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Pathology peer review

Margarita Villar, Lourdes Mateos-Hernandez, Jose de la Fuente
BACKGROUND: Why an autoimmune disease that is the main cause of the acute neuromuscular paralysis worldwide has not yet a well-characterized cause or an effective treatment? The existence of different clinical variants for the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) coupled with the fact that a high number of pathogens can cause an infection that sometimes, but not always, precedes the development of the syndrome, confers a high degree of uncertainty for both prognosis and treatment. In the post-genomic era, the development of omics technologies for the high-throughput analysis of biological molecules is allowing the characterization of biological systems in a degree of depth unimaginable before...
March 14, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Jagatkumar A Patel, Bryan J Ray, Camilo Fernandez-Salvador, Christopher Gouveia, Soroush Zaghi, Macario Camacho
OBJECTIVE: A collapsible upper airway is a common cause of obstructive sleep apnea. The exact pathophysiology leading to a more collapsible airway is not well understood. A progressive neuropathy of the soft palate and pharyngeal dilators may be associated with the progression of snoring to OSA. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the international literature investigating the neurophysiologic changes in the soft palate and uvula that contribute to progression from snoring to OSA...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Morten Rune Blichfeldt-Eckhardt
The thesis comprises an overview and four papers, all published or submitted for publication in international peer-reviewed scientific journals.
Chronic pain after surgery is a common and debilitating complication after many types of surgery. The cause and pathology behind is still mainly uncovered, though several risk factors have been proposed. One of the strongest risk factors for persistent postsurgical pain is the intensity of the acute pain response though the mechanisms involved remain unsettled...
March 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Jacinto Mata-Gómez, Ignacio Javier Gilete-Tejero, María Rico-Cotelo, Manuel Royano-Sánchez, Marta Ortega-Martínez
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the current situation in Spain of the use of Social Media in Neurosurgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We made an observational transversal study between February and March 2017, with a systematic search of the Facebook, Twitter and Youtube accounts from public and private neurosurgical units, scientific societies, peer-reviewed publications and patients groups in relation with Neurosurgical pathologies. We rank them according their popularity. RESULTS: According of our search only 5 public neurosurgical services have social media accounts, being their popularity inferior to the private units accounts...
February 24, 2018: Neurocirugía
Deena Harji, Helen Marshall, Katie Gordon, Hannah Crow, Victoria Hiley, Dermot Burke, Ben Griffiths, Catherine Moriarty, Maureen Twiddy, John L O'Dwyer, Azmina Verjee, Julia Brown, Peter Sagar
INTRODUCTION: Acute colorectal surgery forms a significant proportion of emergency admissions within the National Health Service. There is limited evidence to suggest minimally invasive surgery may be associated with improved clinical outcomes in this cohort of patients. Consequently, there is a need to assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic surgery in the acute colorectal setting. However,emergency colorectal surgical trials have previously been difficult to conduct due to issues surrounding recruitment and equipoise...
February 22, 2018: BMJ Open
Nikunj N Trivedi, Sean M Wilson, Luis A Puchi, Darren R Lebl
Study Design: Narrative review. Objectives: The etiology of adjacent segment degeneration (ASDeg) and adjacent segment disease (ASDz) after lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) remains controversial. The aim of this narrative review was to provide an evidence-based analysis of the peer-reviewed literature on clinical studies of ASDeg and ASDz after LIF. Methods: A review was performed utilizing Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Two reviewers independently extracted relevant data from each included study...
February 2018: Global Spine Journal
Carla Tatone, Giovanna Di Emidio, Arcangelo Barbonetti, Gaspare Carta, Alberto M Luciano, Stefano Falone, Fernanda Amicarelli
BACKGROUND: Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that catalyze post-translational modifications of proteins. Together, they respond to metabolic challenges, inflammatory signals or hypoxic/oxidative stress, and are associated with aging and longevity. The role of Sirtuins in the regulation of fertility emerged in 2003 when a defective reproductive phenotype was observed in SIRT1-null mice. Although studies on Sirtuins in reproductive biology have been increasing in the last years, a recent comprehensive update on this issue is still lacking...
February 13, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Borros Arneth
BACKGROUND: Although existing studies show that reactivation of the human endogenous retrovirus (HERVs) plays a leading role in multiple sclerosis (MS) progression, the practitioners are yet to establish effective approaches for managing MS without jeopardizing the patients' immune systems. AIM: To provide up-to-date knowledge on the specific roles played by the reactivation of the HERVs in the pathogenesis of MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of 70 peer-reviewed journals accessed via PubMed was conducted...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology
John S Flanigan, Shannon L Silkensen, Nicholas G Wolf
Like in all areas of science, it is important for funders and investigators of pathology to work together to develop a well-designed, well-executed clinical research agenda. In the first section of this article, the authors discuss how the National Institutes of Health (NIH) peer-review process applies to global health pathology research projects. Then, the authors present an illustrative sampling of NIH-funded projects with performance sites in low- and middle-income countries with 2 examples focused on cancer and anatomic pathology...
March 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
Katy Vincent, Andrew Baranowski, Siladitya Bhattacharya, Judy Birch, Ying Cheong, Roman Cregg, Jane Daniels, Catherine A Hewitt, Gary J Macfarlane, Lee Middleton, Wojciech Szubert, Irene Tracey, Amanda C de C Williams, Andrew W Horne
INTRODUCTION: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) affects more than 1 million UK women with associated healthcare costs of £158 million annually. Current evidence supporting interventions when no underlying pathology is identified is very limited and treatment is frequently inadequate. Gabapentin (a GABA analogue) is efficacious and often well tolerated in other chronic pain conditions. We have completed a successful pilot randomised controlled trial Gabapentin for Pelvic Pain 1 (GaPP1) and here describe the protocol for our definitive multicentre trial to assess the efficacy of gabapentin in the management of CPP in women Gabapentin for Pelvic Pain 2 (GaPP2)...
January 31, 2018: BMJ Open
Carlos Parra-Herran, Matthew Cesari, Bojana Djordjevic, Katherine Grondin, Mary Kinloch, Martin Köbel, Amrah Pirzada, Anna Plotkin, C Blake Gilks
Standardized terminology has proven benefits in cancer reporting; in contrast, reporting of benign diagnoses in endometrial biopsy currently lacks such standardization. Unification and update on the lexicon can provide the structure and consistency needed for optimal patient care and quality assurance purposes. The Special Interest Group in Gynecologic Pathology of the Canadian Association of Pathologists-Association Canadienne des Pathologistes (CAP-ACP) embarked in an initiative to address the current need for consensus terminology in benign endometrial biopsy pathology reporting...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Mohammadali M Shoja, Chad J Jensen, Rebecca Ramdhan, Joshua Chern, W Jerry Oakes, R Shane Tubbs
Although pathology of the hindbrain and its derivatives can have life altering effects on a patient, a comprehensive review on its embryology is difficult to find in the peer-reviewed medical literature. Therefore, this review paper, using standard search engines, seemed timely. The embryology of the hindbrain is complex and relies on a unique timing of various neurovascular and bony elements. Derailment of these developmental processes can lead to a wide range of malformations such as the Chiari malformations...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Dmitri Nepogodiev
INTRODUCTION: Patients presenting with right iliac fossa (RIF) pain are a common challenge for acute general surgical services. Given the range of potential pathologies, RIF pain creates diagnostic uncertainty and there is subsequent variation in investigation and management. Appendicitis is a diagnosis which must be considered in all patients with RIF pain; however, over a fifth of patients undergoing appendicectomy, in the UK, have been proven to have a histologically normal appendix (negative appendicectomy)...
January 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Irene E Harmsen, Nathan C Rowland, Richard A Wennberg, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an important form of neuromodulation that is being applied to patients with motor, mood, or cognitive circuit disorders. Despite the efficacy and widespread use of DBS, the precise mechanisms by which it works remain unknown. Over the last decade, magnetoencephalography (MEG) has become an important functional neuroimaging technique used to study DBS. OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes the literature related to the use of MEG to characterize the effects of DBS...
January 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Jan Filip Baekelandt, Peter A De Mulder, Ilse Le Roy, Chantal Mathieu, Annouschka Laenen, Paul Enzlin, Steven Weyers, Ben W J Mol, Jan J A Bosteels
INTRODUCTION: Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) uses natural orifices to access the cavities of the human body to perform surgical interventions. NOTES limits the magnitude of surgical trauma and potentially reduces postoperative pain. Our group published a protocol on a randomised study comparing transvaginal NOTES (vNOTES) versus laparoscopy for hysterectomy (HALON). We simultaneously designed a similar randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing vNOTES with laparoscopy for adnexectomy...
January 10, 2018: BMJ Open
Evi Matthys, Roy Remmen, Peter Van Bogaert
BACKGROUND: Primary care needs to be strengthened in order to address the many societal challenges. Group practices in primary care foster collaboration with other health care providers, which encourages care co-ordination and leads to a higher quality of primary care. Nursing roles and responsibilities expanded over time and nurses have been found to often provide equal high-quality chronic patient care compared to physicians, even with higher patient satisfaction. Inter-professional collaboration between primary care physicians and nurses is a possible strategy to achieve the desired quality outcomes in a strengthened primary care system...
December 22, 2017: BMC Family Practice
Gabriel Siegel, Dan Regelman, Robert Maronpot, Moti Rosenstock, Abraham Nyska
Real-time telepathology for use in investigative and regulated preclinical toxicology studies is now feasible. Newly developed microscope-integrated telepathology systems enable geographically remote stakeholders to view the live histopathology slide as seen by the study pathologist within the microscope. Simultaneous online viewing and dialog between study pathologist and remote colleagues is an efficient and cost-effective means for consultation, pathology working groups, and peer review, facilitating good science and economic benefits by enabling more timely and informed clinical decisions...
December 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
Susan A Deuchars, Varinder K Lall, Jennifer Clancy, Mohd Mahadi, Aaron Murray, Lucy Peers, Jim Deuchars
What is the topic of this review? This review briefly considers what modulates sympathetic nerve activity and how it may change as we age or in pathological conditions. It then focuses on transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation, a method of neuromodulation in autonomic cardiovascular control. What advances does it highlight? The review considers the pathways involved in eliciting the changes in autonomic balance seen with transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation in relationship to other neuromodulatory techniques...
March 1, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Max Knaapen, Johanna H van der Lee, Roel Bakx, Sarah-May L The, Ernst W E van Heurn, Hugo A Heij, Ramon R Gorter
INTRODUCTION: Based on epidemiological, immunological and pathology data, the idea that appendicitis is not necessarily a progressive disease is gaining ground. Two types are distinguished: simple and complicated appendicitis. Non-operative treatment (NOT) of children with simple appendicitis has been investigated in several small studies. So far, it is deemed safe. However, its effectiveness and effect on quality of life (QoL) have yet to be established in an adequately powered randomised trial...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
Robert Sills, Amy Brix, Mark Cesta, Sheba R Churchill, Michelle C Cora, Darlene Dixon, Michael Dykstra, Gordon Flake, Ron Herbert, Ramesh Kovi, Kyathanahalli Janardhan, Angela King-Herbert, David Malarkey, Arun Pandiri, Greg Travlos, Cynthia Willson, Susan A Elmore
National Toxicology Program (NTP) pathologists are engaged in important initiatives that have significant global impact. These initiatives build on its leadership in pathology peer review and publications in the areas of toxicologic pathology, clinical pathology, and laboratory animal medicine. Over the past decade, NTP/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences research initiatives have focused on cancer and noncancer hazard identification, with the goal of understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms of disease...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
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