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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224177/joint-toxicity-of-arsenic-copper-and-glyphosate-on-behavior-reproduction-and-heat-shock-protein-response-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#1
Yunbiao Wang, Anastasia N Ezemaduka, Zhuheng Li, Zhanyan Chen, Chuantao Song
The soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was used in 24-h acute exposures to arsenic (As), copper (Cu) and glyphosate (GPS) and to mixtures of As/Cu and As/GPS to investigate the effects of mixture exposures in the worms. A synergistic type of interaction was observed for acute toxicity with the As/Cu and As/GPS mixtures. Sublethal 24-h exposures of 1/1000, 1/100 and 1/10 of the LC50 concentrations for As, Cu and GPS individually and for As/Cu and As/GPS mixtures were conducted to observe responses in locomotory behavior (head thrashing), reproduction, and heat shock protein expression...
February 21, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223908/elevated-urinary-glyphosate-and-clostridia-metabolites-with-altered-dopamine-metabolism-in-triplets-with-autistic-spectrum-disorder-or-suspected-seizure-disorder-a-case-study
#2
William Shaw
CONTEXT: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder for which a number of genetic, environmental, and nutritional causes have been proposed. Glyphosate is used widely as a crop desiccant and as an herbicide in fields of genetically modified foods that are glyphosate resistant. Several researchers have proposed that it may be a cause of autism, based on epidemiological data that correlates increased usage of glyphosate with an increased autism rate. OBJECTIVE: The current study was intended to determine if excessive glyphosate was present in the triplets and their parents and to evaluate biochemical findings for the family to determine the potential effects of its presence...
February 2017: Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209433/surface-runoff-and-subsurface-tile-drain-losses-of-neonicotinoids-and-companion-herbicides-at-edge-of-field
#3
François Chrétien, Isabelle Giroux, Georges Thériault, Patrick Gagnon, Julie Corriveau
With their application as seed coatings, the use of neonicotinoid insecticides increased dramatically during the last decade. They are now frequently detected in aquatic ecosystems at concentrations susceptible to harm aquatic invertebrates at individual and population levels. This study intent was to document surface runoff and subsurface tile drain losses of two common neonicotinoids (thiamethoxam and clothianidin) compared to those of companion herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate, S-metolachlor and mesotrione) at the edge of a 22...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208606/ustiloxin-g-a-new-cyclopeptide-mycotoxin-from-rice-false-smut-balls
#4
Xiaohan Wang, Jian Wang, Daowan Lai, Weixuan Wang, Jungui Dai, Ligang Zhou, Yang Liu
Ustiloxins were cyclopeptide mycotoxins from rice false smut balls (FSBs) that formed in rice spikelets infected by the fungal pathogen Ustilaginoidea virens. To investigate the chemical diversity of these metabolites and their bioactivities, one new cyclopeptide, ustiloxin G (1), together with four known congeners-ustiloxins A (2), B (3), D (4), and F (5)-were isolated from water extract of rice FSBs. Their structures were elucidated by analyses of their physical and spectroscopic data, including ultraviolet spectrometry (UV), infrared spectroscopy (IR), 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and high-resolution electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS)...
February 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202277/sub-lethal-effects-of-a-glyphosate-based-commercial-formulation-and-adjuvants-on-juvenile-oysters-crassostrea-gigas-exposed-for-35days
#5
Alexis Séguin, Antoine Mottier, Carole Perron, Jean Marc Lebel, Antoine Serpentini, Katherine Costil
Glyphosate-based herbicides include active matter and adjuvants (e.g. polyethoxylated tallow amines, POEAs). In addition to a previous investigation on the effect of glyphosate on oysters, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of sub-chronic exposures (35days) to three concentrations (0.1, 1 and 100μgL(-1)) of Roundup Express® (REX) and POEAs on oysters belonging to the same age group. Low mortality rates were calculated, and only few significant differences (i.e. shell length) between exposure conditions were observed at a given date...
February 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198407/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-horseweed-conyza-canadensis-biotypes-identifies-candidate-proteins-for-glyphosate-resistance
#6
Fidel González-Torralva, Adrian P Brown, Stephen Chivasa
Emergence of glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis) biotypes is an example of how unrelenting use of a single mode of action herbicide in agricultural weed control drives genetic adaptation in targeted species. While in other weeds glyphosate resistance arose from target site mutation or target gene amplification, the resistance mechanism in horseweed uses neither of these, being instead linked to reduced herbicide uptake and/or translocation. The molecular components underpinning horseweed glyphosate-resistance remain unknown...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194676/determination-of-glyphosate-in-surface-water-with-high-organic-matter-content
#7
Vahur Toss, Ivo Leito, Sergei Yurchenko, Rene Freiberg, Anneli Kruve
In this paper, we investigate the sample preparation and analysis process in order to achieve adequate results for surface water collected from rivers that flow through swamps and are consequently rich in organic matter. We show that matrix effects in glyphosate determination can be reduced by optimizing sample volume, liquid chromatography (LC) mobile phase buffer concentration and pH as well as gradient speed. Also, aspects of derivatization procedure (borate buffer concentration, fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride concentration) and their influence on accuracy are considered in detail...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188320/effects-of-glyphosate-based-herbicide-sub-lethal-concentrations-on-fish-feeding-behavior
#8
Percilia Cardoso Giaquinto, Marina Borges de Sá, Vanessa Seiko Sugihara, Bruno Bastos Gonçalves, Helton Carlos Delício, Assaf Barki
Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used in agricultural systems. Although the target organism are particularly plant organisms, there are numerous studies showing adverse effects in aquatic animals, such as inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase, effects on kidney, liver, and gill and stressors effects. This study analyzed the effects of commercial formulation of glyphosate on feeding behavior in Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus). Fish were exposed to three glyphosate concentrations (0.2, 0.6, and 1.8 ppm) for 15 days...
February 10, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185844/evaluation-of-various-glyphosate-concentrations-on-dna-damage-in-human-raji-cells-and-its-impact-on-cytotoxicity
#9
Michelle Townsend, Connor Peck, Wei Meng, Matthew Heaton, Richard Robison, Kim O'Neill
Glyphosate is a highly used active compound in agriculturally based pesticides. The literature regarding the toxicity of glyphosate to human cells has been highly inconsistent. We studied the resulting DNA damage and cytotoxicity of various glyphosate concentrations on human cells to evaluate DNA damaging potential. Utilizing human Raji cells, DNA damage was quantified using the comet assay, while cytotoxicity was further analyzed using MTT viability assays. Several glyphosate concentrations were assessed, ranging from 15 mM to 0...
February 6, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184965/organophosphonates-utilization-by-soil-strains-of-ochrobactrum-anthropi-and-achromobacter-sp
#10
Inna T Ermakova, Tatyana V Shushkova, Alexey V Sviridov, Nina F Zelenkova, Natalya G Vinokurova, Boris P Baskunov, Alexey A Leontievsky
Four bacterial strains from glyphosate- or alkylphosphonates-contaminated soils were tested for ability to utilize different organophosphonates. All studied strains readily utilized methylphosphonic acid and a number of other phosphonates, but differed in their ability to degrade glyphosate. Only strains Ochrobactrum anthropi GPK 3 and Achromobacter sp. Kg 16 utilized this compound after isolation from enrichment cultures with glyphosate. Achromobacter sp. MPK 7 from the same enrichment culture, similar to Achromobacter sp...
February 9, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163993/herbicide-resistance-and-biodiversity-agronomic-and-environmental-aspects-of-genetically-modified-herbicide-resistant-plants
#11
REVIEW
Gesine Schütte, Michael Eckerstorfer, Valentina Rastelli, Wolfram Reichenbecher, Sara Restrepo-Vassalli, Marja Ruohonen-Lehto, Anne-Gabrielle Wuest Saucy, Martha Mertens
Farmland biodiversity is an important characteristic when assessing sustainability of agricultural practices and is of major international concern. Scientific data indicate that agricultural intensification and pesticide use are among the main drivers of biodiversity loss. The analysed data and experiences do not support statements that herbicide-resistant crops provide consistently better yields than conventional crops or reduce herbicide amounts. They rather show that the adoption of herbicide-resistant crops impacts agronomy, agricultural practice, and weed management and contributes to biodiversity loss in several ways: (i) many studies show that glyphosate-based herbicides, which were commonly regarded as less harmful, are toxic to a range of aquatic organisms and adversely affect the soil and intestinal microflora and plant disease resistance; the increased use of 2,4-D or dicamba, linked to new herbicide-resistant crops, causes special concerns...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160682/metabolic-parameters-and-oxidative-balance-in-juvenile-rhamdia-quelen-exposed-to-rice-paddy-herbicides-roundup-%C3%A2-primoleo-%C3%A2-and-facet-%C3%A2
#12
Tanilene Sotero Pinto Persch, Rodrigo Nizolli Weimer, Betânia Souza Freitas, Guendalina Turcato Oliveira
The present study sought to assess the response of Rhamdia quelen juveniles (6-8 cm total body length) to exposure to different concentrations of three herbicides: Roundup(®) Original (18, 36, 72, and 144 μg/L), Primoleo(®) (2.5, 5, 10, and 15 μg/L), and Facet(®) (1.75, 3.5, 7, and 14 μg/L). Total protein (TP), glycogen (GG), total lipids (TL), triacylglycerols (TAG), lipid peroxidation (TBARS), and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in gills, liver, kidneys, and muscle were measured by spectrophotometry...
January 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150381/interactions-of-glyphosate-use-with-farm-characteristics-and-cropping-patterns-in-central-europe
#13
Armin Wiese, Michael Schulte, Ludwig Theuvsen, Horst-Henning Steinmann
BACKGROUND: Although glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the European Union, little is known about the patterns of its usage in arable farming. Therefore, a nation-wide survey of 2,026 German farmers was analyzed to obtain further knowledge about glyphosate applications in conventional European arable farming. Given its broad range of agri-environmental and farm type conditions, Germany can be regarded as a suitable study region to represent Central European farming. The growing season 2013/14 was set as a reference...
February 2, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144685/laboratory-calibration-of-a-pocis-like-sampler-based-on-molecularly-imprinted-polymers-for-glyphosate-and-ampa-sampling-in-water
#14
Catherine Berho, Bérengère Claude, Emeline Coisy, Anne Togola, Sami Bayoudh, Philippe Morin, Laurence Amalric
For more than 15 years, integrative passive sampling has been successfully used for monitoring contaminants in water, but no passive sampling device exists for strongly polar organic compounds, such as glyphosate. We thus propose a polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS)-like tool dedicated to glyphosate and its main degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and describe the laboratory calibration of such a tool for calculating the sampling rates of glyphosate and AMPA. This passive sampler consists of a POCIS with molecularly imprinted polymer as a receiving phase and a polyethersulfone diffusion membrane...
January 31, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133586/possible-health-impacts-of-bt-toxins-and-residues-from-spraying-with-complementary-herbicides-in-genetically-engineered-soybeans-and-risk-assessment-as-performed-by-the-european-food-safety-authority-efsa
#15
REVIEW
Christoph Then, Andreas Bauer-Panskus
BACKGROUND: MON89788 was the first genetically engineered soybean worldwide to express a Bt toxin. Under the brand name Intacta, Monsanto subsequently engineered a stacked trait soybean using MON89788 and MON87701-this stacked soybean expresses an insecticidal toxin and is, in addition, tolerant to glyphosate. After undergoing risk assessment by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the stacked event was authorised for import into the EU in June 2012, including for use in food and feed...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132892/mapping-proteome-wide-targets-of-glyphosate-in-mice
#16
Breanna Ford, Leslie A Bateman, Leilani Gutierrez-Palominos, Robin Park, Daniel K Nomura
Glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide Roundup, is one of the most widely used pesticides in agriculture and home garden use. Whether glyphosate causes any mammalian toxicity remains highly controversial. While many studies have associated glyphosate with numerous adverse health effects, the mechanisms underlying glyphosate toxicity in mammals remain poorly understood. Here, we used activity-based protein profiling to map glyphosate targets in mice. We show that glyphosate at high doses can be metabolized in vivo to reactive metabolites such as glyoxylate and react with cysteines across many proteins in mouse liver...
January 19, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131988/treating-prey-with-glyphosate-does-not-alter-the-demographic-parameters-and-predation-of-the-harmonia-axyridis-coleoptera-coccinellidae
#17
Pavel Saska, Jiří Skuhrovec, Jan Lukáš, Miroslav Vlach, Hsin Chi, Shu-Jen Tuan, Alois Honěk
Glyphosate is an herbicide that is used worldwide with potential environmental risks to nontarget organisms. We applied an age-stage, two-sex life table approach to assess the sublethal effects of short-term oral exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide on the life table parameters and biocontrol potential of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Aphids (Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae)) treated with herbicide (an isopropylamine-salt of glyphosate) at low recommended, maximum recommended, and double the maximum recommended concentration for agricultural situations, and untreated controls were offered to the fourth instar of H...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112035/electrochemical-degradation-and-mineralization-of-glyphosate-herbicide
#18
Nam Tran, Patrick Drogui, Tuan Linh Doan, Thanh Son Le, Hoai Chau Nguyen
The presence of herbicide is a concern for both human and ecological health. Glyphosate is occasionally detected as water contaminants in agriculture areas where the herbicide is used extensively. The removal of glyphosate in synthetic solution using advanced oxidation process is a possible approach for remediation of contaminated waters. The ability of electrochemical oxidation for the degradation and mineralization of glyphosate herbicide was investigated using Ti/PbO2 anode. The current intensity, treatment time, initial concentration and pH of solution are the influent parameters on the degradation efficiency...
January 23, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111921/glyphosate-sorption-desorption-on-biochars-interactions-of-physical-and-chemical-processes
#19
Kathleen E Hall, Kurt A Spokas, Beatriz Gamiz, Lucia Cox, Sharon K Papiernik, William C Koskinen
BACKGROUND: Biochar, a carbon-rich product of biomass pyrolysis, could limit glyphosate transport in soil and remediate contaminated water. The present study investigates the sorption/desorption behavior of glyphosate on biochars prepared from different hardwoods at temperatures ranging from 350°C to 900°C to elucidate fundamental mechanisms. RESULTS: Glyphosate (1 mg L(-1) ) sorption on biochars increased with pyrolysis temperature and was highest on 900°C biochars; however, total sorption was low on a mass basis (<0...
January 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111719/additive-effects-of-the-herbicide-glyphosate-and-elevated-temperature-on-the-branched-coral-acropora-formosa-in-nha-trang-vietnam
#20
C Amid, M Olstedt, J S Gunnarsson, H Le Lan, H Tran Thi Minh, P J Van den Brink, M Hellström, M Tedengren
The combined effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature were studied on the tropical staghorn coral Acropora formosa, in Nha Trang bay, Vietnam. The corals were collected from two different reefs, one close to a polluted fish farm and one in a marine-protected area (MPA). In the laboratory, branches of the corals were exposed to the herbicide glyphosate at ambient (28 °C) and at 3 °C elevated water temperatures (31 °C). Effects of herbicide and elevated temperature were studied on coral bleaching using photography and digital image analysis (new colorimetric method developed here based on grayscale), chlorophyll a analysis, and symbiotic dinoflagellate (Symbiodinium, referred to as zooxanthellae) counts...
January 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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