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Ochratoxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646668/%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-aspergillus-lacticoffeatus-a-promising-biocatalyst-for-the-synthesis-of-novel-prebiotics
#1
Beatriz B Cardoso, Sara C Silvério, Luís Abrunhosa, José A Teixeira, Lígia R Rodrigues
β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) are interesting enzymes able to catalyze lactose hydrolysis and transfer reactions to produce lactose-based prebiotics with potential application in the pharmaceutical and food industry. In this work, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus is described, for the first time, as an effective β-galactosidase producer. The extracellular enzyme production was evaluated in synthetic and alternative media containing cheese whey and corn steep liquor. Although β-galactosidase production occurred in all media (expect for the one composed solely by cheese whey), the highest enzymatic activity values (460U/mL) were obtained for the synthetic medium...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636450/impact-of-mycotoxins-on-the-intestine-are-mucus-and-microbiota-new-targets
#2
Hervé Robert, Delphine Payros, Philippe Pinton, Vassilia Théodorou, Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Isabelle P Oswald
There is an increasing awareness of the deleterious effects attributed to mycotoxins during their fate within the gut, particularly for deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and patulin (PAT). Evidence indicates that disruption of the epithelial barrier is well established. However, intestinal barrier function on its luminal side involves two other partners, mucus and microbiota, which have rarely been considered in the context of mycotoxin exposure...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626424/relationship-of-mycotoxins-accumulation-and-bioactive-components-variation-in-ginger-after-fungal-inoculation
#3
Zhixin Yang, Haiwei Wang, Guangyao Ying, Meihua Yang, Yujiao Nian, Jiajia Liu, Weijun Kong
Ginger has got increasing worldwide interests due to its extensive biological activities, along with high medical and edible values. But fungal contamination and mycotoxin residues have brought challenges to its quality and safety. In the present study, the relationship of content of mycotoxins accumulation and bioactive components variation in ginger after infection by toxigenic fungi were investigated for the first time to elucidate the influence of fungal contamination on the inherent quality of ginger. After being infected by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus carbonarius for different periods, the produced mycotoxins was determined by an immunoaffinity column clean-up based ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, and the main bioactive components in ginger were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618365/a-highly-sensitive-and-widely-adaptable-plasmonic-aptasensor-using-berberine-for-small-molecule-detection
#4
Jin-Ho Park, Ju-Young Byun, Hyungjun Jang, Donggu Hong, Min-Gon Kim
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) biosensors allow label-free detection of small molecules in molecular binding events; however, they are limited by a relatively low sensitivity and narrow dynamic range. Here, we report highly sensitive small-molecule detection by LSPR peak shift exploiting the G-quadruplex (GQx) structure-binding characteristic of known GQx binders to enhance the LSPR signal of a plasmonic aptasensor. Six known GQx binders (thiazole orange, malachite green, crystal violet, zinc protoporphyrin IX, thioflavin T, and berberine) were tested for their ability to enhance the LSPR signal...
June 10, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608841/occurrence-toxicity-and-analysis-of-major-mycotoxins-in-food
#5
REVIEW
Ahmad Alshannaq, Jae-Hyuk Yu
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain filamentous fungi (molds). These low molecular weight compounds (usually less than 1000 Daltons) are naturally occurring and practically unavoidable. They can enter our food chain either directly from plant-based food components contaminated with mycotoxins or by indirect contamination from the growth of toxigenic fungi on food. Mycotoxins can accumulate in maturing corn, cereals, soybeans, sorghum, peanuts, and other food and feed crops in the field and in grain during transportation...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603182/aptamer-based-colorimetric-biosensing-of-ochratoxin-a-in-fortified-white-grape-wine-sample-using-unmodified-gold-nanoparticles
#6
Xueting Yin, Sai Wang, Xiaoyun Liu, Chenmeng He, Yali Tang, Qimeng Li, Jiahui Liu, Haijia Su, Tianwei Tan, Yiyang Dong
In this study, a simple and sensitive aptamer-based colorimetric method for the detection of Ochratoxin A by using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been developed. In this assay, unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used as probes with a 36-mer aptamer as recognition element. In the absence of ochratoxin A, free aptamer could be adsorbed onto the surface of AuNPs and protect AuNPs from aggregation even with high concentrations of salt. The salt-induced aggregation of AuNPs was caused by the specific recognition of aptamers with OTA...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602893/daily-uptake-of-mycotoxins-tdi-might-not-be-protective-for-nursed-infants
#7
G H Degen, F Partosch, K Muñoz, U Gundert-Remy
Exclusive breast feeding is recommended by international bodies for the first six months of life. Because of the presence of contaminants, breast feeding might lead to toxicologically relevant exposure of the nursed child. Exposure towards mycotoxins is of specific interest because of their widespread occurrence in food and of their toxicological profile. We calculated the relationship between maternal intake at the level of the existing TDIs and the exposure in the nursed infants of several mycotoxins to evaluate whether maternal exposure at the TDI is also safe for the nursed infant...
June 7, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590009/effect-of-rmnsod-on-sodium-reabsorption-in-renal-proximal-tubule-in-ochratoxin-a-treated-rats
#8
Sara Damiano, Maria Valeria Puzio, Caterina Squillacioti, Nicola Mirabella, Enrica Zona, Aldo Mancini, Antonella Borrelli, Carlo Astarita, Silvia Boffo, Antonio Giordano, Luigi Avallone, Salvatore Florio, Roberto Ciarcia
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium that represent toxic real threat for human beings and animal health. In this study we evaluated the effect of a new recombinant mitochondrial manganese containing superoxide dismutase (rMnSOD) on oxidative stress and on the alterations of fluid reabsorption in renal proximal tubule (PT) as possible causes of OTA nephrotoxicity. Finally, we have measured the concentration of O2(-) in the kidney through dihydroethidium assay (DHE) and nitric oxide (NO) concentration through nitrites and nitrates assay...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581038/syringe-to-syringe-dispersive-liquid-phase-microextraction-solidified-floating-organic-drop-combined-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-for-the-separation-and-quantification-of-ochratoxin-a-in-food-samples
#9
Mohammad Asadi
A new, simple and rapid syringe-to-syringe dispersive liquid-phase microextraction with solidified floating organic drop was used for separation and preconcentration of ochratoxin A from grain and juice samples before its quantification using high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Factors influencing the microextraction efficiency of ochratoxin A such as sample solution pH, type and volume of organic extractant, salt concentration, number of injections and volume of the sample were studied and optimized...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580652/transfer-of-ochratoxin-a-from-raw-black-tea-to-tea-infusions-prepared-according-to-the-turkish-tradition
#10
Jakub Toman, Frantisek Malir, Vladimir Ostry, Mehmet Akif Kilic, Tomas Roubal, Yann Grosse, Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz
BACKGROUND: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a natural contaminant of food including tea with multiple toxic effects, which poses a threat to human health. In terms of lifestyle, the Turkish population is a frequent visitor of tearooms, and the traditional Turkish tea preparation is one of the most popular ways of preparing tea infusion. RESULTS: The aim of this study was to investigate OTA transfer from raw black tea to the tea infusion prepared according to the Turkish tradition...
June 5, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573854/size-dependent-immunochromatographic-assay-with-quantum-dot-nanobeads-for-sensitive-and-quantitative-detection-of-ochratoxin-a-in-corn
#11
Hong Duan, Xiaolin Huang, Yanna Shao, Lingyan Zheng, Liang Guo, Yonghua Xiong
Fluorescent microspheres are a novel luminescent nanomaterial proposed as an alternative probe to improve the detection sensitivity of competitive immunochromatographic assay (ICA). Quantum dot nanobeads (QBs) possess strong luminescence and resistance to matrix interference. Theoretically, large-sized QBs exhibit stronger luminescent intensity than small-sized QBs and are beneficial to ICA sensitivity. However, oversized QBs may reduce the sensitivity of competitive ICA. Thus, the relationship between the size and luminescent intensity of QBs and the competitive ICA sensitivity must be elucidated...
June 2, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571612/microbiological-quality-of-argentinian-paprika
#12
María G Melo González, Stella M Romero, Mila Arjona, Ada G Larumbe, Graciela Vaamonde
The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of paprika produced in Catamarca, Argentina. Microbiological analyses were carried out for the enumeration of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeasts and molds, and the detection of Salmonella in samples obtained from different local producers during three consecutive years. The mycobiota was identified paying special attention to the mycotoxigenic molds. Standard plate counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 2.7×10(5) to 3...
May 29, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561803/utilization-of-multi-immunization-and-multiple-selection-strategies-for-isolation-of-hapten-specific-antibodies-from-recombinant-antibody-phage-display-libraries
#13
Antti Tullila, Tarja K Nevanen
Phage display technology provides a powerful tool for the development of novel recombinant antibodies. In this work, we optimized and streamlined the recombinant antibody discovery process for haptens as an example. A multi-immunization approach was used in order to avoid the need for construction of multiple antibody libraries. Selection methods were developed to utilize the full potential of the recombinant antibody library by applying four different elution conditions simultaneously. High-throughput immunoassays were used to analyse the binding properties of the individual antibody clones...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553006/determination-of-mycotoxins-alkaloids-phytochemicals-antioxidants-and-cytotoxicity-in-asiatic-ginseng-ashwagandha-dong-quai-panax-ginseng
#14
Anna Filipiak-Szok, M Kurzawa, E Szłyk, M Twarużek, A Błajet-Kosicka, J Grajewski
Mycotoxins and selected hazardous alkaloids in the medicinal plants (Panax ginseng, Angelica sinensis, and Withania somnifera) and dietary supplements were determined. Purine alkaloids were found in majority of samples; however, isoquinoline alkaloids were less abundant than indole. The predominant alkaloids appear to be caffeine (purine group), harman (indole group) and berberine (isoquinoline). Examined medicinal plants and dietary supplements were contaminated by mycotoxins (especially ochratoxin A 1.72-5...
2017: Chemické Zvesti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552785/co-occurrence-of-aflatoxins-and-ochratoxin-a-in-dried-fruits-in-iran-dietary-exposure-risk-assessment
#15
Ali Heshmati, Tahereh Zohrevand, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Anderson S Sant'Ana
In this study, the contamination levels of aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in 88 collected samples from Iran's market including dried mulberry, date, fig, and apricot were evaluated. The margin of exposure (MOE) was estimated to assess the risk of dietary intake of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and OTA. The incidence of AFB1 in dried mulberry, date, fig and apricot samples was 45.5, 40.9, 59.1, and 81.8%, respectively. Although the mean total AFs content in contaminated samples of date (2.61 μg/kg), fig (3...
May 25, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541772/fungal-levels-in-houses-in-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant-evacuation-zone-after-the-great-east-japan-earthquake
#16
Naohide Shinohara, Masahiro Tokumura, Kazuhiro Hashimoto, Katsuyoshi Asano, Yuji Kawakami
Residences located within 20 km of the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant were evacuated shortly after the Great East Japan Earthquake. The levels of airborne and surface fungi were measured in six houses in the evacuation zone in August 2012 and February 2013. Airborne fungal levels in all of the houses in the summer were higher than the environmental standard levels for residential houses published in Architectural Institute of Japan (>1,000 CFU/m(3)). In two houses whose residents rarely returned to visit, fungal levels were extremely high (> 52,000 CFU/m(3))...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535676/uplc-ms-it-tof-identification-of-circumdatins-produced-by-aspergillus-ochraceus
#17
Jesús M González-Jartı N, Amparo Alfonso, María J Sainz, Mercedes R Vieytes, Luis M Botana
A method based on the combined use of ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry-ion trap-time-of-flight (UPLC-MS-IT-TOF) detection was employed to identify the metabolite production of Aspergillus ochraceus, which is the major cause of food and feed contamination due to ochratoxin A. Under the proposed chromatographic conditions, seven metabolites belonging to the family of circumdatins were separated and identified. Their initial identification was performed through the exact molecular formula, as a function of their accurate mass...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535353/broad-specificity-immunoassay-for-simultaneous-detection-of-ochratoxins-a-b-and-c-in-millet-and-maize
#18
Yaqiong Zhang, Lanteng Wang, Xing Shen, Xiaoqun Wei, Xinan Huang, Yingju Liu, Xiulan Sun, Zhanhui Wang, Yuanming Sun, Zhenlin Xu, Sergei A Eremin, Hongtao Lei
Ochratoxins A, B, and C (OTA, OTB, and OTC) can be found in cereals and feeds; the simultaneous detection of these ochratoxins holds a great need in food safety. In this study, four antibodies raised from two ochrotoxin haptens and two coating antigens were compared, and then a sensitive and broad-specificity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established for the simultaneous determination of three ochratoxins, where the detection limits were 0.005, 0.001, and 0.001 ng/mL for OTA, OTB, and OTC, respectively, and recoveries of three ochratoxins were between 84...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532671/ochratoxin-a-transport-by-the-human-breast-cancer-resistance-protein-bcrp-multidrug-resistance-protein-2-mrp2-and-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptides-1a2-1b1-and-2b1
#19
Xiaozhe Qi, Els Wagenaar, Wentao Xu, Kunlun Huang, Alfred H Schinkel
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a fungal secondary metabolite that can contaminate various foods. OTA has several toxic effects like nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and neurotoxicity in different animal species, but its mechanisms of toxicity are still unclear. How OTA accumulates in kidney, liver, and brain is as yet unknown, but transmembrane transport proteins are likely involved. We studied transport of OTA in vitro, using polarized MDCKII cells transduced with cDNAs of the efflux transporters mouse (m)Bcrp, human (h)BCRP, mMrp2, or hMRP2, and HEK293 cells overexpressing cDNAs of the human uptake transporters OATP1A2, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, or OATP2B1 at pH7...
May 19, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528741/in%C3%A2-vitro-immune-toxicity-of-ochratoxin-a-in-porcine-alveolar-macrophages-a-role-for-the-ros-relative-tlr4-myd88-signaling-pathway
#20
Haibin Xu, Shu Hao, Fang Gan, Hong Wang, Jing Xu, Dandan Liu, Kehe Huang
Ochratoxin A (OTA) frequently contaminates a wide variety of food and feeds, inducing immune toxicity of animals. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) cell line 3D4/21 were chosen as a model, and treated by various concentrations of OTA. The results showed that OTA induced immune toxicity of PAMs in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by cell viability, LDH release, Annexin V/PI staining, Bcl-2/Bax mRNA ratio, and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression...
June 25, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
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