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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237860/human-infancy-and-parenting-in-global-perspective-specificity
#1
Marc H Bornstein, Diane L Putnick, Yoonjung Park, Joan T D Suwalsky, O Maurice Haynes
We address three long-standing fundamental questions about early human development and parental caregiving within a specificity framework using data from 796 infant-mother dyads from 11 societies worldwide. Adopting a cross-society view opens a vista on universal biological origins of, and contextual influences on, infant behaviours and parenting practices. We asked: how do infant behaviours and parenting practices vary across societies? How do infant behaviours relate to other infant behaviours, and how do parent practices relate to other parent practices? Are infant behaviours and parent practices related to one another? Behaviours of firstborn five-month infants and parenting practices of their mothers were microanalysed from videorecords of extensive naturally occurring interactions in the home...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235172/scaling-up-child-development-centres-in-bangladesh
#2
N Z Khan, R Sultana, F Ahmed, A B Shilpi, N Sultana, G L Darmstadt
BACKGROUND: Child Development Centres (CDCs) have been established within government medical college tertiary hospitals across Bangladesh. Services entail a parent-professional partnership in a child and family friendly environment with a focus on assessment, diagnosis, and management of a range of neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents 0-16 years of age. Services are provided by a multidisciplinary team of professionals (child health physician, child psychologist, and developmental therapist) who emphasize quality of services over the numbers of children seen...
January 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235128/-love-builds-brains-representations-of-attachment-and-children-s-brain-development-in-parenting-education-material
#3
Glenda Wall
A focus on early brain development has come to dominate expert child rearing advice over the past two decades. Recent scholars have noted a reinvigoration of the concept of attachment in this advice and changes in the ways that attachment is framed and understood. The extent to which the concept of attachment is drawn on, the way it is framed, and the consequences for mothers, families and parent-child relationships is examined through a discursive analysis of a current Canadian parental education campaign...
December 12, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234009/childhood-behaviour-problems-show-the-greatest-gap-between-dna-based-and-twin-heritability
#4
Rosa Cheesman, Saskia Selzam, Angelica Ronald, Philip S Dale, Tom A McAdams, Thalia C Eley, Robert Plomin
For most complex traits, DNA-based heritability ('SNP heritability') is roughly half that of twin-based heritability. A previous report from the Twins Early Development Study suggested that this heritability gap is much greater for childhood behaviour problems than for other domains. If true, this finding is important because SNP heritability, not twin heritability, is the ceiling for genome-wide association studies. With twice the sample size as the previous report, we estimated SNP heritabilities (N up to 4653 unrelated individuals) and compared them with twin heritabilities from the same sample (N up to 4724 twin pairs) for diverse domains of childhood behaviour problems as rated by parents, teachers, and children themselves at ages 12 and 16...
December 12, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233605/measuring-vaccine-acceptance-among-canadian-parents-a-survey-of-the-canadian-immunization-research-network
#5
Eve Dubé, Dominique Gagnon, Manale Ouakki, Julie A Bettinger, Holly O Witteman, Shannon MacDonald, William Fisher, Vineet Saini, Devon Greyson
Parental decision making about childhood vaccinations is complex and multidimensional. There is a perception that the number of parents having concerns regarding childhood vaccinations has been increasing in Canada. The aim of this study was to explore vaccine hesitancy among Canadian parents and to examine factors associated with a parent's intention to vaccinate his/her child. Informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) this study assesses potential associations between parents' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs toward vaccination and their intention to vaccinate their child in the future...
December 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231138/cholinesterase-inhibitor-6-chlorotacrine-in-vivo-toxicological-profile-and-behavioural-effects
#6
Jan Misik, Eugenie Nepovimova, Jaroslav Pejchal, Jiri Kassa, Jan Korabecny, Ondrej Soukup
BACKGROUND: 6-chlorotacrine is a cholinesterase inhibitor showing good inhibitory potential, even better than parent compound tacrine, in vitro. Despite tacrine scaffold is broadly used for design and synthesis of novel compounds with anti-Alzheimer's potential, no in vivo effects have been investigated so far. Thus, basic toxicological and behavioural evaluation has been carried out throughout this study. METHODS: Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and median lethal dose (LD50) were assessed in BALB/c mice and Wistar rats...
December 11, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230464/do-protocells-preferentially-retain-macromolecular-solutes-upon-division-fragmentation-a-study-based-on-the-extrusion-of-popc-giant-vesicles
#7
Alessio Fanti, Leandro Gammuto, Fabio Mavelli, Pasquale Stano, Roberto Marangoni
A key process of protocell behaviour is their recursive growth and division. In order to be sustainable, the latter must be characterized by an even and homogeneous partition of the solute molecules initially present in the parent protocell among the daughter ones. Here we have investigated, by means of an artificial division model (extrusion of giant lipid vesicles) and confocal microscopy, the fate of solutes when a large vesicle fragments into many smaller vesicles. Solutes of low- and high-molecular weight such as pyranine, calcein, albumin-FITC, dextran-FITC and carbonic anhydrase have been employed...
December 12, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229411/disentangling-the-effects-of-parental-food-restriction-on-child-s-risk-of-overweight
#8
Valérie Godefroy, Camille Champel, Laura Trinchera, Natalie Rigal
The links between parental restriction of food intake, child's eating behaviour and child's adiposity are still unclear. Our aim was to validate a model suggesting an underlying mechanism for the impact of parental restriction on child's adiposity through a broad dimension of child's eating temperament entitled the appetite reactivity (including both appetite arousal and appetite persistence). Using an online questionnaire administered at home to children aged between 8 and 11 years (N = 414) with one or both of their parents, we measured: based on child's reports, the perceived maternal restriction of child's food intake, the appetite reactivity and both the desired and the eaten mean food portion sizes; based on parental reports, the mean food portion size given to the child and the child's BMI...
December 8, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228916/physical-and-psychosomatic-health-outcomes-in-people-bereaved-by-suicide-compared-to-people-bereaved-by-other-modes-of-death-a-systematic-review
#9
Ailbhe Spillane, Celine Larkin, Paul Corcoran, Karen Matvienko-Sikar, Fiona Riordan, Ella Arensman
BACKGROUND: Little research has been conducted into the physical health implications of suicide bereavement compared to other causes of death. There is some evidence that suicide bereaved parents have higher morbidity, particularly in terms of chronic illness. This systematic review aims to examine the physical and psychosomatic morbidities of people bereaved by a family member's suicide and compare them with family members bereaved by other modes of death. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched from 1985 to February 2016...
December 12, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227776/the-specialty-and-naughty-nice-tendency-audit-santa-which-medical-specialists-can-be-trusted-to-follow-recipes
#10
Shian Miller, Tamara C Johnson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of medical specialty on the likelihood of doctors making the Naughty or Nice lists this Christmas. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A quantitative observational study. Doctors in a medical parent Facebook group were asked about their specialty and their tendency to follow recipes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported tendency to follow the recipe (always, sometimes, never) as an indicator of rule-breaking behaviour, extrapolated as indicating Naughty (unlikely to follow a recipe) or Nice (always follow recipes) tendencies, and consequently the likelihood of being included in the Nice list this Christmas...
December 11, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225887/a-prospective-longitudinal-study-of-men-with-borderline-personality-disorder-with-and-without-comorbid-antisocial-personality-disorder
#11
Marie-Pier Robitaille, Dave Checknita, Frank Vitaro, Richard E Tremblay, Joel Paris, Sheilagh Hodgins
Background: Some evidence suggests that the prevalence of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is elevated among male criminal offenders. It is not presently known whether offending, and violent offending, are limited to those presenting comorbid Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) who have a childhood history of conduct problems and whether offending is linked to psychopathic traits. Methods: A community sample of 311 males followed from age 6 to 33 years, one third of whom had a criminal charge between ages 18 and 24, completed diagnostic interviews and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised interview...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223777/child-care-centre-adherence-to-infant-physical-activity-and-screen-time-recommendations-in-australia-canada-and-the-united-states-an-observational-study
#12
Lyndel Hewitt, Sara E Benjamin-Neelon, Valerie Carson, Rebecca M Stanley, Ian Janssen, Anthony D Okely
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare adherence to physical activity and sedentary behaviour recommendations within the 2011 Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Policies as well as screen time recommendations from the 2013 American Academy of Pediatrics for samples of infants in child care centres in Australia, Canada, and the United States (US). METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from: the Australian 2013 Standing Preschools (N=9) and the 2014-2017 Early Start Baseline (N=22) studies; the 2011 Canadian Healthy Living Habits in Pre-School Children study (N=14); and the American 2008 (N=31) and 2013-2017 (N=31) Baby Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) trials...
December 7, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222612/how-do-parents-manage-irritability-challenging-behaviour-non-compliance-and-anxiety-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-meta-synthesis
#13
Elizabeth O'Nions, Francesca Happé, Kris Evers, Hannah Boonen, Ilse Noens
Although there is increasing research interest in the parenting of children with ASD, at present, little is known about everyday strategies used to manage problem behaviour. We conducted a meta-synthesis to explore what strategies parents use to manage irritability, non-compliance, challenging behaviour and anxiety in their children with ASD. Approaches included: (1) accommodating the child; (2) modifying the environment; (3) providing structure, routine and occupation; (4) supervision and monitoring; (5) managing non-compliance with everyday tasks; (6) responding to problem behaviour; (7) managing distress; (8) maintaining safety and (9) analysing and planning...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220685/parental-psychopathology-adult-attachment-and-risk-of-12-month-suicidal-behaviours
#14
David Boyda, Danielle Mc Feeters, Katie Dhingra, Niall Galbraith, Danny Hinton
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which parental psychopathology and vulnerability to suicide is transmitted to offspring is not well understood. parental psychopathology and behaviour may impact upon the normal emotional and psychological adjustment of their offspring in various ways. Research shows attachment insecurities may also be a key factor in the facilitation of suicidal behaviours. OBJECTIVE: To examine adult attachment insecurities as a potential mediating pathway between parental psychopathology and 12-month suicidality...
December 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219248/-my-mother-told-me-that-i-should-not-a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-restrictions-placed-on-adolescent-girls-living-with-hiv-in-zambia
#15
Constance Rs Mackworth-Young, Virginia Bond, Alison Wringe, Katongo Konayuma, Sue Clay, Chipo Chiiya, Mutale Chonta, Kirsty Sievwright, Anne L Stangl
INTRODUCTION: Adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by HIV due to a range of social and structural factors. As they transition to adulthood, they are recipients of increasing blame for HIV infection and 'improper' sex, as well as increasing scrutiny, restrictions and surveillance. This study used a qualitative and participatory approach to explore the messaging and restrictions imposed on adolescent girls living with HIV in Zambia. METHODS: Thirty-four in-depth interviews and four participatory workshops were carried out with 24 adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 years old living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219173/parenting-stress-anxiety-and-depression-in-mothers-with-visually-impaired-infants-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-cohort-analysis
#16
Elena Sakkalou, Hanna Sakki, Michelle A O'reilly, Alison T Salt, Naomi J Dale
AIM: This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of parenting stress, adult anxiety, and depression in mothers of children with profound or severe visual impairment (PVI or SVI) at 1 year and 2 years of age. METHOD: Mothers of a national longitudinal cohort (OPTIMUM Project) of infants with congenital disorders of the peripheral visual system and PVI (light perception at best) or SVI (basic 'form' vision of non-light reflecting objects) participated...
December 8, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219104/adherence-to-24-hour-movement-guidelines-for-the-early-years-and-associations-with-social-cognitive-development-among-australian-preschool-children
#17
Dylan P Cliff, Jade McNeill, Stewart A Vella, Steven J Howard, Rute Santos, Marijka Batterham, Edward Melhuish, Anthony D Okely, Marc de Rosnay
BACKGROUND: The new Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years recommend that, for preschoolers, a healthy 24-h includes: i) ≥180 min of physical activity, including ≥60 min of energetic play, ii) ≤1 h of sedentary screen time, and iii) 10-13 h of good quality sleep. Using an Australian sample, this study reports the proportion of preschool children meeting these guidelines and investigates associations with social-cognitive development. METHODS: Data from 248 preschool children (mean age = 4...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219096/meeting-new-canadian-24-hour-movement-guidelines-for-the-early-years-and-associations-with-adiposity-among-toddlers-living-in-edmonton-canada
#18
Eun-Young Lee, Kylie D Hesketh, Stephen Hunter, Nicholas Kuzik, Ryan E Rhodes, Christina M Rinaldi, John C Spence, Valerie Carson
BACKGROUND: Canada has recently released guidelines that include toddler-specific recommendations for physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and sleep. This study examined the proportions of toddlers meeting the new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years) and associations with body mass index (BMI) z-scores in a sample from Edmonton, Canada. METHODS: Participants included 151 toddlers (aged 19.0 ± 1.9 months) for whom there was complete objectively measured physical activity data from the Parents' Role in Establishing healthy Physical activity and Sedentary behaviour habits (PREPS) project...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219078/systematic-review-of-the-relationships-between-sleep-duration-and-health-indicators-in-the-early-years-0-4%C3%A2-years
#19
Jean-Philippe Chaput, Casey E Gray, Veronica J Poitras, Valerie Carson, Reut Gruber, Catherine S Birken, Joanna E MacLean, Salomé Aubert, Margaret Sampson, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: The objective of this systematic review was to examine for the first time the associations between sleep duration and a broad range of health indicators in children aged 0 to 4 years. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched with no limits on date or study design. Included studies (published in English or French) were peer-reviewed and met the a priori determined population (apparently healthy children aged 1 month to 4.99 years), intervention/exposure/comparator (various sleep durations), and outcome criteria (adiposity, emotional regulation, cognitive development, motor development, growth, cardiometabolic health, sedentary behaviour, physical activity, quality of life/well-being, and risks/injuries)...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219077/cross-sectional-associations-between-sleep-duration-sedentary-time-physical-activity-and-adiposity-indicators-among-canadian-preschool-aged-children-using-compositional-analyses
#20
Valerie Carson, Mark S Tremblay, Sebastien F M Chastin
BACKGROUND: Sleep duration, sedentary behaviour, and physical activity are three co-dependent behaviours that fall on the movement/non-movement intensity continuum. Compositional data analyses provide an appropriate method for analyzing the association between co-dependent movement behaviour data and health indicators. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) the combined associations of the composition of time spent in sleep, sedentary behaviour, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) with adiposity indicators; and (2) the association of the time spent in sleep, sedentary behaviour, LPA, or MVPA with adiposity indicators relative to the time spent in the other behaviours in a representative sample of Canadian preschool-aged children...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
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