/language-difficulty-at-school-entry-and-the-trajectories-of-hyperactivity-inattention-problems-from-ages-4-to-11-evidence-from-a-population-representative-cohort-study
#11
Shaun Goh Kok Yew, Richard O'Kearney
Latent growth curve modelling was used to contrast the developmental trajectories of hyperactivity-inattention (H-I) problems across childhood for children with a language difficulty at the start of school and those with typical language and to examine if the presence of a language difficulty moderates the associations of child, parent and peer predictors with these trajectories. Unconditional and language-status conditional latent growth curves of H-I problems were estimated for a large nationally representative cohort of children, comprising 1627 boys (280 - language difficulty) and 1609 girls (159 - language difficulty) measured at age 4 to 5, 6 to 7, 8 to 9 and 10 to 11...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911938/motion-plan-changes-predictably-in-dyadic-reaching
#12
Atsushi Takagi, Niek Beckers, Etienne Burdet
Parents can effortlessly assist their child to walk, but the mechanism behind such physical coordination is still unknown. Studies have suggested that physical coordination is achieved by interacting humans who update their movement or motion plan in response to the partner's behaviour. Here, we tested rigidly coupled pairs in a joint reaching task to observe such changes in the partners' motion plans. However, the joint reaching movements were surprisingly consistent across different trials. A computational model that we developed demonstrated that the two partners had a distinct motion plan, which did not change with time...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910795/i-did-eat-my-vegetables-agreement-between-parent-and-child-food-intake-diaries
#13
Natalie Rangelov, L Suzanne Suggs, Pedro Marques-Vidal
OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of agreement between children and their parents when reporting a child's food consumption. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in which children and parents independently completed 7 d food diaries describing the foods and drinks the child consumed at every meal and snack. The association between child and parent reporting was assessed for nineteen food groups using Kendall's tau-b non-parametric correlations, Spearman's rank correlations, kappa coefficients and Lin's concordance measure of agreement...
December 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908665/diffuse-resistance-courtship-in-the-scorpion-rhopalurus-rochai-scorpiones-buthidae
#14
Shayanne Chantall-Rocha, Hilton F Japyassú
Male-female courtship signals are frequently subject to arms races, with patterns of behaviour evolving reciprocally to manipulate the reproductive output. Female resistance should be particularly effective when asymmetrical offspring care occurs under low and unpredictable resource distribution, because this would increase maternal costs. Our hypothesis is that under these conditions females will evolve diffuse mating strategies to avoid predictable exploitation by male optimal counter tactics. Mating in scorpions is a complex process, and female resistance occurs through specific behaviours...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906154/-factors-associated-with-overweight-and-obesity-in-schoolchildren-from-8-to-9-years-old-barcelona-spain
#15
Francesca Sánchez-Martínez, Peter Torres Capcha, Gemma Serral Cano, Sara Valmayor Safont, Conxa Castell Abat, Carles Ariza Cardenal
OBJECTIVE: Childhood overweight and obesity have increased progressively in the last decades, especially in countries of Southern Europe. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of overweight, obesity and its determinants in schoolchildren between 8-9 years old from Barcelona. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 3,262 schoolchildren in 2011. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated following the criteria established by the World Health Organization (z-scores)...
December 2, 2016: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905917/are-distinctive-risk-indicators-associated-with-different-stages-of-caries-in-children-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Maria Grazia Cagetti, Giovanna Congiu, Fabio Cocco, Gianfranco Meloni, Silvana Sale, Guglielmo Campus
BACKGROUND: Actual caries figures emphasize the need to identify the risk indicators involved in the disease's development. The hypothesis that certain risk indicators might affect the dynamic evolution of the caries process was assessed; to clarify this premise, a cross-sectional survey was performed in school children. METHODS: A total of 390 subjects aged 6-8 years old were randomly selected. Caries was assessed, and the subjects were stratified as follows: i) highest caries score; ii) most prevalent caries score; and iii) number of affected teeth...
December 1, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904806/dominance-relationships-in-a-family-pack-of-captive-arctic-wolves-canis-lupus-arctos-the-influence-of-competition-for-food-age-and-sex
#17
Simona Cafazzo, Martina Lazzaroni, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
BACKGROUND: Dominance is one of the most pervasive concepts in the study of wolf social behaviour but recently its validity has been questioned. For some authors, the bonds between members of wolf families are better described as parent-offspring relationships and the concept of dominance should be used just to evaluate the social dynamics of non-familial captive pack members (e.g., Mech & Cluff, 2010). However, there is a dearth of studies investigating dominance relationships and its correlates in wolf family packs...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904519/mind-conduct-disorders-in-children-with-poor-oral-hygiene-habits-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-with-excessive-tooth-decay
#18
Onur Burak Dursun, Fatih Şengül, İbrahim Selçuk Esin, Tevfik Demirci, Nermin Yücel, Mehmet Melih Ömezli
INTRODUCTION: Dental caries and poor oral hygiene are among the major childhood public health problems. Although dental research frequently refers to the link between these conditions and behavioural issues, little attention has been paid to understanding the reason for oral health problems from a psychiatric point of view. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between poor oral health and hygiene and parental attitudes towards child rearing, parents' and children's oral hygiene behaviours, and childhood psychiatric disorders...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899098/health-risk-behaviours-amongst-school-adolescents-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-study
#19
Youness El Achhab, Abdelghaffar El Ammari, Hicham El Kazdouh, Adil Najdi, Mohamed Berraho, Nabil Tachfouti, Driss Lamri, Samira El Fakir, Chakib Nejjari
BACKGROUND: Determining risky behaviours of adolescents provides valuable information for designing appropriate intervention programmes for advancing adolescent's health. However, these behaviours are not fully addressed by researchers in a comprehensive approach. We report the protocol of a mixed methods study designed to investigate the health risk behaviours of Moroccan adolescents with the goal of identifying suitable strategies to address their health concerns. METHODS: We used a sequential two-phase explanatory mixed method study design...
November 29, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895829/correlates-of-cannabis-use-among-high-school-students-in-shamva-district-zimbabwe-a-descriptive-cross-sectional-study
#20
Charmaine T Chivandire, James January
BACKGROUND: We set out to determine the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors that influence cannabis use in young people aged 13 to 19 years in Shamva District, Zimbabwe. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study focusing on the correlates of cannabis use was conducted among 311 school-going adolescents who were selected using multistage sampling. RESULTS: Eight percent of the students in our sample reported current use of cannabis...
June 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
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