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Wolfram Föllmann, Nurshad Ali, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Gisela H Degen
Contamination of grains with mycotoxins results in a dietary background exposure of the general population. In occupational settings such as during processing of raw materials as in milling, an additional mycotoxin exposure by inhalation is possible. Biomonitoring is an integrative approach to assess human exposure from various sources and by all routes. To investigate possible workplace exposure to mycotoxins, a pilot study was conducted that compared levels of urinary biomarkers in mill workers to those in a control group with dietary mycotoxin intake alone...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Michelangelo Storari, Giovanni A L Broggini
The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) allows the rapid and specific amplification of target DNA under isothermal conditions without a prior DNA purification step. Moreover, successful amplifications can be directly evaluated through a color change of the reaction solutions. Here, we describe two LAMP assays for the detection of ochratoxin-A producing black aspergilli isolated from grapes. The two assays can detect DNA of OTA-producing black aspergilli following a very simple sample preparation and have the potential to significantly speed up the routine monitoring of these toxigenic molds in vineyards...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Alicia Rodríguez, Juan J Córdoba, Mar Rodríguez, María J Andrade
Multiplex PCR-based methods for simultaneous detection and quantification of different mycotoxin-producing Penicillia are useful tools to be used in food safety programs. These rapid and sensitive techniques allow taking corrective actions during food processing or storage for avoiding accumulation of mycotoxins in them. In this chapter, three multiplex PCR-based methods to detect at least patulin- and ochratoxin A-producing Penicillia are detailed. Two of them are different multiplex real-time PCR suitable for monitoring and quantifying toxigenic Penicillium using the nonspecific dye SYBR Green and specific hydrolysis probes (TaqMan)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Pedro Martínez-Culebras, María Victoria Selma, Rosa Aznar
Multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides a fast and accurate DNA-based tool for the simultaneous amplification of more than one target sequence in a single reaction. Here a duplex real-time PCR assay is described for the simultaneous detection of Aspergillus carbonarius and members of the Aspergillus niger aggregate, which are the main responsible species for ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in grapes. This single tube reaction targets the beta-ketosynthase and the acyl transferase domains of the polyketide synthase of A...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Antonia Gallo, Giancarlo Perrone
The pathway of ochratoxin A (OTA) biosynthesis has not yet been completely elucidated. Essentially, two kind of genes have been demonstrated to be involved in the biosynthesis of OTA. One of them is the nrps gene encoding a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) which catalyzes the ligation between the isocoumarin group, constituting the polyketide group of OTA molecule, and the amino acid phenylalanine.Here we describe a conventional PCR method developed for the detection of OTA-producing molds belonging to Penicillium and Aspergillus genera by Luque et al...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Giancarlo Perrone, Antonia Susca
Penicillium are very diverse and cosmopolite fungi, about 350 species are recognized within this genus. It is subdivided in four subgenera Aspergilloides, Penicillium, Furcatum, and Biverticillium; recently the first three has been included in Penicillium genus, and Biverticillium under Talaromyces. They occur worldwide and play important roles as decomposers of organic materials, cause destructive rots in the food industry where produces a wide range of mycotoxins; they are considered enzyme factories, and common indoor air irritants...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Giancarlo Perrone, Antonia Gallo
The genus Aspergillus is among the most abundant and widely distributed organism on earth, and at the moment comprises 339 known species. It is one of the most important economically fungal genus and the biotechnological use of Aspergillus species is related to production of soy sauce, of different hydrolytic enzymes (amylases, lipases) and organic acid (citric acid, gluconic acid), as well as biologically active metabolites such as lovastatin. Although they are not considered to be major cause of plant diseases, Aspergillus species are responsible for several disorders in various plants and plant products, especially as opportunistic storage moulds...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mosaad A Abdel-Wahhab, Abdulhadi Aljawish, Aziza A El-Nekeety, Sekena H Abdel-Aiezm, Nabila S Hassan
This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of chitosan nanoparticles (COS-NPs) singly or plus quercetin (Q) against OTA-induced oxidative stress and renal genotoxicity. Twelve groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally for 3 weeks included the control group, animals fed OTA-contaminated diet (3 mg/kg diet); COS-NPs-treated groups at low (140 mg/kg b.w.) or high (280 mg/kg b.w.) dose, Q-treated group (50 mg/kg b.w.), Q plus low or high dose of COS-NPs-treated groups and OTA plus Q and/or COS-NPs at the two tested doses-treated groups...
December 3, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Cynthia P Zeferino, Kevin D Wells, Ana Silvia A M T Moura, George E Rottinghaus, David R Ledoux
Exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA) can lead to changes in global gene expression. This study investigated the individual expression of genes turned on and off in renal cells of chicks after different durations of exposure to dietary OTA. One hundred and eighty day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (3 levels of OTA: 0, 1 and 2 mg OTA/kg diet and 3 time periods: 7, 14 and 21 d). Birds were allocated to 36 pens (4 replicate pens of 5 birds each per treatment)...
December 3, 2016: Poultry Science
Jelka Pleadin, Manuela Zadravec, Dragan Brnić, Irena Perković, Mario Škrivanko, Dragan Kovačević
The aim of this study was to investigate the surface-to-interior mycotoxin contamination of the regional speciality meat product "Slavonski Kulen", occurring during a 12- month period, and to identify moulds present on its surface in the final production stage. In total, 15 pieces of "Slavonski Kulen" were produced and sampled at production months 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 (three samples per piece). Concentrations of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) were determined using the ELISA method, while the identification of moulds made use of both traditional and molecular methods...
November 30, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Luca Piemontese
Wine by-products, in particular grape pomace, can be an important source of polyphenols and dietary fibers and are increasingly being used as a starting material in the industrial production of plant food supplements, such as other matrices containing biomolecules, with antioxidant properties. The risk associated with the consumption of these products was recently analyzed through a study of potential genotoxic and carcinogenic compounds that can be found in the marketed products. In particular, occurrence data about contamination with the mycotoxin ochratoxin A were also reported...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Lucilla Iacumin, Marisa Manzano, Debbie Andyanto, Giuseppe Comi
Speck is a meat product obtained from the deboned leg of pork that is salted, smoked and seasoned for four to six months. During speck seasoning, Eurotium rubrum and Penicillium solitum grow on the surface and collaborate with other moulds and tissue enzymes to produce the typical aroma. Both of these strains usually predominate over other moulds. However, moulds producing ochratoxins, such as Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium nordicum, can also co-grow on speck and produce ochratoxin A (OTA). Consequently, speck could represent a potential health risk for consumers...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
Vladimir Ostry, Frantisek Malir, Jakub Toman, Yann Grosse
Humans are constantly exposed to mycotoxins (e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxins), mainly via food intake of plant and animal origin. The health risks stemming from mycotoxins may result from their toxicity, in particular their carcinogenicity. In order to prevent these risks, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon (France)-through its IARC Monographs programme-has performed the carcinogenic hazard assessment of some mycotoxins in humans, on the basis of epidemiological data, studies of cancer in experimental animals and mechanistic studies...
November 25, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Hyeonheui Ham, Sosoo Kim, Min-Hee Kim, Soohyung Lee, Sung Kee Hong, Jae-Gee Ryu, Theresa Lee
To investigate contamination of ground red pepper with fungi and mycotoxin, we obtained 30 ground red pepper samples from 15 manufacturers in the main chili-pepper-producing areas in Korea. Fungal contamination was evaluated by spreading diluted samples on potato dextrose agar plates. The total fungi counts ranged from 0 to 7.3 × 10(3) CFU/g. In the samples, the genus Aspergillus had the highest incidence, while Paecilomyces was isolated most frequently. The next most frequent genera were Rhizopus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Alternaria...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Amani Lahouar, Sonia Marin, Ana Crespo-Sempere, Salem Saïd, Vicente Sanchis
The major objective of this study was to describe the effect of water activity and temperature on radial growth and production of ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA) on sorghum grains of three Aspergillus tubingensis and three Fusarium incarnatum isolates. The water activity range was 0.91-0.99 aw for F. incarnatum isolates and 0.88-0.99 aw for A. tubingensis isolates. Temperatures of incubation were 15, 25 and 37°C for both species. Mycotoxin production was determined after 7, 14, 21 and 28days depending on the growth rate of the six isolates...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Stoycho D Stoev
The spreading of mycotoxic nephropathy in animals/humans was studied. The possible etiological causes provoking this nephropathy were carefully reviewed and analyzed. The natural content of the most frequent nephrotoxic mycotoxins in target feedstuffs/foods were investigated, in addition to their significance for development of renal damages in endemic areas. An estimation of the level of exposure of humans to the nephrotoxic mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA), is made. The possible synergism or additive effects between some target mycotoxins in the development of nephropathy is also covered...
November 18, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Leonardo Petruzzi, Antonio Bevilacqua, Maria Rosaria Corbo, Barbara Speranza, Vittorio Capozzi, Milena Sinigaglia
The aim of this work was to study Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from vineyards of the autochthonous grape variety "Uva di Troia" located in different geographical areas of Apulian region (Southern Italy). Four hundred isolates were studied in relation to H2 S production, β-glucosidase activity, and pigments adsorption from grape skin. Thus, 81 isolates were selected, identified through the amplification of the interdelta region, and grouped in 19 biotypes (from I to XIX). The enological performances were assessed to determine the content of residual sugars, ethanol, glycerol, and volatile acidity, after a microfermentation in Uva di Troia must for each isolate...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Shuisheng Hu, Wenjun Ouyang, Longhua Guo, Zhenyu Lin, Xiaohua Jiang, Bin Qiu, Guonan Chen
A fluorescent biosensor for ochratoxin A was fabricated on the basis of a new nanocomposite (Fe3O4/g-C3N4/HKUST-1 composites). Fe3O4/g-C3N4/HKUST-1 was synthesized in this work for the first time, which combined HKUST-1 with g-C3N4 to improve its chemical stability. Fe3O4/g-C3N4/HKUST-1 composites have strong adsorption capacity for dye-labeled aptamer and are able to completely quench the fluorescence of the dye through the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism. In the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA), it can bind with the aptamer with high affinity, causing the releasing of the dye-labeled aptamer from the Fe3O4/g-C3N4/HKUST-1 and therefore results in the recovery of fluorescence...
October 4, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Maureen McKeague, Ranganathan Velu, Annalisa De Girolamo, Stefania Valenzano, Michelangelo Pascale, McKenzie Smith, Maria C DeRosa
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced as a secondary metabolite by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and frequently found as a natural contaminant in a wide range of food commodities. Novel and robust biorecognition agents for detecting this molecule are required. Aptamers are artificial nucleic acid ligands able to bind with high affinity and specificity to a given target molecule. In the last few years, three separate research groups have selected aptamers for ochratoxin A. While each of these three families of aptamers have been incorporated into various methods for detecting OTA, it is unclear if each aptamer candidate is better suited for a particular application...
November 15, 2016: Toxins
Katarzyna Gajos, Andrzej Budkowski, Varvara Pagkali, Panagiota Petrou, Monika Biernat, Kamil Awsiuk, Jakub Rysz, Andrzej Bernasik, Konstantinos Misiakos, Ioannis Raptis, Sotirios Kakabakos
The arrangement, composition and orientation of immunoreagents employed in an indirect immunoassay for determination of mycotoxin OchraToxin A (OTA) are specified for Si3N4 substrate, aiming to imitate biosensor transducers made of the same material. Si3N4 surfaces are examined after modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, spotting with OTA-ovalbumin conjugate (probe), blocking with bovine serum albumin, reaction with a mouse monoclonal antibody against OTA and, finally, reaction with a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody...
November 5, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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