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Joshua J Skelton, David M Simpson, Mark A Peterson, Dean E Riechers
The Enlist™ weed control system allows the use of 2,4-D in soybean, but slight necrosis in treated leaves may be observed in the field. The objectives of this research were to measure and compare uptake, translocation, and metabolism of 2,4-D in Enlist (E; resistant) and non-AAD-12 transformed (NT; sensitive) soybeans. The adjuvant from the Enlist Duo® herbicide formulation (ADJ) increased 2,4-D uptake (36%) and displayed the fastest rate of uptake (U50= 0.2 h) among treatments. E soybean demonstrated a faster rate of 2,4-D metabolism (M50= 0...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ferreira María Florencia, Torres Carolina, Bracamonte Enzo, Galetto Leonardo
Agriculture based on transgenic crops has expanded in Argentina into areas formerly occupied by Chaco forest. Even though glyphosate is the herbicide most widely used in the world, increasing evidence indicates severe ecotoxicological effects on non-target organisms as native plants. The aim of this work is to determine glyphosate effects on 23 native species present in the remaining Chaco forests immersed in agricultural matrices. This is a laboratory/greenhouse approach studying acute effects on seedlings after 21 days...
June 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Stephen O Duke
Glyphosate is the only herbicide to target the enzyme 5-enolpyruvyl-3-shikimate phosphate synthase (EPSPS). It is a high use rate, non-selective herbicide that translocates primarily to metabolic sinks, killing meristematic tissues away from the application site. Its phloem-mobile properties and slow action in killing weeds allows the herbicide to move throughout the plant to kill all meristems, making it effective for perennial weed control. Since commercialization in 1974, its use has grown to dominate the herbicide market...
June 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
Charles Mottes, Magalie Lesueur Jannoyer, Marianne Le Bail, Mathilde Guéné, Céline Carles, Eric Malézieux
The understanding of factors affecting pesticide transfers to catchment outlet is still at a very early stage in tropical context, and especially on tropical volcanic context. We performed on-farm pesticide use surveys during 87 weeks and monitored pesticides in water weekly during 67 weeks at the outlet of a small catchment in Martinique. We identified three types of pollution. First, we showed long-term chronic pollution by chlordecone, diuron and metolachlor resulting from horticultural practices applied 5-20 years ago (quantification frequency higher than 80%)...
June 16, 2017: Chemosphere
Gui-Ming Fu, Yan Chen, Ru-Yi Li, Xiao-Qiang Yuan, Cheng-Mei Liu, Bin Li, Yin Wan
Aspergillus oryzae A-F02, a glyphosate-degrading fungus, was isolated from an aeration tank in a pesticide factory. The pathway and rate-limiting step of glyphosate (GP) degradation were investigated through metabolite analysis. GP, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and methylamine were detected in the fermentation liquid of A. oryzae A-F02, whereas sarcosine and glycine were not. The pathway of GP degradation in A. oryzae A-F02 was revealed: GP was firstly degraded into AMPA, which was then degraded into methylamine...
June 21, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Débora J Pérez, Elena Okada, Eduardo De Gerónimo, Mirta L Menone, Virginia C Aparicio, José L Costa
In the present study, we evaluated the spatial and temporal trends of current use pesticides in surface water and sediments and to determine its relation with hydrological stream dynamics within the agricultural watershed of El Crespo stream. We sampled two contrasting sites: Site 1 (upstream) surrounded by agricultural lands, and Site 2 (downstream) surrounded by natural grasslands. Most of the applied pesticides (i.e. glyphosate, 2,4-D, atrazine, tebuconazole and imidacloprid) were detected in high frequencies in surface water samples at both sites...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Carlos Vicente Garza-León, Mario Alberto Arzate-Cárdenas, Roberto Rico-Martínez
In Aguascalientes, Mexico, there is a special concern about pesticides because of their intensive use on guava production areas, which are located in the vicinity of water reservoirs; thus, non-target organisms could be exposed. Thereafter, the aim of this work was to assess the effect of cypermethrin, Faena® (glyphosate), and malathion, which are the most used pesticides in Aguascalientes' guava production, on the indigenous freshwater species Alona guttata (cladoceran) and Lecane papuana (rotifer). Acute 48-h toxicity tests were carried out, and LC50 values were calculated...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Daiane Cattani, Patrícia Acordi Cesconetto, Mauren Kruger Tavares, Eduardo Benedetti Parisotto, Paulo Alexandre De Oliveira, Carla Elise Heinz Rieg, Marina Concli Leite, Rui Daniel Schröder Prediger, Nestor Cubas Wendt, Guilherme Razzera, Danilo Wilhelm Filho, Ariane Zamoner
We have previously demonstrated that maternal exposure to glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) leads to glutamate excitotoxicity in 15-day-old rat hippocampus. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure to GBH on some neurochemical and behavioral parameters in immature and adult offspring. Rats were exposed to 1% GBH in drinking water (corresponding to 0.36% of glyphosate) from gestational day 5 until postnatal day (PND)-15 or PND60. Results showed that GBH exposure during both prenatal and postnatal periods causes oxidative stress, affects cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in offspring hippocampus from immature and adult rats...
June 13, 2017: Toxicology
Sumit Sarkar, Ratan Das
Glyphosate [N-phosphono-methylglycine (PMG)] is the most used herbicide worldwide and it has been reported very recently that Glyphosate is very harmful and can produce lots of diseases such as alzheimer and parkinson's disease, depression, cancer, infertility including genotoxic effects. As it is mostly present in stable water body and ground water system, its detection and removal is very important. Here, we have shown a fluorescence technique for the removal of glyphosate from water using chemically synthesized polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) silver nanocrystals...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Elizabeth Karn, Marie Jasieniuk
Management of agroecosystems with herbicides imposes strong selection pressures on weedy plants leading to the evolution of resistance against those herbicides. Resistance to glyphosate in populations of Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum is increasingly common in California, USA, causing economic losses and the loss of effective management tools. To gain insights into the recent evolution of glyphosate resistance in L. perenne in perennial cropping systems of northwest California and to inform management, we investigated the frequency of glyphosate resistance and the genetic diversity and structure of 14 populations...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
Jeong Mi Moon, Byeong Jo Chun, Yong Soo Cho, Sung Do Lee, Young Joon Hong, Min Ho Shin, Eu Jene Jung, Hyun Ho Ryu
This study aimed to compare adverse cardiovascular events and fatalities and to identify the risk factors for fatalities associated with the glyphosate salt herbicide formulation. Additionally, we examined whether glyphosate ammonium salt herbicides increased serum ammonia levels. One hundred forty-seven patients were divided into an ammonium group (glyphosate ammonium salt herbicide) and an isopropylamine (IPA) group (glyphosate IPA salt herbicide) according to the type of glyphosate salt formulation ingested...
June 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Yufeng Dong, Xi Jin, Qiaoling Tang, Xin Zhang, Jiangtao Yang, Xiaojing Liu, Junfeng Cai, Xiaobing Zhang, Xujing Wang, Zhixing Wang
Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide, due to its broad spectrum, low cost, low toxicity, high efficiency, and non-selective characteristics. Rice farmers rarely use glyphosate as a herbicide, because the crop is sensitive to this chemical. The development of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant rice could greatly improve the economics of rice production. Here, we transformed the Pseudomonas fluorescens G2 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene G2-EPSPS, which conferred tolerance to glyphosate herbicide into a widely used japonica rice cultivar, Zhonghua 11 (ZH11), to develop two highly glyphosate-tolerant transgenic rice lines, G2-6 and G2-7, with one exogenous gene integration...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yu Cheng Zhu, Jianxiu Yao, John Adamczyk, Randall Luttrell
Imidacloprid is the most widely used insecticide in agriculture. In this study, we used feeding methods to simulate in-hive exposures of formulated imidacloprid (Advise® 2FL) alone and mixtures with six representative pesticides for different classes. Advise, fed at 4.3 mg/L (equal to maximal residue detection of 912 ppb active ingredient [a.i.] in pollen) induced 36% mortality and 56% feeding suppression after 2-week feeding. Treatments with individual Bracket (acephate), Karate (λ-cyhalothrin), Vydate (oxamyl), Domark (tetraconazole), and Roundup (glyphosate) at residue level had a mortality range of 1...
2017: PloS One
Jaime Rendon-von Osten, Ricardo Dzul-Caamal
The use of pesticides in Mexican agriculture creates an interest in learning about the presence of these substances in different environmental matrices. Glyphosate (GLY) is an herbicide widely used in the state of Campeche, located in the Mayan zone in the western Yucatan peninsula. Despite the fact that GLY is considered a non-toxic pesticide to humans, its presence in water bodies through spillage, runoff, and leaching are a risk to human health or biota that inhabit these ecosystems. In the present study, glyphosate residues were determined in groundwater, bottled drinking water, and the urine of subsistence farmers from various localities of the Hopelchén municipality in Campeche...
June 3, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Fabrizio Barozzi, Gian-Pietro Di Sansebastiano, Erika Sabella, Alessio Aprile, Gabriella Piro, Luigi De Bellis, Eliana Nutricati
Triticum durum Glutathione S-transferase Z1 is specifically responsive to glyphosate. Its expression influences the receptor-mediated vacuolar sorting mechanisms involved in tolerance mechanisms. A zeta subfamily glutathione S-transferase gene from Triticum durum (cv Cappelli) (TdGSTZ1) was characterized as part of a complex detoxification mechanism. The effect of different abiotic stresses on TdGSTZ1 revealed that the gene is unexpectedly responsive to glyphosate (GLY) herbicide despite it should not be part of tolerance mechanisms...
June 2, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
Adriana Camacho, Daniel Mejía
This paper exploits variations in aerial spraying across time and space in Colombia and employs a panel of individual health records in order to study the causal effects of the aerial spraying of herbicides (glyphosate) on short-term health-related outcomes. Our results show that exposure to the herbicide used in aerial spraying campaigns increases the number of medical consultations related to dermatological and respiratory illnesses, as well as the number of miscarriages. These findings are robust to the inclusion of individual fixed effects, which compare the prevalence of these medical conditions for the same person under different levels of exposure to the herbicide used in the aerial spraying program over a period of 5 years...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
Yuichi Kawagashira, Haruki Koike, Kazuya Kawabata, Mie Takahashi, Ken Ohyama, Rina Hashimoto, Masahiro Iijima, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
We herein report a case of peripheral neuropathy following exposure to large amounts of glyphosate-based herbicide. A 70-year-old man suffered from pain and purpura in the left sole following exposure to glyphosate-based herbicide. Pain and purpura spread to the opposite side and increased in severity. Mild weakness of the lower limbs was also observed. A sural nerve biopsy revealed the infiltration of lymphocytes around small vessels in the epineurium with numerous eosinophils, deposition of hemosiderins and focal axonal degeneration, compatible with findings of vasculitic neuropathy...
2017: Internal Medicine
Sara L Martin, Leshawn Benedict, Connie A Sauder, Wei Wei, Leandro Oliveira da Costa, Linda M Hall, Hugh J Beckie
Glyphosate is considered the world's most important herbicide, but widespread and continual use has resulted in the evolution of resistance. Kochia scoparia (kochia) has evolved resistance via tandem gene amplification of glyphosate's target, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) and resistant populations have been reported from the Canadian Prairies and the Northern Great Plains. Here, we evaluated the fitness costs of EPSPS amplification in kochia by comparing susceptible and resistant full siblings from segregating F2 populations generated from within six populations...
August 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Laurent Héritier, Anne-Leila Meistertzheim, Olivier Verneau
Increasing anthropogenic activities, like agricultural practices, constitute the main causes of the loss of water quality and disruption of freshwater ecosystems. High concentrations of pesticides, as shown under experimental conditions, can indeed impact freshwater animals. In Southern France, especially in the Pyrénées-Orientales department, because agricultural activities are mainly based on fruit crops and vineyards, glyphosate and AMPA were detected in some watercourses. Thereby we investigated the effects of degraded waters on the physiology of the endemic endangered freshwater species, namely the Mediterranean pond turtle Mauremys leprosa, in contrasted environments along the same rivers on the one hand and between different rivers on the other...
May 24, 2017: Chemosphere
Elodie Nivelle, Julien Verzeaux, Amélie Chabot, David Roger, Fabien Spicher, Jérôme Lacoux, Jose-Edmundo Nava-Saucedo, Manuella Catterou, Thierry Tétu
The use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and glyphosate-based herbicides is increasing worldwide, with agriculture holding the largest market share. The agronomic and socioeconomic utilities of glyphosate are well established; however, our knowledge of the potential effects of glyphosate applied in the presence or absence of long-term N fertilization on microbial functional activities and the availability of soil nutrients remains limited. Using an ex situ approach with soils that did (N+) or did not (N0) receive synthetic N fertilization for 6 years, we assessed the impact of different rates (no glyphosate, CK; field rate, FR; 100 × field rate, 100FR) of glyphosate application on biological and chemical parameters...
2017: PloS One
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