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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454006/predicting-cognitive-decline-with-deep-learning-of-brain-metabolism-and-amyloid-imaging
#1
Hongyoon Choi, Kyong Hwan Jin
For effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is important to identify subjects who are most likely to exhibit rapid cognitive decline. We aimed to develop an automatic image interpretation system based on a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) which can accurately predict future cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients using flurodeoxyglucose and florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET). PET images of 139 patients with AD, 171 patients with MCI and 182 normal subjects obtained from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database were used...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453548/-big-data-from-clinical-routine
#2
REVIEW
U Mansmann
BACKGROUND: Over the past 100 years, evidence-based medicine has undergone several fundamental changes. Through the field of physiology, medical doctors were introduced to the natural sciences. Since the late 1940s, randomized and epidemiological studies have come to provide the evidence for medical practice, which led to the emergence of clinical epidemiology as a new field in the medical sciences. Within the past few years, big data has become the driving force behind the vision for having a comprehensive set of health-related data which tracks individual healthcare histories and consequently that of large populations...
February 16, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453507/interprofessional-education-opportunities-and-challenges-for-psychology
#3
Wendy Ward, Alexandra Zagoloff, Cortney Rieck, William Robiner
This manuscript is an outgrowth of an invited panel presentation at the national Association for Psychologists in Academic Health Centers Conference in 2017 on Interprofessional Education (IPE). IPE is a structured and transformative educational strategy designed to provide active learning experiences where trainees from diverse healthcare professions gain shared content knowledge plus collaboration skills as they learn about, from, and with each other. Collaboration skills include understanding professional role distinctions and overlap, effective team-based communication, shared values/ethics and respect for each other's expertise, and teamwork dynamics...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451898/integrating-linear-optimization-with-structural-modeling-to-increase-hiv-neutralization-breadth
#4
Alexander M Sevy, Swetasudha Panda, James E Crowe, Jens Meiler, Yevgeniy Vorobeychik
Computational protein design has been successful in modeling fixed backbone proteins in a single conformation. However, when modeling large ensembles of flexible proteins, current methods in protein design have been insufficient. Large barriers in the energy landscape are difficult to traverse while redesigning a protein sequence, and as a result current design methods only sample a fraction of available sequence space. We propose a new computational approach that combines traditional structure-based modeling using the Rosetta software suite with machine learning and integer linear programming to overcome limitations in the Rosetta sampling methods...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450781/measuring-use-of-evidence-based-psychotherapy-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-a-large-national-healthcare-system
#5
Shira Maguen, Erin Madden, Olga V Patterson, Scott L DuVall, Lizabeth A Goldstein, Kristine Burkman, Brian Shiner
To derive a method of identifying use of evidence-based psychotherapy (EBP) for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we used clinical note text from national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical records. Using natural language processing, we developed machine-learning algorithms to classify note text on a large scale in an observational study of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with PTSD and one post-deployment psychotherapy visit by 8/5/15 (N = 255,968). PTSD visits were linked to 8.1 million psychotherapy notes...
February 15, 2018: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450412/clinically-approved-liposomal-nanomedicines-lessons-learned-from-the-biomolecular-corona
#6
Giulio Caracciolo
Nowadays, liposomes are the most successful drug delivery systems with a dozen drug products available in the clinic. Grafting poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) onto the liposome surface prevents protein binding thus prolonging blood circulation, while synthetic modification of the terminal PEG molecule with ligands (e.g. monoclonal antibodies and peptides) should promote selective accumulation in the tumor region with respect to healthy tissues. However, despite big efforts, advances have not outgrown the development stage and just a few targeted liposomal drugs are commercially available...
February 16, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449815/combinatorial-codes-and-labeled-lines-how-insects-use-olfactory-cues-to-find-and-judge-food-mates-and-oviposition-sites-in-complex-environments
#7
REVIEW
Alexander Haverkamp, Bill S Hansson, Markus Knaden
Insects, including those which provide vital ecosystems services as well as those which are devastating pests or disease vectors, locate their resources mainly based on olfaction. Understanding insect olfaction not only from a neurobiological but also from an ecological perspective is therefore crucial to balance insect control and conservation. However, among all sensory stimuli olfaction is particularly hard to grasp. Our chemical environment is made up of thousands of different compounds, which might again be detected by our nose in multiple ways...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449799/markov-switching-model-for-quick-detection-of-event-related-desynchronization-in-eeg
#8
Giuseppe Lisi, Diletta Rivela, Asuka Takai, Jun Morimoto
Quick detection of motor intentions is critical in order to minimize the time required to activate a neuroprosthesis. We propose a Markov Switching Model (MSM) to achieve quick detection of an event related desynchronization (ERD) elicited by motor imagery (MI) and recorded by electroencephalography (EEG). Conventional brain computer interfaces (BCI) rely on sliding window classifiers in order to perform online continuous classification of the rest vs. MI classes. Based on this approach, the detection of abrupt changes in the sensorimotor power suffers from an intrinsic delay caused by the necessity of computing an estimate of variance across several tenths of a second...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448662/how-does-amino-acid-ligand-modulate-au-core-structure-and-characteristics-in-peptide-coated-au-nanocluster
#9
Nan Li, Xu Li, Hongkang Zhao, Lina Zhao
The atomic structures and the corresponding physicochemical properties of peptide coated Au nanoclusters determine their distinctive biological targeting applications. To learn the modulation of amino acid ligand on the atomic structure and electronic characteristics of coated Au core is the fundamental knowledge for peptide coated Au nanocluster design and construction. Based on our recent coated Au nanocluster configuration study (Nanoscale, 2016, 8, 11454), we built the typically simplified Au13(Cys-Au-Cys) system to more clearly learn the basic modulation information of amino acid ligand on Au core by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448095/advances-in-analytical-tools-for-high-throughput-strain-engineering
#10
REVIEW
Esteban Marcellin, Lars Keld Nielsen
The emergence of inexpensive, base-perfect genome editing is revolutionising biology. Modern industrial biotechnology exploits the advances in genome editing in combination with automation, analytics and data integration to build high-throughput automated strain engineering pipelines also known as biofoundries. Biofoundries replace the slow and inconsistent artisanal processes used to build microbial cell factories with an automated design-build-test cycle, considerably reducing the time needed to deliver commercially viable strains...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447386/kick-it-the-development-of-an-evidence-based-smoking-cessation-smartphone-app
#11
Joseph E M van Agteren, Sharon Lawn, Billie Bonevski, Brian J Smith
Currently, the evidence for mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation interventions is limited and heterogeneous, warranting the need for innovative rigorously developed solutions. The aim of this study was to describe the development of a smoking cessation smartphone application (app) developed using evidence-based principles. The app (Kick.it) was designed using the Intervention Mapping framework, incorporating an extensive literature review and qualitative study, in combination with the Behavioural Change Taxonomy v1, the Theoretical Domains Framework, and the Persuasive System Design framework...
February 13, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444787/randomised-controlled-pragmatic-clinical-trial-evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-a-discharge-follow-up-phone-call-on-30-day-hospital-readmissions-balancing-pragmatic-and-explanatory-design-considerations
#12
Maame Yaa A B Yiadom, Henry Domenico, Daniel Byrne, Michele Marie Hasselblad, Cheryl L Gatto, Sunil Kripalani, Neesha Choma, Sarah Tucker, Li Wang, Monisha C Bhatia, Johnston Morrison, Frank E Harrell, Tina Hartert, Gordon Bernard
INTRODUCTION: Hospital readmissions within 30 days are a healthcare quality problem associated with increased costs and poor health outcomes. Identifying interventions to improve patients' successful transition from inpatient to outpatient care is a continued challenge. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a single-centre pragmatic randomised and controlled clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a discharge follow-up phone call to reduce 30-day inpatient readmissions...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443925/pclass-protein-quaternary-structure-classification-by-using-bootstrapping-strategy-as-model-selection
#13
Chi-Chou Huang, Chi-Chang Chang, Chi-Wei Chen, Shao-Yu Ho, Hsung-Pin Chang, Yen-Wei Chu
Protein quaternary structure complex is also known as a multimer, which plays an important role in a cell. The dimer structure of transcription factors is involved in gene regulation, but the trimer structure of virus-infection-associated glycoproteins is related to the human immunodeficiency virus. The classification of the protein quaternary structure complex for the post-genome era of proteomics research will be of great help. Classification systems among protein quaternary structures have not been widely developed...
February 14, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443897/structured-kernel-subspace-learning-for-autonomous-robot-navigation
#14
Eunwoo Kim, Sungjoon Choi, Songhwai Oh
This paper considers two important problems for autonomous robot navigation in a dynamic environment, where the goal is to predict pedestrian motion and control a robot with the prediction for safe navigation. While there are several methods for predicting the motion of a pedestrian and controlling a robot to avoid incoming pedestrians, it is still difficult to safely navigate in a dynamic environment due to challenges, such as the varying quality and complexity of training data with unwanted noises. This paper addresses these challenges simultaneously by proposing a robust kernel subspace learning algorithm based on the recent advances in nuclear-norm and l 1 -norm minimization...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443719/the-time-is-now-using-graduates-practice-data-to-drive-medical-education-reform
#15
Marc M Triola, Richard E Hawkins, Susan E Skochelak
Medical educators are not yet taking full advantage of the publicly available clinical practice data published by federal, state, and local governments, which can be attributed to individual physicians and evaluated in the context of where they attended medical school and residency training. Understanding how graduates fare in actual practice, both in terms of the quality of the care they provide and the clinical challenges they face, can aid educators in taking an evidence-based approach to medical education...
February 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441773/-advantages-and-application-prospects-of-deep-learning-in-image-recognition-and-bone-age-assessment
#16
REVIEW
T H Hu, L Wan, T A Liu, M W Wang, T Chen, Y H Wang
Deep learning and neural network models have been new research directions and hot issues in the fields of machine learning and artificial intelligence in recent years. Deep learning has made a breakthrough in the applications of image and speech recognitions, and also has been extensively used in the fields of face recognition and information retrieval because of its special superiority. Bone X-ray images express different variations in black-white-gray gradations, which have image features of black and white contrasts and level differences...
December 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441579/brain-anatomy-of-the-4-day-old-european-rabbit
#17
Nanette Y Schneider, Frédérique Datiche, Gérard Coureaud
The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a widely used model in fundamental, medical and veterinary neurosciences. Besides investigations in adults, rabbit pups are relevant to study perinatal neurodevelopment and early behaviour. To date, the rabbit is also the only species in which a pheromone - the mammary pheromone (MP) - emitted by lactating females and active on neonatal adaptation has been described. The MP is crucial since it contributes directly to nipple localisation and oral seizing in neonates, i...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441117/contextual-factors-in-maternal-and-newborn-health-evaluation-a-protocol-applied-in-nigeria-india-and-ethiopia
#18
Kate Sabot, Tanya Marchant, Neil Spicer, Della Berhanu, Meenakshi Gautham, Nasir Umar, Joanna Schellenberg
Background: Understanding the context of a health programme is important in interpreting evaluation findings and in considering the external validity for other settings. Public health researchers can be imprecise and inconsistent in their usage of the word "context" and its application to their work. This paper presents an approach to defining context, to capturing relevant contextual information and to using such information to help interpret findings from the perspective of a research group evaluating the effect of diverse innovations on coverage of evidence-based, life-saving interventions for maternal and newborn health in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and India...
2018: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440996/is-there-a-canonical-cortical-circuit-for-the-cholinergic-system-anatomical-differences-across-common-model-systems
#19
REVIEW
Jennifer J Coppola, Anita A Disney
Acetylcholine (ACh) is believed to act as a neuromodulator in cortical circuits that support cognition, specifically in processes including learning, memory consolidation, vigilance, arousal and attention. The cholinergic modulation of cortical processes is studied in many model systems including rodents, cats and primates. Further, these studies are performed in cortical areas ranging from the primary visual cortex to the prefrontal cortex and using diverse methodologies. The results of these studies have been combined into singular models of function-a practice based on an implicit assumption that the various model systems are equivalent and interchangeable...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438494/artificial-intelligence-in-drug-combination-therapy
#20
Igor F Tsigelny
Currently, the development of medicines for complex diseases requires the development of combination drug therapies. It is necessary because in many cases, one drug cannot target all necessary points of intervention. For example, in cancer therapy, a physician often meets a patient having a genomic profile including more than five molecular aberrations. Drug combination therapy has been an area of interest for a while, for example the classical work of Loewe devoted to the synergism of drugs was published in 1928-and it is still used in calculations for optimal drug combinations...
February 9, 2018: Briefings in Bioinformatics
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