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Evgenia Dor, Shmuel Galili, Evgeny Smirnov, Yael Hacham, Rachel Amir, Joseph Hershenhorn
It is not clear why herbicides targeting aromatic and branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis successfully control broomrapes-obligate parasitic plants that obtain all of their nutritional requirements, including amino acids, from the host. Our objective was to reveal the mode of action of imazapic and glyphosate in controlling the broomrape Phelipanche aegyptiaca and clarify if this obligatory parasite has its own machinery for the amino acids biosynthesis. P. aegyptiaca callus was studied to exclude the indirect influence of the herbicides on the parasite through the host plant...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Louise Hénault-Ethier, Marc Lucotte, Matthieu Moingt, Serge Paquet, Sophie Maccario, Élise Smedbol, Marcelo Pedrosa Gomes, Laurent Lepage, Philippe Juneau, Michel Labrecque
Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide worldwide and is now frequently detected in surface waters of agricultural regions, notably in Quebec (Canada). Numerous legislations require vegetated riparian buffer strips (RBS) along agricultural streams. Quebec policy requires 3-meter-wide RBS. The present study evaluates the efficiency of narrow herbaceous and low- or high-density (33,333 and 55,556stumps/ha) willow, Salix miyabeana 'SX64', RBS, to minimize leaching of glyphosate and its main degradation product (AMPA) from agricultural fields to streams...
May 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ryan Scarrow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Nature Plants
Thaís Maylin Sobjak, Silvia Romão, Cristian Zwetzch do Nascimento, Andrey Felipe Potulski Dos Santos, Lucas Vogel, Ana Tereza Bittencourt Guimarães
The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of glyphosate on the antioxidant system, as well as the neurotoxic effects on the larvae of Rhamdia quelen. A completely randomized design was implemented with the eggs of silver catfish distributed in 48 containers with 300 mL of water, which were subdivided randomly into two groups: control and treated with 6.5 mg L of glyphosate. These groups were evaluated at four time points (12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h), each with six replications. The survival rate of eggs/larvae (%) was evaluated, and samples were collected for antioxidant system analysis (catalase - CAT, glutathione transferase - GST, glutathione reductase - GR, and lipoperoxidation - LPO), and neurotoxic evaluation (cholinesterase - ChE)...
May 5, 2017: Chemosphere
Jiang Yuan, Jinming Duan, Christopher P Saint, Dennis Mulcahy
The removal of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) with synthetic water was carried out on a lab-scale nanofiltration unit using two membranes, NFX and NFW. The presence of humic acid and some inorganic matters (CaCl2 and NaCl) was tested in the experiment. The results demonstrate that glyphosate and AMPA were only slightly adsorbed on the membranes. Greater flux can lead to higher rejection of foulants due to increased water flux. The herbicide filtration is found to have little effect on the permeate flux as compared to transmembrane pressure...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Technology
Renan F Nascentes, Caio A Carbonari, Plinio S Simões, Marcela C Brunelli, Edivaldo D Velini, Stephen O Duke
INTRODUCTION: Sublethal doses of herbicides can enhance plant growth and stimulate other process, an effect known as hormesis. The magnitude of hormesis is dependent on the plant species, the herbicide and its dose, plant development stage, and environmental parameters. Glyphosate hormesis is well established, but relatively little is known of the mechanism of this phenomenon. The objective of this study was to determine if low doses of glyphosate that cause growth stimulation in sugarcane and eucalyptus concomitantly stimulate CO2 assimilation...
May 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
Ana Maria Gómez Ortiz, Elena Okada, Francisco Bedmar, José Luis Costa
In Argentina, glyphosate use has increased exponentially in the past years due to the widespread adoption of no-till management combined with genetically modified glyphosate-resistant crops. This massive use of glyphosate has created concern about its potential environmental impact. Sorption-desorption of glyphosate was studied in three Argentinean soils with contrasting characteristics. Glyphosate sorption isotherms were modeled using the Freundlich equation to estimate the sorption coefficient (Kf ). Glyphosate sorption was high and the Kf varied from 115...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho, Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves, Fidel González-Torralva, Hugo Enrique Cruz-Hipolito, Antonia María Rojano-Delgado, Rafael De Prado, Javier Gil-Humanes, Francisco Barro, María Dolores Luque de Castro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Alejandro López, Andrea Coll, Maia Lescano, Cristina Zalazar
In this work, the suitability of the UV/H2O2 process for commercial herbicides mixture degradation was studied. Glyphosate, the herbicide most widely used in the world, was mixed with other herbicides that have residual activity as 2,4-D and atrazine. Modeling of the process response related to specific operating conditions like initial pH and initial H2O2 to total organic carbon molar ratio was assessed by the response surface methodology (RSM). Results have shown that second-order polynomial regression model could well describe and predict the system behavior within the tested experimental region...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lisi Sun, Deyang Kong, Weidong Gu, Xinyan Guo, Wenqi Tao, Zhengjun Shan, Ying Wang, Na Wang
In order to evaluate the pollution caused due to glyphosate (Glyp) in soils and sludge, it is important to establish a set of standard determination techniques. In this work, the previously reported HPLC analytical method for determination of Glyp has been improved in order to be applied for all kinds of soils/sludge. The soil/sludge samples were extracted using sodium phosphate and trisodium citrate aqueous solutions. The extract was adjusted to pH 9 and contaminations were removed by washing with n-hexane...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Zoe Kissane, Jill M Shephard
Glyphosate has become the most commonly used herbicide worldwide, with a reputation of being environmentally benign, non-toxic and safe to wildlife and humans. However, studies have indicated its toxicity has been underestimated, and that its persistence in the environment is greater than once thought. Its actions as a neurotoxin and endocrine disruptor indicate its potential to act in similar ways to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as the organochlorine (OC) chemicals dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dioxin...
May 5, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Folarin O Owagboriaye, Gabriel A Dedeke, Kehinde O Ademolu, Olarenwaju O Olujimi, Joseph S Ashidi, Aladesida A Adeyinka
The incidence of infertility in human is on the increase and the use of Roundup herbicide and presence of its residues in foodstuff is a major concern. This study therefore aim to assess the effect of Roundup on the reproductive capacity of 32 adult male albino rats randomized into 4 groups of 8 rats per group orally exposed to Roundup at 3.6mg/kg body weight(bw), 50.4mg/kgbw and 248.4mg/kgbw of glyphosate concentrations for 12 weeks while the control group was given distilled water. Serum level of reproductive hormone (testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin), oxidative stress indices in the testicular tissue, epididymal sperm morphology assessment and testicular histopathology of the rats were used as a diagnostic marker of reproductive dysfunction...
May 1, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Yu Cheng Zhu, Jianxiu Yao, John Adamczyk, Randall Luttrell
Imidacloprid is the most widely used insecticide in the world. In this study, we used spraying methods to simulate field exposures of bees to formulated imidacloprid (Advise® 2FL) alone and binary mixtures with seven pesticides from different classes. Synergistic toxicity was detected from mixtures of Advise (58.6 mg a.i./L imidacloprid)+Domark (512.5 mg a.i. /L tetraconazole), Advise+Transform (58.5 mg a.i./L sulfoxaflor), and Advise+Vydate (68 mg a.i./L oxamyl), and mortality was significantly increased by 20%, 15%, and 26% respectively...
2017: PloS One
Moon-Sub Lee, Eric K Anderson, Duška Stojšin, Marc A McPherson, Baltazar Baltazar, Michael J Horak, Juan Manuel de la Fuente, Kunsheng Wu, James H Crowley, A Lane Rayburn, D K Lee
Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) belongs to the same tribe of the Poaceae family as maize (Zea mays L.) and grows naturally in the same region where maize is commercially produced in the USA. Although no evidence exists of gene flow from maize to eastern gamagrass in nature, experimental crosses between the two species were produced using specific techniques. As part of environmental risk assessment, the possibility of transgene flow from maize to eastern gamagrass populations in nature was evaluated with the objectives: (1) to assess the seeds of eastern gamagrass populations naturally growing near commercial maize fields for the presence of a transgenic glyphosate-tolerance gene (cp4 epsps) that would indicate cross-pollination between the two species, and (2) to evaluate the possibility of interspecific hybridization between transgenic maize used as male parent and eastern gamagrass used as female parent...
May 2, 2017: Transgenic Research
Maria J I Briones, Olaf Schmidt
The adoption of less intensive soil cultivation practices is expected to increase earthworm populations and their contributions to ecosystem functioning. However, conflicting results have been reported on the effects of tillage intensity on earthworm populations, attributed in narrative reviews to site-dependent differences in soil properties, climatic conditions, and agronomic operations (e.g., fertilization, residue management and chemical crop protection). We present a quantitative review based on a global meta-analysis, using paired observations from 215 studies performed over 65 years (1950-2016) across 40 countries on five continents, to elucidate this long-standing unresolved issue...
May 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
Muhammad Imran, Shaheen Asad, Andre Luiz Barboza, Esteban Galeano, Helaine Carrer, Zahid Mukhtar
Glyphosate quashes the synthesis of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3- phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme which intercedes the functioning of shikimate pathway for the production of aromatic amino acids. Herbicide resistant crops are developed using glyphosate insensitive EPSPS gene isolated from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4, which give farmers a sustainable weed control option. Intentions behind this study were to design and characterize the synthetic herbicide resistant CP4-EPSPS gene in a model plant system and check the effectiveness of transformed tobacco against application of glyphosate...
April 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Sabrina Krief, Philippe Berny, Francis Gumisiriza, Régine Gross, Barbara Demeneix, Jean Baptiste Fini, Colin A Chapman, Lauren J Chapman, Andrew Seguya, John Wasswa
Prenatal exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors can affect development and induce irreversible abnormalities in both humans and wildlife. The northern part of Kibale National Park, a mid-altitude rainforest in western Uganda, is largely surrounded by industrial tea plantations and wildlife using this area (Sebitoli) must cope with proximity to human populations and their activities. The chimpanzees and baboons in this area raid crops (primarily maize) in neighboring gardens. Sixteen young individuals of the 66 chimpanzees monitored (25%) exhibit abnormalities including reduced nostrils, cleft lip, limb deformities, reproductive problems and hypopigmentation...
April 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Lizeth Y Tabima-Cubillos, Alejandro Chaparro-Giraldo, Martha L Trujillo-Güiza
Objective To detect the presence or absence of transgenic proteins derived from GM crops in maize flour marketed in Bogota D.C., Colombia. Methods 11 extraction protocols for total protein were evaluated in 17 precooked flour, two uncooked and three positive controls. Subsequently, the presence of 7 transgenic proteins (CP4-EPSPS, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1F, Cry2A, Cry34Ab1 and Cry3Bb1) using commercial ELISA kits was determined. Results It was determined that the best protocol for total protein extraction was buffer with Triton X-100, which allowed obtaining protein concentrations greater than 0...
June 2016: Revista de Salud Pública
Shuhui Zhang, Jia Xu, Xiangyu Kuang, Shibao Li, Xiang Li, Dongyan Chen, Xin Zhao, Xizeng Feng
All of these days, residues of herbicides such as glyphosate are widely distributed in the environment. The ubiquitous use of glyphosate has drawn extensive attention to its toxicity as an organic pollutant. In this study, we employed larval zebrafish as an animal model to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of glyphosate on early development via morphological, biomechanics, behavioral and physiological analyses. Morphological results showed that an obvious delay occurred in the epiboly process and body length, eye and head area were reduced at concentrations higher than 10 mg/L...
April 21, 2017: Chemosphere
Rafael Eleodoro De Góes, Marcia Muller, José Luís Fabris
Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Its safety for both human health and aquatic biomes is a subject of wide debate. There are limits to glyphosate's presence in bodies of water, and it is usually detected through complex analytical procedures. In this work, the presence of glyphosate is detected directly through optical interrogation of aqueous solution. For this purpose, silver nanoparticles were produced by pulsed laser ablation in liquids. Limits of detection of 0.9 mg/L and 3...
April 26, 2017: Sensors
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