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Glyphosate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448908/biological-impacts-of-glyphosate-on-morphology-embryo-biomechanics-and-larval-behavior-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#1
Shuhui Zhang, Jia Xu, Xiangyu Kuang, Shibao Li, Xiang Li, Dongyan Chen, Xin Zhao, Xizeng Feng
All of these days, residues of herbicides such as glyphosate are widely distributed in the environment. The ubiquitous use of glyphosate has drawn extensive attention to its toxicity as an organic pollutant. In this study, we employed larval zebrafish as an animal model to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of glyphosate on early development via morphological, biomechanics, behavioral and physiological analyses. Morphological results showed that an obvious delay occurred in the epiboly process and body length, eye and head area were reduced at concentrations higher than 10 mg/L...
April 21, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445394/spectroscopic-detection-of-glyphosate-in-water-assisted-by-laser-ablated-silver-nanoparticles
#2
Rafael Eleodoro De Góes, Marcia Muller, José Luís Fabris
Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Its safety for both human health and aquatic biomes is a subject of wide debate. There are limits to glyphosate's presence in bodies of water, and it is usually detected through complex analytical procedures. In this work, the presence of glyphosate is detected directly through optical interrogation of aqueous solution. For this purpose, silver nanoparticles were produced by pulsed laser ablation in liquids. Limits of detection of 0.9 mg/L and 3...
April 26, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444907/plant-reproduction-is-altered-by-simulated-herbicide-drift-to-constructed-plant-communities
#3
David Olszyk, Thomas Pfleeger, Tamotsu Shiroyama, Matthew Blakeley-Smith, E Henry Lee, Milton Plocher
Herbicide drift may have unintended impacts on native vegetation, adversely affecting individual species and plant communities. To determine potential ecological effects of herbicide drift, small plant community plots were constructed using nine perennial species found in different Willamette Valley Oregon grassland habitats. Studies were conducted at two Oregon State University farms in two separate years, with single and combined treatments of 0.01 to 0.2 x field application rates (f.a.r.) of 1119 g ha(-1) for glyphosate [active ingredient (a...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444878/what-do-farmers-weed-control-decisions-imply-about-glyphosate-resistance-evidence-from-surveys-of-u-s-corn-fields
#4
Seth J Wechsler, Jonathan R McFadden, David J Smith
BACKGROUND: The first case of glyphosate-resistant weeds in the United States was documented in 1998, two years after the commercialization of genetically-engineered herbicide-resistant (HR) corn and soybeans. Currently, over 15 glyphosate-resistant weed species affect U.S. crop production areas. These weeds have the potential to reduce yields, increase costs, and lower farm profitability. The objective of our study is to develop a behavioral model of farmers' weed management decisions and use it to analyze weed resistance to glyphosate in U...
April 26, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429727/selection-of-relatively-exact-reference-genes-for-gene-expression-studies-in-goosegrass-eleusine-indica-under-herbicide-stress
#5
Jingchao Chen, Zhaofeng Huang, Hongjuan Huang, Shouhui Wei, Yan Liu, Cuilan Jiang, Jie Zhang, Chaoxian Zhang
Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) is one of the most serious annual grassy weeds worldwide, and its evolved herbicide-resistant populations are more difficult to control. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a common technique for investigating the resistance mechanism; however, there is as yet no report on the systematic selection of stable reference genes for goosegrass. This study proposed to test the expression stability of 9 candidate reference genes in goosegrass in different tissues and developmental stages and under stress from three types of herbicide...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426703/effects-of-over-expressing-a-native-gene-encoding-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate-synthase-epsps-on-glyphosate-resistance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#6
Xiao Yang, Zachery T Beres, Lin Jin, Jason T Parrish, Wanying Zhao, David Mackey, Allison A Snow
Widespread overuse of the herbicide glyphosate, the active ingredient in RoundUp®, has led to the evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed biotypes, some of which persist by overproducing the herbicide's target enzyme, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). EPSPS is a key enzyme in the shikimic acid pathway for biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids, lignin, and defensive compounds, but little is known about how overproducing EPSPS affects downstream metabolites, growth, or lifetime fitness in the absence of glyphosate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425566/gender-specific-histopathological-response-in-guppies-poecilia-reticulata-exposed-to-glyphosate-or-its-metabolite-aminomethylphosphonic-acid
#7
Adriana Maria Antunes, Thiago Lopes Rocha, Fernando Santiago Pires, Meire Alves de Freitas, Vanessa Rafaela Milhomem Cruz Leite, Sarah Arana, Paulo César Moreira, Simone Maria Teixeira Sabóia-Morais
Ecotoxicity of glyphosate (GLY) and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) was investigated in guppies, Poecilia reticulata. We tested the effects of these chemicals on the gills and liver of both male and female guppies using qualitative and quantitative histopathological analyses associated with histopathological condition indexes. Both genders showed similar median lethal concentration (LC50 ) at 96 h for GLY (68.78 and 70.87 mg l(-1) ) and AMPA (180 and 164.32 mg l(-1) ). However, the histopathological assessment of both fish organs exposed to sublethal concentrations of GLY (35 mg l(-1) ) and AMPA (82 mg l(-1) ) for 96 h showed a tissue- and gender-specific histopathological response...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424723/evidence-mechanism-and-alternative-chemical-seedbank-level-control-of-glyphosate-resistance-of-a-rigid-ryegrass-lolium-rigidum-biotype-from-southern-spain
#8
Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Fernando Bastida, Rafael De Prado
Rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) is one of the most troublesome weeds in different crops in the Mediterranean region. A rigid ryegrass biotype from an olive grove in Jaén province (Andalusía, southern Spain), potentially resistant to glyphosate (RG), was tested for its resistance level through dose-response assays using a susceptible biotype (SG). To test the hypothesis of a non-target-site-based resistance, as point mutations are far less common mechanisms of glyphosate resistance, studies were also conducted to elucidate whether resistance was associated with biochemical, metabolism, molecular and/or physiological mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422580/glyphosate-and-paraquat-in-maternal-and-fetal-serums-in-thai-women
#9
Pornpimol Kongtip, Noppanun Nangkongnab, Ratanavadee Phupancharoensuk, Chonlada Palarach, Dusit Sujirarat, Supha Sangprasert, Malasod Sermsuk, Namthip Sawattrakool, Susan Renee Woskie
OBJECTIVES: This longitudinal study measured the glyphosate and paraquat concentrations found in maternal and umbilical cord serum in 82 pregnant women who gave birth in three provinces of Thailand. METHODS: Through questionnaires and biological samples collected at childbirth, factors such as personal characteristics, occupation, agricultural activities, and herbicide use in agricultural work were evaluated as predictors of glyphosate and paraquat levels in the pregnant women...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418615/co-expression-of-gr79-epsps-and-gat-yields-herbicide-resistant-cotton-with-low-glyphosate-residues
#10
Chengzhen Liang, Bao Sun, Zhigang Meng, Zhaohong Meng, Yuan Wang, Guoqing Sun, Tao Zhu, Wei Lu, Wei Zhang, Waqas Malik, Min Lin, Rui Zhang, Sandui Guo
Glyphosate resistant (GR) crops have been adopted on a massive scale by North and South American farmers. Currently, about 80% of the 120 million hectares of the global genetically-modified (GM) crops are GR crop varieties. However, the adoption of GR plants in China has not occurred at the same pace, owing to several factors including, among other things, labor markets and the residual effects of glyphosate in transgenic plants. Here, we report the co-expression of codon-optimized forms of GR79 EPSPS and N-acetyltransferase (GAT) genes in cotton...
April 18, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415036/toxic-effects-of-glyphosate-on-diploid-and-triploid-fin-cell-lines-from-misgurnus-anguillicaudatus
#11
Yanjie Qin, Xia Li, Yang Xiang, Di Wu, Liwen Bai, Zhuangzhuang Li, Yan Liang
We examined the toxic effects of glyphosate on diploid (DIMF) and triploid (TRMF) fin cell lines from the Oriental Weather Loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus. The LC50 values of glyphosate estimated by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay were 315.34 and 371.77 mg/L for DIMF and TRMF, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities in DIMF and TRMF cells gradually increased and then decreased with increasing glyphosate concentrations, reaching a maximum at 240 mg/L glyphosate...
March 25, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407950/dllme-spectrophotometric-determination-of-glyphosate-residue-in-legumes
#12
Emine Çetin, Serkan Şahan, Ahmet Ülgen, Uğur Şahin
A new separation and pre-concentration method for spectrophotometric determination of glyphosate herbicide was developed. Glyphosate was converted into dithiocarbamic acid with CS2, followed by copper in the presence of ammonia to promote complex formation. This complex was collected in a CH2Cl2 organic drop and absorbance measured at 435nm. The analytical parameters, such as the amount of NH3, Cu(II) and CS2, type of extraction solutions, and the ratio of dispersive and organic liquids were optimized. The calibration curve was linear in the range 0...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405292/effects-of-genetically-modified-maize-events-expressing-cry34ab1-cry35ab1-cry1f-and-cp4-epsps-proteins-on-arthropod-complex-food-webs
#13
Zoltán Pálinkás, József Kiss, Mihály Zalai, Ágnes Szénási, Zita Dorner, Samuel North, Guy Woodward, Adalbert Balog
Four genetically modified (GM) maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids (coleopteran resistant, coleopteran and lepidopteran resistant, lepidopteran resistant and herbicide tolerant, coleopteran and herbicide tolerant) and its non-GM control maize stands were tested to compare the functional diversity of arthropods and to determine whether genetic modifications alter the structure of arthropods food webs. A total number of 399,239 arthropod individuals were used for analyses. The trophic groups' number and the links between them indicated that neither the higher magnitude of Bt toxins (included resistance against insect, and against both insects and glyphosate) nor the extra glyphosate treatment changed the structure of food webs...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401767/expanded-target-chemical-analysis-reveals-extensive-mixed-organic-contaminant-exposure-in-u-s-streams
#14
Paul M Bradley, Celeste A Journey, Kristin M Romanok, Larry B Barber, Herbert T Buxton, William T Foreman, Edward T Furlong, Susan T Glassmeyer, Michelle L Hladik, Luke R Iwanowicz, Daniel K Jones, Dana W Kolpin, Kathryn M Kuivila, Keith A Loftin, Marc A Mills, Michael T Meyer, James L Orlando, Timothy J Reilly, Kelly L Smalling, Daniel L Villeneuve
Surface water from 38 streams nationwide was assessed using 14 target-organic methods (719 compounds). Designed-bioactive anthropogenic contaminants (biocides, pharmaceuticals) comprised 57% of 406 organics detected at least once. The 10 most-frequently detected anthropogenic-organics included eight pesticides (desulfinylfipronil, AMPA, chlorpyrifos, dieldrin, metolachlor, atrazine, CIAT, glyphosate) and two pharmaceuticals (caffeine, metformin) with detection frequencies ranging 66-84% of all sites. Detected contaminant concentrations varied from less than 1 ng L(-1) to greater than 10 μg L(-1), with 77 and 278 having median detected concentrations greater than 100 ng L(-1) and 10 ng L(-1), respectively...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400689/toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-and-acute-kidney-injury-due-to-glyphosate-ingestion
#15
J Indirakshi, A Sunnesh, M Aruna, M Hari Krishna Reddy, Anil C V Kumar, V Sarat Chandra, B Sangeetha, D T Katyarmal, R Ram, V Siva Kumar
The literature, particularly from India, is scarce on the renal effects of glyphosate poisoning. Glyphosate causes toxicity not only after its ingestion but also after dermal exposure by inhalation route and on eye exposure. We present a patient report of glyphosate consumption which resulted in toxic epidermal necrolysis - the first report after glyphosate consumption and acute kidney injury.
March 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397987/effect-of-glyphosate-acid-on-biochemical-markers-of-periphyton-exposed-in-outdoor-mesocosms-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-the-mussel-limnoperna-fortunei
#16
María Mercedes Iummato, Haydée Pizarro, Daniel Cataldo, Eugenia Di Fiori, María Dos Santos Afonso, María Del Carmen Ríos de Molina, Ángela Beatriz Juárez
Glyphosate is currently the most widely used herbicide in agricultural production. It generally enters aquatic ecosystems through surface water runoff and aerial drift. We evaluated the effect of glyphosate acid on biochemical parameters of periphyton exposed to concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 mg/L in outdoor mesocosms, in the presence and absence of the mussel Limnoperna fortunei. Periphyton ash-free dry weight (AFDW), chlorophyll a content, carotene/chlorophyll a ratio, lipid peroxidation levels and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were determined at day 0, 1, 7, 14 and 26 of the experimental period...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395863/a-full-life-cycle-bioassay-with-cantareus-aspersus-shows-reproductive-effects-of-a-glyphosate-based-herbicide-suggesting-potential-endocrine-disruption
#17
Coline Druart, Frédéric Gimbert, Renaud Scheifler, Annette de Vaufleury
A full life-cycle (240 days) bioassay using the terrestrial snail, Cantareus aspersus, allowing exposure during embryogenesis and/or the growth and reproduction phases, was used to assess the effects of Bypass(®), a glyphosate-based herbicide (GlyBH), on a range of endpoints, including parameters under endocrine control. As a positive control, a mixture (R-A) made of diquat (Reglone(®)) and nonylphenols (NP, Agral(®)), known for its endocrine disrupting effects in other organisms, was tested. At environmental concentrations, both pesticides (R-A mixture and GlyBH) enhanced growth but reduced reproduction...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393866/long-term-trends-in-the-intensity-and-relative-toxicity-of-herbicide-use
#18
Andrew R Kniss
Herbicide use is among the most criticized aspects of modern farming, especially as it relates to genetically engineered (GE) crops. Many previous analyses have used flawed metrics to evaluate herbicide intensity and toxicity trends. Here, I show that herbicide use intensity increased over the last 25 years in maize, cotton, rice and wheat. Although GE crops have been previously implicated in increasing herbicide use, herbicide increases were more rapid in non-GE crops. Even as herbicide use increased, chronic toxicity associated with herbicide use decreased in two out of six crops, while acute toxicity decreased in four out of six crops...
April 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391155/an-approach-to-clarify-the-effect-mechanism-of-glyphosate-on-body-malformations-during-embryonic-development-of-zebrafish-daino-rerio
#19
Ekrem Sulukan, Mine Köktürk, Hamid Ceylan, Şükrü Beydemir, Mesut Işik, Muhammed Atamanalp, Saltuk Buğrahan Ceyhun
In this study, it has been investigated that the effects of glyphosate, which is a herbicide within organophosphate and unselective widely used in agriculture on enzyme activity of carbonic anhydrase, production of reactive oxygen species, cell apoptosis and body morphology during the embryonic development of zebrafish. To this end, it has been treated embryo with 1, 5, 10 and 100 mg/L gyphosate at 96 h. The embryos treated with glyphosate from 4 hpf were evaluated by considering the survival rates, hatching rates, body malformations under the stereo microscope in 24, 48, 72 and 96th hours...
April 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391123/aminomethylphosphonic-acid-ampa-in-natural-waters-its-sources-behavior-and-environmental-fate
#20
REVIEW
Alexis Grandcoin, Stéphanie Piel, Estelle Baurès
The widely occurring degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is a result of glyphosate and amino-polyphosphonate degradation. Massive use of the parent compounds leads to the ubiquity of AMPA in the environment, and particularly in water. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss current insights into AMPA formation, transport, persistence and toxicity. In agricultural soils, AMPA is concentrated in the topsoil, and degrades slowly in most soils. It can reach shallow groundwater, but rarely managed to enter deep groundwater...
March 27, 2017: Water Research
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