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Kristen M Brennan, Se-Young Oh, Alexandros Yiannikouris, Daniel E Graugnard, Niel A Karrow
Mycotoxins produced by fungal species commonly contaminate livestock feedstuffs, jeopardizing their health and diminishing production. Citrinin (CIT) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins produced by Penicillium spp. and commonly co-occur. Both CIT and OTA can modulate immune response by inhibiting cell proliferation and differentiation, altering cell metabolism, and triggering programmed cell death. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of sublethal exposure (i.e., the concentration that inhibited cell proliferation by 25% (IC25)) to CIT, OTA or CIT + OTA on the bovine macrophage transcriptome...
November 13, 2017: Toxins
Hong Wang, Ying Chen, Nianhui Zhai, Xingxiang Chen, Fang Gan, Hu Li, Kehe Huang
With the purpose to explore the mechanisms associated with the intestinal toxicity of OTA, an intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) was applied in this study as in vitro models for intestinal epithelium. The results confirmed that OTA induced IPEC-J2 cell toxicity by MTT assay and apoptosis by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometer analysis. And then, we observed that OTA induced the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening by confocal microscopy...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jing-Tang Liu, Wei Wu, Min-Jia Cao, Fan Yang, Hou-Wen Lin
A new trienic α-pyrone derivative asteltoxin G (1) bearing a tetrahydrofuran ring and a new ochratoxin derivative named ochratoxin A1 (5), along with seven known compounds, were isolated from a sponge-derived fungus Aspergillus ochraceopetaliformis. The compounds (1-9) were evaluated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and comparison with those of the reported data. The new compound ochratoxin A1 (5) exhibited anti-inflammatory activity against IL-6 and TNF-α expression of the LPS-induced THP-1 cells with inhibitory rates of 74...
November 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
Laura Pastor, Ariane Vettorazzi, Jose Manuel Enciso, Elena González-Peñas, J A García-Jalón, J I Monreal, Adela López de Cerain
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent renal carcinogen in male rats but not in females. The mechanisms underlying these differences are unknown. The sex-dependent response of F344 rats after a repeated OTA oral administration for 7 (0.50 mg/kg bw) or 21 days (0.21 and 0.50 mg/kg bw) was evaluated. General toxicity, sex and thyroid hormones and histopathology were studied. OTA was quantified (HPLC-FLD) in plasma, kidney and liver and the expression of kidney transporters (RT-qPCR) was studied. After 7 days, kidney histopathology showed more pronounced signs of toxicity in males than in females...
November 7, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Bernardina Scafuri, Antonio Varriale, Angelo Facchiano, Sabato D'Auria, Maria Elisabetta Raggi, Anna Marabotti
We have applied a combined computational procedure based on inverse and direct docking in order to identify putative protein targets of a panel of mycotoxins and xenobiotic compounds that can contaminate food and that are known to have several detrimental effects on human health. This procedure allowed us to identify a panel of human proteins as possible targets for aflatoxins, gliotoxin, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol. Steady-state fluorescence and microscale thermophoresis experiments allowed us to confirm the binding of some of these mycotoxins to acetylcholinesterase and X-linked neuroligin 4, two proteins involved in synapse activity and, particularly for the second protein, neuronal plasticity and development...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lei Shi, Xiaojiao Rong, Yan Wang, Shiming Ding, Wanying Tang
Herein, novel and versatile electrochemical aptasensors were constructed on a self-supported nanoporous gold (np-Au) microelectrode, integrating with an exonuclease III (Exo III) induced signal amplification strategy. Self-supported np-Au microelectrode with 3D bicontinuous nanoporous structures possesses tremendously large specific area, clean surface, high stability and biocompatibility, bringing about significant advantages in both molecular recognition and signal response. As paradigms, two analytes of bisphenol A (BPA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) were selected to demonstrate the superiority and versatility of designed aptasensors...
November 6, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Luca Campone, Anna Lisa Piccinelli, Rita Celano, Imma Pagano, Mariateresa Russo, Luca Rastrelli
This study reports a fast and automated analytical procedure based on an on-line SPE-HPLC-MS/MS method for the automatic pre-concentration, clean up and sensitive determination of OTA in wine. The amount of OTA contained in 100μL of sample (pH≅5.5) was retained and concentrated on an Oasis MAX SPE cartridge. After a washing step to remove matrix interferents, the analyte was eluted in back-flush mode and the eluent from the SPE column was diluted through a mixing Tee, using an aqueous solution before the chromatographic separation achieved on a monolithic column...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Xuan Yang, Haomiao Wang, Chuchu Huang, Xiaoyun He, Wentao Xu, Yunbo Luo, Kunlun Huang
Exogenous nutrient elements modulate the energetic metabolism responses that are prerequisites for cellular homeostasis and metabolic physiology. Although zinc is important in oxidative stress and cytoprotection processes, its role in the regulation of energetic metabolism remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that zinc stimulated aspect in cell motility and was essential in restoring the Ochratoxin A (OTA)-induced energetic metabolism damage in HEK293 cells. Moreover, using zinc supplementation and zinc deficiency models, we observed that zinc is conducive to mitochondrial pyruvate transport, oxidative phosphorylation, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism and ultimate energy metabolism in both normal and toxic-induced oxidative stress conditions in vitro, and it plays an important role in restoring impaired energetic metabolism...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wenbo Guo, Lidong Wu, Kai Fan, Dongxia Nie, Weijing He, Junhua Yang, Zhihui Zhao, Zheng Han
Graphene-based materials have been studied in many applications, owing to the excellent electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of graphene. In the current study, an environmentally friendly approach to the preparation of a reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle (rGO-AuNP) nanocomposite was developed by using L-cysteine and vitamin C as reductants under mild reaction conditions. The rGO-AuNP material showed a highly selective separation ability for 6 naturally occurring aflatoxins, which are easily adsorbed onto traditional graphene materials but are difficult to be desorbed...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Elisabeth Limbeck, Jens T Vanselow, Julian Hofmann, Andreas Schlosser, Angela Mally
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent renal carcinogen but its mechanism has not been fully resolved. In vitro and in vivo gene expression studies consistently revealed down-regulation of gene expression as the predominant transcriptional response to OTA. Based on the importance of specific histone acetylation marks in regulating gene transcription and our recent finding that OTA inhibits histone acetyltransferases (HATs), leading to loss of acetylation of histones and non-histone proteins, we hypothesized that OTA-mediated repression of gene expression may be causally linked to HAT inhibition and loss of histone acetylation...
November 2, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
Leonardo Fonseca Maciel, Ana Lúcia de Souza Madureira Felício, Lucas Caldeirão Rodrigues Miranda, Tassia Cavalcante Pires, Eliete da Silva Bispo, Elisa Yoko Hirooka
Brazil is the sixth largest producer of cocoa beans in the world, after Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Indonesia, Nigeria and Cameroon. The southern region of Bahia stands out as the country's largest producer, accounting for approximately 60% of production. Due to damage caused by infestation of the cocoa crop with the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes "witch's broom disease", research in cocoa beans has led to the cloning of species that are resistant to the disease, however, there is little information about the development of other fungal genera in these clones, Aspergillus for example, which do not represent a phytopathogenicity problem but which can grow during the pre-processing of cocoa beans and produce mycotoxins...
November 1, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Yajiao Zhou, Fang Gan, Lili Hou, Xuan Zhou, Yassin Abdulrahim Adam Ibrahim, Kehe Huang
Ochratoxin A (OTA) as a fungal metabolite is reported to induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis through the mechanism of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress could induce the epigenetic enzymes modifications. However, whether epigenetic enzymes modifications are involved in OTA-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis has not been reported until now. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to verify OTA-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis and to investigate the potential role of epigenetic enzymes in OTA-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in PK15 cells...
November 2, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
Xiaojing Huang, Shaomin Wang, Dan Mao, Shui Miao, Qing Hu, Shen Ji
In our study, a reliable and rapid analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 15 mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B₂, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G₂, alternariol, agroclavine, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B₂, ochratoxin A, sterigmatocystin, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone) in liquorice using ultra-HPLC coupled to tandem MS was developed and validated. Due to the complex ingredients in liquorice, we chose a QuEChERS-based extraction procedure as the sample pretreatment...
October 26, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Dawei Qi, Ting Fei, Hong Liu, Heming Yao, Da Wu, Baizhan Liu
The combination of multiple heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography (MHC-LC/LC) and quadrupole-orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for simultaneous determination of the aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in snus is presented in this work. A C18 capillary column was used as the first dimension (1D) to isolate the aflatoxins and ochratoxin A from the complex matrices; then, a 2-position/10-port high-pressure valve equipped with two 60 μL loops was employed to transfer the heart-cuts of 1D-LC into a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column for the second dimension (2D) separation...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Qijie Jian, Liang Gong, Taotao Li, Yong Wang, Yu Wu, Feng Chen, Hongxia Qu, Xuewu Duan, Yueming Jiang
Most tropical fruits after harvest are very perishable because of fungal infection. Since some pathogenic fungi can produce hazardous compounds such as mycotoxins, novel rapid and effective methods to assess those hazardous compounds are urgently needed. Herein we report that Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67, a luminescent bacterium, can be used to rapidly assess the toxicities of mycotoxins and cultures from mycotoxin-producing pathogens. A good correlation (R² > 0.98) between concentrations of the mycotoxins (fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, patulin, and citrinin) and the luminous intensity of V...
October 21, 2017: Toxins
Myra Evelyn Flores-Flores, Elena González-Peñas
We surveyed the presence of 22 mycotoxins in 191 Spanish cow milk samples. Mycotoxins could be carried over from diet into animal milk and have toxic effects on human and animal health. The interaction of different mycotoxins may be additive or synergetic. Therefore, surveillance of mycotoxin co-occurrence in milk is recommended. Aflatoxins M1, B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxins A and B, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol, 3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, neosolaniol, fusarenon X, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, fumonisins B1, B2, and B3, sterigmatocystin, and zearalenone were analyzed...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Àngela Ribes, Sara Santiago-Felipe, Andrea Bernardos, M Dolores Marcos, Teresa Pardo, Félix Sancenón, Ramón Martínez-Máñez, Elena Aznar
Aptamers have been used as recognition elements for several molecules due to their great affinity and selectivity. Additionally, mesoporous nanomaterials have demonstrated great potential in sensing applications. Based on these concepts, we report herein the use of two aptamer-capped mesoporous silica materials for the selective detection of ochratoxin A (OTA). A specific aptamer for OTA was used to block the pores of rhodamine B-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Two solids were prepared in which the aptamer capped the porous scaffolds by using a covalent or electrostatic approach...
October 2017: ChemistryOpen
Jelka Pleadin, Manuela Zadravec, Tina Lešić, Nada Vahčić, Jadranka Frece, Mario Mitak, Ksenija Markov
The aim of this study was to investigate ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) co-occurrence in different unprocessed cereals (n=189) originating from Croatia during a three-year investigation period (2014-2016) using validated enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) methods. CIT and OTA were determined in 49% and 7% of samples, respectively. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) overall mean concentrations were determined for CIT (66.8 ± 76.0 µg/kg) in comparison to OTA (5.2 ± 1.1 µg/kg). Based on the analysis of all investigated cereals, CIT was found about 15 times more frequently than OTA and in similarly (15-fold) higher concentrations, irrespective of the cultivation year...
October 18, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
Ljilja Torović
This report presents data on the occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in different types of flour marketed in Serbia. A total of 114 samples of wheat, buckwheat, rye, oat, barley, rice, millet and corn flours was collected in the period 2012-2016 and analysed using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Among flours other than corn, aflatoxin B1 was quantified only in rice, while OTA was found in 29% of the samples. In corn flours the percentage of positive samples varied greatly over the years: AFB1 7...
October 19, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
Sanil D Singh, Anil A Chuturgoon
Dry pelleted dog food in the South African market is available via supermarkets, pet stores (standard brands [SBs]) and veterinary channels (premium brands [PBs]). For the purpose of this study, the supermarket channel included the cheaper quality foods and PBs were sold via the veterinary channel (n = 20). These feeds were analysed for four main mycotoxins (aflatoxins [AF], fumonisin [FB], ochratoxin A [OTA] and zearalenone [ZEA]) using standard welldescribed extraction, characterisation and quantitation processes...
October 6, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
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