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Mohamed F Abdallah, Rudolf Krska, Michael Sulyok
This study was conducted to investigate the natural co-occurrence of 295 fungal and bacterial metabolites in 28 samples of dried date palm fruits collected from different shops distributed in Assiut Governorate, Upper Egypt in 2016. Extraction and quantification of the target analytes were done using the "dilute and shoot" approach followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. In total, 30 toxic fungal metabolites were detected. Among these metabolites, 4 types of ochratoxins including ochratoxin type A and B were quantified in 3 samples (11%) with a contamination range from 1...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Belén Peromingo, Félix Núñez, Alicia Rodríguez, Alberto Alía, María J Andrade
The environmental conditions reached during the ripening of dry-cured meat products favour the proliferation of moulds on their surface. Some of these moulds are hazardous to consumers because of their ability to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). Biocontrol using Debaryomyces hansenii could be a suitable strategy to prevent the growth of ochratoxigenic moulds and OTA accumulation in dry-cured meat products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of two strains of D. hansenii to control the growth and OTA production of Penicillium verrucosum in a meat model under water activities (aw) values commonly reached during the dry-cured meat product ripening...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Larissa de Souza Ferranti, Maria Helena P Fungaro, Fernanda Pelisson Massi, Josué José da Silva, Rafael Elias Silva Penha, Jens Christian Frisvad, Marta Hiromi Taniwaki, Beatriz Thie Iamanaka
This study investigated the presence of Aspergillus species belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri on Vitis labrusca and its hybrid grapes grown in Brazil. The ability of the fungi isolates to produce ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) as well as the presence of these mycotoxins in the grapes were also studied. Eighty-eight samples were collected from the main grape producing states in Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul (n=30), Pernambuco (n=21), São Paulo (n=21) and Paraná (n=16). The highest average contamination level by A...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Jessica Gil-Serna, Marta García-Díaz, María Teresa González-Jaén, Covadonga Vázquez, Belén Patiño
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most important mycotoxins due to its toxic properties and worldwide distribution which is produced by several Aspergillus and Penicillium species. The knowledge of OTA biosynthetic genes and understanding of the mechanisms involved in their regulation are essential. In this work, we obtained a clear picture of biosynthetic genes organization in the main OTA-producing Aspergillus and Penicillium species (A. steynii, A. westerdijkiae, A. niger, A. carbonarius and P. nordicum) using complete genome sequences obtained in this work or previously available on databases...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Cuiying Lin, Huixia Zheng, Mi Sun, Yajuan Guo, Fang Luo, Longhua Guo, Bin Qiu, Zhenyu Lin, Guonan Chen
A simple, low-cost, and sensitive liposome-based colorimetric aptasensor has been developed to detect ochratoxin A (OTA). Specifically, a dumbbell-shaped probe was designed, including magnetic beads (MBs), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), and enzyme-encapsulated liposome. The dsDNA formed by the hybridization between OTA aptamer and its complementary probe. And the dsDNA was used to contact the MBs and the enzyme-encapsulated liposome. In the presence of OTA, the aptamer preferred to combine with OTA to form G-quadruplex, resulting in the release of the detection probe and the enzyme-encapsulated liposome...
March 9, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Guixing Ren, Yichen Hu, Jinming Zhang, Liang Zou, Gang Zhao
Considering crops are susceptible to toxicogenic fungi during plantation, pre-processing and storage, an ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-QTrap-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of the 12 most frequent mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁, G₂, HT-2, T-2 toxin, ochratoxin A, fumonisin B₁, B₂, zearalanone, zearalenone, and deoxynivalenol, in 14 batches of Tartary buckwheat cultivar, collected from different origins in Sichuan Province, China...
January 4, 2018: Toxins
C Merla, G Andreoli, C Garino, N Vicari, G Tosi, M L Guglielminetti, A Moretti, A Biancardi, M Arlorio, M Fabbi
Fungi have a crucial role in the correct maturation of salami, but special attention should be addressed to the production of the nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, and carcinogenic mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA). In a monitoring study conducted in Northern Italy, OTA was detected by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in 13 out 133 samples of traditional salami (9.8% of the total count). Mycological analysis of these samples yielded 247 fungal isolates which were identified to species level. The most frequent species were Penicillium nalgiovense, P...
January 3, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Jiuying Tian, Wenqi Wei, Jiawen Wang, Saijie Ji, Guichan Chen, Jusheng Lu
In the present work, colloidal cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were firstly synthesized by sol-gel method and pyrolysis respectively, which all have a uniform nano-size and significant fluorescence emission. Due to the fluorescence emission spectrum of nanoceria overlapped the absorption spectrum of GQDs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between nanoceria and GQDs could occur effectively by the electrostatic interaction. Based on it, a sensitive ratiometric fluorescence aptasensor for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA), a small molecular mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium strains, has been successfully constructed...
February 13, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Mirjana Polovic, Sandro Dittmar, Isabell Hennemeier, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Barbara Seliger, Paolo Fornara, Gerit Theil, Patrick Azinovic, Alexander Nolze, Marcel Köhn, Gerald Schwerdt, Michael Gekle
Long non-coding RNAs represent a fraction of the transcriptome that is being increasingly recognized. For most of them no function has been allocated so far. Here, we describe the nature and function of a novel non-protein-coding transcript, named WISP1-AS1, discovered in human renal proximal tubule cells exposed to the carcinogenic nephrotoxin ochratoxin A. WISP1-AS1 overlaps parts of the fourth intron and fifth exon of the Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1) gene. The transcript is 2922 nucleotides long, transcribed in antisense direction and predominantly localized in the nucleus...
December 27, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Yanan Gao, Songli Li, Jiaqi Wang, Chaochao Luo, Shengguo Zhao, Nan Zheng
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins commonly found in milk; however, their effects on intestinal epithelial cells have not been reported. In the present study, we show that AFM1 (0.12 and 12 μM) and OTA (0.2 and 20 μM) individually or collectively increased the paracellular flux of lucifer yellow and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextrans (4 and 40 kDa) and decreased transepithelial electrical resistance values in differentiated Caco-2 cells after 48 h of exposure, indicating increased epithelial permeability...
December 27, 2017: Toxins
Luca Piemontese, Maria Cristina Messia, Emanuele Marconi, Luisa Falasca, Rosanna Zivoli, Lucia Gambacorta, Giancarlo Perrone, Michele Solfrizzo
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is an important mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium. It occurs often in wheat grain and is frequently associated with significant levels of its modified form DON-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc). Ozone (O3) is a powerful disinfectant and oxidant, classified as GRAS (Generally Recognised As Safe), that reacts easily with specific compounds including the mycotoxins aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes and zearalenone. It degrades DON in aqueous solution and can be effective for decontamination of grain...
December 26, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Ting-Shuan Wu, Yu-Ting Lin, Ying-Tzu Huang, Ya-Chih Cheng, Feng-Yih Yu, Biing-Hui Liu
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin that is found in various food and feed products. The molecular mechanisms that are associated with OTA hepatotoxicity and teratogenicity have not been extensively elucidated in a developing organism. In this study, the transcriptomic profile of zebrafish embryos indicates that hemostasis and blood coagulation are the top two pathways affected by OTA. The treatment of embryos with OTA was able to decrease the expression of genes that encode coagulation factors and liver markers, including f7, f9b, cp and vtna...
December 21, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
C Luz, J Ferrer, J Mañes, G Meca
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by the metabolism of fungus belonging to the genus Aspergillus and Penicillium. In this paper we report, the capacity of different cultures of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to degrade OTA present in MRS broth at both pH 3.5 and 6.5. A study of OTA reduction during gastrointestinal digestion carried out with the LAB was also performed. Taking into account the two reduction mechanisms of OTA studied in this work as the enzymatic one and the adsorption on the cell wall, as well as at pH 3...
December 20, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Tian-Yu Zhang, Rui-Ying Wu, Yong Zhao, Chun-Shuang Xu, Wei-Dong Zhang, Wei Ge, Jing Liu, Zhong-Yi Sun, Shu-Hua Zou, Wei Shen
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a common mycotoxin found in nature, has been implicated as effecting the function of male reproductive systems. OTA exposure has been shown to decrease sperm production and quality, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In the current investigation boar sperm exposed to 10 and 100μM OTA in vitro for 24h resulted in significantly decreased motility, in the 100μM OTA treatment group when compared with the control group. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly increased in both of the OTA treatment groups...
December 20, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Kai Peng, Long Jin, Yan D Niu, Qianqian Huang, Tim A McAllister, Hee Eun Yang, Hubert Denise, Zhongjun Xu, Surya Acharya, Shunxi Wang, Yuxi Wang
Purple prairie clover (PPC; Dalea purpurea Vent.) containing 84.5 g/kg DM of condensed tannin (CT) was ensiled without (Control) or with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for 76 days, followed by 14 days of aerobic exposure. Changes in fermentation characteristics were determined and bacterial and fungal communities were assessed using metagenomic sequencing. Addition of PEG that deactivated CT at ensiling increased (P < 0.05∼0.001) soluble N, non-protein N, lactic acid, total volatile fatty acids, ammonia N, deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA), but decreased (P < 0...
December 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Sanil D Singh, Sooraj Baijnath, Anil A Chuturgoon
Contamination with mycotoxins is of concern to pet owners and veterinary practitioners owing to their ability to cause disease and exacerbate the pathological changes associated with other diseases. Currently, there is a lack of information regarding the mycotoxin content of common premium brand (PB) and grocery brand (GB) cat feeds. Therefore, we undertook to determine the mycobiota content of feed samples, from both categories (n = 6 each), and measured the levels of aflatoxin (AF), fumonisin (FB), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA) by high performance liquid chromatographic analysis...
November 22, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
L M Broissin-Vargas, R Snell-Castro, J J Godon, O González-Ríos, M L Suárez-Quiroz
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of warehouse storage conditions on the composition of the fungal community of green coffee beans (GCB) that were stored in jute sacks for one year. METHODS AND RESULTS: Molecular characterization of the fungal community composition and population dynamics obtained by Q-PCR, CE-SSCP (Simpson's diversity index D), and Illumina MiSeq sequencing indicated that Saccharomycetales dominated during the first 6 months of storage period with species as Meyerozyma guilliermondii and Pichia kluyveri...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Aisha Khatoon, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Zain Ul Abidin, Sheraz Ahmed Bhatti
A presence of mycotoxins in feed is one of the most alarming issue in the poultry feed industry. Ochratoxins, produced by several Aspergillus and Penicillium species, are important mycotoxin regarding the health status of poultry birds. Ochratoxins are further classified into to several sub-types depending upon their chemical structures i.e. ochratoxin A, B, C etc but ochratoxin A (OTA) is considered to be most important and toxic one. Bentonite clay, belonging to phyllosilicates and formed from weathering of volcanic ashes, has the adsorbing ability for several mycotoxins...
December 6, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Raymond Gillibert, Mohamed N Triba, Marc Lamy de la Chapelle
The trace detection of toxic compounds in complex matrices is a major concern, in particular when it comes to mycotoxins in food. We developed a highly sensitive and specific SERS sensor for the detection of ochratoxin A using a simple rough gold film as a substrate. When adding the analyte, we observed spectral variations related to the interaction of the analyte with the specific aptamer used as a bioreceptor. Using a partial least squares regression method, our sensor is able to detect concentrations down to the picomolar range, which is much lower than the minimum legal concentration allowed in food products...
December 6, 2017: Analyst
Pinar Erkekoglu, Didem Oral, Ming-Wei Chao, Belmar Kocer-Gumusel
The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multistep process. In HCC, progressive and morphologically distinct preneoplastic lesions/alterations associated with chronic liver injury, inflammation, hepatocellular degeneration/regeneration, necrosis, and small-cell dysplasia can be observed. The incidence of HCC exhibits regional and ethnic differences. Several cytotoxic and DNA-damaging chemicals are suggested to be the underlying causes of HCC-for example, acrylamide, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), and dietary contaminants (aflatoxins, ochratoxins)...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
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