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Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Sandra de M G Bosco, Sybren de Hoog, Frank Ebel, Daniel Elad, Renata R Gomes, Ilse D Jacobsen, An Martel, Bernard Mignon, Frank Pasmans, Elena Piecková, Anderson Messias Rodrigues, Karuna Singh, Vania A Vicente, Gudrun Wibbelt, Nathan P Wiederhold, Jacques Guillot
The importance of fungal infections in both human and animals has increased over the last decades. This article represents an overview of the different categories of fungal infections that can be encountered in animals originating from environmental sources without transmission to humans. In addition, the endemic infections with indirect transmission from the environment, the zoophilic fungal pathogens with near-direct transmission, the zoonotic fungi that can be directly transmitted from animals to humans, mycotoxicoses and antifungal resistance in animals will also be discussed...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Winnie-Pui-Pui Liew, Sabran Mohd-Redzwan
The secondary metabolites produced by fungi known as mycotoxins, are capable of causing mycotoxicosis (diseases and death) in human and animals. Contamination of feedstuffs as well as food commodities by fungi occurs frequently in a natural manner and is accompanied by the presence of mycotoxins. The occurrence of mycotoxins' contamination is further stimulated by the on-going global warming as reflected in some findings. This review comprehensively discussed the role of mycotoxins (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and aflatoxins) toward gut health and gut microbiota...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Donato Gerin, Luis González-Candelas, Ana-Rosa Ballester, Stefania Pollastro, Rita Milvia De Miccolis Angelini, Francesco Faretra
Aspergillus carbonarius, belonging to the group Nigri , is the main species responsible for contamination by ochratoxin A (OTA) in grapes and derivative products. OTA can accumulate in the mycelium and in black conidia of the fungus and released into the matrix. Here, we have deleted in A. carbonarius the alb1 orthologue gene of A. fumigatus , involved in melanin biosynthesis. Three A. carbonarius Δ alb1 mutants were characterized for morphologic traits and OTA production on different media and temperatures...
March 12, 2018: Toxins
Francesco Valitutti, Barbara De Santis, Chiara Maria Trovato, Monica Montuori, Simona Gatti, Salvatore Oliva, Carlo Brera, Carlo Catassi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of mycotoxin exposure (aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone) in celiac disease (CD) breastfeeding mothers and healthy control mothers, as well as in their offspring, by quantifying these contaminants in breast milk. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-five breastfeeding women with CD on a gluten-free diet and 30 healthy breastfeeding controls were recruited. Milk sampling was performed three times per day for three consecutive days. Mycotoxin content was investigated by an analytical method using immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorometric detection...
March 10, 2018: Nutrients
Marcelo Valle Garcia, Gilson Parussolo, Camila Brombilla Moro, Angélica Olivier Bernardi, Marina Venturini Copetti
The aim of this study was to identify fungal species present in 200 samples of rosemary, fennel, cinnamon, clove, pepperoni, black and white pepper and oregano and evaluate the mycotoxigenic potential of the some Aspergilli isolated. Clove, black and white peppers were analyzed by direct plating. For rosemary, cinnamon, fennel, pepperoni pepper and oregano samples were used spread plate. Mycotoxigenic capacity was verified by the agar plug method. With the exception of clove, all the spices showed high fungal contamination, especially by Aspergillus sp...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Dubravka Rašić, Marin Mladinić, Davor Želježić, Alica Pizent, Srđan Stefanović, Dragan Milićević, Paško Konjevoda, Maja Peraica
A multimycotoxin analysis approach in grains results in frequent simultaneous findings of nephrotoxic mycotoxins ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CTN). The mechanism of CTN and OTA toxicities in biological systems is not fully understood but it is known that oxidative stress is involved. In this study, oxidative damage of DNA, lipids, and the concentration of glutathione (GSH), as well as possible antioxidative effects of resveratrol (RSV) were studied in vivo. Male adult Wistar rats were treated orally with OTA (0...
March 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
P E Mandelare, D A Adpressa, E N Kaweesa, L N Zakharov, S Loesgen
The genetically encoded, small-molecule chemical diversity of filamentous fungi is still largely unexplored and represents an attractive source for the discovery of new compounds. Here we report the production of new chlorinated bianthrones from coculture of two different developmental stages, or morphs, of a marine alga-derived Aspergillus alliaceus (teleomorph: Petromyces alliaceus) strain. The vegetative stage (asexual morph) can be separated from the morph that switched to sexual development (sclerotial morph); both produce distinct secondary metabolite patterns...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Caroline Daiane Nath, Marcela Abbado Neres, Kácia Carine Scheidt, Luciano Dos Santos Bersot, Samantha Mariana Monteiro Sunahara, Jaqueline Rocha Wobeto Sarto, José Renato Stangarlin, Simone Damasceno Gomes, Mallu Jagnow Sereno, Ana Paula Perin
Objective: The objective was to characterize the fermentative and microbiological profile of Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage with different layers of polyethylene film and storage time. Methods: The experimental design consisted of a randomized block design with four and six wrapping layers (100 and 150 microns in total. respectively) allocated in the main plots, through repeated measures analysis (30, 60, and 90 days of storage) with four replicates. Results: The storage time and number of wrapping layers did not show changes in the population of Clostridium and lactic acid bacteria...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Josué Delgado, Lucía da Cruz Cabral, Mar Rodríguez, Alicia Rodríguez
Iberian dry-cured ham is an important meat product with high consumption worldwide. The special ecological conditions occurring throughout its ripening favour surface colonisation of filamentous fungi. Normally, moulds contribute to the development of the sensory qualities of the ham; however, some toxigenic species, such as Penicillium nordicum, are able to successfully adapt to the NaCl-rich environment found in dry-cured ham and produce ochratoxin A (OTA) in this product. Moreover, it was suggested that the biosynthesis of OTA by P...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Chengke Wang, Rong Tan, Dan Chen
In this paper, a FRET (Forster resonance energy transfer) based fluorescence method was developed for the quickly detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in agricultural products (e.g., flour and beer). A highly fluorescent nitrogen doped carbon dots (CD) were served as energy donor, the DNA and MCH (6-mercapto-1-hexanol) modified Ag nanoparticles were served as energy acceptor in the FRET system. OTA can be detected in a concentration range between 10 and 5000 nM, the limit of detection is 8.7 nM. This method has three advantages: (1) an enhanced fluorescent intensity can be acquired by utilizing the nitrogen doped CD synthesized by one-step approach without sophisticated modification of nanoparticles; (2) OTA detection was accomplished quickly (less than 30 min) by using MCH as assistant molecule; (3) an extended OTA detection linear range was acquired, which may facilitate the OTA detection in real agricultural samples, and is helpful for solving food safety problems...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Louise Camenzuli, Ruud Van Dam, Theo de Rijk, Rob Andriessen, Jeroen Van Schelt, H J Ine Van der Fels-Klerx
This study aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of mycotoxins in the lesser mealworm ( Alphitobius diaperinus, LMW) and black soldier fly ( Hermetia illucens, BSF) larvae. Feed was spiked with aflatoxin B₁, deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A or zearalenone, and as a mixture of mycotoxins, to concentrations of 1, 10, and 25 times the maximum limits set by the European Commission for complete feed. This maximum limit is 0.02 mg/kg for aflatoxin B₁, 5 mg/kg for DON, 0.5 mg/kg for zearalenone and 0...
February 24, 2018: Toxins
Zahoor Ul Hassan, Roda Al Thani, Fathy A Atia, Saeed Al Meer, Quirico Migheli, Samir Jaoua
The present study was conducted to explore the occurrence of mycotoxins in commercial baby foods in Doha-Qatar. LCMS/MS- and HPLC-based analysis of baby food (n=67) for 12 mycotoxins, confirmed the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1, 33%), ochratoxin A (OTA, 31%), deoxynivalenol (DON, 27%), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, 22%), fumonisin B2 (FB2, 10%), zearalenone (ZEN, 4%) and T-2 toxin (2%). Noodles exhibited the maximum contamination percentage, with 33% of the samples being contaminated above the EU maximum limits, for at least one mycotoxin...
February 28, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
P Vila-Donat, S Marín, V Sanchis, A J Ramos
Contamination of animal feed with mycotoxins still occurs very often, despite great efforts in preventing it. Animal feeds are contaminated, at low levels, with several mycotoxins, particularly with those produced by Aspergillus and Fusarium genera (Aflatoxin B1, Ochratoxin A, Zearalenone, Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisina B1 ). In animal feed, to date, only Aflatoxin B1 is limited through EU regulation. Consequently, mycotoxins cause serious disorders and diseases in farm animals. In 2009, the European Union (386/2009/EC) approved the use of mycotoxin-detoxifying agents, as feed additives, to prevent mycotoxicoses in farm animals...
February 21, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Lili Hou, Fang Gan, Xuan Zhou, Yajiao Zhou, Gang Qian, Zixuan Liu, Kehe Huang
The co-contamination of cereals, grains, crops, and animal feeds by mycotoxins is a universal problem. Humans and animals are exposed to several mycotoxins simultaneously as evidenced by extensive studies on this topic. Yet, most studies have addressed the effects of mycotoxins individually. Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A can induce immunotoxicity. However, it remains unclear whether a combination of these mycotoxins aggravates immunotoxicity and the potential mechanism underlying this effect. In this study, we used the cell line 3D4/21, swine alveolus macrophages and innate immune cell...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Hideaki Nakayama, Norio Kitagawa, Takahito Otani, Hiroshi Iida, Hisashi Anan, Tetsuichiro Inai
Intestinal epithelial cells are the first targets of ingested mycotoxins, such as ochratoxin A, citrinin and deoxynivalenol. It has been reported that paracellular permeability regulated by tight junctions is modulated by several mycotoxins by reducing the expression of specific claudins and integral membrane proteins in cell-cell contacts, accompanied by increase in phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, including extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) 1/2, p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase...
February 21, 2018: Microscopy
Águeda Molinero-Fernández, Adrián Jodra, María Moreno-Guzmán, Miguel Ángel López, Alberto Escarpa
In this work, magnetic reduced graphene oxide/nickel/ platinum nanoparticles micromotors (rGO/Ni/PtNPs) for mycotoxin analysis in food samples are proposed as relevant example in food safety diagnosis. While the utilization of self-propelled micromotors in bioassays has led to a fundamentally new approach, mainly due to the greatly target-receptor contacts enhancements by their continuous movement around the sample and the mixing associated effect, here, the magnetic properties of rGO/Ni/PtNPs micromotors for mycotoxin analysis are additionally explored...
February 22, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Sanil D Singh, Naeem Sheik-Abdul, Alisa Phulukdaree, Charlette Tiloke, Savani Nagiah, Sooraj Baijnath, Anil A Chuturgoon
Raw ingredients of pet food are often contaminated with mycotoxins. This is a serious health problem to pets and causes emotional and economical stress to the pet owners. The aim of this study was to determine the immunotoxicity of the most common mycotoxins (aflatoxin, fumonisin, ochratoxin A and zearalenone) by examining 20 samples of extruded dry dog food found on the South African market [10 samples from standard grocery store lines (SB), 10 from premium veterinarian lines (PB)]. Pelleted dog food was subjected to extraction protocols optimized for the above mentioned mycotoxins...
February 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Gang Qian, Dandan Liu, Junfa Hu, Fang Gan, Lili Hou, Nianhui Zhai, Xingxiang Chen, Kehe Huang
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is recognized as the causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated diseases. PCV2 replication could be promoted by low doses of ochratoxin A (OTA) as in our previous study and selenium has been shown to attenuate PCV2 replication. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of selenomethionine (SeMet), the major component of organic selenium, on OTA-induced PCV2 replication promotion and its potential mechanism. The present study demonstrates that OTA could promote PCV2 replication as measured by cap protein expression, viral titer, viral DNA copies and the number of infected cells...
February 13, 2018: Veterinary Research
Federica Carraturo, Olga De Castro, Jacopo Troisi, Adriana De Luca, Armando Masucci, Paola Cennamo, Marco Trifuoggi, Francesco Aliberti, Marco Guida
BACKGROUND: Drinking tea constitutes a tradition which is deeply rooted in the culture of several countries. Moreover, in recent years, tea consumption is growing all over the world. Improper herbal tea storage (long periods, humid environments) represents a relevant health hazard for consumers because of the growth of bacteria and molds. RESULTS: This study analyzed 32 samples of commercially available black and green teas - purchased from southern Italy markets and online-shops - and the monitoring of microbiological quality of the tea bag content was performed...
January 5, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Aori Qileng, Jie Wei, Ning Lu, Weipeng Liu, Yue Cai, Minshi Chen, Hongtao Lei, Yingju Liu
A broad-specific photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor was developed for the simultaneous detection of ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B and ochratoxin C (OTA, OTB, OTC) by using the direct growth of CdS nanorods on FTO as the photoelectrode and Au nanoflowers-modified glass carbon electrode (GCE) as the bioelectrode. The bioelectrode was used to capture antigens and then associate corresponding antibodies, followed by using SiO2@Cu2+ nanocomposites to conjugate the secondary antibody (Ab2) and a DNA strand as the initiator...
February 3, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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