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Jerry M Green
Glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops had a revolutionary impact on weed management practices, but the epidemic of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds is rapidly decreasing the value of these technologies. In areas that fully adopted glyphosate and GR crops, GR weeds evolved and glyphosate and glyphosate traits now must be combined with other technologies. The chemical company solution is to combine glyphosate with other chemicals, and the seed company solution is to combine glyphosate resistance with other traits...
October 18, 2016: Pest Management Science
Charles M Benbrook
BACKGROUND: Accurate pesticide use data are essential when studying the environmental and public health impacts of pesticide use. Since the mid-1990s, significant changes have occurred in when and how glyphosate herbicides are applied, and there has been a dramatic increase in the total volume applied. METHODS: Data on glyphosate applications were collected from multiple sources and integrated into a dataset spanning agricultural, non-agricultural, and total glyphosate use from 1974-2014 in the United States, and from 1994-2014 globally...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz, Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Carmen V Ozuna, Antonia M Rojano-Delgado, Hugo E Cruz-Hipolito, José A Domínguez-Valenzuela, Francisco Barro, Rafael De Prado
In 2014 hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) has been identified as being glyphosate-resistant in citrus orchards from Mexico. The target and non-target site mechanisms involved in the response to glyphosate of two resistant populations (R1 and R2) and one susceptible (S) were studied. Experiments of dose-response, shikimic acid accumulation, uptake-translocation, enzyme activity and 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene sequencing were carried out in each population. The R1 and R2 populations were 20...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fábio de Melo Tarouco, Filipe Guilherme Andrade de Godoi, Robson Rabelo Velasques, Amanda da Silveira Guerreiro, Marcio Alberto Geihs, Carlos Eduardo da Rosa
Glyphosate based herbicides, including Roundup, are widely employed in agriculture and urban spaces. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicological effects of Roundup on the estuarine polychaeta Laeonereis acuta. Biomarkers of oxidative stress as well as acetylcholinesterase and propionilcholinesterase activities were analyzed. Firstly, the LC50 96h for L. acuta was established (8.19mg/L). After, the animals were exposed to two Roundup concentrations: 3.25mg/L (non-observed effect concentration - NOEC) and 5...
October 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sabitha Papineni, Dale W Fletcher, Gary L Cromwell, Ricardo D Ekmay
Broiler chickens are fast growing monogastric animals considered a sensitive test species to evaluate the safety and nutritional equivalence between transgenic and non-transgenic grains as part of the human safety evaluation process. DAS-44406-6 soybean expresses three herbicide-tolerant proteins: the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12) enzyme which provides tolerance to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicides, the double-mutant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) enzyme encoded by a modified version of the epsps gene from maize (Zea mays), which provides tolerance to glyphosate herbicides, and the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme from Streptomyces viridochromogenes, which provides tolerance to glufosinate herbicides...
October 14, 2016: Poultry Science
Jingchao Chen, Hongjuan Huang, Shouhui Wei, Zhaofeng Huang, Xu Wang, Chaoxian Zhang
Glyphosate is an important non-selective herbicide that is commonly used worldwide. However, evolved glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds significantly affect crop yields. Unfortunately, the mechanisms underlying resistance in GR weeds, such as goosegrass (Eleusine indica L.), an annual weed found worldwide, have not been fully elucidated. In this study, transcriptome analysis was conducted to further assess the potential mechanisms of glyphosate resistance in goosegrass. The RNA-seq libraries generated 24,597,462 clean reads...
October 15, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Marcelo Pedrosa Gomes, Fernanda Vieira da Silva Cruz, Elisa Monteze Bicalho, Felipe Viègas Borges, Marcia Bacelar Fonseca, Philippe Juneau, Queila Souza Garcia
Glyphosate-formulations are widely used in the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna) with little or no control, threatening population of the endangered species Dimorphandra wilsonii. We investigated the toxicity of different concentrations (0, 5, 25 and 50 mg l(-1)) of glyphosate acid and one of its formulations (Roundup(®)) on seed germination in D. wilsonii. Glyphosate acid and Roundup drastically decreased seed germination by decreasing seed respiration rates. The activation of antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase assure no hydrogen peroxide accumulation in exposed seeds...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Chao Zhang, Ruifa Hu, Jikun Huang, Xusheng Huang, Guanming Shi, Yifan Li, Yanhong Yin, Zhaohui Chen
It is notable that the adoption of GM glyphosate-tolerant crops increases glyphosate use but reduces non-glyphosate herbicide use; and adoption of GM insect-resistant crops significantly reduces insecticide use. While the health hazard of pesticide use has been well documented, little literature evaluates the health effects of different pesticides related to GM crops in an integrated framework. This study aims to associate the uses of different pesticides related to GM crops with the blood chemistry panel and peripheral nerve conduction of Chinese farmers...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
N Desmet, K Touchant, P Seuntjens, T Tang, J Bronders
Large river catchments with mixed land use capture pesticides from many sources, and degradable pesticides are converted during downstream transport. Unravelling the contribution of pesticide source and the effect of degradation processes is a challenge in such areas. However, insight and understanding of the sources is important for targeted management, especially when water is abstracted from the river for drinking water production. The river Meuse is such a case. A long-term monitoring data set was applied in a modelling approach for assessing the contribution of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and tributaries (sub-basins) to surface water contamination, and to evaluate the effect of decay on the downstream concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA at the point of drinking water abstraction...
October 4, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
John E Casida, Kathleen A Durkin
Pesticide researchers are students of nature, and each new compound and mechanism turns a page in the ever-expanding encyclopedia of life. Pesticides are both probes to learn about life processes and tools for pest management to facilitate food production and enhance health. In contrast to some household and industrial chemicals, pesticides are assumed to be hazardous to health and the environment until proven otherwise. About a thousand current pesticides working by more than 100 different mechanisms have helped understand many processes and coupled events...
October 7, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Marco Napoli, Anna Dalla Marta, Camillo A Zanchi, Simone Orlandini
Worldwide, glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in controlling the growth of annual and perennial weeds. An increasing number of studies have highlighted the environmental risk resulting from the use of this molecule in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of the study was to determine the transport of glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), through runoff and transported sediment from a vineyard under two different soil management systems: harrowed inter-row (HR) and permanent grass covered inter-row (GR)...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Huachun Lan, Wenjing He, Aimin Wang, Ruiping Liu, Huijuan Liu, Jiuhui Qu, C P Huang
An activated carbon fiber (ACF) cathode was fabricated and used to treat glyphosate containing wastewater by the Electro-Fenton (EF) process. The results showed that glyphosate was rapidly and efficiently degraded and the BOD5/COD ratio was increased to >0.3 implying the feasibility of subsequent treatment of the treated wastewater by biological methods. The results of ion chromatography and HPLC measurements indicated that glyphosate was completely decomposed. Effective OH generation and rapid recycling/recovery of the Fe(2+) ions at the cathode were responsible primarily for the high performance of the ACF-EF process...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Carlotta Malagoli, Sofia Costanzini, Julia E Heck, Marcella Malavolti, Gianfranco De Girolamo, Paola Oleari, Giovanni Palazzi, Sergio Teggi, Marco Vinceti
BACKGROUND: Exposure to pesticides has been suggested as a risk factor for childhood leukemia, but definitive evidence on this relation and the specific pesticides involved is still not clear. OBJECTIVE: We carried out a population-based case-control study in a Northern Italy community to assess the possible relation between passive exposure to agricultural pesticides and risk of acute childhood leukemia. METHODS: We assessed passive pesticide exposure of 111 childhood leukemia cases and 444 matched controls by determining density and type of agricultural land use within a 100-m radius buffer around children's homes...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Dacheng Wang, Yamei Zhang, Xiang Li, Hongyu Pan, Mengyuan Chang, Tianyu Zheng, Jinzhu Sun, Daren Qiu, Mingzhe Zhang, Dongsheng Wei, Jianchun Qin
On the basis of the one strain-many compounds strategy, seven azaphilones, including Chaetomugilin A (1), D (2), S (3), I (4), J (5), Q (6) and O (7), were isolated from the endophytic Chaetomium globosum TY1. Their structures were identified by NMR and HRESIMS spectrometry data. All azaphilones were evaluated for plant growth regulation using eight species of herbaceous plant seeds seedling growth bioassay, which showed the plant growth influence of the seedling. Among these compounds tested, Chaetomugilin O (7) with tetrahydrofuran exhibited higher response index and lower IC50 values than positive control glyphosate, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide...
August 11, 2016: Natural Product Research
David Brusick, Marilyn Aardema, Larry Kier, David Kirkland, Gary Williams
In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published a monograph concluding there was strong evidence for genotoxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate formulations and moderate evidence for genotoxicity of the metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). These conclusions contradicted earlier extensive reviews supporting the lack of genotoxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate formulations. The IARC Monograph concluded there was strong evidence of induction of oxidative stress by glyphosate, glyphosate formulations, and AMPA...
September 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Gary M Williams, Colin Berry, Michele Burns, Joao Lauro Viana de Camargo, Helmut Greim
Glyphosate has been rigorously and extensively tested for carcinogenicity by administration to mice (five studies) and to rats (nine studies). Most authorities have concluded that the evidence does not indicate a cancer risk to humans. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), however, evaluated some of the available data and concluded that glyphosate probably is carcinogenic to humans. The expert panel convened by Intertek assessed the findings used by IARC, as well as the full body of evidence and found the following: (1) the renal neoplastic effects in males of one mouse study are not associated with glyphosate exposure, because they lack statistical significance, strength, consistency, specificity, lack a dose-response pattern, plausibility, and coherence; (2) the strength of association of liver hemangiosarcomas in a different mouse study is absent, lacking consistency, and a dose-response effect and having in high dose males only a significant incidence increase which is within the historical control range; (3) pancreatic islet-cell adenomas (non-significant incidence increase), in two studies of male SD rats did not progress to carcinomas and lacked a dose-response pattern (the highest incidence is in the low dose followed by the high dose); (4) in one of two studies, a non-significant positive trend in the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in male rats did not lead to progression to carcinomas; (5) in one of two studies, the non-significant positive trend in the incidence of thyroid C-cell adenomas in female rats was not present and there was no progression of adenomas to carcinomas at the end of the study...
September 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
John Acquavella, David Garabrant, Gary Marsh, Tom Sorahan, Douglas L Weed
We conducted a systematic review of the epidemiologic literature for glyphosate focusing on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM) - two cancers that were the focus of a recent review by an International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group. Our approach was consistent with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for systematic reviews. We evaluated each relevant study according to a priori criteria for study quality: adequacy of study size, likelihood of confounding, potential for other biases and adequacy of the statistical analyses...
September 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Keith R Solomon
The recent classification of glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) was arrived at without a detailed assessment of exposure. Glyphosate is widely used as an herbicide, which might result in exposures of the general public and applicators. Exposures were estimated from information in the open literature and unpublished reports provided by Monsanto Company. Based on the maximum measured concentration in air, an exposure dose of 1.04 × 10 (-) (6 )mg/kg body mass (b...
September 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Gary M Williams, Marilyn Aardema, John Acquavella, Sir Colin Berry, David Brusick, Michele M Burns, Joao Lauro Viana de Camargo, David Garabrant, Helmut A Greim, Larry D Kier, David J Kirkland, Gary Marsh, Keith R Solomon, Tom Sorahan, Ashley Roberts, Douglas L Weed
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published a monograph in 2015 concluding that glyphosate is "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) based on limited evidence in humans and sufficient evidence in experimental animals. It was also concluded that there was strong evidence of genotoxicity and oxidative stress. Four Expert Panels have been convened for the purpose of conducting a detailed critique of the evidence in light of IARC's assessment and to review all relevant information pertaining to glyphosate exposure, animal carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, and epidemiologic studies...
September 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Roger O McClellan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
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