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Carlos Alberto Moldes, Miguel Angel Cantarelli, José Manuel Camiña, Siu Mui Tsai, Ricardo A Azevedo
Amino acid profiles are useful to analyze the responses to glyphosate in susceptible and resistant soybean lines. Comparisons of profiles for 10 amino acids (Asp, Asn, Glu, Gln, Ser, His, Gly, Thr, Tyr, Leu) by HPLC in soybean roots were performed in two near isogenic pairs (four varieties). Foliar application of glyphosate was applied in soybean plants after 5 weeks of seeding. Roots of four varieties were collected at 0 and 72 h after glyphosate application (AGA) for amino acids analysis by HPLC. Univariate analysis showed a significant increasing of several amino acids in susceptible as well as resistant soybean lines; however, amino acids from carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism, such as Asp, Asn, Glu and Gln, and Ser, increased significantly in susceptible varieties at 72 h AGA...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jarosław Lewkowski, Marta Morawska, Rafał Karpowicz, Piotr Rychter, Diana Rogacz, Kamila Lewicka
Since aminophosphonate-based herbicides like glyphosate are currently one of the most popular and widely applied active agent in agrochemistry, there is an urgent need for searching new compounds among this family with potential herbicidal activity, but exhibiting low toxicity against surrounding environment. Six new (5-nitrofurfuryl)-derived aminophosphonates were synthesized for the first time and apart from the only one example of N-benzylamino(5-nitrofuryl)-methylphosphonic acid, it was the first time in the history, when this class of compounds was prepared...
September 8, 2017: Chemosphere
Tianye Zheng, Nora B Sutton, Pim de Jager, Richard Grosshans, Sirajum Munira, Annemieke Farenhorst
Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America are integrated with farmland and contain mixtures of herbicide contaminants. Passive nonfacilitated diffusion is how most herbicides can move across plant membranes, making this perhaps an important process by which herbicide contaminants are absorbed by wetland vegetation. Prairie wetlands are dominated by native cattail (Typha latifolia) and hybrid cattail (Typha x glauca). The objective of this batch equilibrium study was to compare glyphosate absorption by the shoots and rhizomes of native versus hybrid cattails...
September 14, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Ana Zabalza, Luis Orcaray, Manuel Fernández-Escalada, Ainhoa Zulet-González, Mercedes Royuela
The shikimate pathway is a metabolic route for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids (AAAs) (i.e. phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan). A key enzyme of shikimate pathway (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, EPSPS) is the target of the widely used herbicide glyphosate. Quinate is a compound synthesized in plants through a side branch of the shikimate pathway. Glyphosate provokes quinate accumulation and exogenous quinate application to plants shows a potential role of quinate in the toxicity of the herbicide glyphosate...
September 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Chanjuan Mao, Hongjie Xie, Shiguo Chen, Bernal E Valverde, Sheng Qiang
Liriope spicata (Thunb.) Lour has a unique LsEPSPS structure contributing to the highest-ever-recognized natural glyphosate tolerance. The transformed LsEPSPS confers increased glyphosate resistance to E. coli and A. thaliana. However, the increased glyphosate-resistance level is not high enough to be of commercial value. Therefore, LsEPSPS was subjected to error-prone PCR to screen mutant EPSPS genes capable of endowing higher resistance levels. A mutant designated as ELs-EPSPS having five mutated amino acids (37Val, 67Asn, 277Ser, 351Gly and 422Gly) was selected for its ability to confer improved resistance to glyphosate...
September 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Heping Han, Martin M Vila-Aiub, Adam Jalaludin, Qin Yu, Stephen B Powles
A novel glyphosate resistance double point mutation (T102I/P106S, TIPS) in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3 phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene has been recently identified for the first time only in the weed species Eleusine indica. Quantification of plant resistance cost associated with the TIPS and the often reported glyphosate resistance single P106S mutation was performed. A significant resistance cost (50% in seed number currency) associated with the homozygous TIPS but not the homozygous P106S EPSPS variant was identified in E...
September 14, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Reet Karise, Risto Raimets, Vadims Bartkevics, Iveta Pugajeva, Priit Pihlik, Indrek Keres, Ingrid H Williams, Haldja Viinalass, Marika Mänd
Pesticide treatments before and during the flowering of honey bee forage crops may lead to residues in honey. In northern regions oilseed rape belongs to the main forage crops that is mostly cultivated by means of intensive agriculture, including several pesticide treatments. However, in addition to the focal forage crops, pesticides from non-forage crops can spread to wild flowers around fields, and thus the residues in honey would reflect the whole range of pesticides used in the agricultural landscape. The aim of our study was to clarify which currently used pesticides are present in honey gathered from heterogeneous agricultural landscapes after the end of flowering of oilseed crops...
September 4, 2017: Chemosphere
Caio A C G Brunharo, Bradley D Hanson
Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot (LOLMU) is a winter annual weed, common to row crops, orchards and roadsides. Glyphosate-resistant populations of LOLMU are widespread in California. In many situations, growers have switched to paraquat or other postemergence herbicides to manage glyphosate-resistant LOLMU populations. Recently, poor control of LOLMU with paraquat was reported in a prune orchard in California where paraquat has been used several times. We hypothesize that the low efficacy observed is due to the selection of a paraquat-resistant biotype of LOLMU...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Larisse de Freitas-Silva, Marta Rodríguez-Ruiz, Hayet Houmani, Luzimar Campos da Silva, José M Palma, Francisco J Corpas
Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide used worldwide. In susceptible plants, glyphosate affects the shikimate pathway and reduces aromatic amino acid synthesis. Using Arabidopsis seedlings grown in the presence of 20μM glyphosate, we analyzed H2O2, ascorbate, glutathione (GSH) and protein oxidation content as well as antioxidant catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzyme activity. We also examined the principal NADPH-generating system components, including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Maria Chiara Perego, Francesca Caloni, Cristina Cortinovis, Luis F Schutz, Marco Albonico, Denise Tsuzukibashi, Leon J Spicer
Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) is a non-selective systemic herbicide widely used worldwide. The purpose of this study is to determine if glyphosate alone (GLPH) or in formulation with Roundup (G-RU) can affect granulosa cell proliferation and steroid production. Four experiments were conducted. In Exp. 1, 10 and 300 μg/mL of GLPH had no effect (P > 0.05) on cell numbers, estradiol or progesterone production, whereas 10 and 300 μg/mL of G-RU dramatically decreased (P < 0.05) cell numbers and estradiol and progesterone production...
September 4, 2017: Chemosphere
Vincent Fauvelle, Natalia Montero, Jochen F Mueller, Andrew Banks, Nicolas Mazzella, Sarit L Kaserzon
Glyphosate (PMG) is one of the most widely used herbicides with a reported 8.6 million tons applied globally in 2016. Due to widespread use and limited understanding of long-term environmental impacts, it is expected that future monitoring requirements for PMG and its primary metabolite aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) in aquatic environments will increase, along with the need for low cost monitoring and risk assessment strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate a microporous polyethylene tube (MPT; 2-mm thickness, 17...
August 7, 2017: Chemosphere
Keith Fluegge Ba
OBJECTIVE: Sayehmiri et al. recently conducted a meta-analysis to explore the relationship between zinc and copper metabolism and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recent reports have elucidated a full behavioral profile of mice exposed to prenatal zinc deficiency and documented a phenotype similar to that found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). These studies suggest that significant alterations in Zn metabolism may be an important nutritional component in the development of ASD. MATERIALS & METHODS: The idea that prenatal zinc deficiency may be to blame is cursorily challenged...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
Cecilia S Carranza, Carla L Barberis, Stella M Chiacchiera, Carina E Magnoli
Agriculture is one of the bases of the Argentine economy. Glyphosate is undoubtedly one of the most important herbicides used. The increasing consumption and the efficiency of glyphosate-based herbicides have encouraged several studies on their persistence in soils, their effects on soil microbiota and their degradation processes. Fungi have been reported as being the main herbicide-degrading microorganisms as well as the most tolerant to environmental stress conditions. This study evaluated the growth performance of Aspergillus section Flavi and Aspergillus niger aggregate strains on Czapek Dox media supplied with a commercial glyphosate formulation as sole source of carbon (CZC), phosphorus (CZP) or nitrogen (CZN)...
September 4, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Zhe Wang, Lei Wang, Zhi Wang, Bao-Rong Lu
It is essential to assess environmental impact of transgene flow from genetically engineered crops to their wild or weedy relatives before commercialization. Measuring comparative trials of fitness in the transgene-flow-resulted hybrids plays the key role in the assessment, where the segregated isogenic hybrid lineages/subpopulations with or without a transgene of the same genomic background are involved. Here, we report substantial genomic differentiation between transgene-present and -absent lineages (F2-F3) divided by a glyphosate-resistance transgene from a crop-wild/weed hybrid population in rice...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ethann R Barnes, Stevan Z Knezevic, Peter H Sikkema, John L Lindquist, Amit J Jhala
Common ragweed emerges early in the season in Nebraska, USA and is competitive with soybean; therefore, preplant herbicides are important for effective control. Glyphosate has been used as a preplant control option; however, confirmation of glyphosate-resistant (GR) common ragweed in Nebraska necessitates evaluating other herbicide options. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the efficacy of preplant (PP) herbicides followed by (fb) glufosinate alone or in tank-mixture with imazethapyr, acetochlor, or S-metolachlor applied post-emergence (POST) for control of GR common ragweed in glufosinate-resistant soybean; (2) their effect on common ragweed density, biomass, and soybean yield; and (3) the partial economics of herbicide programs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Daniel C Schlatter, Chuntao Yin, Scot Hulbert, Ian Burke, Timothy Paulitz
Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide worldwide and a critical tool for weed control in no-till cropping systems. However, there are concerns about non-target impacts of long-term glyphosate use on soil microbial communities. We investigated the impacts of repeated glyphosate treatments on bacterial communities in the soil and rhizosphere of wheat in soils with and without long-term history of glyphosate use. We cycled wheat in the greenhouse using soils from 4 paired fields under no-till (20+ years history of glyphosate) or no history of use...
September 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz, José Cola Zanuncio, Mabio Chrisley Lacerda, Carlos Frederico Wilcken, Flávio Lemes Fernandes, Wagner de Souza Tavares, Marcus Alvarenga Soares, Carlos Sigueyuki Sediyama
New plant protection strategies focus on minimizing chemical pesticide use and increasing their compatibility with biological control agents. The objective was to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate, diflubenzuron, malathion, tebuconazole and triflumuron (at 720, 45, 400, 150 and 20 g ai ha(-1), respectively), pesticides authorized for soybean crops in Brazil, on the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) reared on Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The emergence and female numbers produced per P...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wenyan Cai, Ying Ji, Xianping Song, Haoran Guo, Lei Han, Feng Zhang, Xin Liu, Hengdong Zhang, Baoli Zhu, Ming Xu
BACKGROUND: Correlation between exposure to glyphosate and sperm concentrations is important in reproductive toxicity risk assessment for male reproductive functions. Many studies have focused on reproductive toxicity on glyphosate, however, results are still controversial. We conducted a systematic review of epidemiological studies on the association between glyphosate exposure and sperm concentrations of rodents. The aim of this study is to explore the potential adverse effects of glyphosate on reproductive function of male rodents...
July 29, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
José C Zanuncio, Mabio C Lacerda, Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz, Bruno P Brügger, Alexandre I A Pereira, Carlos F Wilcken, José E Serrão, Carlos S Sediyama
The increase of agricultural areas with glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, and use of this herbicide in Brazil, makes necessary to assess its impacts on non-target organisms. The objective was to evaluate the development, reproduction and life table parameters of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) reared on GR-soybean plants treated with glyphosate formulations (Zapp-Qi, Roundup-Transorb-R and Roundup-Original) at the recommended field dose (720g acid equivalent ha(-1)). Glyphosate formulations had no affect on nymph and adult weight of this predator...
August 25, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Chenxi Wu, Adam S Davis, Patrick J Tranel
BACKGROUND: The fitness cost of herbicide resistance (HR) in the absence of herbicide selection plays a key role in HR evolution. Quantifying the fitness cost of resistance, however, is challenging, and there exists a knowledge gap in this area. A synthetic (artificially generated) Amaranthus tuberculatus population segregating for five types of HR was subjected to competitive growth conditions in the absence of herbicide selection for six generations. Fitness costs were quantified by using a combination of phenotyping and genotyping to monitor HR frequency changes over generations...
August 18, 2017: Pest Management Science
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