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Glyphosate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102107/occupational-dietary-and-other-risk-factors-for-myelodysplastic-syndromes-in-western-greece
#1
Christina Avgerinou, Ioanna Giannezi, Stela Theodoropoulou, Vasileios Lazaris, Georgia Kolliopoulou, Panagiotis Zikos, Yannis Alamanos, Michalis Leotsinidis, Argiris Symeonidis
PURPOSE: We have observed an increasing incidence of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in the geographic area of Western Greece during the past two decades. The objective of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for the manifestation of MDS in this area of Greece. METHODS: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the public hospitals of the region. Participants were interviewed based on a questionnaire regarding demographics, occupational exposures, smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary, and domestic factors...
January 19, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095770/the-unique-genomic-landscape-surrounding-the-epsps-gene-in-glyphosate-resistant-amaranthus-palmeri-a-repetitive-path-to-resistance
#2
William T Molin, Alice A Wright, Amy Lawton-Rauh, Christopher A Saski
BACKGROUND: The expanding number and global distributions of herbicide resistant weedy species threaten food, fuel, fiber and bioproduct sustainability and agroecosystem longevity. Amongst the most competitive weeds, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats has rapidly evolved resistance to glyphosate primarily through massive amplification and insertion of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene across the genome. Increased EPSPS gene copy numbers results in higher titers of the EPSPS enzyme, the target of glyphosate, and confers resistance to glyphosate treatment...
January 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094904/hormetic-effects-of-glyphosate-on-plants
#3
REVIEW
Ivana Pfs Brito, Leandro Tropaldi, Caio A Carbonari, Edivaldo D Velini
As all herbicides act on pathways or processes crucial to plants, in an inhibitory or stimulatory way, low rates of any herbicide might be used to modulate plant growth, development, or plant composition. Glyphosate is the most used pesticide in the world, and very low rates of this herbicide can stimulate plant growth, an effect called hormesis. Several studies have shown that glyphosate applications at low rates can increase plant growth, induce shikimic acid accumulation, increase photosynthesis and stomatal opening, increase seed production, and shorten the plant life cycle...
January 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094899/identification-of-glyphosate-resistance-in-salsola-tragus-in-northeastern-oregon
#4
Judit Barroso, Jennifer A Gourlie, Larry K Lutcher, Mingyang Liu, Carol A Mallory-Smith
BACKGROUND: Farmers in the low-rainfall region of eastern Oregon rely on repeated applications of non-selective herbicides, predominately glyphosate, to control Salsola tragus in no-till fallow systems. Reports of poor glyphosate effectiveness have increased in recent years. Reduced efficacy is often attributed to dust, water stress, or generally poor growing conditions during application. Inadequate control also may be the result of the evolution of glyphosate resistance. Therefore, studies were undertaken to determine if glyphosate-resistant S...
January 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067231/multiomics-reveal-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-rats-following-chronic-exposure-to-an-ultra-low-dose-of-roundup-herbicide
#5
Robin Mesnage, George Renney, Gilles-Eric Séralini, Malcolm Ward, Michael N Antoniou
The impairment of liver function by low environmentally relevant doses of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) is still a debatable and unresolved matter. Previously we have shown that rats administered for 2 years with 0.1 ppb (50 ng/L glyphosate equivalent dilution; 4 ng/kg body weight/day daily intake) of a Roundup GBH formulation showed signs of enhanced liver injury as indicated by anatomorphological, blood/urine biochemical changes and transcriptome profiling. Here we present a multiomic study combining metabolome and proteome liver analyses to obtain further insight into the Roundup-induced pathology...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067016/how-glyphosate-affects-plant-disease-development-it-s-more-than-enhanced-susceptibility
#6
REVIEW
R Hammerschmidt
Glyphosate has been shown to affect the development of plant disease in several ways. Plants utilize phenolic and other shikimic acid pathway-derived compounds as part of their defense against pathogens, and glyphosate inhibits the biosynthesis of these compounds via its mode of action. Several studies have shown a correlation between enhanced disease and suppression of phenolic compound production after glyphosate. Glyphosate resistant crop plants have also been studied for changes in resistance as a result of carrying the glyphosate resistance trait...
January 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065570/conservative-tracer-bromide-inhibits-pesticide-mineralisation-in-soil
#7
Tina B Bech, Annette E Rosenbom, Sebastian R Sørensen, Carsten S Jacobsen
Bromide is a conservative tracer that is often applied with non-conservative solutes such as pesticides to estimate their retardation in the soil. It has been applied in concentrations of up to 250 g Br L(-1), levels at which the growth of single-celled organisms can be inhibited. Bromide applications may therefore affect the biodegradation of non-conservative solutes in soil. The present study investigated the effect of potassium bromide (KBr) on the mineralisation of three pesticides - glyphosate, MCPA and metribuzin - in four agricultural A-horizon soils...
January 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061690/organophosphorus-xenobiotic-toxicology
#8
John E Casida
Originally, organophosphorus (OP) toxicology consisted of acetylcholinesterase inhibition by insecticides and chemical threat agents acting as phosphorylating agents for serine in the catalytic triad, but this is no longer the case. Other serine hydrolases can be secondary OP targets, depending on the OP structure, and include neuropathy target esterase, lipases, and endocannabinoid hydrolases. The major OP herbicides are glyphosate and glufosinate, which act in plants but not animals to block aromatic amino acid and glutamine biosynthesis, respectively, with safety for crops conferred by their expression of herbicide-tolerant targets and detoxifying enzymes from bacteria...
January 6, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056451/disruption-of-the-hatching-dynamics-of-zooplankton-egg-banks-due-to-glyphosate-application
#9
María Florencia Gutierrez, Yamila Battauz, Belén Caisso
Hatching rhythms of eggs banks are important processes because they favor species co-existence and promote resilience of ecosystems after natural disturbances. Anthropogenic stressors can disrupt such natural hatching dynamics. This work examines the effects of concentrations ranging from 1 to 8 mg l(-1) of a commercial glyphosate-based formulation (Sulfosato Touchdown(®)) on the hatching dynamics of zooplankton dormant stages, present in the sediment of a natural lake. Sediment samples were collected from the surface sediment (<10 cm deep) of an isolated shallow lake free from pesticide pollution...
December 26, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049099/the-effect-of-glyphosate-based-herbicide-roundup-and-its-co-formulant-poea-on-the-motoric-activity-of-rat-intestine-in-vitro-study
#10
Magdalena Chłopecka, Marta Mendel, Natalia Dziekan, Wojciech Karlik
The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of Roundup, polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) and mixture of glyphosate and POEA in different levels on the motoric activity of jejunum strips. The incubation in the Roundup solutions caused a significant, mostly miorelaxant, reversible reaction of smooth muscle; only in the highest tested dose which is equivalent to the agricultural concentration (1% corresponding to 1.7g glyphosate/L) there was an irreversible disturbance of the spontaneous contractility and reactivity...
December 26, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033555/unbinding-pathway-energy-of-glyphosate-from-the-epsps-enzyme-binding-site-characterized-by-steered-molecular-dynamics-and-potential-of-mean-force
#11
Moacir F Ferreira, Eduardo F Franca, Fábio L Leite
The quantification of herbicides in the environment, like glyphosate, is extremely important to prevent contamination. Nanobiosensors stands out in the quantization process, because of the high selectivity, sensitivity and short response time of the method. In order to emulate the detection of glyphosate using a specific nanobiossensor through an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), this work carried out Steered Molecular Dynamics simulations (SMD) in which the herbicide was unbinded from the active site of the enzyme 5- enolpyruvylshikimate 3 phosphate synthase (EPSPS) along three different directions...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032142/overlooking-relevant-confounders-in-the-assessment-of-pesticides-and-human-health-a-reply-to-mostafalou-and-abdollahi
#12
EDITORIAL
Keith Fluegge
Mostafalou and Abdollahi (Arch Toxicol, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s00204-016-1849-x ) have recently conducted a review exploring human exposure to pesticides and systematically highlighting known toxic mechanisms from these exposures. Their review is extensive and appraises the literature on pesticide toxicity in a number of domains, including neurotoxicity and developmental toxicity. However, as important as it may be to understand the toxicological potential of these chemicals in humans and other species, the role of these chemicals as proxies for other environmental exposures should not be excluded...
December 28, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025515/visualising-and-thinking-and-interpreting-response-to-the-burstyn-and-de-roos-comments-on-sorahan-t-multiple-myeloma-and-glyphosate-use-a-re-analysis-of-us-agricultural-health-study-ahs-data-int-j-environ-res-public-health-2015-12-1548-1559
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025514/visualizing-the-heterogeneity-of-effects-in-the-analysis-of-associations-of-multiple-myeloma-with-glyphosate-use-comments-on-sorahan-t-multiple-myeloma-and-glyphosate-use-a-re-analysis-of-us-agricultural-health-study-ahs-data-int-j-environ-res-public-health
#14
Igor Burstyn, Anneclaire J De Roos
We address a methodological issue of the evaluation of the difference in effects in epidemiological studies that may arise, for example, from stratum-specific analyses or differences in analytical decisions during data analysis. We propose a new simulation-based method to quantify the plausible extent of such heterogeneity, rather than testing a hypothesis about its existence. We examine the contribution of the method to the debate surrounding risk of multiple myeloma and glyphosate use and propose that its application contributes to a more balanced weighting of evidence...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019078/target-site-mutations-conferring-resistance-to-glyphosate-in-feathertop-rhodes-grass-chloris-virgata-populations-in-australia
#15
The D Ngo, Mahima Krishnan, Peter Boutsalis, Gurjeet Gill, Christopher Preston
BACKGROUND: Chloris virgata is a warm season, C4 , annual grass weed affecting field crops in northern Australia that has become an emerging weed in southern Australia. Four populations with suspected resistance to glyphosate were collected in South Australia, Queensland and New South Wales, Australia and compared to one susceptible (S) population to confirm glyphosate resistance and elucidate possible mechanisms of resistance. RESULTS: Based on the rate of glyphosate required to kill 50% of treated plants (LD50 ), glyphosate resistance (GR) was confirmed in four populations of C...
December 26, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017703/prepubertal-subchronic-exposure-to-soy-milk-and-glyphosate-leads-to-endocrine-disruption
#16
Jessica Nardi, Patricia Bonamigo Moras, Carina Koeppe, Eliane Dallegrave, Mirna Bainy Leal, Luciana Grazziotin Rossato-Grando
Lactose intolerance is characterized by low or inexistent levels of lactase, and the main treatment consists of dietary changes, especially replacing dairy milk by soy milk. Soy contains phytoestrogens, substances with known estrogenic activity, besides, glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used in soy crops, being frequently a residue in soy beans, bringing to a concern regarding the consumption of soy-based products, especially for children in breastfeeding period with lactose intolerance. This study evaluated the pubertal toxicity of a soy milk rich feeding (supplemented or not with glyphosate, doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg) during prepubertal period in male rats...
February 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013556/%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors-and-phytotoxins-from-streptomyces-xanthophaeus
#17
Jing Wei, Xiu-Yun Zhang, Shan Deng, Lin Cao, Quan-Hong Xue, Jin-Ming Gao
Twenty-four metabolites 1-24 were isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces xanthophaeus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of their NMR data with literature data reported. Daidzein (1), genistein (2) and gliricidin (3) inhibited α-glucosidase in vitro with IC50 values of 174.2, 36.1 and 47.4 μM, respectively, more potent than the positive control, acarbose. Docking study revealed that the amino acid residue Thr 215 is the essential binding site for active ligands 2...
December 26, 2016: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999586/glyphosate-resistant-parthenium-hysterophorus-in-the-caribbean-islands-non-target-site-resistance-and-target-site-resistance-in-relation-to-resistance-levels
#18
Enzo Bracamonte, Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Francisco Barro, Rafael De Prado
Glyphosate has been the most intensely herbicide used worldwide for decades, and continues to be a single tool for controlling weeds in woody crops. However, the adoption of this herbicide in a wide range of culture systems has led to the emergence of resistant weeds. Glyphosate has been widely used primarily on citrus in the Caribbean area, but a study of resistance in the Caribbean islands of Cuba and the Dominican Republic has never been carried out. Unfortunately, Parthenium hysterophorus has developed glyphosate-resistance in both islands, independently...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992501/epsps-gene-copy-number-and-whole-plant-glyphosate-resistance-level-in-kochia-scoparia
#19
Todd A Gaines, Abigail L Barker, Eric L Patterson, Philip Westra, Eric P Westra, Robert G Wilson, Prashant Jha, Vipan Kumar, Andrew R Kniss
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Kochia scoparia has evolved in dryland chemical fallow systems throughout North America and the mechanism of resistance involves 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene duplication. Agricultural fields in four states were surveyed for K. scoparia in 2013 and tested for glyphosate-resistance level and EPSPS gene copy number. Glyphosate resistance was confirmed in K. scoparia populations collected from sugarbeet fields in Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska, and Montana...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991715/impact-of-glyphosate-resistant-sugar-beet
#20
REVIEW
Don W Morishita
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) sugar beet became commercially available to US sugar beet growers in 2008 and was rapidly adopted. Prior to the availability of GR sugar beet, growers would commonly make three to five herbicide applications. This often resulted in some crop injury, but was accepted to reduce the impact of weeds. In addition, non-GR sugar beet was cultivated one to three times and often followed by hand weeding. The introduction of GR sugar beet drastically reduced the complexity of weed management...
December 19, 2016: Pest Management Science
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