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Chun Li, Xiao Su, Wei-Hong Feng, Rao-Rao Li, Xiao-Qian Liu, Peng-Yue Li, Zhi-Min Wang
To investigate the cause of liver toxicity induced by Polygoni Multiflori Radix through determining various mycotoxins in it. An UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and established to simultaneously determine 12 mycotoxins, Aflatoxins B₁, B₂, G₁, G₂, Ochratoxins A and B, Fumonisins B₁ and B₂,T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone, in rawand processed Polygon iMultiflori Radix. The sample was extracted with modified QuEChERS method, and then was separatedon a WelchUltimate XBC₁₈ column by gradient elution using methanol and 2 mmol•L⁻¹ ammonium acetate aqueous solution containing 0...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Shuai Huang, Nan Zheng, CaiYun Fan, Ming Cheng, Shang Wang, Adil Jabar, JiaQi Wang, JianBo Cheng
Objective: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) alone or mixed with ochratoxin A (OTA) and/or zearalenone (ZEA) on the metabolism, immune function, and antioxidant status of dairy goats. Methods: Fifty lactating Laoshan dairy goats were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups (n = 10) for 14 days. Goats were fed no additive (control) or administered with 50 μg AFB1/kg DM (AFB1), 50 μg AFB1/kg DM + 100 μg OTA/kg DM (AFB1+OTA), 50 μg AFB1/kg DM + 500 μg ZEA/kg DM (AFB1+ZEA), or 50 μg AFB1/kg DM + 100 μg OTA/kg DM + 500 μg ZEA/kg DM (AFB1+OTA+ZEA)...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Nurshad Ali
Citrinin (CIT) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are nephrotoxic mycotoxins, produced by several Aspergillus and Penicillium species and their co-occurrence in rice may cause health effects in humans. Rice is an important food crop worldwide and is a major staple food in Asia which may invade by CIT and OTA producing fungal spores in the field, during harvest and storage. Humans are exposed to these mycotoxins through ingestion of contaminated rice and other food commodities. Yet, data on the combined presence to these food contaminants are still insufficient to estimate human exposure in Asia...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Francesca Fanelli, Giuseppe Cozzi, Assunta Raiola, Irene Dini, Giuseppina Mulè, Antonio F Logrieco, Alberto Ritieni
The healthy consumers make a strong pressure to natural products that can prevent the chronic diseases and improve the general health status, and therefore an important aspect that have to be considered is the safe level of the nutraceuticals. This study reports the occurrence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) and associated fungal contamination in 35 samples of dried vine fruits imported in the European community potentially used for the development of new nutraceutical supplements. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis identified 18 samples as contaminated by OTA with an average level of 2...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Mohammad Asadi
A rapid, simple, and green vortex-assisted emulsification microextraction method based on solidification of floating organic drop was developed for the extraction and determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) with high-performance liquid chromatography. Some factors influencing the extraction efficiency of OTA such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, sample pH, salt concentration, vortex time, and sample volume were optimized. Under optimized conditions, the calibration curve exhibited linearity in the range of 50...
September 10, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
Cyndia A González-Arias, Sonia Marín, Aurora E Rojas-García, Vicente Sanchis, Antonio J Ramos
Ochatoxin A (OTA) is one of the most important mycotoxins based on its toxicity. The oral route is the main gateway of entry of OTA into the human body, and specialized epithelial cells constitute the first barrier. The present study investigated the in vitro cytotoxic effect of OTA (5, 15 and 45 μM) and production of OTA metabolities in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells using a co-culture Transwell System to mimic the passage through the intestinal epithelium and hepatic metabolism. The results derived from MTS cell viability assays and transepithelial electrical resistance measurements showed that OTA was slightly cytotoxic at the lowest concentration at 3 h, but significant toxicity was observed at all concentrations at 24 h...
September 6, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Bruna Dachery, Flávio Fonseca Veras, Lucas Dal Magro, Vitor Manfroi, Juliane Elisa Welke
The goals of this study were (i) to verify the effect of steam extraction used in juice production and the stages of vinification on the ochratoxin A (OTA) levels found in grapes naturally contaminated, and (ii) evaluate the risk of exposure to this toxin when the daily consumption of juice and wine is followed to prevent cardiovascular disease. OTA-producing fungi were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon, Moscato Itálico and Concord grapes harvested from the same vineyard and intended to produce red wine, white wine and juice, respectively...
September 6, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
A J Chen, V Hubka, J C Frisvad, C M Visagie, J Houbraken, M Meijer, J Varga, R Demirel, Ž Jurjević, A Kubátová, F Sklenář, Y G Zhou, R A Samson
Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly the genus Eurotium) includes xerophilic species with uniseriate conidiophores, globose to subglobose vesicles, green conidia and yellow, thin walled eurotium-like ascomata with hyaline, lenticular ascospores. In the present study, a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites, physiological characters and phylogeny was applied to investigate the taxonomy of this section. Over 500 strains from various culture collections and new isolates obtained from indoor environments and a wide range of substrates all over the world were identified using calmodulin gene sequencing...
September 2017: Studies in Mycology
Giacomo Luci, Luigi Intorre, Guido Ferruzzi, Danilo Mani, Lorella Giuliotti, Carlo Pretti, Rosalba Tognetti, Simone Bertini, Valentina Meucci
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a secondary toxic metabolite synthesized by Aspergillus or Penicillium species, which can contaminate various crops. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified OTA as a group 2B possible human carcinogen. The aim of the present study was to assess OTA concentrations in tissues of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) from Tuscany (Italy). Over a period of 2 years, samples of muscle, liver, and kidney from 48 wild boars were collected and concentrations of OTA were determined by enzymatic digestion (ED) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD)...
August 30, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
Hyun Jung Lee, Samjhana Dahal, Enrique Garcia Perez, Ryan Joseph Kowalski, Girish M Ganjyal, Dojin Ryu
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most important mycotoxins owing to its widespread occurrence and toxicity, including nephrotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity to humans. OTA has been detected in a wide range of agricultural commodities, including cereal grains and their processed products. In particular, oat-based products show a higher incidence and level of contamination. Extrusion cooking is widely used in the manufacturing of breakfast cereals and snacks and may reduce mycotoxins to varying degrees...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Tetyana Sergeyeva, Daria Yarynka, Elena Piletska, Rostyslav Lynnik, Olga Zaporozhets, Oleksandr Brovko, Sergey Piletsky, Anna El'skaya
Nanostructured polymeric membranes for selective recognition of aflatoxin B1 were synthesized in situ and used as highly sensitive recognition elements in the developed fluorescent sensor. Artificial binding sites capable of selective recognition of aflatoxin B1 were formed in the structure of the polymeric membranes using the method of molecular imprinting. A composition of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) membranes was optimized using the method of computational modeling. The MIP membranes were synthesized using the non-toxic close structural analogue of aflatoxin B1, ethyl-2-oxocyclopentanecarboxylate as a dummy template...
December 1, 2017: Talanta
Analice Kamala, Martin Kimanya, Carl Lachat, Liesbeth Jacxsens, Geert Haesaert, Patrick Kolsteren, Johana Ortiz, Bendantuguka Tiisekwa, Bruno De Meulenaer
This study estimated exposure to multiple mycotoxins in 249 infants aged between 6 and 12 months in three agro-ecological zones of Tanzania. Maize-based complementary food intakes were estimated using two 24 h dietary recalls. Using @Risk software, probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted by modeling maize intake data (kg/kg body weight/day) with previously determined multiple mycotoxin (except for ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA), present in only a few samples) contamination data (μg/kg) in maize...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Richard A Manderville, Stacey D Wetmore
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a fungal toxin that is considered to be a potent kidney carcinogen in rodent models. The toxin produces double strand breaks and has a propensity for deletions, single-base substitutions, and insertions. The toxin reacts covalently with DNA to afford a C8-2'-deoxyguanosine carbon-linked adduct (OT-dG) as the major lesion in animal tissues. Incorporation of model C-linked C8-aryl-dG adducts into the G3 site of the NarI sequence demonstrates a tendency to induce base substitutions and deletion mutations in primer extension assays using model polymerases...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Zhen Wang, Hua Yu, Jing Han, Gang Xie, Sanping Chen
Here we report a surprising discovery that Co/Fe-MOFs possess intrinsic electrocatalytic activities for thionine. The catalytic abilities of MOFs depend strongly on their μ3-O linked trigonal prism structures. Using NH2-Co-MOF as an example, the high-performance of electrocatalysis towards thionine for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of ochratoxin A is first established.
August 31, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Shu-Rong Hu, Guang-Yao Ying, Yu-Li Hu, Shi-Hai Yang, Mei-Hua Yang
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic secondary metabolite mainly produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species, with strong renal toxicity, teratogenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic effect. Studies have shown that OTA is not only widely contaminated in food and feed crops, but also has been widely contaminated in Chinese herbal medicines such as spices, licorice and so on. In view of OTA's universality and harmfulness, this paper summarizes the flow visualization test strip, microsphere, electrochemical sensor, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy technology in OTA rapid detection, which provides reference for the research and application of high throughout detection instrument miniaturization in order to achieve OTA quick detection and simple operation...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Laura Escrivá, Guillermina Font, Lara Manyes, Houda Berrada
Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites with bioaccumulation levels leading to their carry-over into animal fluids, organs, and tissues. As a consequence, mycotoxin determination in biological samples from humans and animals has been reported worldwide. Since most mycotoxins show toxic effects at low concentrations and considering the extremely low levels present in biological samples, the application of reliable detection methods is required. This review summarizes the information regarding the studies involving mycotoxin determination in biological samples over the last 10 years...
August 18, 2017: Toxins
Victoria Bernáldez, Juan J Córdoba, María J Andrade, Alberto Alía, Alicia Rodríguez
Penicillium nordicum is an important and consistent producer of ochratoxin A (OTA) in NaCl-rich foods such as dry-cured ham. OTA is a toxic secondary metabolite which provokes negative effects on consumer health. Once OTA is produced in ham, this mycotoxin is difficult to remove. Since gene expression always precedes OTA production, analysis of expression of OTA-related genes by reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) could be a valuable tool to predict OTA contamination in ham. However scarce RT-qPCR protocols are properly validated leading to inconsistent data analyses...
December 2017: Food Microbiology
Barbara De Santis, Carlo Brera, Alessandra Mezzelani, Sabina Soricelli, Francesca Ciceri, Giorgio Moretti, Francesca Debegnach, Maria Clara Bonaglia, Laura Villa, Massimo Molteni, Maria Elisabetta Raggi
OBJECTIVES: Gene-environment interaction is an emerging hypothesis to expound not only the autism pathogenesis but also the increased incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders (such as autistic spectrum disorder, attention-deficit, hyperactivity disorder). Among xenobiotics, mycotoxins are worldwide contaminants of food that provoke toxicological effects, crucially resembling several symptoms associated with autism such as oxidative stress, intestinal permeability, and inflammation. Here, we focused on a group of mycotoxins to test their role in the manifestation of autism, try to explain their mechanism of action, and discuss possible preventive and therapeutic interventions...
August 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Taeyong Eom, Hyun-Deok Cho, Junghyun Kim, Mihee Park, Jinyoung An, Moosung Kim, Sheen-Hee Kim, Sang Beom Han
A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of eleven mycotoxins-aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2; fumonisins B1, B2, and B3; ochratoxin A; zearalenone; deoxynivalenol; and T-2 toxin-in edible oils was established using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In this study, QuEChERS, QuEChERS with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and solvent extraction were examined for sample preparation. Among these methods, solvent extraction with a mixture of formic acid/acetonitrile (5/95, v/v) successfully extracted all target mycotoxins...
August 7, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Hong Wan, Bo Zhang, Xiao-Lin Bai, Yan Zhao, Meng-Wei Xiao, Xun Liao
A new, rapid, green, and cost-effective magnetic solid-phase extraction of ochratoxin A from red wine samples was developed using polydopamine-coated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the absorbent. The polydopamine-coated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes were fabricated with magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes and dopamine by an in situ oxidative self-polymerization approach. Transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry were used to characterize the absorbents...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
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