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Hiv co-infection

Taylor McLinden, Erica E M Moodie, Anne-Marie Hamelin, Sam Harper, Carmine Rossi, Sharon L Walmsley, Sean B Rourke, Curtis Cooper, Marina B Klein, Joseph Cox
BACKGROUND: Severe food insecurity (FI) is common among individuals living with HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection. We hypothesize that the injection of opioids is partly responsible for the association between injection drug use and severe FI. Therefore, this analysis examines whether methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence is associated with a lower risk of severe FI. METHODS: We used biannual data from the Canadian Co-infection Cohort (N = 608, 2012-2015)...
February 20, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Hendramoorthy Maheswaran, Stavros Petrou, Danielle Cohen, Peter MacPherson, Felistas Kumwenda, David G Lalloo, Elizabeth L Corbett, Aileen Clarke
INTRODUCTION: Although HIV infection and its associated co-morbidities remain the commonest reason for hospitalisation in Africa, their impact on economic costs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are not well understood. This information is essential for decision-makers to make informed choices about how to best scale-up anti-retroviral treatment (ART) programmes. This study aimed to quantify the impact of HIV infection and ART on economic outcomes in a prospective cohort of hospitalised patients with high HIV prevalence...
2018: PloS One
Matthew Quaife, Fern Terris-Prestholt, Robyn Eakle, Maria A Cabrera Escobar, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Mercy Mvundura, Gesine Meyer-Rath, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Peter Vickerman
INTRODUCTION: A number of antiretroviral HIV prevention products are efficacious in preventing HIV infection. However, the sexual and reproductive health needs of many women extend beyond HIV prevention, and research is ongoing to develop multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs) that offer dual HIV and pregnancy protection. We do not yet know if these products will be an efficient use of constrained health resources. In this paper, we estimate the cost-effectiveness of combinations of candidate multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs), in South Africa among general population women and female sex workers (FSWs)...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
J von Felden, J Vermehren, P Ingiliz, S Mauss, T Lutz, K G Simon, H W Busch, A Baumgarten, K Schewe, D Hueppe, C Boesecke, J K Rockstroh, M Daeumer, N Luebke, J Timm, J Schulze Zur Wiesch, C Sarrazin, S Christensen
BACKGROUND: Twelve weeks of the pangenotypic direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combination sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) was highly efficient in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3 (GT3) infection in the ASTRAL-3 approval study. However, presence of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) in the HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) was associated with lower treatment response. AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of SOF/VEL ± ribavirin (RBV) and the impact of NS5A RASs and RBV use on treatment outcome in HCV GT3 infection in a real-world setting...
March 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Monica Vaccari, Genoveffa Franchini
Germinal centers (GCs) are organized lymphoid tissue microstructures where B cells proliferate and differentiate into memory B cells and plasma cells. A few distinctive subsets of highly specialized T cells gain access to the GCs by expressing the B cell zone-homing C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5) while losing the T cell zone-homing chemokine receptor CCR7. Help from T cells is critical to induce B cell proliferation and somatic hyper mutation and to limit GC reactions. CD4+ T follicular helper (TFH ) cells required for the formation of GCs and for the generation of long-lived, high-affinity B cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Cong Chen, Tao Yan, Liguo Liu, Jianmin Wang, Qi Jin
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major comorbidity in HIV patients as well as a serious co-epidemic. Traditional detection methods are not effective or sensitive for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the early stage. TB has become a major cause of lethal on HIV patients. We employed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology to identify the different host responses in HIV-noTB and HIV-TB patients' sera. Given the diversity of HIV subtypes, which results in a variety of host responses in different human populations, we focused on the Chinese patients...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hayley K Hutton, Heather J Zar, Andrew C Argent
Aim: Severe acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) remains an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Methods: This is a 12-month retrospective cohort study of children (0-12 years) admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with ALRTI to investigate risk factors, clinical course and in-hospital survival. Results: In total, 265 patients (median age = 4 months [2-12 months]) were identified. In all,102 (38...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Ornella Franzese, Maria Luisa Barbaccia, Enzo Bonmassar, Grazia Graziani
Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy more than 2 decades ago, HIV-related deaths have dramatically decreased and HIV infection has become a chronic disease. Due to the inability of antiretroviral drugs to eradicate the virus, treatment of HIV infection requires a systemic lifelong therapy. However, even when successfully treated, HIV patients still show increased incidence of age-associated co-morbidities compared with uninfected individuals. Virus- induced immunosenescence, a process characterized by a progressive decline of immune system function, contributes to the premature ageing observed in HIV patients...
March 13, 2018: Chemotherapy
N T de Siqueira Filha, M de Fatima Pessoa Militao de Albuquerque, R Legood, L Rodrigues, A C Santos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the direct and indirect costs of tuberculosis (TB) (active and latent TB [LTB]) and HIV co-infection from the patient perspective. STUDY DESIGN: Costing study conducted alongside a pragmatic clinical trial. METHODS: The study was conducted in Brazil in a referral service for HIV/AIDS. We applied a standardised questionnaire to collect data about out-of-pocket expenses and indirect cost...
March 10, 2018: Public Health
Calleb George Onyango, Lilian Ogonda, Bernard Guyah, Peter Okoth, Clement Shiluli, Felix Humwa, Vallarie Opollo
OBJECTIVE: Since the implementation of a series of blood donation safety improvements in Kenya, information about seroprevalence and determinants of transfusion transmissible infections among voluntary blood donors especially in high HIV burden regions of Homabay, Kisumu and Siaya counties remain scanty. A cross-sectional study examining HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B and C virus sero-markers and associated determinants was conducted among voluntary blood donors. Their demographic characteristics and previous risk exposure were recorded in a pre-donation questionnaire, while blood samples collected were screened for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency viruses by ELISA and RPR (syphilis), then confirmed using CMIA...
March 12, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Sonia de Castro, María-José Camarasa
HIV infection still has a serious health and socio-economical impact and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. HIV infection and the AIDS pandemic are still matters of great concern, especially in less developed countries where the access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is limited. Patient compliance is another serious drawback. Nowadays, HAART is the treatment of choice although it is not the panacea. Despite the fact that it suppresses viral replication at undetectable viral loads and prevents progression of HIV infection into AIDS HAART has several pitfalls, namely, long-term side-effects, drug resistance development, emergence of drug-resistant viruses, low compliance and the intolerance of some patients to these drugs...
March 5, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Agnese Comelli, Ilaria Izzo, Salvatore Casari, Angiola Spinetti, Alberto Bergamasco, Francesco Castelli
Since June 2016, an outbreak of hepatitis A has been reported in Europe. Here we report the HAV outbreak in Brescia (Northern Italy) from July 2016 to July 2017. We actively recorded all HAV cases defined by detection of HAV IgM antibodies in serum. Data on sexual behaviour, travel attitudes, concomitant sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), clinical presentation and laboratory results were collected. Forty-two confirmed cases were recorded: 25 (60%) were MSM and reported sexual contact at risk of STDs. Compared to 2015 and the first half of 2016, when only three hepatitis A cases were recorded, in the 12 months in question the number of cases rose 14-fold...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Saverio G Parisi, Samantha Andreis, Carlo Mengoli, Nicola Menegotto, Silvia Cavinato, Renzo Scaggiante, Massimo Andreoni, Giorgio Palù, Monica Basso, Anna Maria Cattelan
Soluble CD163, soluble CD14 and cellular HIV-1-DNA levels reflect two different aspects of HIV infection: immune activation and the reservoir of infected cells. The aim of this study was to describe their relationships in a cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected patients successfully treated for both HCV and HIV infections. Fifty-five patients were recruited and studied prior to the start of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) (T0), at week 12 of DAA treatment (T1) and 24 weeks after T0 (T2). The subjects were classified as having undetectable plasma HIV viraemia (UV) or low-level viraemia (LLV) in the 18 months before T2...
March 9, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Quang N Nguyen, David R Martinez, Jonathon E Himes, R Whitney Edwards, Qifeng Han, Amit Kumar, Riley Mangan, Nathan I Nicely, Guanhua Xie, Nathan Vandergrift, Xiaoying Shen, Justin Pollara, Sallie R Permar
BACKGROUND: The initial envelope (Env)-specific antibody response in acutely HIV-1-infected individuals and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys (RMs) is dominated by non-neutralizing antibodies targeting Env gp41. In contrast, natural primate SIV hosts, such as African green monkeys (AGMs), develop a predominant Env gp120-specific antibody response to SIV infection. However, the fine-epitope specificity and function of SIV Env-specific plasma IgG, and their potential role on autologous virus co-evolution in SIV-infected AGMs and RMs remain unclear...
March 9, 2018: Retrovirology
Maia Kavanagh Williamson, Naomi Coombes, Florian Juszczak, Marios Athanasopoulos, Mariam B Khan, Thomas R Eykyn, Ushani Srenathan, Leonie S Taams, Julianna Dias Zeidler, Andrea T Da Poian, Hendrik Huthoff
Infection of primary CD4+ T cells with HIV-1 coincides with an increase in glycolysis. We investigated the expression of glucose transporters (GLUT) and glycolytic enzymes in human CD4+ T cells in response to infection with HIV-1. We demonstrate the co-expression of GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT4, and GLUT6 in human CD4+ T cells after activation, and their concerted overexpression in HIV-1 infected cells. The investigation of glycolytic enzymes demonstrated activation-dependent expression of hexokinases HK1 and HK2 in human CD4+ T cells, and a highly significant increase in cellular hexokinase enzyme activity in response to infection with HIV-1...
March 7, 2018: Viruses
Norma Rallón, Marcial García, Javier García-Samaniego, Alfonso Cabello, Beatriz Álvarez, Clara Restrepo, Sara Nistal, Miguel Górgolas, José M Benito
INTRODUCTION: T-cell exhaustion has been involved in the pathogenesis of HIV infection. We have longitudinally analyzed PD1 and Tim3 surrogate markers of T-cells exhaustion, in parallel with other markers of HIV progression, and its potential association with CD4 changes in treated and untreated infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 96 HIV patients, 49 of them followed in the absence of cART (cART-naïve group) and 47 after initiation of cART (cART group) were included and followed for a median of 43 [IQR: 31-60] months...
2018: PloS One
Mathieu Bastard, Elisabeth Sanchez-Padilla, Philipp du Cros, Atadjan Karimovich Khamraev, Nargiza Parpieva, Mirzagaleg Tillyashaykov, Armen Hayrapetyan, Kamene Kimenye, Shazina Khurkhumal, Themba Dlamini, Santiago Fadul Perez, Alex Telnov, Cathy Hewison, Francis Varaine, Maryline Bonnet
BACKGROUND: The emergence of resistance to anti-tuberculosis (DR-TB) drugs and the HIV epidemic represent a serious threat for reducing the global burden of TB. Although data on HIV-negative DR-TB treatment outcomes are well published, few data on DR-TB outcomes among HIV co-infected people is available despite the great public health importance. METHODS: We retrospectively reported and compared the DR-TB treatment outcomes of HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients treated with an individualized regimen based on WHO guidelines in seven countries: Abkhazia, Armenia, Colombia, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Swaziland and Uzbekistan...
2018: PloS One
Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida, Ana Paula de Pereira, Maria Lucia Alves Pedroso, Clea E Ribeiro, Indianara Rotta, Bin Tang, Anya Umlauf, Donald Franklin, Rowan G Saloner, Maria Geny Ribas Batista, Scott Letendre, Robert K Heaton, Ronald J Ellis, Mariana Cherner
Although cognitive impairment has been well documented in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infections, research on neurocognitive effects is limited in the context of HIV/HCV co-infection. The aims of this study were to explore the interplay between HIV and HCV infections in the expression of neurocognitive impairment (NCI), and to examine the differences in test performance between HIV/HCV co-infected and HIV or HCV mono-infected patients. A total of 128 participants from Southern Brazil underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological (NP) battery comprising 18 tests...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Le Guo, Xi-Qiu Xu, Li Zhou, Run-Hong Zhou, Xu Wang, Jie-Liang Li, Jin-Biao Liu, Hang Liu, Biao Zhang, Wen-Zhe Ho
As a rich source of CD4+ T cells and macrophages, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a major target site for HIV infection. The interplay between GI-resident macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) constitutes an important element of GI innate immunity against pathogens. In this study, we investigated whether human IECs have the ability to produce antiviral factors that can inhibit HIV infection of macrophages. We demonstrated that IECs possess functional toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), the activation of which resulted in induction of key interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRF3 and IRF7), IFN-β, IFN-λ, and CC chemokines (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES), the ligands of HIV entry co-receptor CCR5...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jing Shi, Ran Xiong, Tao Zhou, Peiyi Su, Xihe Zhang, Xusheng Qiu, Hongmei Li, Sunan Li, Changqing Yu, Bin Wang, Chan Ding, Thomas E Smithgall, Yong-Hui Zheng
The primate lentiviral accessory protein Nef downregulates CD4 and MHC-I from the cell surface via independent endosomal trafficking pathways to promote viral pathogenesis. In addition, Nef antagonizes a novel restriction factor, SERINC5 (Ser5), to increase viral infectivity. To explore the molecular mechanism of Ser5 antagonism by Nef, we determined how Nef affects Ser5 expression and intracellular trafficking in comparison with CD4 and MHC-I. We confirm that Nef excludes Ser5 from HIV-1 virions by downregulating its cell surface expression via similar functional motifs required for CD4-downregulation...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
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