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Mengmeng Tong, Wanjun Gao, Weiting Jiao, Jie Zhou, Yeyun Li, Lili He, Ruyan Hou
The uptake, translocation, metabolism and distribution behavior of glyphosate in non-target tea plant was investigated. The negative effects appeared to grown tea saplings when the nutrient solution contained of glyphosate, above 200 mg L-1. Glyphosate was highest in the roots of the tea plant, where it was also metabolized to AMPA. The glyphosate and AMPA in the roots were transported through the xylem or phloem to the stems and leaves. The amount of AMPA in the entire tea plant was less than 6.0% of the amount of glyphosate...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Clayton Tincher, Hongan Long, Megan G Behringer, Noah Walker, Michael Lynch
Mutations induced by pollutants may promote pathogen evolution for example by accelerating mutations conferring antibiotic resistance. Generally, evaluating the genome-wide mutagenic effects of long-term sublethal pollutant exposure at single-nucleotide resolution is extremely difficult. To overcome this technical barrier, we use the mutation accumulation/whole genome sequencing (MA/WGS) method as a mutagenicity test, to quantitatively evaluate genome-wide mutagenesis of Escherichia coli after long-term exposure to a wide gradient of the glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) Roundup® Concentrate Plus...
August 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
G C Yu, X D Jian, B J Gao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Paola I Ingaramo, Jorgelina Varayoud, María M Milesi, Marlise Guerrero Schimpf, Ramiro Alarcón, Mónica Muñoz-de-Toro, Enrique H Luque
We investigated whether defective modulation of uterine signaling may cause decidualization failure in rats neonatally exposed to a glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH). Female pups received vehicle or 2mg/kg of GBH from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND7. On PND8 and PND21, Wnt5a and β-catenin expression was evaluated in uterine samples. On gestational day (GD) 9, Wnt5a, Wnt7a and β-catenin expression and Dkk1 and sFRP4 mRNA were evaluated on implantation sites. On PND8, GBH-exposed rats showed increased Wnt5a and β-catenin expression in luminal epithelium (LE), whereas on PND21, they showed increased Wnt5a and β-catenin expression in subepithelial stroma but decreased β-catenin expression in glandular epithelium...
August 2, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Narong Chamkasem
A simple high-throughput liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was developed for the determination of maleic hydrazide, glyphosate, fosetyl aluminum and ethephon in grapes using a reversed-phase column with weak anion-exchange and cation-exchange mixed-mode. A 5 g test portion was shaken with 50 mM HOAc and 10 mM Na2EDTA in 1/3 (v/v) MeOH/H2O for 10 min. After centrifugation, the extract was passed thru an Oasis HLB cartridge to retain suspended particulates and non-polar interferences...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Bo Tao, Bai-Hui Shao, Yu-Xin Qiao, Xiao-Qin Wang, Shu-Jun Chang, Li-Juan Qiu
Glyphosate is a widely used broad spectrum herbicide; however, this limits its use once crops are planted. If glyphosate-resistant crops are grown, glyphosate can be used for weed control in crops. While several glyphosate resistance genes are used in commercial glyphosate tolerant crops, there is interest in identifying additional genes for glyphosate tolerance. This research constructed a high-quality cDNA library form the glyphosate-resistant fungus Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 to identify genes that may confer resistance to glyphosate...
August 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Martin Laforest, Brahim Soufiane, Marie-Josée Simard, Kristen Obeid, Eric Page, Robert E Nurse
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of herbicide resistant weed biotypes is increasing and this report of an Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor resistant Digitaria sanguinalis L. Scop. from Southwestern Ontario is another example. The identified weed escaped control in an onion and carrot rotation where graminicides where used for several consecutive years. Our goal was to characterise the level and mechanism of resistance of the biotype. RESULTS: The biotype was resistant to all five ACCase inhibitor herbicides tested...
July 29, 2017: Pest Management Science
Patrick Tranel
During the past decade, one of the most novel findings emerging from herbicide-resistance research was gene amplification as a resistance mechanism. Although amplification of genes-including genes encoding detoxifying enzymes as well as genes encoding the target site itself-has been known to confer insecticide resistance for some time (reviewed by Bass and Field(1) ), such a mechanism was not reported for herbicide resistance until 2010.(2).
July 28, 2017: Pest Management Science
Xiao Yang, Lei Li, Xiaoqi Jiang, Wei Wang, Xingxing Cai, Jun Su, Feng Wang, Bao-Rong Lu
Genetically engineered (GE) rice endogenous epsps (5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene overexpressing EPSPS can increase glyphosate herbicide-resistance of cultivated rice. This type of epsps transgene can enhance the fecundity of rice crop-weed hybrid offspring in the absence of glyphosate, stimulating great concerns over undesired environmental impacts of transgene flow to populations of wild relatives. Here, we report the substantial alteration of phenology and fitness traits in F1-F3 crop-wild hybrid descendants derived from crosses between an epsps GE rice line and two endangered wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) populations, based on the common-garden field experiments...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
Débora Jesabel Pérez, Elena Okada, Mirta Luján Menone, José Luis Costa
Glyphosate is intensively used in agricultural fields and it is frequently detected in non-target wetland ecosystems. The floating hydrophyte Ludwigia peploides is widely distributed in American streams and it is an abundant species. Therefore, our objectives were (1) to establish and validate an extraction and quantification methodology for glyphosate in L. peploides and (2) to evaluate the role of this species as a potential glyphosate biomonitor in an agricultural watershed. We developed a new method of glyphosate extraction from leaves of L...
October 2017: Chemosphere
Javid Gherekhloo, Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz, Eduardo Sánchez-González, Hugo E Cruz-Hipolito, José A Domínguez-Valenzuela, Rafael De Prado
Glyphosate has been used for more than 15 years for weed management in citrus groves in the Gulf of Mexico, at up to 3-4 applications per year. Goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.) control has sometimes failed. In this research, the mechanisms governing three goosegrass biotypes (Ein-Or from an orange grove, and Ein-Pl1 and Ein-Pl2 from Persian lime groves) with suspected resistance to glyphosate were characterized and compared to a susceptible biotype (Ein-S). Dose-response and shikimate accumulation assays confirmed resistance of the resistant (R) biotypes...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gunjune Kim, Christopher R Clarke, Hailey Larose, Hong T Tran, David C Haak, Liqing Zhang, Shawn Askew, Jacob Barney, James H Westwood
The emergence of herbicide-resistant weeds is a major threat facing modern agriculture. Over 470 weedy-plant populations have developed resistance to herbicides. Traditional evolutionary mechanisms are not always sufficient to explain the rapidity with which certain weed populations adapt in response to herbicide exposure. Stress-induced epigenetic changes, such as alterations in DNA methylation, are potential additional adaptive mechanisms for herbicide resistance. We performed methylC sequencing of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves that developed after either mock treatment or two different sub-lethal doses of the herbicide glyphosate, the most-used herbicide in the history of agriculture...
2017: PeerJ
Zahoor A Ganie, Amit J Jhala
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) giant ragweed is a problematic broadleaf weed in crops including maize and soybean in the Midwestern United States. Commercialization of crops with 2,4-D or dicamba and glufosinate resistance will allow post-emergence (POST) applications of these herbicides. Therefore, information is needed on how 2,4-D/dicamba will interact with glufosinate in various rate combinations. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the interaction of glufosinate plus 2,4-D and/or dicamba for control of GR giant ragweed, and to determine their effect on GR giant ragweed density, biomass, maize injury, and yield...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yuri Dornelles Zebral, Patrícia Gomes Costa, Bruna de Castro Knopp, Luize Real Lansini, Bruna Zafalon-Silva, Adalto Bianchini, Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo
Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are the major pesticides used worldwide. Among them, the Roundup formulations are the most popular. Some aspects of GBH toxicity are well known, such as induction of oxidative stress. However, embryotoxicity is scarcely known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exposure to different Roundup Transorb R concentrations (0.36, 1.80, 3.62 and 5.43 mg glyphosate a.e./L) on Odontesthes humensis embryonic development. Embryos were sampled at three exposure times (48, 72 and 96 h)...
October 2017: Chemosphere
Vipan Kumar, Prashant Jha
BACKGROUND: Bromus tectorum L. is one of the most troublesome grass weed species in cropland and non-cropland areas of the northwestern United States. In summer 2016, a B. tectroum accession (R) that survived imazamox at the field-use rate (44 g ha(-1) ) in an imidazolinone-tolerant (IMI-tolerant or Clearfield(™) ) winter wheat field was collected near Hammond, Carter County, MT, USA. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance profile of the B. tectroum R accession to imazamox and other ALS inhibitors, and investigate the mechanism of resistance to imazamox...
July 22, 2017: Pest Management Science
Igor da Silva Lindemann, Gustavo Heinrich Lang, Jessica Fernanda Hoffmann, Cesar Valmor Rombaldi, Maurício de Oliveira, Moacir Cardoso Elias, Nathan Levien Vanier
The effects of the use of glyphosate (GLY), glyphosate plus carfentrazone (GLY/CAR), and paraquat (PAR) as plant desiccators on the technological and chemical properties of cowpea grains were investigated. All studied desiccants provided lower cooking time to freshly harvested cowpea. However, the coat color of PAR- and GLY/CAR-treated cowpea was reddish in comparison to the control treatment. Principal component analysis (PCA) from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data sets showed a clear distinction among cowpea from the different treatments...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Harald Cederlund
Glyphosate is a widely used broad-spectrum post-emergent herbicide used for weed control in both agricultural and non-agricultural settings. Spray drift of glyphosate can pose a risk to non-target terrestrial plants and plant communities outside the intended area of application, but the lack of a well-established predicted no-effect drift rate makes properly assessing such risk difficult. For this reason, a literature review and meta-analysis was carried out with the aim to determine which level of drift that is likely to cause harm to plants and to explore what spray-reducing targets that would be sufficiently protective...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
A L Van Eenennaam, A E Young
Products such as meat, milk, and eggs from animals that have consumed genetically engineered (GE) feed are not currently subject to mandatory GE labeling requirements. Some voluntary "non-genetically modified organism" labeling has been associated with such products, indicating that the animals were not fed GE crops, as there are no commercialized GE food animals. This review summarizes the available scientific literature on the detection of dietary DNA and protein in animal products and briefly discusses the implications of mandatory GE labeling for products from animals that have consumed GE feed...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Omobolanle Adewale Osipitan, Johanna Anita Dille
A fast-spreading weed, kochia (Kochia scoparia), has developed resistance to the widely-used herbicide, glyphosate. Understanding the relationship between the occurrence of glyphosate resistance caused by multiple EPSPS gene copies and kochia fitness may suggest a more effective way of controlling kochia. A study was conducted to assess fitness cost of glyphosate resistance compared to susceptibility in kochia populations at different life history stages, that is rate of seed germination, increase in plant height, days to flowering, biomass accumulation at maturity, and fecundity...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fernando Rafael de Moura, Kamila Ribeiro Brentegani, Aline Gemelli, Adilson Paulo Sinhorin, Valéria Dornelles Gindri Sinhorin
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Roundup Original(®), a glyphosate-based herbicide, against biochemical parameters including thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant responses and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of jundiara fish (Leiarius marmoratus × Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) at a sublethal concentration of 1.357 mg L(-1). Fish exposed to the herbicide for different periods (6-96 h) showed a significant increase of both hepatic and muscular TBARS and protein carbonyl...
October 2017: Chemosphere
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