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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528404/a-direct-comparison-of-the-effects-of-the-antiretroviral-drugs-stavudine-tenofovir-and-the-combination-lopinavir-ritonavir-on-bone-metabolism-in-a-rat-model
#1
M M Conradie, M van de Vyver, E Andrag, M Conradie, W F Ferris
Antiretroviral (ARV) treatment may induce metabolic complications in HIV patients on long-term therapy that can affect bone health. In this study, the effects of the ARVs Stavudine (d4T), Tenofovir (TDF) and Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) on bone metabolism and lipodystrophy were directly compared in rats to negate the consequences of HIV-associated confounding factors. Healthy 12-14-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 40) were divided into four treatment groups and received an oral animal equivalent dose of either Stavudine (6...
May 20, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528358/dna-topoisomerase-targeting-chemotherapeutics-what-s-new
#2
REVIEW
Selma M Cuya, Mary-Ann Bjornsti, Robert C A M van Waardenburg
To resolve the topological problems that threaten the function and structural integrity of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and RNA molecules, human cells encode six different DNA topoisomerases including type IB enzymes (TOP1 and TOP1mt), type IIA enzymes (TOP2α and TOP2β) and type IA enzymes (TOP3α and TOP3β). DNA entanglements and the supercoiling of DNA molecules are regulated by topoisomerases through the introduction of transient enzyme-linked DNA breaks. The covalent topoisomerase-DNA complexes are the cellular targets of a diverse group of cancer chemotherapeutics, which reversibly stabilize these reaction intermediates...
May 20, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528322/very-low-doses-of-heavy-oxygen-ion-radiation-induce-premature-ovarian-failure
#3
Birendra Mishra, Ryan Ripperdan, Laura Ortiz, Ulrike Luderer
Astronauts are exposed to charged particles during space travel, and charged particles are also used for cancer radiotherapy. Premature ovarian failure is a well-known side-effect of conventional, low linear energy transfer (LET) cancer radiotherapy, but little is known about the effects of high LET charged particles on the ovary. We hypothesized that lower LET (16.5 keV/µm) oxygen particles would be less damaging to the ovary than we previously found for iron (LET=179 keV/µm). Adult female mice were irradiated with 0, 5, 30, or 50 cGy oxygen ions or 50 cGy oxygen plus dietary supplementation with the antioxidant alpha lipoic acid (ALA)...
May 20, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528145/uv-induced-electron-transfer-between-triethylamine-and-5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-a-puzzle-concerning-the-photochemical-debromination-of-labeled-dna
#4
Paweł Wityk, Magdalena Zdrowowicz, Justyna Wiczk, Janusz Rak
5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) photosensitizes DNA to strand break formation. However, this type of photodamage is completely quenched by the presence of triethylamine (TEA) which originates from RP-HPLC purification commonly employed by oligonucleotide providers. While the presence of TEA in oligonucleotide samples does not interfere with PCR or other molecular biology applications, the mechanism of photochemical reaction proceeding in the labeled DNA is dramatically changed due to the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between the photoexcited BrdU and the ground state TEA...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528121/determinants-of-ocular-pain-severity-in-patients-with-dry-eye-disease
#5
Vannarut Satitpitakul, Ahmad Kheirkhah, Alja Crnej, Pedram Hamrah, Reza Dana
PURPOSE: To quantify the severity of ocular pain in patients with dry eye disease (DED) and evaluate factors associated with pain severity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Eighty-four patients with DED were asked to score their severity level of ocular pain using a 10-point scale, with 10 indicating the most severe pain. All patients also had a comprehensive ophthalmic assessment including a detailed history, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, and ocular surface examination...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527887/mst1-deficiency-promotes-b-cell-responses-by-cd4-t-cell-derived-il-4-resulting-in-hypergammaglobulinemia
#6
Eunchong Park, Myun Soo Kim, Ju Han Song, Kyung Min Cho, Kyung-Hye Roh, Rana Lee, Tae Sung Kim
MST1 deficiency causes T and B cell lymphopenia, resulting in combined immunodeficiency. However, MST1-deficient patients also exhibit autoimmune-like symptoms such as hypergammaglobulinemia and autoantibody production. Recent studies have shown that the autoimmune responses observed in MST1-deficient patients were most likely attributable to defective regulatory T (Treg) cells instead of intrinsic signals in MST1-lacking B cells. Nevertheless, it is not determined how MST1 deficiency in T cells breaks B cell tolerance and causes systemic autoimmune-like phenotypes...
May 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527786/sumo-in-the-dna-double-stranded-break-response-similarities-differences-and-co-operation-with-ubiquitin
#7
REVIEW
Joanna R Morris, Alexander J Garvin
In recent years our knowledge of the varied role that ubiquitination plays in promoting signal amplification, novel protein interactions and protein turn-over has progressed rapidly. This is particularly remarkable in the examination of how DNA Double-Strand Breaks (DSBs) are repaired, with many components of the ubiquitin conjugation, de-conjugation and recognition machinery now identified as key factors in DSB repair. In addition, a member of the ubiquitin-like family, SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) has also been recognised as integral for efficient repair...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527450/on-the-accuracy-of-one-and-two-particle-solvation-entropies
#8
Benedict W J Irwin, David J Huggins
Evaluating solvation entropies directly and combining with direct energy calculations is one way of calculating free energies of solvation and is used by Inhomogeneous Fluid Solvation Theory (IFST). The configurational entropy of a fluid is a function of the interatomic correlations and can thus be expressed in terms of correlation functions. The entropies in this work are directly calculated from a truncated series of integrals over these correlation functions. Many studies truncate all terms higher than the solvent-solute correlations...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527447/nanoscopic-length-scale-dependence-of-hydrogen-bonded-molecular-associates-dynamics-in-methanol
#9
C E Bertrand, J L Self, J R D Copley, A Faraone
In a recent paper [C. E. Bertrand et al., J. Chem. Phys. 145, 014502 (2016)], we have shown that the collective dynamics of methanol shows a fast relaxation process related to the standard density-fluctuation heat mode and a slow non-Fickian mode originating from the hydrogen bonded molecular associates. Here we report on the length scale dependence of this slow relaxation process. Using quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the dynamics of the slow process is affected by the structuring of the associates, which is accessible through polarized neutron diffraction experiments...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527403/interplay-between-bacillus-subtilis-recd2-and-the-recg-or-ruvab-helicase-in-recombinational-repair
#10
Rubén Torres, Hector Romero, Violeta Rodríguez-Cerrato, Juan C Alonso
Bacillus subtilis AddAB, RecS, RecQ, PcrA, HelD, DinG, RecG, RuvAB, PriA and RecD2 are genuine recombinational repair enzymes, but the biological role of RecD2 is poorly defined. A ΔrecD2 mutation sensitizes cells to DNA-damaging agents that stall or collapse replication forks. We found that this ΔrecD2 mutation impaired growth, and that a mutation in the pcrA gene (pcrA596) relieved this phenotype. The ΔrecD2 mutation was not epistatic to ΔaddAB, ΔrecQ, ΔrecS, ΔhelD, pcrA596 and ΔdinG, but epistatic to recA...
May 12, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527011/the-prdm9-krab-domain-is-required-for-meiosis-and-involved-in-protein-interactions
#11
Yukiko Imai, Frédéric Baudat, Miguel Taillepierre, Marcello Stanzione, Attila Toth, Bernard de Massy
PR domain-containing protein 9 (PRDM9) is a major regulator of the localization of meiotic recombination hotspots in the human and mouse genomes. This role involves its DNA-binding domain, which is composed of a tandem array of zinc fingers, and PRDM9-dependent trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4. PRDM9 is a member of the PRDM family of transcription regulators, but unlike other family members, it contains a Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-related domain that is predicted to be a potential protein interaction domain...
May 19, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526807/dihydroartemisinin-induces-autophagy-dependent-death-in-human-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells-through-dna-double-strand-break-mediated-oxidative-stress
#12
Xinli Shi, Li Wang, Xiaoming Li, Jing Bai, Jianchun Li, Shenghao Li, Zeming Wang, Mingrui Zhou
Dihydroartemisinin is an effective antimalarial agent with multiple biological activities. In the present investigation, we elucidated its therapeutic potential and working mechanism on human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). It was demonstrated that dihydroartemisinin could significantly inhibit cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner by the Cell Counting Kit-8 and colony formation assay in vitro. Meanwhile, autophagy was promoted in the Cal-27 cells treated by dihydroartemisinin, evidenced by increased LC3B-II level, increased autophagosome formation, and increased Beclin-1 level compared to dihydroartemisinin-untreated cells...
April 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526682/aeroallergens-induce-reactive-oxygen-species-production-and-dna-damage-and-dampen-antioxidant-responses-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#13
Tze Khee Chan, W S Daniel Tan, Hong Yong Peh, W S Fred Wong
Exposure to environmental allergens is a major risk factor for asthma development. Allergens possess proteolytic activity that is capable of disrupting the airway epithelium. Although there is increasing evidence pointing to asthma as an epithelial disease, the underlying mechanism that drives asthma has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the direct DNA damage potential of aeroallergens on human bronchial epithelial cells and elucidated the mechanisms mediating the damage. Human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B, directly exposed to house dust mites (HDM) resulted in enhanced DNA damage, as measured by the CometChip and the staining of DNA double-strand break marker, γH2AX...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526663/effects-of-using-child-personas-in-the-development-of-a-digital-peer-support-service-for-childhood-cancer-survivors
#14
Pontus Wärnestål, Petra Svedberg, Susanne Lindberg, Jens M Nygren
BACKGROUND: Peer support services have the potential to support children who survive cancer by handling the physical, mental, and social challenges associated with survival and return to everyday life. Involving the children themselves in the design process allows for adapting services to authentic user behaviors and goals. As there are several challenges that put critical requirements on a user-centered design process, we developed a design method based on personas adapted to the particular needs of children that promotes health and handles a sensitive design context...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526427/atypical-presentations-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Camilla Barros Meireles, Laís Chaves Maia, Gustavo Coelho Soares, Ilara Parente Pinheiro Teodoro, Maria do Socorro Vieira Gadelha, Cláudio Gleidiston Lima da Silva, Marcos Antonio Pereira de Lima
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in 88 countries, showing relevant prevalences. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review on atypical lesions of CL around the world, addressing clinico-epidemiological, immunological and therapeutic aspects. A search of the literature was conducted via electronic databases Scopus and PubMed for articles published between 2010 and 2015. The search terms browsed were "cutaneous leishmaniasis", "atypical" and "unusual". Based on the eligibility criteria, 34 out of 122 articles were included in the final sample...
May 16, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526069/xlf-mediated-nhej-activity-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-therapy-resistance
#16
Sitian Yang, Xiao Qi Wang
BACKGROUND: DNA repair pathways are used by cancer cells to overcome many standard anticancer treatments, causing therapy resistance. Here, we investigated the role of XRCC4-like factor (XLF), a core member of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway, in chemoresistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: qRT-PCR analysis and western blotting were performed to detect expression levels of genes and proteins related to NHEJ. NHEJ repair capacity was assessed in vitro (cell-free) and in vivo by monitoring the activity of the NHEJ pathway...
May 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525744/ctf4-prevents-genome-rearrangements-by-suppressing-dna-double-strand-break-formation-and-its-end-resection-at-arrested-replication-forks
#17
Mariko Sasaki, Takehiko Kobayashi
Arrested replication forks lead to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are a major source of genome rearrangements. Yet DSB repair in the context of broken forks remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that DSBs that are formed at arrested forks in the budding yeast ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) locus are normally repaired by pathways dependent on the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex but independent of HR. HR is also dispensable for DSB repair at stalled forks at tRNA genes. In contrast, in cells lacking the core replisome component Ctf4, DSBs are formed more frequently, and these DSBs undergo end resection and HR-mediated repair that is prone to rDNA hyper-amplification; this highlights Ctf4 as a key regulator of DSB end resection at arrested forks...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525718/on-the-stability-of-the-parent-anion-of-the-potential-radiosensitizer-8-bromoadenine-formed-by-low-energy-3-ev-electron-attachment
#18
Robin Schürmann, Katrin Tanzer, Iwona Dabkowska, Stephan Paul Denifl, Ilko Bald
8-Bromoadenine (8BrA) is a potential DNA radiosensitizer for cancer radiation therapy due to its efficient interaction with low energy electrons (LEEs). LEEs are a short-living species generated during the radiation damage of DNA by high energy radiation as it is applied in cancer radiation therapy. Electron attachment to 8BrA in the gas phase results in a stable parent anion below 3 eV electron energy in addition to fragmentation products formed by resonant exocyclic bond cleavages. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the 8BrA- anion reveal an exotic bond between the bromine and the C8 atom with a bond length of 2...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525650/detection-of-damage-on-single-or-double-stranded-dna-in-a-population-exposed-to-arsenic-in-drinking-water
#19
J Jiménez-Villarreal, D I Rivas-Armendariz, C P Pineda-Belmontes, N D Betancourt-Martínez, M A Macías-Corral, A J Guerra-Alanis, M S Niño-Castañeda, J Morán-Martínez
Different studies have suggested an association between arsenic (As) exposure and damage to single-stranded DNA by reactive oxygen species derived from the biotransformation of arsenic. The single strand damages are converted to double strand damage upon interaction with ultraviolet radiation. Analysis of genomic integrity is important for assessing the genotoxicity caused by environmental pollutants. In this study, we compared the concentration of As in drinking water, nutritional status, lifestyle variables, and the level of genotoxicity in an exposed population and a control group...
May 18, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525621/ros-induced-store-operated-ca2-entry-coupled-to-parp-1-hyperactivation-is-independent-of-parg-activity-in-necrotic-cell-death
#20
Frances M Munoz, Fengjiao Zhang, Argel Islas-Robles, Serrine S Lau, Terrence J Monks
2,3,5-tris(Glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (TGHQ), a potent nephrotoxic and nephrocarcinogenic metabolite of benzene and hydroquinone, generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing DNA strand breaks and the subsequent activation of DNA repair enzymes, including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1. Under robust oxidative DNA damage, PARP-1 is hyperactivated, resulting in the depletion of NAD+ and ATP with accompanying elevations in intracellular calcium concentrations (iCa2+), and ultimately necrotic cell death...
May 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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