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Hiv co-infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445685/outcomes-following-detection-of-low-level-plasma-hiv-rna-in-hiv-infected-patients-previously-virologically-suppressed-on-antiretroviral-therapy-a-retrospective-observational-study
#1
Annabelle M Warren, Allen C Cheng, Kerrie Watson, Sharon R Lewin, Jennifer F Hoy
Background: Progressively sensitive assays for plasma HIV RNA have led to increased detection of plasma HIV RNA between 20 and 200 copies/ml, known as low level viremia (LLV) when recurrent or persistent, in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The aim of this study was to determine outcomes following initial detection of LLV in an Australian cohort. Methods: A retrospective study using the HIV Service Database (Alfred Hospital) included all patients on ART who recorded plasma HIV RNA 20-200 copies/mL following prior virological suppression (viral load (VL) HIV RNA <20 copies/mL) over 2 years (2010 to 2012), with follow-up to June 2013...
April 27, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444232/co-trimoxazole-prophylaxis-asymptomatic-malaria-parasitemia-and-infectious-morbidity-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-in-malawi-the-ban-study
#2
Nicole L Davis, Jeffrey Wiener, Jonathan J Juliano, Linda Adair, Charles S Chasela, Dumbani Kayira, Michael G Hudgens, Charles van der Horst, Denise J Jamieson, Athena P Kourtis
Background: HIV-exposed infants are disproportionately at risk of morbidity and mortality compared with their HIV-unexposed counterparts. The role of co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) in reducing leading causes of infectious morbidity is unclear. Methods: We used data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) clinical trial (conducted 2004-2010, Malawi) to assess the association of 1) CPT and 2) asymptomatic malaria parasitemia with respiratory and diarrheal morbidity in infants...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442809/co-infection-of-syphilis-and-hepatitis-b-with-carcinoma-penis-in-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-male
#3
Balaji Govindan, Kalaivani Subramanian, Maduravasagam Karunakaran
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections have a high probability of co-infections with Syphilis and hepatitis B virus since they share the common routes of transmission. We report a 41-year-old HIV male (on antiretroviral therapy for the past 6 years) admitted for a complaint of penile ulcer for 2 months. Serology for syphilis and hepatitis B were positive. Skin biopsy of the penile ulcer confirmed squamous cell carcinoma. Henceforth, the patient was referred to oncology department for further management...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434809/real-world-performance-of-the-new-us-hiv-testing-algorithm-in-medical-settings
#4
Kara G Marson, Robert Marlin, Phong Pham, Stephanie E Cohen, Diane Jones, Marguerite Roemer, Philip J Peters, Barbara Haller, Christopher D Pilcher
BACKGROUND: Our medical center laboratory recently adapted its 24/7, two-hourly testing program to use an ARCHITECT-Multispot-viral load (AR-MS-VL) algorithm in place of a previous rapid test-immunofluorescence (RT-IF) algorithm. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated screening test performance, acute case detection, turnaround time and ability to resolve HIV status under the new algorithm. STUDY DESIGN: We considered consecutive HIV tests from January to November 2015...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434689/early-childhood-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-prior-to-the-first-hepatitis-b-vaccine-dose-is-rare-among-babies-born-to-hiv-infected-and-non-hiv-infected-mothers-in-gulu-uganda
#5
E Seremba, J P Van Geertruyden, R Ssenyonga, C K Opio, J M Kaducu, J B Sempa, R Colebunders, P Ocama
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HBV) in sub-Saharan Africa is believed to be horizontally acquired. However, because of the high HBV prevalence in northern Uganda, no hepatitis B vaccination at birth and no access to HBV immunoglobulin, we hypothesize that vertical transmission also could also play an important role. We therefore investigated the incidence of HBV among babies presenting for their first HBV vaccine dose in Gulu, Uganda. METHODS: We recruited mothers and their babies (at least 6-week old) presenting for their postnatal care and first HBV vaccine dose respectively...
April 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434169/inflammation-immune-activation-and-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv
#6
REVIEW
Corrilynn O Hileman, Nicholas T Funderburg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the differential effects of contemporary antiretrovirals on systemic inflammation as heightened immune activation is linked to important co-morbidities and mortality with HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces dramatically systemic inflammation and immune activation, but not to levels synchronous with HIV-uninfected populations. In one ART initiation trial, integrase inhibitors appear to reduce inflammation to a greater degree than non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); however, it is not clear that there are beneficial effects on inflammation resulting from treatment with integrase inhibitors compared to PIs, between PIs and NNRTIs, between specific nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or with maraviroc in ART-naïve patients...
April 22, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432326/a-novel-mechanism-linking-memory-stem-cells-with-innate-immunity-in-protection-against-hiv-1-infection
#7
Yufei Wang, Trevor Whittall, Stuart Neil, Gary Britton, Mukesh Mistry, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Xuesong Yu, Alicia Sato, Robert J O'Connell, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Jerome H Kim, Thomas Lehner
HIV infection affects 37 million people and about 1.7 million are infected annually. Among the phase III clinical trials only the RV144 vaccine trial elicited significant protection against HIV-1 acquisition, but the efficacy and immune memory were inadequate. To boost these vaccine functions we studied T stem cell memory (TSCM) and innate immunity. TSCM cells were identified by phenotypic markers of CD4(+) T cells and they were further characterised into 4 subsets. These expressed the common IL-2/IL-15 receptors and another subset of APOBEC3G anti-viral restriction factors, both of which were upregulated...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430385/significant-reductions-in-alcohol-use-after-hepatitis-c-treatment-results-from-the-french-anrs-co13-hepavih-cohort
#8
Rod Knight, Perrine Roux, Antoine Vilotitch, Fabienne Marcellin, Eric Rosenthal, Laure Esterle, François Boué, David Rey, Lionel Piroth, Stéphanie Dominguez, Philippe Sogni, Dominique Salmon-Ceron, Bruno Spire, Maria Patrizia Carrieri
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few data exist on changes to substance use patterns before and after hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. We used longitudinal data of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals to examine whether receiving Peg-interferon (Peg-IFN)-based therapy irrespective of HCV clearance could modify tobacco, cannabis and alcohol use. DESIGN: A prospective cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals was enrolled from 2006. Participants' clinical data were retrieved from medical records and socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics were collected by yearly self-administered questionnaires...
April 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427454/cryptosporidium-and-giardia-in-africa-current-and-future-challenges
#9
REVIEW
Sylvia Afriyie Squire, Una Ryan
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are important causes of diarrhoeal illness. Adequate knowledge of the molecular diversity and geographical distribution of these parasites and the environmental and climatic variables that influence their prevalence is important for effective control of infection in at-risk populations, yet relatively little is known about the epidemiology of these parasites in Africa. Cryptosporidium is associated with moderate to severe diarrhoea and increased mortality in African countries and both parasites negatively affect child growth and development...
April 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426532/impact-of-co-morbidity-and-aging-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-individuals
#10
N Langebeek, K W Kooij, F W Wit, I G Stolte, M A G Sprangers, P Reiss, P T Nieuwkerk
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals may be at risk for the premature onset of age-associated non-communicable co-morbidities. Being HIV-positive, having comorbidities and being of higher age may adversely impact health-related quality of life (HRQL). We investigated the possible contribution of HIV infection, co-morbidities, and age on HRQL and depression. METHODS: HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls from the AGEhIV Cohort Study were screened for the presence of co-morbidities...
April 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426364/patterns-of-mood-and-personality-factors-and-associations-with-sti-hiv-related-drug-and-sex-risk-among-african-american-male-inmates
#11
Joy D Scheidell, Carl W Lejuez, Carol E Golin, Adaora A Adimora, David A Wohl, Larry D Keen, Michael Hammond, Selena Judon-Monk, Maria R Khan
BACKGROUND: Research on the association between antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with comorbid mental disorders and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV risk among inmates is scant despite the high prevalence of psychopathology and of STI/HIV in this population. METHODS: We used baseline data from Project DISRUPT, a cohort study conducted among incarcerated African American men (n = 207), to measure associations between ASPD and STI/HIV risk. We also conducted latent class analyses (LCAs) to identify subgroups defined by ASPD with comorbid stress, depression, and borderline personality disorder symptoms and measured associations between latent class membership and STI/HIV risk...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424288/virion-associated-vpr-alleviates-a-post-integration-block-to-hiv-1-infection-of-dendritic-cells
#12
Caitlin M Miller, Hisashi Akiyama, Luis M Agosto, Ann Emery, Chelsea R Ettinger, Ronald I Swamstrom, Andrew J Henderson, Suryaram Gummuluru
Viral protein R (Vpr) is an HIV-1 accessory protein whose function remains poorly understood. In this report, we sought to determine the requirement of Vpr in facilitating HIV-1 infection of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), one of the first cells to encounter virus in the peripheral mucosal tissues. We characterize in this report a significant restriction to Vpr-deficient virus replication and spread in MDDCs alone and in cell-to-cell spread in MDDC - CD4(+) T cell co-cultures. This restriction to HIV-1 replication in MDDCs was observed in a single round of virus replication and was rescued by expression of Vpr in trans in the incoming virion...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419653/hcv-viremia-associates-with-nk-cell-activation-and-dysfunction-in-anti-retroviral-hiv-hcv-co-infected-subjects
#13
E Papasavvas, L Azzoni, X Yin, Q Liu, J Joseph, A Mackiewicz, B Ross, K M Lynn, J M Jacobson, K Mounzer, J R Kostman, L J Montaner
The impact of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels on immune status in chronically HCV mono-infected when compared to HIV/HCV co-infected on antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains poorly understood. A total of 78 African American subjects HCV viremic/naïve to HCV treatment (33 HCV genotype 1 mono-infected, 45 HCV genotype 1/HIV co-infected on ART) were studied. Clinical and liver enzymes measurements were performed. Whole blood was analyzed for immune subset changes by flow-cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were used for same-day constitutive and in vitro Interferon (IFN)-α-induced Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) phosphorylation, K562 target cell lysis and K562 target cell recognition-mediated IFN-γ production...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419200/switching-to-efavirenz-versus-remaining-on-ritonavir-boosted-lopinavir-in-hiv-infected-children-exposed-to-nevirapine-long-term-outcomes-of-a-randomized-trial
#14
Pamela M Murnane, Renate Strehlau, Stephanie Shiau, Faeezah Patel, Ndileke Mbete, Gillian Hunt, Elaine J Abrams, Ashraf Coovadia, Louise Kuhn
Background: We previously demonstrated the non-inferiority of switching to efavirenz (EFV) versus remaining on ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) for virologic control in HIV-infected children exposed to nevirapine (NVP) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Here we assess outcomes up to four years post-randomization. Methods: From 2010-2013, 298 NVP-exposed HIV-infected children ≥3 years of age were randomized to switch to EFV or remain on LPV/r in Johannesburg, South Africa (Clinicaltrials...
April 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418984/anger-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-co-infected-with-hiv-and-hepatitis-c-virus-a-cross-sectional-study-anrs-co13-hepavih
#15
Fabienne Marcellin, Camelia Protopopescu, Laure Esterle, Linda Wittkop, Lionel Piroth, Hugues Aumaitre, Olivier Bouchaud, Cécile Goujard, Daniel Vittecoq, François Dabis, Dominique Salmon-Ceron, Bruno Spire, Perrine Roux, Maria P Carrieri
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to document the relationship between anger dimensions (state, trait, expression, and control) and quality of life (QoL) in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study nested in the ANRS CO13-HEPAVIH French national cohort. Anger and QoL were assessed using self-administered questionnaires in 536 HIV-HCV-co-infected patients. Correlations between anger scores (STAXI-2 scale) and QoL scores (WHOQOL-HIV BREF scale) were assessed using Spearman's coefficients...
April 17, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417245/elbasvir-grazoprevir-a-review-in-chronic-hcv-genotypes-1-and-4
#16
Zaina T Al-Salama, Emma D Deeks
A fixed-dose combination tablet comprising the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor elbasvir and the HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor grazoprevir (elbasvir/grazoprevir; Zepatier™) was recently approved for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1 and 4 infection in the EU and the USA. In phase III trials, 12 or 16 weeks of treatment with once-daily elbasvir/grazoprevir (fixed-dose tablet or as individual agents), taken with or without ribavirin, generally provided high rates of sustained virological response at 12 weeks (SVR12) in treatment-naive and -experienced adult patients with chronic HCV genotype 1a, 1b or 4 infection, including those with or without compensated cirrhosis, HIV co-infection, inherited blood disorders or chronic kidney disease or patients receiving opioid agonist therapy or of Japanese origin...
April 17, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413739/genetic-modulation-therapy-through-stem-cell-transplantation-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection
#17
REVIEW
Varshil Mehta, Divya Chandramohan, Shivika Agarwal
Highly active anti-retroviral treatment has changed the dimensions of the outcomes for patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, HIV infection is still an ailment which is spreading throughout the world extensively. Given the confinements of the present restorative methodologies and the non-availability of any strategic vaccination against HIV, there is a squeezing need to build a therapeutic treatment. Viral tropism for HIV includes CD4+ cells, macrophages, and microglial cells, and it is through binding with co-receptors C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)...
March 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413168/prevalence-of-hiv-hbv-and-hcv-and-related-risk-factors-amongst-male-homeless-people-in-lorestan-province-the-west-of-iran
#18
Amin Doosti-Irani, Hamid Mokhaeri, Ali Chegini Sharafi, Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi, Morteza Hajimiragha, Mohammad Saki, Mohammad Hassan Kayedi, Ehsan Mostafavi
BACKGROUND: Homeless people are at a higher risk of blood-born infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and related risk factors among male homeless people. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study was conducted in Khorramabad City, western Iran from January to June 2015. A pre-designed validated questionnaire was used to collect the data on behavioral and other potential risk factors...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404135/incidence-risk-factors-and-prevention-of-hepatitis-c-reinfection-a-population-based-cohort-study
#19
Nazrul Islam, Mel Krajden, Jean Shoveller, Paul Gustafson, Mark Gilbert, Jane A Buxton, Jason Wong, Mark W Tyndall, Naveed Zafar Janjua
BACKGROUND: People remain at risk of reinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), even after clearance of the primary infection. We identified factors associated with HCV reinfection risk in a large population-based cohort study in British Columbia, Canada, and examined the association of opioid substitution therapy and mental health counselling with reinfection. METHODS: We obtained data from the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort, which includes all individuals tested for HCV or HIV at the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control Public Health Laboratory during 1990-2013 (when data were available)...
March 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403627/resolution-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-induced-fanconi-syndrome-with-switch-to-tenofovir-alafenamide-fumarate-in-a-hiv-1-and-hepatitis-b-co-infected-patient
#20
Maile Karris
Fanconi syndrome is a rare adverse effect of tenfovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) (1). Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) is a novel pro-drug with less nephrotoxicity. We report resolution of Fanconi syndrome in a HIV and hepatitis B co-infected patient switched from TDF to TAF.
April 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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