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Michal zochowski

Elizabeth Shtrahman, Daniel Maruyama, Eva Olariu, Christian Fink, Michal Zochowski
Astrocytes form interconnected networks in the brain and communicate via calcium signaling. We investigate how modes of coupling between astrocytes influence the spatio-temporal patterns of calcium signaling within astrocyte networks and specifically how these network interactions promote coordination within this group of cells. To investigate these complex phenomena, we study reduced cultured networks of astrocytes and neurons. We image the spatial temporal patterns of astrocyte calcium activity and quantify how perturbing the coupling between astrocytes influences astrocyte activity patterns...
December 22, 2016: Physical Biology
Scott Rich, Victoria Booth, Michal Zochowski
The plethora of inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus and cortex play a pivotal role in generating rhythmic activity by clustering and synchronizing cell firing. Results of our simulations demonstrate that both the intrinsic cellular properties of neurons and the degree of network connectivity affect the characteristics of clustered dynamics exhibited in randomly connected, heterogeneous inhibitory networks. We quantify intrinsic cellular properties by the neuron's current-frequency relation (IF curve) and Phase Response Curve (PRC), a measure of how perturbations given at various phases of a neurons firing cycle affect subsequent spike timing...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
James P Roach, Leonard M Sander, Michal R Zochowski
The brain can reproduce memories from partial data; this ability is critical for memory recall. The process of memory recall has been studied using autoassociative networks such as the Hopfield model. This kind of model reliably converges to stored patterns that contain the memory. However, it is unclear how the behavior is controlled by the brain so that after convergence to one configuration, it can proceed with recognition of another one. In the Hopfield model, this happens only through unrealistic changes of an effective global temperature that destabilizes all stored configurations...
May 2016: Physical Review. E
Scott Knudstrup, Michal Zochowski, Victoria Booth
The characteristics of neural network activity depend on intrinsic neural properties and synaptic connectivity in the network. In brain networks, both of these properties are critically affected by the type and levels of neuromodulators present. The expression of many of the most powerful neuromodulators, including acetylcholine (ACh), varies tonically and phasically with behavioural state, leading to dynamic, heterogeneous changes in intrinsic neural properties and synaptic connectivity properties. Namely, ACh significantly alters neural firing properties as measured by the phase response curve in a manner that has been shown to alter the propensity for network synchronization...
May 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
James P Roach, Eshel Ben-Jacob, Leonard M Sander, Michal R Zochowski
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a regulator of neural excitability and one of the neurochemical substrates of sleep. Amongst the cellular effects induced by cholinergic modulation are a reduction in spike-frequency adaptation (SFA) and a shift in the phase response curve (PRC). We demonstrate in a biophysical model how changes in neural excitability and network structure interact to create three distinct functional regimes: localized asynchronous, traveling asynchronous, and traveling synchronous. Our results qualitatively match those observed experimentally...
August 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
Michael J Leone, Brandon N Schurter, Benjamin Letson, Victoria Booth, Michal Zochowski, Christian G Fink
We study the synchronization of neuronal networks with dynamical heterogeneity, showing that network structures with the same propensity for synchronization (as quantified by master stability function analysis) may develop dramatically different synchronization properties when heterogeneity is introduced with respect to neuronal excitability type. Specifically, we investigate networks composed of neurons with different types of phase response curves (PRCs), which characterize how oscillating neurons respond to excitatory perturbations...
March 2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Sima Mofakham, Michal Zochowski
Understanding spontaneous transitions between dynamical modes in a network is of significant importance. These transitions may separate pathological and normal functions of the brain. In this paper, we develop a set of measures that, based on spatio-temporal features of network activity, predict autonomous network transitions from asynchronous to synchronous dynamics under various conditions. These metrics quantify spike-timing distributions within a narrow time window as a function of the relative location of the active neurons...
2015: PloS One
Dan Maruyama, Michal Zochowski
Many networks are embedded in physical space and often interact with it. This interaction can be exemplified through constraints exerted on network topology, or through interactions of processes defined on a network with those that are linked to the space that the network is embedded within, leading to complex dynamics. Here we discuss an example of such an interaction in which a signaling agent is actively transported through the network edges and, at the same time, spreads passively through space due to diffusion...
2014: Scientific Reports
Nicolette Ognjanovski, Daniel Maruyama, Nora Lashner, Michal Zochowski, Sara J Aton
A period of sleep over the first few hours following single-trial contextual fear conditioning (CFC) is essential for hippocampally-mediated memory consolidation. Recent studies have uncovered intracellular mechanisms required for memory formation which are affected by post-conditioning sleep and sleep deprivation. However, almost nothing is known about the circuit-level activity changes during sleep that underlie activation of these intracellular pathways. Here we continuously recorded from the CA1 region of freely-behaving mice to characterize neuronal and network activity changes occurring during active memory consolidation...
2014: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Christian G Fink, Geoffrey G Murphy, Michal Zochowski, Victoria Booth
Although sleep is a fundamental behavior observed in virtually all animal species, its functions remain unclear. One leading proposal, known as the synaptic renormalization hypothesis, suggests that sleep is necessary to counteract a global strengthening of synapses that occurs during wakefulness. Evidence for sleep-dependent synaptic downscaling (or synaptic renormalization) has been observed experimentally, but the physiological mechanisms which generate this phenomenon are unknown. In this study, we propose that changes in neuronal membrane excitability induced by acetylcholine may provide a dynamical mechanism for both wake-dependent synaptic upscaling and sleep-dependent downscaling...
2013: PLoS Computational Biology
Jane X Wang, Michal Zochowski
Within the brain, the interplay between connectivity patterns of neurons and their spatiotemporal dynamics is believed to be intricately linked to the bases of behavior, such as the process of storing, consolidating, and retrieving memory traces. Memory is believed to be stored in the synaptic patterns of anatomical circuitry in the form of increased connectivity densities within subpopulations of neurons. At the same time, memory recall is thought to correspond to activation of discrete areas of the brain corresponding to those memories...
January 2012: Neural Computation
Troy Lau, Michal Zochowski
Intrinsic oscillations are thought to play important and distinct roles in cognitive processes across nearly all regions of the brain. Their specific roles are highly dependent on their properties: low-frequency θ is thought to be important in the gating of cognitive processes, while high-frequency γ is believed to be essential for binding and spike-timing-dependent plasticity. We investigated the role of an oscillatory drive for pattern formation of heterogeneous networks. Network heterogeneities were implemented as network regions having increased connectivity as compared to the rest of the network...
May 2011: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Christian G Fink, Victoria Booth, Michal Zochowski
Spatiotemporal pattern formation in neuronal networks depends on the interplay between cellular and network synchronization properties. The neuronal phase response curve (PRC) is an experimentally obtainable measure that characterizes the cellular response to small perturbations, and can serve as an indicator of cellular propensity for synchronization. Two broad classes of PRCs have been identified for neurons: Type I, in which small excitatory perturbations induce only advances in firing, and Type II, in which small excitatory perturbations can induce both advances and delays in firing...
May 2011: PLoS Computational Biology
Troy Lau, Michal Zochowski
We describe a novel mechanism that mediates the rapid and selective pattern formation of neuronal network activity in response to changing correlations of sub-threshold level input. The mechanism is based on the classical resonance and experimentally observed phenomena that the resonance frequency of a neuron shifts as a function of membrane depolarization. As the neurons receive varying sub-threshold input, their natural frequency is shifted in and out of its resonance range. In response, the neuron fires a sequence of action potentials, corresponding to the specific values of signal currents, in a highly organized manner...
2011: PloS One
Casey M Schneider-Mizell, Jack M Parent, Eshel Ben-Jacob, Michal R Zochowski, Leonard M Sander
Networks can be dynamical systems that undergo functional and structural reorganization. One example of such a process is adult hippocampal neurogenesis, in which new cells are continuously born and incorporate into the existing network of the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus. Many of these introduced cells mature and become indistinguishable from established neurons, joining the existing network. Activity in the network environment is known to promote birth, survival and incorporation of new cells. However, after epileptogenic injury, changes to the connectivity structure around the neurogenic niche are known to correlate with aberrant neurogenesis...
2010: Physical Biology
Sarah Feldt, Jane X Wang, Vaughn L Hetrick, Joshua D Berke, Michal Zochowski
Understanding the neural correlates of brain function is an extremely challenging task, since any cognitive process is distributed over a complex and evolving network of neurons that comprise the brain. In order to quantify observed changes in neuronal dynamics during hippocampal memory formation, we present metrics designed to detect directional interactions and the formation of functional neuronal ensembles. We apply these metrics to both experimental and model-derived data in an attempt to link anatomical network changes with observed changes in neuronal dynamics during hippocampal memory formation processes...
May 13, 2010: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Troy Lau, Gregory J Gage, Joshua D Berke, Michal Zochowski
Interneurons coupled by both electrical gap-junctions (GJs) and chemical GABAergic synapses are major components of forebrain networks. However, their contributions to the generation of specific activity patterns, and their overall contributions to network function, remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate, using computational methods, that the topological properties of interneuron networks can elicit a wide range of activity dynamics, and either prevent or permit local pattern formation. We systematically varied the topology of GJ and inhibitory chemical synapses within simulated networks, by changing connection types from local to random, and changing the total number of connections...
March 12, 2010: Physical Biology
Andrew Bogaard, Jack Parent, Michal Zochowski, Victoria Booth
Spatiotemporal patterning of neuronal activity is considered to be an important feature of cognitive processing in the brain as well as pathological brain states, such as seizures. Here, we investigate complex interactions between intrinsic properties of neurons and network structure in the generation of network spatiotemporal patterning in the context of seizure-like synchrony. We show that membrane excitability properties have differential effects on network activity patterning for different network topologies...
February 11, 2009: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jane X Wang, Gina Poe, Michal Zochowski
Hippocampal-neocortical interactions are key to the rapid formation of novel associative memories in the hippocampus and consolidation to long term storage sites in the neocortex. We investigated the role of network correlates during information processing in hippocampal-cortical networks. We found that changes in the intrinsic network dynamics due to the formation of structural network heterogeneities alone act as a dynamical and regulatory mechanism for stimulus novelty and familiarity detection, thereby controlling memory management in the context of memory consolidation...
October 2008: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Dejan Zecevic, Maja Djurisic, Lawrence B Cohen, Srdjan Antic, Matt Wachowiak, Chun X Falk, Michal R Zochowski
Optical recording with a voltage-sensitive dye is advantageous where membrane potential must be recorded in many sites at once. This unit describes methods for making voltage-sensitive dye measurements on different preparations to study (1) how a neuron integrates its synaptic input into its action potential output by measuring membrane potential everywhere synaptic input occurs and where spikes are initiated; (2) how a nervous system generates a behavior in Aplysia abdominal ganglion; and (3) responses to sensory stimuli and generation of motor output in the vertebrate brain by simultaneous measurement of population signals from many areas...
August 2003: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
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