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Lei Hu, Feiyu Qin, Andrea Sanson, Liang-Feng Huang, Zhao Pan, Qiang Li, Qiang Sun, Lu Wang, Fangming Guo, Umut Aydemir, Yang Ren, Chengjun Sun, Jinxia Deng, Giuliana Aquilanti, James M Rondinelli, Jun Chen, Xianran Xing
The local symmetry, beyond the averaged crystallographic structure, tends to bring unusual performances. Negative thermal expansion is a peculiar physical property of solids. Here, we report the delicate design of the localized symmetry breaking to achieve the controllable thermal ex-pansion in ScF3 nano-scale frameworks. Intriguingly, an iso-tropic zero thermal expansion is concurrently engineered by localized symmetry breaking, with a remarkably low coefficient of thermal expansion of about +4.0×10-8/K up to 675K...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Eric Vanman, Rosemary Baker, Stephanie Tobin
People occasionally choose to cut themselves off from their online social network by taking extended breaks from Facebook. This study investigated whether abstaining from Facebook reduces stress but also reduces subjective well-being because of the resulting social disconnection. Participants (138 active Facebook users) were assigned to either a condition in which they were instructed to give up Facebook for five days or continue to use Facebook as normal. Perceived stress and well-being, as well as salivary cortisol, were measured before and after the test period...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Catarina S H Jesus, Pedro Fernandes Cruz, Luis G Arnaut, Rui M M Brito, Carlos Serpa
The understanding of fast folding dynamics of single α-helices comes mostly from studies on rationally designed peptides displaying sequences with high helical propensity. The folding/unfolding dynamics and energetics of α-helix conformations in naturally occurring peptides remains largely unexplored. Here we report the study of a protein fragment analogue of the C-peptide from bovine pancreatic ribonuclease-A, RN80, a 13-amino acid residue peptide that adopts a highly populated helical conformation in aqueous solution...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Riccardo Amorati, Luca Valgimigli
Measurement of antioxidant properties in plant-derived compounds require appropriate methods that address the mechanism of antioxidant activity and focus on the kinetics of the reactions involving the antioxidants. Methods based on inhibited autoxidations are the most suited for chain-breaking antioxidants and for termination-enhancing antioxidants, while different specific studies are needed for preventive antioxidants. A selection of chemical testing methods is critically reviewed highlighting their advantages and limitations, and discussing their usefulness to investigate both pure molecules and raw extracts...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Cynthia Al Hageh, Majd Al Assaad, Zeinab El Masri, Nawar Samaan, Mirvat El-Sibai, Christian Khalil, Rony S Khnayzer
Copper is an earth-abundant and a biologically essential metal that offers a promising alternative to noble metals in photochemistry and photobiology. In this work, a series of sterically encumbered Cu(i) bis-phenanthroline complexes were investigated for their use in photochemotherapy (PCT). It was found that Cu(dsbtmp)2+ [dsbtmp = 2,9-disec-butyl-3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline] (compound 3), which possessed the longest excited state lifetime, exhibited significant in vitro photocytotoxicity on A375 (human malignant melanoma) and A549 (human lung carcinoma) cell lines...
March 20, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Wei-Jian Xu, Ying Zeng, Wei Yuan, Rong-Guan Qiu, Wei-Xiong Zhang, Xiao-Ming Chen
We disclosed that acetamidinium perchlorate is a plastic crystal undergoing a near-room-temperature plastic transition. Thanks to drastic symmetry breaking during the plastic transition, it displays remarkable nonlinear optical switching with a high on/off contrast and a superior reversibility, as well as rapid dielectric switching between the high and low dielectric states.
March 20, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Yu Ke, Caikun Liu, Yanting Wang, Meng Xiao, Jiachen Fan, Pengcheng Fu, Shuhao Wang, Gang Wu
Cell-loaded carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) microspheres were generated via a flow focusing microfluidic device, with a final aim to obtain viable ATDC5 aggregates with sustained proliferation capacity. We synthesized various CMC with phenolic groups (CMC-Ph) and demonstrated that high CMC-Ph molecular weight, high CMC-Ph concentration (>0.8 g/ml) or long culturing period had obvious inhibition effect on ATDC5 proliferation, but low horseradish peroxidase concentration (HRP, <0.4 mg/ml) did not. CMC-Ph gels being obtained through HRP/H2 O2 reaction showed an enhancing strength and decreasing break stain as the molecular weight of CMC-Ph increased, along with a decreasing gelation time...
March 20, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Akemi Wakayama, Yukari Seki, Rika Takahashi, Ikumi Umebara, Fumi Tanabe, Kosuke Abe, Fumiko Matsumoto, Yoshikazu Shimomura
PURPOSE: To examine the role of fusional convergence amplitude in postoperative phoria maintenance in childhood intermittent exotropia [X(T)]. METHODS: The medical records of 29 children aged 15 years or younger (mean age, 10.8 ± 2.4 years) and treated with monocular recession-resection for X(T) were reviewed retrospectively. The patients' fusional convergence amplitude (break point/total amplitudes), physiologic diplopia, and phoria maintenance (presence/absence of phoria maintenance and ability to maintain phoria) were assessed...
March 19, 2018: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
B Yun, T Zhang, M A K Azad, J Wang, C J Nowell, P Kalitsis, T Velkov, D F Hudson, J Li
Increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria presents an imminent risk to global health. Polymyxins are 'last-resort' antibiotics against Gram-negative 'superbugs'; however, nephrotoxicity remains a key impediment in their clinical use. Molecular mechanisms underlying this nephrotoxicity remain poorly defined. Here, we examined the pathways which led to polymyxin B induced cell death in vitro and in vivo. Human proximal tubular cells were treated with polymyxin B (12.5-100 μM) for up to 24 h and showed a significant increase in micronuclei frequency, as well as abnormal mitotic events (over 40% in treated cells, p < 0...
March 20, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Bastian Hornung, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Hauke Smidt, Peter J Schaap
Humans are not autonomous entities. We are all living in a complex environment, interacting not only with our peers, but as true holobionts; we are also very much in interaction with our coexisting microbial ecosystems living on and especially within us, in the intestine. Intestinal microorganisms, often collectively referred to as intestinal microbiota, contribute significantly to our daily energy uptake by breaking down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars, which are fermented to short-chain fatty acids and subsequently absorbed by human cells...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Tomislav Laptoš, Jasna Omersel
The present review specifies the various chemical and physical factors that can influence drug stability and immunogenicity, and the treatment outcomes of antibody biologicals. Although monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are known to be more resistant to environmental changes compared with other proteins, the molecules themselves can be subjected to chemical and physical processes that promote their degradation and transformation into their specific amino-acid moieties. With increasing use of medicinal products that contain mAbs, and their self-administration by the patients, the issue of the correct manipulation of these drugs is of increasing importance...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Linda Ye, Mingu Kang, Junwei Liu, Felix von Cube, Christina R Wicker, Takehito Suzuki, Chris Jozwiak, Aaron Bostwick, Eli Rotenberg, David C Bell, Liang Fu, Riccardo Comin, Joseph G Checkelsky
The kagome lattice is a two-dimensional network of corner-sharing triangles that is known to host exotic quantum magnetic states. Theoretical work has predicted that kagome lattices may also host Dirac electronic states that could lead to topological and Chern insulating phases, but these states have so far not been detected in experiments. Here we study the d-electron kagome metal Fe3 Sn2 , which is designed to support bulk massive Dirac fermions in the presence of ferromagnetic order. We observe a temperature-independent intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity that persists above room temperature, which is suggestive of prominent Berry curvature from the time-reversal-symmetry-breaking electronic bands of the kagome plane...
March 19, 2018: Nature
Marlene Wesselmann, Mercedes González-Wangüemert, Ester A Serrão, Aschwin H Engelen, Lionel Renault, José R García-March, Carlos M Duarte, Iris E Hendriks
For marine meta-populations with source-sink dynamics knowledge about genetic connectivity is important to conserve biodiversity and design marine protected areas (MPAs). We evaluate connectivity of a Mediterranean sessile species, Pinna nobilis. To address a large geographical scale, partial sequences of cytochrome oxidase I (COI, 590 bp) were used to evaluate phylogeographical patterns in the Western Mediterranean, and in the whole basin using overlapping sequences from the literature (243 bp). Additionally, we combined (1) larval trajectories based on oceanographic currents and early life-history traits and (2) 10 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci collected in the Western Mediterranean...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yufeng Li, Sanyuan Ma, Le Sun, Tong Zhang, Jiasong Chang, Wei Lu, Xiaoxu Chen, Yue Liu, Xiaogang Wang, Run Shi, Ping Zhao, Qingyou Xia
Genome editing using standard tools (ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9) rely on double strand breaks to edit the genome. A series of new CRISPR tools that convert cytidine to thymine (C to T) without the requirement for DNA double-strand breaks was developed recently and quickly applied in a variety of organisms. Here, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-dependent base editor (BE3) converts C to T with a high frequency in the invertebrate Bombyx mori silkworm. Using BE3 as a knock-out tool, we inactivated exogenous and endogenous genes through base-editing-induced nonsense mutations with an efficiency of up to 66...
March 19, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Amjad M Husaini, Kyoko Morimoto, Balakumaran Chandrasekar, Steven Kelly, Farnusch Kaschani, Daniel Palmero, Jianbing Jiang, Markus Kaiser, Oussama Ahrazem, Hermen S Overkleeft, Renier A L van der Hoorn
With nearly 140 α-glycosidases in 14 different families, plants are well equipped with enzymes that can break the α-glucosidic bonds in a large diversity of molecules. Here, we introduce activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) of α-glycosidases in plants using α-configured cyclophellitol aziridine probes carrying various fluorophores or biotin. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), these probes label members of the GH31 family of Glycosyl Hydrolases, including ER-resident α-glucosidase-II RSW3/PSL5 (Radial Swelling-3/Priority for Sweet Life-5) and Golgi-resident α-mannosidase-II HGL1, both of which trim N-glycans on glycoproteins...
March 19, 2018: Plant Physiology
Isidoro Feliciello, Davor Zahradka, Ksenija Zahradka, Siniša Ivanković, Nikolina Puc, Damir Đermić
Double strand breaks (DSBs) in E. coli chromosome (such as those induced by gamma rays) are repaired by recombination repair, during which a certain amount of DNA gets degraded. We monitored DNA degradation in gamma-irradiated cells to assess processing of DSBs. DNA degradation in irradiated cells is regulated by RecA protein concentration and its affinity of ssDNA binding, as well as by exonucleases that trim 3'-terminated ss tails. Here we determined the effects of proteins that affect formation and stability of RecA nucleofilaments on DNA degradation and cell survival...
March 16, 2018: Biochimie
Christos Xiouras, Antonios Fytopoulos, Jeroen Jordens, Andreas G Boudouvis, Tom Van Gerven, Georgios D Stefanidis
Industrial synthesis of enantiopure compounds is nowadays heavily based on the separation of racemates through crystallization processes. Although the application of ultrasound in solution crystallization processes (sonocrystallization) has become a promising emerging technology, offering several benefits (e.g. reduction of the induction time and narrowing of the metastable zone width, control over the product size, shape and polymorphic modification), little attention has been paid so far to the effects of ultrasound on chiral crystallization processes...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Karuppasamy C V, Ramachandran E N, Anil Kumar V, Vivek Kumar P R, Koya P K M, Jaikrishan G, Birajalaxmi Das
Chromosome aberration analysis was carried out in peripheral blood lymphocytes of adult male individuals from normal level natural radiation areas (NLNRA, ≤1.5 mGy/year, N = 27) and high level natural radiation areas (HLNRA, >1.5mGy/year, N = 70) of Kerala coast in southwest India. The mean age of individuals from NLNRA and HLNRA was 40.9 ± 9.4 and 43.7 ± 12.4 years, respectively, with an overall mean of 42.9 ± 11.6 (range: 18-80). Whole-blood cultures were set up and about 260 metaphases were scored per individual...
April 2018: Mutation Research
Priya Goswami, Subhabrata Paul, Ritesh Banerjee, Rita Kundu, Anita Mukherjee
Betulinic acid (BA) is a naturally occurring terpenoid found principally in the bark of birch trees as well as in numerous other plants. BA is reported to inhibit cancer progression and induce apoptosis in multiple tumor types. In the present study we have investigated the cytotoxicity and potential genotoxicity of BA in SiHa cells. The cell viability was measured by using MTT assay and the morphological changes, DNA damage, changes in cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were used for the assessment of apoptosis...
April 2018: Mutation Research
Alejandro D Bolzán, Martha S Bianchi
Bleomycin (BLM) is an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces verticillus. It has radiomimetic actions on DNA thus it has been widely used in clinical chemotherapy for the treatment of different types of cancer, including head and neck tumors, lymphomas, squamous-cell carcinomas and germ-cell tumors. Because of this, the study of BLM genotoxicity is of practical interest. This antibiotic is an S-independent clastogen and an agent that generates free radicals and induces single- and double-strand breaks in DNA...
January 2018: Mutation Research
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