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Yiqi Chen, Xiangrui Meng, Yunzeng Zhu, Minjie Shen, Ying Lu, Jing Cheng, Youchun Xu
Mycotoxins threaten human health seriously because they usually exist in food, fodder and commodities. In this study, a rapid and sensitive immunoassay system for commonly encountered mycotoxins was established based on microfluidics and protein microarrays. Four mycotoxins (T-2 toxin, aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone) can be automatically detected in a custom-made microdevice within 30 min under the assistance of a prototype of the instrument with a fluid control system and an imaging system. Once the microdevices are fabricated, they are small-sized and user-friendly...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
Daniel Oduro-Mensah, Augustine Ocloo, Sammy T Lowor, Cheetham Mingle, Laud K N-A Okine, Naa Ayikailey Adamafio
BACKGROUND: Utilization of cocoa pod husks (CPH) in animal feed is hindered by the presence of theobromine, which is variably toxic to animals. Treatment of this agro-waste to remove theobromine, while preserving its nutrient content, would allow beneficial use of the millions of metric tonnes discarded annually. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of selected theobromine-degrading filamentous fungi for use as bio-tools in degradation of theobromine in CPH. RESULTS: The candidate fungi assessed in this study were an Aspergillus niger (AnTD) and three Talaromyces spp...
May 19, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Sara Damiano, Luigi Navas, Patrizia Lombari, Serena Montagnaro, Iris M Forte, Antonio Giordano, Salvatore Florio, Roberto Ciarcia
Ochratoxin A (OTA), is a natural contaminant of the food chain worldwide involved in the development of different type of cancers in animals and humans. Several studies suggested that oxidative damage might contribute to increase the cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity capabilities of OTA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of δ-tocotrienol (Delta), a natural form of vitamin E, against OTA-induced nephrotoxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with OTA and/or Delta by gavage for 14 days...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Qayyum Husain
The enzymes proteases have attracted a lot of attention due to their high demand in various industrial and other sectors since past several decades. Nanosupport bound proteases showed high efficiency of binding and yield of immobilization. Enzymes attached to such support were found significantly more resistant to the denaturation mediated by change in pH and temperature, medium particularly in the presence of water miscible and immiscible organic solvents, detergents, and several kinds of other denaturants...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Meihua Hu, Pengcheng Huang, Lili Suo, Fangying Wu
A polydopamine-based molecularly imprinted polymer was deposited on the surface of magnetite (ferroferric oxide) nanoparticles (Fe3 O4 @PDA MIPs) and is shown to be an efficient and fairly specific sorbent for the extraction of various ochratoxins. The MIPs were characterized by IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The adsorption capacities, evaluated through the langmuir adsorption isotherm model, are 1.8, 0.23 and 0.17 mg·g-1 for ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B and ochratoxin C, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
H Zejli, K Yugender Goud, Jean Louis Marty
This work demonstrates the development of electrochemical aptasensor using ochratoxin A (OTA) aptamers. Different aptamer coupling strategies were tested using polythiophene-carboxylic acid (PT3C) and polypyrrole-3-carboxylic acid (PP3C). The best sensitivity was recorded by polythiophene-3-carboxylic acid (PT3C) on screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) to attain the direct detection of OTA. The quantification of OTA was achieved by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A good dynamic range 0.125-2...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
Kefeng Wu, Changbei Ma, Han Zhao, Hailun He, Hanchun Chen
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most common mycotoxins contaminating feed and foodstuffs. Therefore, a great deal of concern is associated with AFB1 toxicity. In this work, a fast and sensitive fluorescence aptamer biosensor has been proposed for the OTA assay. In the absence of OTA, the OTA aptamer can form a G-quadruplex structure with thioflavin T (ThT) dye, which results in increased fluorescence. After joining OTA, OTA aptamer combines with OTA and the G-quadruplex can be formed. Only faint fluorescence was finally observed when ThT weakly reacts with the quadruplex...
May 12, 2018: Toxins
Sihem Fodil, Josué Delgado, Leonardo Varvaro, Thaer Yaseen, Alicia Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi. The presence of OTA in raisins is mainly related to the black Aspergillus spp. contamination. This toxin poses risks to human and animal health due to their high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, new strategies to avoid the risk associated to OTA are necessary. RESULTS: In the present study, a comparison between the effects of the antifungal protein PgAFP and potassium sorbate (E-202), on the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius, biosynthetic- and stress-related gene expression and its OTA production at two water activity (aw ) levels 0...
May 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Jamal Yusefi, Mehran Valaee, Firouzeh Nazari, Javad Maleki, Ehsan Mottaghianpour, Roya Khosrokhavar, Mir-Jamal Hosseini
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most important mycotoxins that contaminate a broad range of agricultural and food products. In this study, the occurrence of OTA in available brands of grape juice in Iran purchased from retail outlets or producer were determined for the first time using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with immunoaffinity columns(IAC) as the clean-up step. The average recoveries for OTA in grape juice ranged from 54.2 to 86.6% with the coefficient of variation lower than 17.3% in lowest spiked level (0...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Martina Háková, Lucie Chocholoušová Havlíková, Jiří Chvojka, Jakub Erben, Petr Solich, František Švec, Dalibor Šatínský
Three different approaches has been used to obtain nano/micro fibers and their diversity and extraction properties were examined. The effect of their structure on stability in an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) system during on-line SPE procedure was monitored. Five types of various nano/micro fiber polymers were used as sorbents: polyamide 6 nanofibers, polyvinylidene difluoride nanofibers, polyethylene microfibers, and two new polycaprolactone microfiber/nanofiber and polycaprolactone microfibers/polyvinylidene difluoride nanofibers composite polymers...
September 6, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Manyu Shao, Li Li, Zuli Gu, Ming Yao, Danning Xu, Wentao Fan, Liping Yan, Suquan Song
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of the most common mycotoxins in commercial dry dog food using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2, beauvericin (BEA), citrinin (CIT), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1) were included in this study. The results showed that all these analytes could be found in the samples. Furthermore, only one sample was found free of mycotoxins contamination...
May 10, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
Ruben R G Soares, Denis R Santos, Inês F Pinto, Ana M Azevedo, M Raquel Aires-Barros, Virginia Chu, João P Conde
Portable, rapid, cost effective and simple analytical tools are in increasing demand to facilitate the routine monitoring of target chemical/biological compounds at the point-of-need. Such devices are highly relevant within the context of food safety, particularly concerning the screening of highly toxic and strictly regulated mycotoxins. To achieve ultrarapid detection of mycotoxins, namely aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol, at the point-of-need, a novel multiplexed bead-based microfluidic competitive immunosensor, coupled with an array of a-Si:H thin-film photodiodes for integrated fluorescence signal acquisition, is reported...
May 8, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Eman Zahran, Bruce Manning, Jung-Kil Seo, Edward J Noga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Tian-Yu Zhang, Yong Zhao, Lan Li, Wei Shen
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is found not only nephrotoxic, teratogenic, neurotoxic, and immunotoxic, but also reprotoxic for human and animals. In the recent decade, more attention has been paid to the impact of OTA on human reproduction and the studies of its underlying mechanisms. Many studies show that OTA affects the function of the reproductive system by acting as an endocrine disrupter and, as a testicular toxin, decreases sperm quality and even induces testis cancer. This review summarizes the toxicological characteristics and toxicokinetic process of OTA as well as recent progress in the studies of various toxic effects of OTA and their underlying mechanisms, hoping to call the attention from more people to the toxicity of OTA to male reproductive health...
August 2017: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
Witthawat Phanchai, Unnop Srikulwong, Apiwat Chompoosor, Chadamas Sakonsinsiri, Theerapong Puangmali
Colorimetric aptasensor based on assembly of salt-induced gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is a promising biosensor. However, the molecular mechanism of the aptasensor is far from being fully understood. Herein, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to investigate molecular interactions in the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) including: (i) the molecular recognition of the anti-OTA aptamer, (ii) OTA-aptamer interactions in monovalent (Na+) and divalent (Mg2+) electrolytes, (iii) the binding mode of citrate on the AuNP surface, (iv) interactions of the aptamer with citrate-capped AuNPs and (v) a detailed mechanism of the aptasensor...
May 3, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Bandana Dhungana, Shaukat Ali, Emmanuel Byamukama, Padmanaban Krishnan, Melanie Caffe-Treml
Ochratoxin A (OTA) can cause toxicogenic effects in humans and animals when contaminated food products are consumed. Oat ( Avena sativa), like any other cereal grain, can be contaminated with OTA when storage conditions are favorable for fungal growth and toxin production. South Dakota is among the leading oat-producing states in the United States. It is therefore important to determine the frequency of occurrence of the primary OTA-producing fungal species on oat grains produced in the state. In this study, we evaluated oat grain samples from South Dakota for the incidence of Penicillium verrucosum, the major ochratoxigenic fungus in temperate regions...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Miguel Fernandez-Tenorio, Ernst Niggli
AIMS: In cardiac muscle, phosphorylation of the RyRs is proposed to increase their Ca2+ sensitivity. This mechanism could be arrhythmogenic via facilitation of spontaneous Ca2+ waves. Surprisingly, the level of Ca2+ inside the SR needed to initiate such waves has been reported to increase upon β-adrenergic stimulation, an observation which cannot be easily reconciled with elevated Ca2+ sensitivity of the RyRs. We tested the hypothesis that this change of Ca2+ wave threshold could occur indirectly, subsequent to SERCA stimulation...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Ali Kamali, Sareh Mehni, Mohadeseh Kamali, Mehdi Taheri Sarvtin
Background and Purpose: Breastfeeding plays an important role in the growth and development of infants. However, breast milk may be contaminated with various mycotoxins. Ochratoxin A is one of the most important mycotoxins with nephrotoxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, genotoxic, and immunotoxic properties. Thus, we carried out this study to determine the concentration of ochratoxin A in human breast milk in Jiroft, Kerman Province, south of Iran. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four human breast milk samples were collected from mothers visiting the number one clinic in Jiroft city...
September 2017: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
Tugrul Kaymak, Levent Türker, Hüseyin Tulay, Joerg Stroka
Background : Pekmez and pestil are traditional Turkish foods made from concentrated grapejuice, which can be contaminated with mycotoxins such as aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA). Objective : To carry out a single-laboratory validation of a method to simultaneously determine aflatoxins B1 , B₂, G1 , and G₂ and ochratoxin A in pekmez and pestil. Methods : The homogenized sample is extracted with methanol-water (80 + 20) using a high-speed blender. The (sample) extract is filtered, diluted with phosphate-buffered saline solution, and applied to a multi-immunoaffinity column (AFLAOCHRA PREP®)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Elodie Choque, Christophe Klopp, Sophie Valiere, José Raynal, Florence Mathieu
BACKGROUND: Black Aspergilli represent one of the most important fungal resources of primary and secondary metabolites for biotechnological industry. Having several black Aspergilli sequenced genomes should allow targeting the production of certain metabolites with bioactive properties. RESULTS: In this study, we report the draft genome of a black Aspergilli, A. tubingensis G131, isolated from a French Mediterranean vineyard. This 35 Mb genome includes 10,994 predicted genes...
March 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
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