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Parenting behaviours

Elizabeth Stewart, Cathy Catroppa, Deepak Gill, Richard Webster, John Lawson, Anna Mandalis, Mark Sabaz, Belinda Barton, Suncica Lah
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine Theory of Mind (ToM) and social competence in children and adolescents with genetic generalised epilepsy (GGE), and explore how they relate to neurocognitive and epilepsy variables. METHODS: Twenty-two children and adolescents with GGE (8-16 years old) and 22 typically developing controls completed two behavioural tasks (faux-pas, strange stories) assessing cognitive and affective ToM, and a battery of standardised neuropsychological tests...
June 18, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
M Herle, A Fildes, C H Llewellyn
BACKGROUND: Emotional over-eating (EOE) and emotional under-eating (EUE) are common behaviours that develop in early childhood and are hypothesised to play a role in weight status. Data from a British twin cohort demonstrated that environmental, rather than genetic, factors shape individual differences in both behaviours in early childhood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this current study was to replicate this finding in a subsample (n = 398) of 4-year-old twins selected for high or low risk of obesity from another population-based cohort of British twins (the Twins Early Development Study)...
June 21, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Ruth McGovern, Elaine Stamp, Mehdi Javanbakht, Elaine McColl, Matthew Hickman, Eileen Kaner
Background: Research estimates that 30% of children under the age of 16 years in the UK live with at least one parent with an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Parental AUDs are associated with adverse childhood experiences and poorer outcomes for children. The PAReNTS (Promoting Alcohol Reduction in Non-Treatment Seeking parents) trial aims to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a randomised controlled trial of brief alcohol interventions to reduce parental alcohol misuse. Methods: The cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted within early help family support and children's social care services in three local authorities in the North East of England: Newcastle, Durham and North Tyneside...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Claudia Ravaldi, Miriam Levi, Elena Angeli, Gianpaolo Romeo, Marco Biffino, Roberto Bonaiuti, Alfredo Vannacci
OBJECTIVE: To assess current practices of health care providers (HCPs) caring for women experiencing a stillbirth and to explore their needs for training to better support bereaved families. DESIGN: Nationwide cross-sectional survey. The main outcome measures were the evaluation of HCPs cognition, emotions and behaviours with regard to the care of women with a stillbirth care, as well as their compliance with international guidelines. PARTICIPANTS: 750 HCPs, in 11 Italian hospitals, were administered a multiple-choice questionnaire...
June 7, 2018: Midwifery
Gina Dimitropoulos, Ashley L Landers, Victoria E Freeman, Jason Novick, Olivia Cullen, Marla Engelberg, Cathleen Steinegger, Daniel Le Grange
Background: Family-Based Treatment (FBT) is the first line of care in paediatric treatment while adult programs focus on individualized models of care. Transition age youth (TAY) with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) are in a unique life stage and between systems of care. As such, they and their caregivers may benefit from specialized, developmentally tailored models of treatment. Methods: The primary purpose of this study was to assess if parental self-efficacy and caregiver accommodation changed in caregivers during the course of FBT-TAY for AN...
2018: Journal of Eating Disorders
Alejandro Rico-Guevara, Kristiina J Hurme
We propose a practical concept that distinguishes the particular kind of weaponry that has evolved to be used in combat between individuals of the same species and sex, which we term intrasexually selected weapons (ISWs). We present a treatise of ISWs in nature, aiming to understand their distinction and evolution from other secondary sex traits, including from 'sexually selected weapons', and from sexually dimorphic and monomorphic weaponry. We focus on the subset of secondary sex traits that are the result of same-sex combat, defined here as ISWs, provide not previously reported evolutionary patterns, and offer hypotheses to answer questions such as: why have only some species evolved weapons to fight for the opposite sex or breeding resources? We examined traits that seem to have evolved as ISWs in the entire animal phylogeny, restricting the classification of ISW to traits that are only present or enlarged in adults of one of the sexes, and are used as weapons during intrasexual fights...
June 20, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
K L Webb, S C Hewawitharana, L E Au, V Collie-Akers, W J Strauss, A J Landgraf, J Nagaraja, D K Wilson, R Sagatov, J Kao, C M Loria, S B Fawcett, L D Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Rational planning of community policies and programs (CPPs) to prevent obesity requires an understanding of CPP objectives associated with dietary behaviours. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to identify objectives of CPPs associated with healthful dietary behaviours. METHODS: An observational study identified 4026 nutrition CPPs occurring in 130 communities in the prior 6 years. Dietary intakes of fruits and vegetables, added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, among others, were reported among 5138 children 4-15 years of age from the communities, using a Dietary Screener Questionnaire with children age 9 years and older (parent assisted) or parent proxies for younger children...
June 19, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Hao Wang, Jieming Zhong, Ruying Hu, Bragg Fiona, Min Yu, Huaidong Du
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and correlates of high screen time (ST) among students in Zhejiang, China. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: School-based adolescent health survey in Zhejiang Province, China. PARTICIPANTS: 23 543 students in grades 7-12 from 442 different schools. OUTCOME: High ST. RESULTS: The mean age of the students was 15.6 years and 49...
June 19, 2018: BMJ Open
Moniek A J Zeegers, Wieke de Vente, Milica Nikolić, Mirjana Majdandžić, Susan M Bögels, Cristina Colonnesi
The main aim of this study was to test whether mothers' (n = 116) and fathers' (n = 116) mind-mindedness predicts infants' physiological emotion regulation (heart rate variability; HRV) across the first year of life. Three hypotheses were examined: (a) parents' mind-mindedness at 4 and 12 months predicts infants' HRV at 12 months over and above infants' initial HRV levels at 4 months, (b) mothers' and fathers' mind-mindedness independently predict infant HRV, and (c) the effects of mind-mindedness on infant HRV (partially) operate via parenting behaviour...
June 19, 2018: Developmental Science
Chrisanthi Marakaki, Panagiota Pervanidou, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George Mastorakos, Ze'ev Hochberg, George Chrousos, Anastasios Papadimitriou
Concerns over anxiety and depressive symptoms in children with premature adrenarche (PA) have been recently raised. However, to date, most relevant studies are on a small number of girls. In this cross-sectional study, 82 pre-pubertal children (66 girls and 16 boys) diagnosed with PA, were compared to 63 control children regarding their psychological characteristics and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, as assessed by salivary cortisol measurement. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by child self-report (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and Depression self-rating scale for Children (DSRS)) and parent-report (Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL)) tests validated for the Greek population...
June 19, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Beatrice Wamuyu Muchiri, Monika M L Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: An increasingly recognised prevention approach for substance use entails a reduction in risk factors, and the enhancement of promotive, or protective factors in individuals and the environment surrounding them during their growth and development. METHODS: This exploratory study evaluated the effect of potential risk and protective factors associated with family management relating to adolescent substance use in South Africa. Exploratory analysis and cumulative odds ordinal logistic regression modelling was performed on the data, while controlling for the influence of demographic and socio-economic characteristics on adolescent substance use...
June 19, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Natalie Pearson, Stuart J H Biddle, Paula Griffiths, Julie P Johnston, Emma Haycraft
BACKGROUND: Screen-time and unhealthy dietary behaviours are highly pervasive in young children and evidence suggests that these behaviours often co-occur and are associated. Identifying clusters of unhealthy behaviours, and their influences early in childhood, can assist in the development of targeted preventive interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the sociodemographic, behavioural, and home physical environmental correlates of co-occurring screen-time and unhealthy eating behaviours and to assess the clustering of screen-time and unhealthy dietary behaviours in young children...
June 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
Claire V Farrow, Emma Haycraft, Jacqueline M Blissett
Overt parental restriction of food has previously been associated with child weight; however, most research has relied on self-reported feeding behaviour, or observations which give little opportunity to observe restriction of food. Using a novel lab-based observational technique to increase the opportunity to observe maternal feeding restriction, we explored the relationships between maternal restriction, child responses to restriction and child temperament with child body mass index (BMI) Z-scores over time...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Shuntaro Ando, Atsushi Nishida, Satoshi Usami, Shinsuke Koike, Syudo Yamasaki, Sho Kanata, Shinya Fujikawa, Toshiaki A Furukawa, Masato Fukuda, Susan M Sawyer, Mariko Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Kiyoto Kasai
BACKGROUND: Seeking help from others is an essential behavioural intention for humans to adapt to the social environment. Transgenerational and gender-related mechanisms of how this intention is shaped is an important but unresolved question in adolescent development. This study aimed to comprehensively examine the factors promoting or inhibiting intention to seek help for depression in 10-year-olds, including transgenerational factors, and to investigate the sex differences in the effect of these factors...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Meena Balasubramanian, Diana S Johnson
BACKGROUND: Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of rare metabolic diseases due to impaired lipid and protein glycosylation. It comprises a characteristic high frequency of intellectual disability (ID) and a wide range of clinical phenotypes. OBJECTIVE: (s): To identify the underlying diagnosis in two families each with two siblings with variable level of ID through trio whole exome sequencing. METHODS: Both the families were recruited to the Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDD) study to identify the aetiology for their ID...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Anilena Mejia, Richard Emsley, Eleonora Fichera, Wadih Maalouf, Jeremy Segrott, Rachel Calam
BACKGROUND: Interpersonal violence can significantly reduce adolescents' opportunities for becoming happy and healthy adults. Central America is the most violent region in the world and it is estimated that adolescents are involved in 82% of all homicides in this region. Family skills training programmes have been designed to prevent interpersonal violence in adolescents. Several studies in high-income countries suggest they are effective. However, there are no published trials assessing effectiveness of these programmes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)...
June 15, 2018: Trials
Joanne Woodford, Anna Wikman, Martin Cernvall, Gustaf Ljungman, Amanda Romppala, Helena Grönqvist, Louise von Essen
INTRODUCTION: A subgroup of parents of children previously treated for cancer report long-term psychological distress after end of treatment. However, needs for psychological support are commonly unmet and there is a lack of evidence-based treatments tailored to the specific needs of this population. An internet-administered, guided, cognitive-behavioural therapy-based, self-help intervention (ENGAGE) for parents of children previously treated for cancer may provide a solution. The aim is to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention ENGAGE and the study procedures for a future controlled trial...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Cristina Vintró-Alcaraz, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Trevor Steward, María Lozano-Madrid, Zaida Agüera, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Anna M Pedraza, Eduardo Serrano-Troncoso, Ana E Ortiz García, Teresa Rangil, Eulalia Lorán, Jose Soriano-Pacheco, Laura Medrano-Puigdollers, Sara Bujalance-Arguijo, Gina Badia, Maria Luque, Gloria Tràfach, Osane Gómez, Joan Peña, Carme Fabra, Maria Teresa Plana, Reyes Raspall, Isabel Sánchez, Nadine Riesco, Roser Granero, Cristina Carretero-Jardí, Janet Treasure, Fernando Fernández-Aranda
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the Caregiver Skills scale (CASK) in a sample of eating disorder (ED) caregivers. A further aim was to examine the concordance/discrepancy between them (namely, between the mothers and fathers of ED patients). METHOD: Two hundred sixty-five ED caregivers were recruited from ED centers in Catalonia, Spain. Confirmatory factor analyses was used to test the factorial structure of the CASK scale. Cronbach's α was used to measure internal consistency of the CASK scales...
July 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
R R Pate, E A Frongillo, K L McIver, N Colabianchi, D K Wilson, V L Collie-Akers, J A Schultz, J Reis, K Madsen, G Woodward-Lopez, D Berrigan, A Landgraf, J Nagaraja, W J Strauss
BACKGROUND: Community initiatives to promote physical activity in children are common, but evidence supporting their effectiveness is limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to examine the relationships between community programmes and policies and children's physical activity in a large and diverse sample of US communities. METHODS: Programmes and policies to promote children's physical activity were assessed in 130 communities by key informant interviews, and physical activity behaviours were measured by self-report and parental report in samples of children in each community (total n = 5138)...
June 13, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Christina J Jones, Lauren A Sommereux, Helen E Smith
BACKGROUND: Positive self-care behaviours are more likely in young people who engage with allergy support groups, but reasons for this association are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: This study explored how and why young people engage with allergy support groups to identify what activities and resources are beneficial. METHODS: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with young people aged 12-21 years who reported engaging with allergy support groups (in person or on-line)...
June 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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