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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346329/cardiac-computed-tomography-radiomics-a-comprehensive-review-on-radiomic-techniques
#1
Márton Kolossváry, Miklós Kellermayer, Béla Merkely, Pál Maurovich-Horvat
Radiologic images are vast three-dimensional data sets in which each voxel of the underlying volume represents distinct physical measurements of a tissue-dependent characteristic. Advances in technology allow radiologists to image pathologies with unforeseen detail, thereby further increasing the amount of information to be processed. Even though the imaging modalities have advanced greatly, our interpretation of the images has remained essentially unchanged for decades. We have arrived in the era of precision medicine where even slight differences in disease manifestation are seen as potential target points for new intervention strategies...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346087/pubchem-bioassay
#2
Yanli Wang, Tiejun Cheng, Stephen H Bryant
High-throughput screening (HTS) is now routinely conducted for drug discovery by both pharmaceutical companies and screening centers at academic institutions and universities. Rapid advance in assay development, robot automation, and computer technology has led to the generation of terabytes of data in screening laboratories. Despite the technology development toward HTS productivity, fewer efforts were devoted to HTS data integration and sharing. As a result, the huge amount of HTS data was rarely made available to the public...
January 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346058/promising-pharmacogenetic-targets-for-treating-alcohol-use-disorder-evidence-from-preclinical-models
#3
Jennifer A Rinker, Patrick J Mulholland
Inherited genetic variants contribute to risk factors for developing an alcohol use disorder, and polymorphisms may inform precision medicine strategies for treating alcohol addiction. Targeting genetic mutations linked to alcohol phenotypes has provided promising initial evidence for reducing relapse rates in alcoholics. Although successful in some studies, there are conflicting findings and the reports of adverse effects may ultimately limit their clinical utility, suggesting that novel pharmacogenetic targets are necessary to advance precision medicine approaches...
March 27, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346013/the-physiology-of-blood-loss-and-shock-new-insights-from-a-human-laboratory-model-of-hemorrhage
#4
Alicia M Schiller, Jeffrey T Howard, Victor A Convertino
The ability to quickly diagnose hemorrhagic shock is critical for favorable patient outcomes. Therefore, it is important to understand the time course and involvement of the various physiological mechanisms that are active during volume loss and that have the ability to stave off hemodynamic collapse. This review provides new insights about the physiology that underlies blood loss and shock in humans through the development of a simulated model of hemorrhage using lower body negative pressure. In this review, we present controlled experimental results through utilization of the lower body negative pressure human hemorrhage model that provide novel insights on the integration of physiological mechanisms critical to the compensation for volume loss...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345409/osteoarthritis-in-football
#5
Gian M Salzmann, Stefan Preiss, Marcy Zenobi-Wong, Laurent P Harder, Dirk Maier, Jirí Dvorák
Football is currently the most popular sporting activity in the world. Multiple reports have shown that a high incidence of osteoarthritis is found in football players. Evidence clearly shows that traumatic injury significantly predisposes players for such pathophysiology. Injuries are frequent in amateur as well as professional football players, with knee and ankle accounting for the most severe injuries. Many professional athletes lose playing time due to injuries and many are forced into early retirement...
April 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345190/new-medicinal-products-for-chronic-heart-failure-advances-in-clinical-trial-design-and-efficacy-assessment
#6
REVIEW
Martin R Cowie, Gerasimos S Filippatos, Maria de Los Angeles Alonso Garcia, Stefan D Anker, Anna Baczynska, Daniel M Bloomfield, Maria Borentain, Karsten Bruins Slot, Maureen Cronin, Pieter A Doevendans, Amany El-Gazayerly, Claudio Gimpelewicz, Narimon Honarpour, Salim Janmohamed, Heidi Janssen, Albert M Kim, Dominik Lautsch, Ian Laws, Martin Lefkowitz, Jose Lopez-Sendon, Alexander R Lyon, Fady I Malik, John J V McMurray, Marco Metra, Santiago Figueroa Perez, Marc A Pfeffer, Stuart J Pocock, Piotr Ponikowski, Krishna Prasad, Isabelle Richard-Lordereau, Lothar Roessig, Giuseppe M C Rosano, Warren Sherman, Wendy Gattis Stough, Karl Swedberg, Benoit Tyl, Faiez Zannad, Caroline Boulton, Pieter De Graeff
Despite the availability of a number of different classes of therapeutic agents with proven efficacy in heart failure, the clinical course of heart failure patients is characterized by a reduction in life expectancy, a progressive decline in health-related quality of life and functional status, as well as a high risk of hospitalization. New approaches are needed to address the unmet medical needs of this patient population. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is undertaking a revision of its Guideline on Clinical Investigation of Medicinal Products for the Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344933/precision-medicine-the-golden-gate-for-detection-treatment-and-prevention-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
H Hampel, S E O'Bryant, J I Castrillo, C Ritchie, K Rojkova, K Broich, N Benda, R Nisticò, R A Frank, B Dubois, V Escott-Price, S Lista
During this decade, breakthrough conceptual shifts have commenced to emerge in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) recognizing risk factors and the non-linear dynamic continuum of complex pathophysiologies amongst a wide dimensional spectrum of multi-factorial brain proteinopathies/neurodegenerative diseases. As is the case in most fields of medicine, substantial advancements in detecting, treating and preventing AD will likely evolve from the generation and implementation of a systematic precision medicine strategy...
December 2016: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344661/liposomal-irinotecan-in-gemcitabine-refractory-metastatic-pancreatic-cancer-efficacy-safety-and-place-in-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Emma Kipps, Kate Young, Naureen Starling
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease. The majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic disease with a prognosis of short months. Therapeutic options are limited and until recently, there was no standard second-line chemotherapy option. Liposomal constructs have been engineered to encapsulate chemotherapy thereby preventing premature metabolism, improving distribution and minimizing toxicity. Favourable preclinical data on liposomal irinotecan and early phase trials, led to a recently published phase III trial of liposomal irinotecan in combination with fluorouracil and folinic acid in patients with metastatic PDAC, who progressed after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344632/dynamic-and-temporal-assessment-of-human-dried-blood-spot-ms-ms-all-shotgun-lipidomics-analysis
#9
Fei Gao, Justice McDaniel, Emily Y Chen, Hannah E Rockwell, Jeremy Drolet, Vivek K Vishnudas, Vladimir Tolstikov, Rangaprasad Sarangarajan, Niven R Narain, Michael A Kiebish
BACKGROUND: Real-time and dynamic assessment of an individual's lipid homeostatic state in blood is complicated due to the need to collect samples in a clinical environment. In the context of precision medicine and population health, tools that facilitate sample collection and empower the individual to participate in the process are necessary to complement advanced bioanalytical analysis. The dried blood spot (DBS) methodology via finger prick or heel prick is a minimally invasive sample collection method that allows the relative ease and low cost of sample collection as well as transport...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344554/cannabis-in-chinese-medicine-are-some-traditional-indications-referenced-in-ancient-literature-related-to-cannabinoids
#10
REVIEW
E Joseph Brand, Zhongzhen Zhao
Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes ("seeds") as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for the female inflorescence, and other plant parts include conditions such as pain and mental illness that are the subject of current research into cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344500/plant-growth-and-diosgenin-enhancement-effect-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-fenugreek-trigonella-foenum-graecum-l
#11
B Jasim, Roshmi Thomas, Jyothis Mathew, E K Radhakrishnan
Various methods have been used to enhance production of chemically diverse phytochemicals especially medicinal natural products. With the advancement in nanotechnology, nanoparticles have been reported to have varying impact in plant growth and inducibility of phytochemical composition. Major objective of the study was to study the secondary metabolite modulatory effect of silver nanoparticles. In the current study, treatment of fenugreek seedlings with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) was found to have significant impact on its growth parameters such as leaf number, root length, shoot length and wet weight...
March 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343934/hitchhiker-s-guide-to-the-red-cell-storage-galaxy-omics-technologies-and-the-quality-issue
#12
REVIEW
Angelo D'Alessandro, Jerard Seghatchian
Red blood cell storage in the blood bank makes millions of units of available for transfusion to civilian and military recipients every year. From glass bottles to plastic bags, from anticoagulants to complex additives, from whole blood to leukocyte filtered packed red blood cells: huge strides have been made in the field of blood component processing and storage in the blood bank during the last century. Still, refrigerated preservation of packed red blood cells under blood bank conditions results in the progressive accumulation of a wide series of biochemical and morphological changes to the stored erythrocytes, collectively referred to as the storage lesion(s)...
March 9, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343109/a-visual-analysis-of-gender-bias-in-contemporary-anatomy-textbooks
#13
Rhiannon Parker, Theresa Larkin, Jon Cockburn
Empirical research has linked gender bias in medical education with negative attitudes and behaviors in healthcare providers. Yet it has been more than 20 years since research has considered the degree to which women and men are equally represented in anatomy textbooks. Furthermore, previous research has not explored beyond quantity of representation to also examine visual gender stereotypes and, in light of theoretical advancements in the area of intersectional research, the relationship between representations of gender and representations of ethnicity, body type, health, and age...
March 18, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343075/an-update-on-application-of-nanotechnology-and-stem-cells-in-spinal-cord-injury-regeneration
#14
REVIEW
Kazem Nejati-Koshki, Yousef Mortazavi, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Sumit Sheoran, Nosratollah Zarghami
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that leads to sudden loss of motor and autonomic function and sensory under the level of the injury. The pathophysiological advancement of SCI is divided into two categories: primary injury and secondary injury. Due to the loss of motor, sensory, or cognitive function, a patient's quality of life is likely reduced and places a great burden on society in order to supply health care costs. Therefore, it is important to develop suitable therapeutic strategies for SCI therapy...
March 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342435/-therapeutic-aggressiveness-and-liquid-oncology
#15
F J Barón Duarte, M S Rodríguez Calvo, J R Amor Pan
Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend...
January 2017: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342083/classification-of-advanced-stages-of-parkinson-s-disease-translation-into-stratified-treatments
#16
REVIEW
Rejko Krüger, Jochen Klucken, Daniel Weiss, Lars Tönges, Pierre Kolber, Stefan Unterecker, Michael Lorrain, Horst Baas, Thomas Müller, Peter Riederer
Advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (advPD) still impose a challenge in terms of classification and related stage-adapted treatment recommendations. Previous concepts that define advPD by certain milestones of motor disability apparently fall short in addressing the increasingly recognized complexity of motor and non-motor symptoms and do not allow to account for the clinical heterogeneity that require more personalized approaches. Therefore, deep phenotyping approaches are required to characterize the broad-scaled, continuous and multidimensional spectrum of disease-related motor and non-motor symptoms and their progression under real-life conditions...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341310/women-in-leadership-why-so-few-and%C3%A2-what-to-do-about-it
#17
Christina M Surawicz
The numbers of women in medical school and in medical training have increased dramatically and are near 50% overall, but the number of women who advance to senior and leadership positions is not nearly this high. There are many reasons why the number of women in leadership roles in academic medicine has not kept pace with the number of women entering the field of medicine. Two popular themes are the glass ceiling (referring to an invisible barrier to advancement) and the leaky pipeline (the loss of women faculty along the path, or pipeline, to advancement)...
December 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341301/disease-modeling-in-stem-cell-derived-3d-organoid-systems
#18
REVIEW
Devanjali Dutta, Inha Heo, Hans Clevers
Organoids are 3D in vitro culture systems derived from self-organizing stem cells. They can recapitulate the in vivo architecture, functionality, and genetic signature of original tissues. Thus, organoid technology has been rapidly applied to understanding stem cell biology, organogenesis, and various human pathologies. The recent development of human patient-derived organoids has enabled disease modeling with precision, highlighting their great potential in biomedical applications, translational medicine, and personalized therapy...
March 21, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341010/history-and-development-of-ophthalmology-in-taiwan
#19
REVIEW
Yu-Chih Hou, Gale A Oren, Muh-Shy Chen, Fung-Rong Hu
Western medicine was first introduced to Taiwan by medical missionaries in the mid-19(th) century. Modernization of medicine was systematically transplanted to Taiwan in the Japanese colonial period, and ophthalmology was established third among hospital departments, following internal medicine and surgery. Dr Hidetaka Yamaguchi, an ophthalmologist, was the first head of the Taihoku Hospital, later known as National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH; Taipei, Taiwan). Ophthalmologists during the colonial period conducted studies on tropical and infectious eye diseases...
December 2016: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340866/epidemiology-of-clinical-trials-of-medicines-in-respiratory-diseases-in-europe-and-italy
#20
Roberta Bodini, Pierachille Santus, Fabiano Di Marco, Stefano Aliberti, Stefano Centanni, Francesco Blasi, Andrea Rizzi, Giuseppe Recchia
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials play a key role in advancing medical knowledge, improving patient care and promoting economic growth in Europe. We have assessed the clinical trial activity in any respiratory diseases in Europe, with a specific focus on Italy. METHODS: Information from public sources (EFPIA, clinicaltrials.gov, clinicaltrialsregister. eu, AIFA) was used to describe clinical trial activity of in respiratory diseases in Europe and by country. RESULTS: In 2015, 3908 clinical trials were reported in Europe, 386 in respiratory diseases (9...
April 2017: Respiratory Medicine
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