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Advance in medicine

Nadine Ijaz, Heather Boon, Linda Muzzin, Sandy Welsh
Several United Nations bodies have advised countries to actively preserve Traditional Medicine (TM) knowledge and prevent its misappropriation in regulatory structures. To help advance decision-making around this complex regulatory issue, we examine the relationship between risk discourse, epistemology and policy. This study presents a critical, postcolonial analysis of divergent risk discourses elaborated in two contrasting Ontario (Canada) government reports preceding that jurisdiction's regulation of acupuncture, the world's most widely practised TM therapy...
August 24, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
David Picker, Maria Dans, Kevin Heard, Thomas Bailey, Yixin Chen, Chenyang Lu, Marin H Kollef
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an Early Warning System could identify patients wishing to focus on palliative care measures. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, pilot study. SETTING: Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Saint Louis, MO (January 15, 2015, to December 12, 2015). PATIENTS: A total of 206 patients; 89 intervention (43.2%) and 117 controls (56.8%). INTERVENTIONS: Palliative care in high-risk patients targeted by an Early Warning System...
October 20, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Nina Holland
Environmental research and public health in the 21st century face serious challenges such as increased air pollution and global warming, widespread use of potentially harmful chemicals including pesticides, plasticizers, and other endocrine disruptors, and radical changes in nutrition and lifestyle typical of modern societies. In particular, exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants may contribute to the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes, neurodevelopmental deficits, and increased risk of cancer and other multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and asthma...
October 21, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Kathryn L Kreicher, Jeremy S Bordeaux
Importance: Cutaneous surgery is performed by otolaryngologists, plastic surgeons, oculoplastic surgeons, dermatologic surgeons, and some primary care physicians. Practice gaps exist among cutaneous surgeons, as do differences in how different physicians approach preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative decision-making. Objective: To present the newest and best evidence to close common practice gaps in cutaneous surgery. Evidence Review: We performed a detailed search of peer-reviewed publications that were identified through a search of PubMed/MEDLINE (January 1, 2000, through June 30, 2016) using the literature search terms "cutaneous surgery," "Mohs micrographic surgery," "plastic surgery," in combination with "safety," "cost," "anesthesia," "anti-coagulation," "bleeding," "pain," "analgesia," "anxiety," or "infection," among others...
October 20, 2016: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Meital Charni, Ronit Aloni-Grinstein, Alina Molchadsky, Varda Rotter
Regeneration and tumorigenesis share common molecular pathways, nevertheless the outcome of regeneration is life, whereas tumorigenesis leads to death. Although the process of regeneration is strictly controlled, malignant transformation is unrestrained. In this review, we discuss the involvement of TP53, the major tumor-suppressor gene, in the regeneration process. We point to the role of p53 as coordinator assuring that regeneration will not shift to carcinogenesis. The fluctuation in p53 activity during the regeneration process permits a tight control...
October 21, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
I Caglar Tanrikulu, Audrey Forticaux, Song Jin, Ronald T Raines
Sticky-ended DNA duplexes can associate spontaneously into long double helices; however, such self-assembly is much less developed with proteins. Collagen is the most prevalent component of the extracellular matrix and a common clinical biomaterial. As for natural DNA, the ~10(3)-residue triple helices (~300 nm) of natural collagen are recalcitrant to chemical synthesis. Here we show how the self-assembly of short collagen-mimetic peptides (CMPs) can enable the fabrication of synthetic collagen triple helices that are nearly a micrometre in length...
November 2016: Nature Chemistry
Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Mourad Assidi, Ashraf Dallol, Abdelbaset Buhmeida, Peter Natesan Pushparaj, Gauthaman Kalamegam, Emad Al-Hamzi, Jerry W Shay, Stephen W Scherer, Ashok Agarwal, Bruce Budowle, Mamdooh Gari, Adeel Chaudhary, Adel Abuzenadah, Mohammed Al-Qahtani
The Third International Genomic Medicine Conference (3(rd) IGMC) was organised by the Centre of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR) at the King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This conference is a continuation of a series of meetings, which began with the first International Genomic Medicine Conference (1(st) IGMC, 2011) followed by the second International Genomic Medicine Conference (2(nd) IGMC, 2013). The 3(rd) IGMC meeting presented as a timely opportunity to bring scientists from across the world to gather, discuss, and exchange recent advances in the field of genomics and genetics in general as well as practical information on using these new technologies in different basic and clinical applications...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
In K Cho, Silun Wang, Hui Mao, Anthony Ws Chan
Recent advances in stem cell-based regenerative medicine, cell replacement therapy, and genome editing technologies (i.e. CRISPR-Cas 9) have sparked great interest in in vivo cell monitoring. Molecular imaging promises a unique approach to noninvasively monitor cellular and molecular phenomena, including cell survival, migration, proliferation, and even differentiation at the whole organismal level. Several imaging modalities and strategies have been explored for monitoring cell grafts in vivo. We begin this review with an introduction describing the progress in stem cell technology, with a perspective toward cell replacement therapy...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Richard J McMurtrey
Biomaterials are becoming an essential tool in the study and application of stem cell research. Various types of biomaterials enable three-dimensional culture of stem cells, and, more recently, also enable high-resolution patterning and organization of multicellular architectures. Biomaterials also hold potential to provide many additional advantages over cell transplants alone in regenerative medicine. This article describes novel designs for functionalized biomaterial constructs that guide tissue development to targeted regional identities and structures...
January 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering
Anthony Gonçalves, François Bertucci, Arnaud Guille, Severine Garnier, José Adelaide, Nadine Carbuccia, Oliver Cabaud, Pascal Finetti, Serge Brunelle, Gilles Piana, Jeanne Tomassin-Piana, Maria Paciencia, Eric Lambaudie, Cornel Popovici, Renaud Sabatier, Carole Tarpin, Magali Provansal, Jean-Marc Extra, François Eisinger, Hagay Sobol, Patrice Viens, Marc Lopez, Christophe Ginestier, Emmanuelle Charafe-Jauffret, Max Chaffanet, Daniel Birnbaum
BACKGROUND: Routine feasibility and clinical impact of genomics-based tumor profiling in advanced breast cancer (aBC) remains to be determined. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate whether precision medicine could be prospectively implemented for aBC patients in a single center and to examine whether patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDX) could be obtained in this population. RESULTS: Thirty-four aBC patients were included. Actionable targets were found in 28 patients (82%)...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Kambiz Rahbar, Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar, Clemens Kratochwil, Uwe Haberkorn, Michael Schäfers, Markus Essler, Richard P Baum, Harshad R Kulkarani, Matthias Schmidt, Peter Bartenstein, Andreas Pfestroff, Ulf Lützen, Marlies Marx, Vikas Prasad, Winfried Brenner, Alexander Heinzel, Juri Ruf, Philipp Tobias Meyer, Martin Heuschkel, Maria Eveslage, Martin Bögemann, Wolfgang Peter Fendler, Bernd Joachim Krause
: (177)Lutetium labeled PSMA-617 is a promising new therapeutic agent for radioligand therapy (RLT) of patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Initiated by the German Society of Nuclear Medicine a retrospective multicenter data analysis was started in 2015 to evaluate efficacy and safety of (177)Lu-PSMA-617 in a large cohort of patients. METHODS: 145 patients (median age 73 years, range 43-88) with mCRPC were treated with (177)Lu-PSMA-617 in 12 therapy centres between February 2014 and July 2015 with one to four therapy cycles and an activity range of 2 to 8 GBq per cycle...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Mariana Matias, Samuel Silvestre, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves
BACKGROUND: Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a traditional Chinese herb used for centuries in folk medicine. Due to the claimed anticonvulsant properties of G. elata, it is expected that this herb continues to be a target of research, aiming to deepen the available knowledge on its biological activity and safety. PURPOSE: The current review aims to discuss the most recent advances on the elucidation of the phytochemical composition and anticonvulsant potential of G...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
X F Song, X D Chen
Aloe vera has been widely investigated and used as folk medicine since ancient time. Biologically active substances in its gel include polysaccharides, glycoprotein, enzymes, anthraquinones or phenolic compounds, vitamins, minerals, and so on, which play important roles in anti-inflammatory response, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant activity, immunoregulation effects, and especially in wound healing. In this paper, we review the advances in the mechanism and clinical application of Aloe vera and its extract on wound healing, so as to provide new ideas for the treatment of various kinds of wounds...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Divya Talwar, Tung-Sung Tseng, Margaret Foster, Lei Xu, Lei-Shih Chen
PURPOSE: The completion of the Human Genome Project has enhanced avenues for disease prevention, diagnosis, and management. Owing to the shortage of genetic professionals, genetics/genomics training has been provided to nongenetic health professionals for years to establish their genomic competencies. We conducted a systematic literature review to summarize and evaluate the existing genetics/genomics education programs for nongenetic health professionals. METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched from January 1990 to June 2016...
October 20, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Elizabeth J Bhoj, Zhenming Yu, Qiaoning Guan, Rebecca Ahrens-Nicklas, Kajia Cao, Minjie Luo, Tanya Tischler, Matthew A Deardorff, Elaine Zackai, Avni B Santani
INTRODUCTION: RASopathies include disorders generally characterized by developmental delay, specific heart defects, short stature, cardiac hypertrophy, and facial dysmorphisms. Next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based panels have widespread acceptance as a diagnostic tool for RASopathies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The first 126 patients evaluated by clinical examination and the NGS RASopathy panel at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia were enrolled. We calculated diagnosis rate, correlated reported clinical findings with positive or negative test results, and identified final molecular diagnoses in 28/96 patients who tested negative for RASopathies...
October 20, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Gillian W Hooker, Kendall L Umstead, Katie L Lewis, Laura K Koehly, Leslie G Biesecker, Barbara B Biesecker
PURPOSE: As clinical genome sequencing expand its reach, understanding how individuals engage with this process are of critical importance. In this study, we aimed to describe internal engagement and its correlates among a ClinSeq cohort of adults consented to genome sequencing and receipt of results. METHODS: This study was framed using the precaution adoption process model (PAPM), in which knowledge predicts engagement and engagement predicts subsequent behaviors...
October 20, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Colin Crist
Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in our body, is responsible for generating the force required for movement and is also an important thermogenic organ. Skeletal muscle is an enigmatic tissue because, while on one hand, skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is arguably one of the best studied stem cell dependent regenerative processes, on the other hand, skeletal muscle is still subject to many degenerative disorders with few therapeutic options in the clinic. It is important to develop new regenerative medicine based therapies for skeletal muscle...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Ruaim A Muaygil
Advances in reproductive medicine have provided new, and much needed, hope for millions of people struggling with infertility. Gestational surrogacy is one such development that has been gaining popularity with infertile couples, especially those unable to benefit from other reproductive procedures such as In Vitro Fertilization. For many Muslim couples, however, surrogacy remains a nonviable option. Islamic scholars have deemed the procedure incompatible with Islam and have prohibited its use. This paper examines the arguments presented for proscribing surrogacy arrangements in Sunni Islam in particular...
October 20, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
J Wu, A Platero Luengo, M A Gil, K Suzuki, C Cuello, M Morales Valencia, I Parrilla, C A Martinez, A Nohalez, J Roca, E A Martinez, J C Izpisua Belmonte
More than eighteen years have passed since the first derivation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), but their clinical use is still met with several challenges, such as ethical concerns regarding the need of human embryos, tissue rejection after transplantation and tumour formation. The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) enables the access to patient-derived pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and opens the door for personalized medicine as tissues/organs can potentially be generated from the same genetic background as the patient recipients, thus avoiding immune rejections or complication of immunosuppression strategies...
October 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Jin Sun Lee, Mark Jesus M Magbanua, John W Park
Recent technological advancements in rare cell analysis have facilitated the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of patients diagnosed with breast and other types of cancers. Numerous clinical studies involving the enumeration of CTCs in breast cancer patients have unequivocally demonstrated the prognostic value of these cells. Evidence from recent molecular studies indicates that CTCs may be potential surrogate markers for systemic disease. As such, real-time assessment of therapeutic biomarkers in breast CTCs, such as the estrogen receptor (ER) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), may have a tremendous impact in guiding-targeted cancer therapy...
October 19, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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