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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333054/removal-of-organic-phosphorus-and-formaldehyde-in-glyphosate-wastewater-by-cwo-and-the-lime-catalyzed-formose-reaction
#1
Bo Xing, Honglin Chen, Xiaoming Zhang
Glyphosate (PMG) wastewater with 40-600 mg/L organic phosphorus (OP) and 1-4% CH2O was treated by catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) and the lime-catalyzed formose reaction to remove total phosphorus (TP) and improve biodegradability. Activated carbons (ACs) modified by H2O2 oxidation and thermal treatment with melamine were used as CWO catalysts and characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption and XPS. The CWO experiments were performed in an autoclave reactor at 110-130 °C and 1.0 MPa. The modified AC showed higher catalytic activity than the parent AC due to the introduction of nitrogen-containing functional groups, exhibited over 90% OP removal for various real PMG wastewaters, and had good stability for 20 consecutive CWO runs...
March 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332926/efficient-degradation-of-organic-phosphorus-in-glyphosate-wastewater-by-catalytic-wet-oxidation-using-modified-activated-carbon-as-a-catalyst
#2
Bo Xing, Honglin Chen, Xiaoming Zhang
Glyphosate (PMG) wastewater, which is an organic phosphorus (OP) wastewater containing 200-3000 mg/L glyphosate, was treated via catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) to degrade glyphosate to orthophosphate (PO4(3-)). The catalysts were activated carbons (ACs) modified by H2O2 oxidation and thermal treatment with ammonia or melamine. The catalysts were characterized using N2 adsorption/desorption, Boehm titration, and XPS. The CWO experiments were performed in a co-current upflow fixed bed reactor at 110-130 °C and under 1...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327669/pollen-mediated-gene-flow-from-glyphosate-resistant-common-waterhemp-amaranthus-rudis-sauer-consequences-for-the-dispersal-of-resistance-genes
#3
Debalin Sarangi, Andrew J Tyre, Eric L Patterson, Todd A Gaines, Suat Irmak, Stevan Z Knezevic, John L Lindquist, Amit J Jhala
Gene flow is an important component in evolutionary biology; however, the role of gene flow in dispersal of herbicide-resistant alleles among weed populations is poorly understood. Field experiments were conducted at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to quantify pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) from glyphosate-resistant (GR) to -susceptible (GS) common waterhemp using a concentric donor-receptor design. More than 130,000 common waterhemp plants were screened and 26,199 plants were confirmed resistant to glyphosate...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324251/simulating-changes-in-cropping-practises-in-conventional-and-glyphosate-tolerant-maize-i-effects-on-weeds
#4
Nathalie Colbach, Alice Fernier, Valérie Le Corre, Antoine Messéan, Henri Darmency
Herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops such as those tolerant to glyphosate simplify weed management and make it more efficient, at least at short-term. Overreliance on the same herbicide though leads to the spread of resistant weeds. Here, the objective was to evaluate, with simulations, the impact on the advent of glyphosate resistance in weeds of modifications in agricultural practises resulting from introducing HT maize into cropping systems. First, we included a single-gene herbicide resistance submodel in the existing multispecific FLORSYS model...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320775/is-it-time-to-reassess-current-safety-standards-for-glyphosate-based-herbicides
#5
REVIEW
Laura N Vandenberg, Bruce Blumberg, Michael N Antoniou, Charles M Benbrook, Lynn Carroll, Theo Colborn, Lorne G Everett, Michael Hansen, Philip J Landrigan, Bruce P Lanphear, Robin Mesnage, Frederick S Vom Saal, Wade V Welshons, John Peterson Myers
Use of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) increased ∼100-fold from 1974 to 2014. Additional increases are expected due to widespread emergence of glyphosate-resistant weeds, increased application of GBHs, and preharvest uses of GBHs as desiccants. Current safety assessments rely heavily on studies conducted over 30 years ago. We have considered information on GBH use, exposures, mechanisms of action, toxicity and epidemiology. Human exposures to glyphosate are rising, and a number of in vitro and in vivo studies challenge the basis for the current safety assessment of glyphosate and GBHs...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319746/predicting-biphasic-responses-in-binary-mixtures-pelargonic-acid-versus-glyphosate
#6
Regina G Belz, Hans-Peter Piepho
Predicting hormesis in mixtures is challenging, but essential considering that chemical exposures often occur in mixtures and at low doses. This study investigated mixture effects with two herbicides prone to induce hormesis and to interact, namely pelargonic acid versus glyphosate. Five independent mixture experiments were conducted in vitro to assess effects on root growth of lettuce. Mixture effects on the dose were analyzed using classical joint-action models in terms of deviation from the reference model of concentration addition...
March 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317250/epsps-gene-amplification-conferring-resistance-to-glyphosate-in-windmill-grass-chloris-truncata-in-australia
#7
The D Ngo, Jenna M Malone, Peter Boutsalis, Gurjeet Gill, Christopher Preston
BACKGROUND: Five glyphosate resistant populations of Chloris truncata originally collected from New South Wales were compared to one susceptible (S) population from South Australia, Australia to confirm glyphosate resistance and elucidate possible mechanisms of resistance. RESULTS: Based on the amounts of glyphosate required to kill 50% of treated plants (LD50 ), glyphosate resistance (GR) was confirmed in five populations of C. truncata (A536, A528, T27, A534 and A535...
March 20, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306542/biomonitoring-of-danish-school-children-and-mothers-including-biomarkers-of-pbde-and-glyphosate
#8
Lisbeth E Knudsen, Pernille Winton Hansen, Seher Mizrak, Heidi K Hansen, Thit A Mørck, Flemming Nielsen, Volkert Siersma, Line Mathiesen
BACKGROUND: The Danish part of the large European Human biomonitoring pilot project Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) investigated the urine, hair and blood concentrations of 66 different environmental chemicals in a group of 145 Danish school children aged 6-11 years and their mothers from rural and urban areas in autumn 2011. Some - but not all - results were published; however, the concurrence of the chemicals has not been assessed...
March 17, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301275/serum-s100-protein-could-predict-altered-consciousness-in-glyphosate-or-glufosinate-poisoning-patients
#9
Jung-Won Lee, Young-Jin Choi, Samel Park, Hyo-Wook Gil, Ho-Yeon Song, Sae-Yong Hong
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) complications such as seizures and reduced consciousness are important in glufosinate and may occur in severe glyphosate poisoning. The aim of this study was to assess the possible role of serum S100B protein as a biochemical marker of CNS complications associated with glyphosate or glufosinate poisoning. METHODS: The study enrolled 40 patients (23 glyphosate poisoning and 17 glufosinate poisoning). Altered consciousness and seizure were observed during hospitalization...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300212/effect-of-pesticides-on-microbial-communities-in-container-aquatic-habitats
#10
Ephantus J Muturi, Ravi Kiran Donthu, Christopher J Fields, Imelda K Moise, Chang-Hyun Kim
Container aquatic habitats support a specialized community of macroinvertebrates (e.g. mosquitoes) that feed on microbial communities associated with decaying organic matter. These aquatic habitats are often embedded within and around agricultural lands and are frequently exposed to pesticides. We used a microcosm approach to examine the single and combined effects of two herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate), and three insecticides (malathion, carbaryl, permethrin) on microbial communities of container aquatic habitats...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300023/optimization-and-validation-of-a-residue-analysis-method-for-glyphosate-glufosinate-and-their-metabolites-in-plant-matrixes-by-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#11
Dasharath P Oulkar, Sandip Hingmire, Arnab Goon, Manjusha Jadhav, Bharat Ugare, Ahammed Shabeer Thekkumpurath, Kaushik Banerjee
A sensitive and accurate LC with tandem MS (MS/MS)-based method was developed and validated for the analysis of the herbicide glyphosate, its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate after derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) in various plant matrixes. The method also covers direct analysis of the glufosinate metabolites 3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid (3-MPPA) and N-acetyl-glufosinate (NAG). The homogenized samples were extracted with 0.1% formic acid in water-dichloromethane (50 + 50)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289424/secondary-effects-of-glyphosate-action-in-phelipanche-aegyptiaca-inhibition-of-solute-transport-from-the-host-plant-to-the-parasite
#12
Tal Shilo, Baruch Rubin, Dina Plakhine, Shira Gal, Rachel Amir, Yael Hacham, Shmuel Wolf, Hanan Eizenberg
It is currently held that glyphosate efficiently controls the obligate holoparasite Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Egyptian broomrape) by inhibiting its endogenous shikimate pathway, thereby causing a deficiency in aromatic amino acids (AAA). While there is no argument regarding the shikimate pathway being the primary site of the herbicide's action, the fact that the parasite receives a constant supply of nutrients, including proteins and amino acids, from the host does not fit with an AAA deficiency. This apparent contradiction implies that glyphosate mechanism of action in P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288428/effects-of-roundup-formulations-on-biochemical-biomarkers-and-male-sperm-quality-of-the-livebearing-jenynsia-multidentata
#13
Jessica Andrea Albañil Sánchez, Antonio Sergio Varela, Carine Dahl Corcini, Janaina Camacho da Silva, Ednei Gilberto Primel, Sergiane Caldas, Roberta Daniele Klein, Camila De Martinez Gaspar Martins
Roundup(®) formulations are the most consumed glyphosate-based herbicides in the world. When applied, they may reach water bodies and exert toxicity toward non-target species. This study evaluated and compared the effects of different variations of Roundup on biochemical biomarkers as oxidative parameters and Acethylchorinesterase (AChE) activity, and sperm quality of the livebearing Jenynsia multidentata. Fish were acutely (96 h) exposed to Roundup Original(®) (RO), Roundup Transorb(®) (RT) and Roundup WG(®) (RWG) at 0...
March 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281894/in-vitro-cytotoxicity-assessment-of-roundup-glyphosate-in-l-02-hepatocytes
#14
Lei Luo, Fei Wang, Yiyuan Zhang, Ming Zeng, Caigao Zhong, Fang Xiao
The goal of the present study was to elucidate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Roundup and to reveal the possible related mechanisms in L-02 hepatocytes. By detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH)/superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) open rate, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) release, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, and alanine aminotransferease (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST) leakage, we determined that Roundup induced anti-oxidant system inhibition, mitochondria damage, DNA damage, membrane integrity and permeability changes, and apoptosis in L-02 hepatocytes...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276187/glyphosate-resistance-in-ambrosia-trifida-ii-rapid-response-physiology-and-non-target-site-resistance
#15
Marcelo L Moretti, Christopher R Van Horn, Renae Robertson, Kabelo Segobye, Stephen C Weller, Bryan G Young, William G Johnson, R Douglas Sammons, Dafu Wang, Xia Ge, André d'Avignon, Todd A Gaines, Philip Westra, Amanda C Green, Taylor Jeffery, Mackenzie A Lespérance, François J Tardif, Peter H Sikkema, J Christopher Hall, Michael D McLean, Mark B Lawton, Burkhard Schulz
BACKGROUND: The glyphosate-resistant rapid response (GR RR) resistance mechanism in Ambrosia trifida is not due to target site resistance (TSR) mechanisms. This study explores the physiology of the rapid response and the possibility of reduced translocation and vacuolar sequestration as non-target-site resistance (NTSR) mechanisms. RESULTS: GR RR leaf discs accumulated hydrogen peroxide within minutes of glyphosate exposure, but only in mature leaf tissue. The rapid response required energy either as light or exogenous sucrose...
March 8, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274811/iarc-use-of-oxidative-stress-as-key-mode-of-action-characteristic-for-facilitating-cancer-classification-glyphosate-case-example-illustrating-a-lack-of-robustness-in-interpretative-implementation
#16
James S Bus
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has formulated 10 key characteristics of human carcinogens to incorporate mechanistic data into cancer hazard classifications. The analysis used glyphosate as a case example to examine the robustness of IARC's determination of oxidative stress as "strong" evidence supporting a plausible cancer mechanism in humans. The IARC analysis primarily relied on 14 human/mammalian studies; 19 non-mammalian studies were uninformative of human cancer given the broad spectrum of test species and extensive use of formulations and aquatic testing...
March 6, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270821/single-and-combined-effects-of-pesticide-seed-dressings-and-herbicides-on-earthworms-soil-microorganisms-and-litter-decomposition
#17
Willem Van Hoesel, Alexandra Tiefenbacher, Nina König, Verena M Dorn, Julia F Hagenguth, Urša Prah, Theresia Widhalm, Viktoria Wiklicky, Robert Koller, Michael Bonkowski, Jan Lagerlöf, Andreas Ratzenböck, Johann G Zaller
Seed dressing, i.e., the treatment of crop seeds with insecticides and/or fungicides, aiming to protect seeds from pests and diseases, is widely used in conventional agriculture. During the growing season, those crop fields often receive additional broadband herbicide applications. However, despite this broad utilization, very little is known on potential side effects or interactions between these different pesticide classes on soil organisms. In a greenhouse pot experiment, we studied single and interactive effects of seed dressing of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266132/glyphosate-resistance-in-ambrosia-trifida-i-novel-rapid-cell-death-response-to-glyphosate
#18
Christopher R Van Horn, Marcelo L Moretti, Renae R Robertson, Kabelo Segobye, Stephen C Weller, Bryan G Young, William G Johnson, Burkhard Schulz, Amanda C Green, Taylor Jeffery, Mackenzie A Lespérance, François J Tardif, Peter H Sikkema, J Christopher Hall, Michael D McLean, Mark B Lawton, R Douglas Sammons, Dafu Wang, Philip Westra, Todd A Gaines
BACKGROUND: Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Ambrosia trifida is now present in the Midwestern US and southwestern, Ontario, Canada. Two distinct GR phenotypes are known, including a rapid response (GR RR) phenotype that exhibits cell death within hours after treatment, and a non-rapid response (GR NRR) phenotype. The mechanisms of resistance in both GR RR and GR NRR remain unknown. Here we present a description of the RR phenotype and investigation of target-site mechanisms on multiple A. trifida accessions...
March 7, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261257/glyphosate-dependent-inhibition-of-photosynthesis-in-willow
#19
Marcelo P Gomes, Sarah G Le Manac'h, Louise Hénault-Ethier, Michel Labrecque, Marc Lucotte, Philippe Juneau
We studied the physiological mechanisms involved in the deleterious effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Factor(®) 540) on photosynthesis and related physiological processes of willow (Salix miyabeana cultivar SX64) plants. Sixty-day-old plants grown under greenhouse conditions were sprayed with different rates (0, 1.4, 2.1, and 2.8 kg a.e ha(-1)) of the commercial glyphosate formulated salt Factor(®) 540. Evaluations were performed at 0, 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after herbicide exposure. We established that the herbicide decreases chlorophyll, carotenoid and plastoquinone contents, and promotes changes in the photosynthetic apparatus leading to decreased photochemistry which results in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257488/pollen-mediated-gene-flow-from-transgenic-perennial-creeping-bentgrass-and-hybridization-at-the-landscape-level
#20
María Luz Zapiola, Carol Ann Mallory-Smith
The planting of 162 ha of transgenic glyphosate-resistant creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) near Madras, OR, USA, allowed a unique opportunity to study gene flow over time from a perennial outcrossing species at the landscape level. While conducting a four year in situ survey, we collected panicles and leaf tissue samples from creeping bentgrass and its sexually compatible species. Seeds from the panicles were planted, and seedlings were tested in the greenhouse for expression of the transgene. Gene flow via pollen was found in all four years, at frequencies of 0...
2017: PloS One
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