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N Defarge, J Spiroux de Vendômois, G E Séralini
The major pesticides of the world are glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), and their toxicity is highly debated. To understand their mode of action, the comparative herbicidal and toxicological effects of glyphosate (G) alone and 14 of its formulations were studied in this work, as a model for pesticides. GBH are mixtures of water, with commonly 36-48% G claimed as the active principle. As with other pesticides, 10-20% of GBH consist of chemical formulants. We previously identified these by mass spectrometry and found them to be mainly families of petroleum-based oxidized molecules, such as POEA, and other contaminants...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Sabitha Papineni, Julie K Passage, Ricardo D Ekmay, Johnson Thomas
Event DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean is genetically modified (GM) to provide tolerance to 2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), glyphosate, and glufosinate herbicides through expression of the AAD-12, 2mEPSPS, and PAT proteins, respectively. DAS-444Ø6-6 soybeans were evaluated for safety in subchronic rat feeding studies. The results from two previous subchronic rat feeding studies evaluating diets formulated with 20% inclusion of DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean meal (the latter also containing DAS-444Ø6-6 derived hulls and oil) did not show any treatment-related adverse effects...
January 6, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Emma Fiorino, Pavla Sehonova, Lucie Plhalova, Jana Blahova, Zdenka Svobodova, Caterina Faggio
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is an active substance of many herbicides. According to literature studies, glyphosate residues and their metabolites have been commonly detected in surface waters and toxicological reports confirmed negative effects on living organisms. In this study, the acute embryo toxicity of glyphosate into two different fish species-common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and zebrafish (Danio rerio)-was investigated. Lethal endpoints, development disorder, and, in addition, other sublethal endpoints such as hatching rate, formation of somites, and development of eyes, spontaneous movement, heartbeat/blood circulation, pigmentation, and edema were recorded to indicate the mode of action of the toxic compound...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yuri Dornelles Zebral, Luize Real Lansini, Patrícia Gomes Costa, Mauricio Roza, Adalto Bianchini, Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo
Roundup is the most popular glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) worldwide. These formulations kill a wide range of plants. Despite that, non-target species can be jeopardized by GBH, such as the annual fish Austrolebias nigrofasciatus. This species occurs in wetlands that dries annually. Key-adaptations permit them to live in such harsh habitats, e. i. Elevated fertility, drought-tolerant diapausing embryos and elevated thermal tolerance. We aimed to evaluate acute (96 h) effects of Roundup exposure (0.36 or 3...
January 2, 2018: Chemosphere
Patrizia Bonfanti, M Saibene, R Bacchetta, P Mantecca, A Colombo
Glyphosate is the active ingredient in broad-spectrum herbicide formulations used in agriculture, domestic area and aquatic weed control worldwide. Its market is growing steadily concurrently with the cultivation of glyphosate-tolerant transgenic crops and emergence of weeds less sensitive to glyphosate. Ephemeral and lentic waters near to agricultural lands, representing favorite habitats for amphibian reproduction and early life-stage development, may thus be contaminated by glyphosate based herbicides (GBHs) residues...
December 24, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Hui Li, Adam F Wallace, Mingjing Sun, Patrick N Reardon, Deb P Jaisi
Glyphosate is the active ingredient of the common herbicide Roundup®. The increasing presence of glyphosate and its byproducts has raised concerns about its potential impact on the environment and human health. In this research, we investigated abiotic pathways of glyphosate degradation as catalyzed by birnessite under aerobic and neutral pH conditions to determine whether certain pathways have the potential to generate less harmful intermediate products. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were utilized to identify and quantify reaction products, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to investigate the bond critical point (BCP) properties of the C‒N bond in glyphosate and Mn(IV)‒complexed glyphosate...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Dal-Hoe Koo, Mithila Jugulam, Karthik Putta, Ivan B Cuvaca, Dallas Peterson, Randall S Currie, Bernd Friebe, Bikram S Gill
An increase in gene copy number is often associated with changes in the number and structure of chromosomes, as has been widely observed in yeast and eukaryotic tumors, yet little is known about stress-induced chromosomal changes in plants. Previously, we reported that the EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene, the molecular target of glyphosate, was amplified at the native locus and on an extra chromosome in glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus. Here we report that the extra chromosome is a ring chromosome termed Extra Circular Chromosome carrying Amplified EPSPS (ECCAE)...
January 2, 2018: Plant Physiology
Hao Guo, Huijun Wang, Jing Zheng, Wenwen Liu, Jian Zhong, Qingbiao Zhao
Phosphoric acid-containing amino acid pesticides, including glyphosate, glufosinate, and bialaphos, have been frequently encountered in human poisoning and suicidal cases, thus a quick and sensitive determination method for these compounds is very important. Herein we report a sensitive and rapid method for the determination of glyphosate, glufosinate, bialaphos and their metabolites, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and 3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid (MPPA) in human blood samples. The method involves extraction using a modified Quick Polar Pesticides Extraction (QuPPe) method, cleanup with the PRiME HLB sorbents and detection with ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)...
December 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
Otmar Zoller, Peter Rhyn, Heinz Rupp, Jürg A Zarn, Christoph Geiser
A total of 243 samples of divers foodstuffs were analysed for glyphosate and AMPA using an LC/MS/MS method with a relatively low LOQ in the range of 0.0005 to 0.0025 mg kg-1. Main contributors for dietary glyphosate and AMPA intake were cereals and pulses. The results suggest that pasta is a very important foodstuff for dietary glyphosate residue intake in Switzerland. Interestingly all samples of wine, fruit juice and nearly all samples of honey tested positive for glyphosate although at very low levels. A dietary risk assessment was conducted...
December 28, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
Amith Sadananda Maroli, Vijay K Nandula, Stephen O Duke, Partick Gerard, Nishanth Tharayil
Glyphosate tolerant Ipomoea lacunosa is emerging as a problematic weed in the southeastern U.S. Metabolomic profiling was conducted to examine the innate physiology and the glyphosate induced perturbations in two biotypes of I. lacunosa (WAS and QUI) that had contrasting glyphosate tolerance. Compared to the QUI, the innate metabolism of the more tolerant WAS-biotype was characterized by a higher abundance of amino acids, and pyruvate; whereas the sugar profile of less tolerant QUI biotype was dominated by the transport sugar sucrose...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Julián Ortiz Otalvaro, Maximiliano Brigante
Interactions between pesticides (paraquat, glyphosate, 2,4-D, atrazine, and metsulfuron methyl) and soil organic and inorganic components have been studied in batch experiments by performing adsorption, dissolution, and chemical and photochemical degradation under different conditions. The obtained results confirm that the affinity of a pesticide to the solid surface depends on the nature of both and shows that each reactant strongly affects the mobility of the other one, e.g., anionic pesticides promote the dissolution of the solid humic acid but if this last is retained into the inorganic matrix enhances the adsorption of a cationic pesticide...
December 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ashour A Ahmed, Peter Leinweber, Oliver Kühn
Investigation of the interaction between glyphosate (GLP) and soil minerals is essential for understanding GLP's fate in the environment. Whereas GLP-goethite binding has been discussed extensively, the impact of water as well as of different goethite surface planes has not been studied yet. In this contribution, periodic density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations are applied to explore possible binding mechanisms for GLP with three goethite surface planes (010, 001, and 100) in the presence of water...
December 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Arthur Am Barroso, Marilia G de S Costa, Nelson J Neto, Juciléia I Dos Santos, Tiago S Balbuena, Caio A Carbonari, Pedro Lca Alves
BACKGROUND: Weeds reduce crop yields, and among the methods used to control these plants, chemical use is preferred. However, the repeated application of herbicides with the same mechanism of action selects for resistant populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate glyphosate resistance in Lolium multiflorum (Lam.) and relate the resistance to protein expression in the absence and presence of the herbicide using a metabolic-proteomic approach. RESULTS: Glyphosate resistance was confirmed, with a sevenfold difference in resistance between susceptible and resistant genotypes...
December 18, 2017: Pest Management Science
Julia E Behrend, Ann L Rypstra
Animals that live in conventional agroecosystems must cope with a variety of anthropogenic chemicals. Most of the focus of toxicology is on lethality, deformities, or short-term shifts in behavior. However, for animals that succeed in spite of their exposure, it is important to determine if long-term changes are brought on by their experience. We tested the hypothesis that contact with a commercial formulation of a glyphosate-based herbicide would affect the behavior of subsequent instars in the wolf spider, Pardosa milvina, a species that thrives in the agroecosystems of eastern United States...
December 7, 2017: Chemosphere
Claudio E Pandolfo, Alejandro Presotto, Francisco Torres Carbonell, Soledad Ureta, Mónica Poverene, Miguel Cantamutto
Brassica rapa L. is an annual Brassicaceae species cultivated for oil and food production, whose wild form is a weed of crops worldwide. In temperate regions of South America and especially in the Argentine Pampas region, this species is widely distributed. During 2014, wild B. rapa populations that escaped control with glyphosate applications by farmers were found in this area. These plants were characterized by morphology and seed acidic profile, and all the characters agreed with B. rapa description. The dose-response assays showed that the biotypes were highly resistant to glyphosate...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marika Turek, Robert Biczak, Barbara Pawłowska, Ewa Różycka-Sokołowska, Bernard Marciniak, Małgorzata Deska, Joanna Skalik, Piotr Bałczewski
This study shows the design, synthesis and evaluation of eco(phyto)toxic and herbicidal activities of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), derived from haloacetic acids, in context of the search for safer alternatives to the commonly used herbicide, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate). The structure of the investigated QASs refers to the heteroatom sequence in the anion of glyphosate in which the (P-C)-N nitrogen atom was replaced by one or more halogens (F, Cl). The ecotoxicity of the synthesized QASs was tested against luminescent marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri (Microtox® test) and the crustaceans Heterocypris incongruens (Ostracodtoxkit F™)...
December 9, 2017: Chemosphere
Dibakar Sahoo, Abhishek Mandal, Tapas Mitra, Kaushik Chakraborty, Munmun Bardhan, Anjan Kumar Dasgupta
Present study reveals the low concentrations (~ 4 ppm) of pesticide sensing vis-à-vis degradation of pesticides with the help of nontoxic zinc oxide quantum dots (QD). In our study, we have taken 4 different pesticides v.i.z., Aldrin, Tetradifon, Glyphosate, and Atrazine, which are widely used in agriculture and have structural dissimilarities/diversity. By using optical sensing techniques such as steady state and time resolved fluorescence we have analysed the detailed exciton dynamics of QD in the presence of different pesticides...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Robin Mesnage, Michael N Antoniou
The safety profile of the herbicide glyphosate and its commercial formulations is controversial. Reviews have been published by individuals who are consultants and employees of companies commercializing glyphosate-based herbicides in support of glyphosate's reapproval by regulatory agencies. These authors conclude that glyphosate is safe at levels below regulatory permissible limits. In contrast, reviews conducted by academic scientists independent of industry report toxic effects below regulatory limits, as well as shortcomings of the current regulatory evaluation of risks associated with glyphosate exposures...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Aaron W Hummel, Raj Deepika Chauhan, Tomas Cermak, Andrew M Mutka, Anupama Vijayaraghavan, Adam Boyher, Colby G Starker, Rebecca Bart, Daniel F Voytas, Nigel J Taylor
Effective weed control can protect yields of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots (Doll and Piedrahita Cañola, 1978). Farmers could benefit from using herbicide with a tolerant cultivar. We applied traditional transgenesis and gene editing to generate robust glyphosate tolerance in cassava. By comparing promoters regulating expression of transformed 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) genes with various paired amino acid substitutions, we found that strong constitutive expression is required to achieve glyphosate tolerance during in vitro selection and in whole cassava plants...
December 9, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Daniel C Schlatter, Chuntao Yin, Ian Burke, Scot Hulbert, Timothy Paulitz
Glyphosate is the most-used herbicide worldwide and an essential tool for weed control in no-till cropping systems. However, concerns have been raised regarding the long-term effects of glyphosate on soil microbial communities. We examined the impact of repeated glyphosate application on bulk and rhizosphere soil fungal communities of wheat grown in four soils representative of the dryland wheat production region of Eastern Washington, USA. Further, using soils from paired fields, we contrasted the response of fungal communities that had a long history of glyphosate exposure and those that had no known exposure...
December 7, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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