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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330566/the-mads-box-gene-slmbp11-regulates-plant-architecture-and-affects-reproductive-development-in-tomato-plants
#1
Xuhu Guo, Guoping Chen, Muhammad Naeem, Xiaohu Yu, Boyan Tang, Anzhou Li, Zongli Hu
MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors that are involved in many biological processes of plants. In the present study, SlMBP11, a member of the AGL15 subfamily, was cloned in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicon M.). SlMBP11 is ubiquitously expressed in all of the tissues we examined, whereas the SlMBP11 transcription levels were significantly higher in reproductive tissues than in vegetative tissues. Plants exhibiting increased SlMBP11 levels displayed reduced plant height, leaf size, and internode length as well as a loss of dominance in young seedlings, highly branched growth from each leaf axil, and increased number of nodes and leaves...
May 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326093/the-complete-chloroplast-genome-of-wild-rice-oryza-minuta-and-its-comparison-to-related-species
#2
Sajjad Asaf, Muhammad Waqas, Abdul L Khan, Muhammad A Khan, Sang-Mo Kang, Qari M Imran, Raheem Shahzad, Saqib Bilal, Byung-Wook Yun, In-Jung Lee
Oryza minuta, a tetraploid wild relative of cultivated rice (family Poaceae), possesses a BBCC genome and contains genes that confer resistance to bacterial blight (BB) and white-backed (WBPH) and brown (BPH) plant hoppers. Based on the importance of this wild species, this study aimed to understand the phylogenetic relationships of O. minuta with other Oryza species through an in-depth analysis of the composition and diversity of the chloroplast (cp) genome. The analysis revealed a cp genome size of 135,094 bp with a typical quadripartite structure and consisting of a pair of inverted repeats separated by small and large single copies, 139 representative genes, and 419 randomly distributed microsatellites...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295376/both-maternally-and-paternally-imprinted-genes-regulate-seed-development-in-rice
#3
Jingya Yuan, Sushu Chen, Wu Jiao, Longfei Wang, Limei Wang, Wenxue Ye, Jie Lu, Delin Hong, Siliang You, Zhukuan Cheng, Dong-Lei Yang, Z Jeffrey Chen
Genetic imprinting refers to the unequal expression of paternal and maternal alleles of a gene in sexually reproducing organisms, including mammals and flowering plants. Although many imprinted genes have been identified in plants, the functions of these imprinted genes have remained largely uninvestigated. We report genome-wide analysis of gene expression, DNA methylation and small RNAs in the rice endosperm and functional tests of five imprinted genes during seed development using Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated gene9 (CRISPR/Cas9) gene editing technology...
March 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285663/an-lrr-receptor-kinase-regulates-growth-development-and-pathogenesis-in-phytophthora-capsici
#4
Asma Safdar, Qi Li, Danyu Shen, Linlin Chen, Feng He, Rongbo Wang, Meixiang Zhang, Joseph Juma Mafurah, Sajid Aleem Khan, Daolong Dou
Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) domain containing kinase proteins (LRR-RK) perform various functions in eukaryotic organisms. However, their functions in Oomycetes are still largely unknown. Here, we identified an LRR-RK (PcLRR-RK1) gene and characterized its functions in Phytophthora capsici, a model oomycete specie and a major plant destroyer of solanaceous and cucurbitaceous vegetable crops. We showed that PcLRR-RK1-silenced P. capsici transformants exhibited reduced growth and produced highly branched fluffy hyphae...
May 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285133/modification-of-atgrdp1-gene-expression-affects-silique-and-seed-development-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#5
Aída Araceli Rodríguez-Hernández, Carlos Vladimir Muro-Medina, Jocelin Itzel Ramírez-Alonso, Juan Francisco Jiménez-Bremont
Glycine Rich Proteins (GRPs) are induced at different developmental stages and in specific plant tissues. Recently, we described a novel Arabidopsis gene encoding a short glycine-rich domain protein (AtGRDP1). This gene is involved in abiotic stress responsiveness; the Atgrdp1-null mutant seeds were more sensitive to stress, while the opposite phenotype was achieved by AtGRDP1 overexpression. In this study, we analyzed the phenotype of the fruits produced by Arabidopsis Atgrdp1 mutants and 35S::AtGRDP1 overexpression lines...
March 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273106/implications-of-polyploidy-events-on-the-phenotype-microstructure-and-proteome-of-paulownia-australis
#6
Zhe Wang, Guoqiang Fan, Yanpeng Dong, Xiaoqiao Zhai, Minjie Deng, Zhenli Zhao, Wenshan Liu, Yabing Cao
Polyploidy events are believed to be responsible for increasing the size of plant organs and enhancing tolerance to environmental stresses. Autotetraploid Paulownia australis plants exhibit superior traits compared with their diploid progenitors. Although some transcriptomics studies have been performed and some relevant genes have been revealed, the molecular and biological mechanisms regulating the predominant characteristics and the effects of polyploidy events on P. australis remain unknown. In this study, we compared the phenotypes, microstructures, and proteomes of autotetraploid and diploid P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242478/gynoecium-formation-an-intimate-and-complicated-relationship
#7
REVIEW
Laila Moubayidin, Lars Østergaard
Multicellular organisms rely on the activity of organs that develop to a specific size and shape and are patterned into particular tissues. One of the most complicated plant structures is the female reproductive organ, the gynoecium, which must integrate a range of developmental cues to ensure efficient reproduction. Here we review recent discoveries on gene networks and hormonal activities that are required to (1) control cell division, (2) pattern the gynoecium along polarity axes and (3) specify organ shape and seed dispersal...
February 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236971/ligand-receptor-mediated-regulation-of-growth-in-plants
#8
Miyoshi Haruta, Michael R Sussman
Growth and development of multicellular organisms are coordinately regulated by various signaling pathways involving the communication of inter- and intracellular components. To form the appropriate body patterns, cellular growth and development are modulated by either stimulating or inhibiting these pathways. Hormones and second messengers help to mediate the initiation and/or interaction of the various signaling pathways in all complex multicellular eukaryotes. In plants, hormones include small organic molecules, as well as larger peptides and small proteins, which, as in animals, act as ligands and interact with receptor proteins to trigger rapid biochemical changes and induce the intracellular transcriptional and long-term physiological responses...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228774/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-wheat-argos-genes-influencing-plant-growth-and-stress-tolerance
#9
Yue Zhao, Xuejun Tian, Yuanyuan Li, Liyuan Zhang, Panfeng Guan, Xiaoxia Kou, Xiaobo Wang, Mingming Xin, Zhaorong Hu, Yingyin Yao, Zhongfu Ni, Qixin Sun, Huiru Peng
Auxin Regulated Gene involved in Organ Size (ARGOS) is significantly and positively associated with organ size and is involved in abiotic stress responses in plants. However, no studies on wheat ARGOS genes have been reported to date. In the present study, three TaARGOS homoeologous genes were isolated and located on chromosomes 4A, 4B, and 4D of bread wheat, all of which are highly conserved in wheat and its wild relatives. Comparisons of gene expression in different tissues demonstrated that the TaARGOSs were mainly expressed in the stem...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178932/variability-among-cucurbitaceae-species-melon-cucumber-and-watermelon-in-a-genomic-region-containing-a-cluster-of-nbs-lrr-genes
#10
Jordi Morata, Pere Puigdomènech
BACKGROUND: Cucurbitaceae species contain a significantly lower number of genes coding for proteins with similarity to plant resistance genes belonging to the NBS-LRR family than other plant species of similar genome size. A large proportion of these genes are organized in clusters that appear to be hotspots of variability. The genomes of the Cucurbitaceae species measured until now are intermediate in size (between 350 and 450 Mb) and they apparently have not undergone any genome duplications beside those at the origin of eudicots...
February 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143404/conservation-and-diversification-of-the-mir166-family-in-soybean-and-potential-roles-of-newly-identified-mir166s
#11
Xuyan Li, Xin Xie, Ji Li, Yuhai Cui, Yanming Hou, Lulu Zhai, Xiao Wang, Yanli Fu, Ranran Liu, Shaomin Bian
BACKGROUND: microRNA166 (miR166) is a highly conserved family of miRNAs implicated in a wide range of cellular and physiological processes in plants. miR166 family generally comprises multiple miR166 members in plants, which might exhibit functional redundancy and specificity. The soybean miR166 family consists of 21 members according to the miRBase database. However, the evolutionary conservation and functional diversification of miR166 family members in soybean remain poorly understood...
February 1, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137747/2b-or-not-2b-experimental-evolution-of-functional-exogenous-sequences-in-a-plant-rna-virus
#12
Anouk Willemsen, Mark P Zwart, Silvia Ambrós, José L Carrasco, Santiago F Elena
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is pervasive in viruses, and thought to be a key mechanism in their evolution. On the other hand, strong selective constraints against increasing genome size are an impediment for HGT, rapidly purging horizontally transferred sequences and thereby potentially hindering evolutionary innovation. Here we explore experimentally the evolutionary fate of viruses with simulated HGT events, using the plant RNA virus Tobacco etch virus (TEV), by separately introducing two functional, exogenous sequences to its genome...
January 30, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119199/whole-genome-sequence-of-the-soybean-aphid-aphis-glycines
#13
Jacob A Wenger, Bryan J Cassone, Fabrice Legeai, J Spencer Johnston, Raman Bansal, Ashley D Yates, Brad S Coates, Vitor A C Pavinato, Andy Michel
Aphids are emerging as model organisms for both basic and applied research. Of the 5,000 estimated species, only three aphids have published whole genome sequences: the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. We present the whole genome sequence of a fourth aphid, the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines), which is an extreme specialist and an important invasive pest of soybean (Glycine max). The availability of genomic resources is important to establish effective and sustainable pest control, as well as to expand our understanding of aphid evolution...
January 22, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114894/evolutional-dynamics-of-45s-and-5s-ribosomal-dna-in-ancient-allohexaploid-atropa-belladonna
#14
Roman A Volkov, Irina I Panchuk, Nikolai V Borisjuk, Marta Hosiawa-Baranska, Jolanta Maluszynska, Vera Hemleben
BACKGROUND: Polyploid hybrids represent a rich natural resource to study molecular evolution of plant genes and genomes. Here, we applied a combination of karyological and molecular methods to investigate chromosomal structure, molecular organization and evolution of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in nightshade, Atropa belladonna (fam. Solanaceae), one of the oldest known allohexaploids among flowering plants. Because of their abundance and specific molecular organization (evolutionarily conserved coding regions linked to variable intergenic spacers, IGS), 45S and 5S rDNA are widely used in plant taxonomic and evolutionary studies...
January 23, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105941/the-loss-of-photosynthetic-pathways-in-the-plastid-and-nuclear-genomes-of-the-non-photosynthetic-mycoheterotrophic-eudicot-monotropa-hypopitys
#15
Nikolai V Ravin, Eugeny V Gruzdev, Alexey V Beletsky, Alexander M Mazur, Egor B Prokhortchouk, Mikhail A Filyushin, Elena Z Kochieva, Vitaly V Kadnikov, Andrey V Mardanov, Konstantin G Skryabin
BACKGROUND: Chloroplasts of most plants are responsible for photosynthesis and contain a conserved set of about 110 genes that encode components of housekeeping gene expression machinery and photosynthesis-related functions. Heterotrophic plants obtaining nutrients from other organisms and their plastid genomes represent model systems in which to study the effects of relaxed selective pressure on photosynthetic function. The most evident is a reduction in the size and gene content of the plastome, which correlates with the loss of genes encoding photosynthetic machinery which become unnecessary...
November 16, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102350/manipulation-of-auxin-response-factor-19-affects-seed-size-in-the-woody-perennial-jatropha-curcas
#16
Yanwei Sun, Chunming Wang, Ning Wang, Xiyuan Jiang, Huizhu Mao, Changxiang Zhu, Fujiang Wen, Xianghua Wang, Zhijun Lu, Genhua Yue, Zengfu Xu, Jian Ye
Seed size is a major determinant of seed yield but few is known about the genetics controlling of seed size in plants. Phytohormones cytokinin and brassinosteroid were known to be involved in the regulation of herbaceous plant seed development. Here we identified a homolog of Auxin Response Factor 19 (JcARF19) from a woody plant Jatropha curcas and genetically demonstrated its functions in controlling seed size and seed yield. Through Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), we found that JcARF19 was a positive upstream modulator in auxin signaling and may control plant organ size in J...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100707/the-rla1-smos1-transcription-factor-functions-with-osbzr1-to-regulate-brassinosteroid-signaling-and-rice-architecture
#17
Shenglong Qiao, Shiyong Sun, Linlin Wang, Zhihua Wu, Chengxiang Li, Xiaoming Li, Tao Wang, Linna Leng, Weisheng Tian, Tiegang Lu, Xuelu Wang
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant-specific steroid hormones that control plant growth and development. Recent studies have identified key components of the BR signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana and in rice (Oryza sativa); however, the mechanism of BR signaling in rice, especially downstream of GSK3/SHAGGY-like kinase (GSK2), remains unclear. Here, we identified a BR-insensitive rice mutant, reduced leaf angle1 (rla1), and cloned the corresponding gene. RLA1 was identical to the previously reported SMALL ORGAN SIZE1 (SMOS1), which was cloned from another allele...
February 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097785/down-regulation-of-bnda1-whose-gene-locus-is-associated-with-the-seeds-weight-improves-the-seeds-weight-and-organ-size-in-brassica-napus
#18
Jie-Li Wang, Min-Qiang Tang, Sheng Chen, Xiang-Feng Zheng, Hui-Xian Mo, Sheng-Jun Li, Zheng Wang, Ke-Ming Zhu, Li-Na Ding, Sheng-Yi Liu, Yun-Hai Li, Xiao-Li Tan
Brassica napus L. is an important oil crop worldwide, and is the main raw material for biofuel. Seed weight and seed size are the main contributors to seed yield. DA1 (DA means big in Chinese) is an ubiquitin receptor and negatively regulates seed size. Down-regulation of AtDA1 in Arabidopsis leads to larger seeds and organs by increasing cell proliferation in integuments. In this study, BnDA1was down-regulated in B. napus by over expressed of AtDA1(R358K) , which is a functional deficiency of DA1 with an arginine-to-lysine mutation at the 358(th) amino acid...
January 17, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097059/the-complete-chloroplast-genome-sequence-of-an-endemic-monotypic-genus-hagenia-rosaceae-structural-comparative-analysis-gene-content-and-microsatellite-detection
#19
Andrew W Gichira, Zhizhong Li, Josphat K Saina, Zhicheng Long, Guangwan Hu, Robert W Gituru, Qingfeng Wang, Jinming Chen
Hagenia is an endangered monotypic genus endemic to the topical mountains of Africa. The only species, Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel, is an important medicinal plant producing bioactive compounds that have been traditionally used by African communities as a remedy for gastrointestinal ailments in both humans and animals. Complete chloroplast genomes have been applied in resolving phylogenetic relationships within plant families. We employed high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine the complete chloroplast genome sequence of H...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096190/gain-of-function-mutants-of-the-cytokinin-receptors-ahk2-and-ahk3-regulate-plant-organ-size-flowering-time-and-plant-longevity
#20
Isabel Bartrina, Helen Jensen, Ondřej Novák, Miroslav Strnad, Tomáš Werner, Thomas Schmülling
The phytohormone cytokinin is a regulator of numerous processes in plants. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the cytokinin signal is perceived by three membrane-located receptors named ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE2 (AHK2), AHK3, and AHK4/CRE1. How the signal is transmitted across the membrane is an entirely unknown process. The three receptors have been shown to operate mostly in a redundant fashion, and very few specific roles have been attributed to single receptors. Using a forward genetic approach, we isolated constitutively active gain-of-function variants of the AHK2 and AHK3 genes, named repressor of cytokinin deficiency2 (rock2) and rock3, respectively...
March 2017: Plant Physiology
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