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Organ size gene plant

Yifeng Xu, Nathanaël Prunet, Eng-Seng Gan, Yanbin Wang, Darragh Stewart, Frank Wellmer, Jiangbo Huang, Nobutoshi Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka Tatsumi, Mikiko Kojima, Takatoshi Kiba, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Thomas P Jack, Elliot M Meyerowitz, Toshiro Ito
Proper floral patterning, including the number and position of floral organs in most plant species, is tightly controlled by the precise regulation of the persistence and size of floral meristems (FMs). In Arabidopsis , two known feedback pathways, one composed of WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3) and the other composed of AGAMOUS (AG) and WUS, spatially and temporally control floral stem cells, respectively. However, mounting evidence suggests that other factors, including phytohormones, are also involved in floral meristem regulation...
May 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
Decai Jin, Xiao Kong, Jie Wang, Jiajun Sun, Xiangyang Yu, Xuliang Zhuang, Ye Deng, Zhihui Bai
A novel Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain 13T , was isolated from an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant in Beijing, China. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed this organism within the genus Chitinophaga of the class Bacteroidetes, with Chitinophaga skermanii CC-SG1B (92.4 % gene sequence similarity) and Chitinophaga rupis CS5-B1 (91.2 %) as its closest relatives. This isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and the whole-cell hydrolysate was ribose...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Guiping Ren, Lingfei Li, Yuhua Huang, Yaqin Wang, Wenbin Zhang, Rouyan Zheng, Chunmei Zhong, Xiaojing Wang
Cell expansion is a key determinant for the final size and shape of plant organ, and is regulated by various phytohormones. Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) consist of a superfamily involved in multiple aspects of organ morphogenesis. However, little is known about WIP-type ZFP function in phytohormone-mediated organ growth. Using reverse genetics, RNA-seq and phytohormone quantification, we elucidated the role of a new WIP-type ZFP from Gerbera hybrida, GhWIP2, in controlling organ growth via regulation of cell expansion...
April 22, 2018: New Phytologist
Richard M Bateman, Jessica J Guy, Paula J Rudall, Ilia J Leitch, Jaume Pellicer, Andrew R Leitch
Background and Aims: Recent tissue-level observations made indirectly via flow cytometry suggest that endoreplication (duplication of the nuclear genome within the nuclear envelope in the absence of subsequent cell division) is widespread within the plant kingdom. Here, we also directly observe ploidy variation among cells within individual petals, relating size of nucleus to cell micromorphology and (more speculatively) to function. Methods: We compared the labella (specialized pollinator-attracting petals) of two European orchid genera: Dactylorhiza has a known predisposition to organismal polyploidy, whereas Ophrys exhibits exceptionally complex epidermal patterning that aids pseudocopulatory pollination...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
Xia Liu, Yuan Li, Hongyuan Yang, Boyang Zhou
The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Talinum paniculatum (Caryophyllale), a source of pharmaceutical efficacy similar to ginseng, and a widely distributed and planted edible vegetable, were sequenced and analyzed. The cp genome size of T. paniculatum is 156,929 bp, with a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,751 bp separated by a large single copy (LSC) region of 86,898 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,529 bp. The genome contains 83 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and four pseudogenes...
April 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
T Cremer, M Cremer, C Cremer
4D nucleome research aims to understand the impact of nuclear organization in space and time on nuclear functions, such as gene expression patterns, chromatin replication, and the maintenance of genome integrity. In this review we describe evidence that the origin of 4D genome compartmentalization can be traced back to the prokaryotic world. In cell nuclei of animals and plants chromosomes occupy distinct territories, built up from ~1 Mb chromatin domains, which in turn are composed of smaller chromatin subdomains and also form larger chromatin domain clusters...
April 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Henning Kirst, Yanxin Shen, Evangelia Vamvaka, Nico Betterle, Dongmei Xu, Ujwala Warek, James A Strickland, Anastasios Melis
Downregulation in the expression of the signal recognition particle 43 (SRP43) gene in tobacco conferred a truncated photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna (TLA property), and resulted in plants with a greater leaf-to-stem ratio, improved photosynthetic productivity and canopy biomass accumulation under high-density cultivation conditions. Evolution of sizable arrays of light-harvesting antennae in all photosynthetic systems confers a survival advantage for the organism in the wild, where sunlight is often the growth-limiting factor...
April 6, 2018: Planta
Stefan Böhmdorfer, Josua Timotheus Oberlerchner, Christina Fuchs, Thomas Rosenau, Heinrich Grausgruber
Background: Anthocyanins are abundant secondary metabolites responsible for most blue to blue-black, and red to purple colors of various plant organs. In wheat grains, anthocyanins are accumulated in the pericarp and/or aleurone layer. Anthocyanin pigmented wheat grains can be processed into functional foods with potential health benefits due to the antioxidant properties of the anthocyanins. The grain anthocyanin content can be increased by pyramidizing the different genes responsible for the accumulation of anthocyanins in the different grain layers...
2018: Plant Methods
Kangquan Yin, Yue Zhang, Yuejuan Li, Fang K Du
Quercus is an economically important and phylogenetically complex genus in the family Fagaceae. Due to extensive hybridization and introgression, it is considered to be one of the most challenging plant taxa, both taxonomically and phylogenetically. Quercus aquifolioides is an evergreen sclerophyllous oak species that is endemic to, but widely distributed across, the Hengduanshan Biodiversity Hotspot in the Eastern Himalayas. Here, we compared the fully assembled chloroplast (cp) genome of Q. aquifolioides with those of three closely related species...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Faride Asgari, Ahmad Majd, Parissa Jonoubi, Farzaneh Najafi
Nowadays, nanoparticles are extensively being utilized in medicine, industry, and agriculture thus distributed into the environment. Hence, it is essential to examine exactly the impact of these materials on a variety of organisms, including various species of plants. Therefore, in the current study, we compared the effects of sodium silicate and nano silicon (SiNP) (both at two concentrations of 5 and 10 mM) separately on lignification of the xylem cell wall, antioxidant enzyme activities, ultrastructure of leaf and root cells, expression of silicon transporter (Lsi1) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and also evaluated the protein content and chemical content of oat plants (Avena sativa L...
March 20, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Gileung Lee, Kang-Ie Lee, Yunjoo Lee, Backki Kim, Dongryung Lee, Jeonghwan Seo, Su Jang, Joong Hyoun Chin, Hee-Jong Koh
The split-hull phenotype caused by reduced lemma width and low lignin content is under control of SPH encoding a type-2 13-lipoxygenase and contributes to high dehulling efficiency. Rice hulls consist of two bract-like structures, the lemma and palea. The hull is an important organ that helps to protect seeds from environmental stress, determines seed shape, and ensures grain filling. Achieving optimal hull size and morphology is beneficial for seed development. We characterized the split-hull (sph) mutant in rice, which exhibits hull splitting in the interlocking part between lemma and palea and/or the folded part of the lemma during the grain filling stage...
March 21, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
M A Filyushin, M A Slugin, E A Dzhos, E Z Kochieva, A V Shchennikova
The interspecific polymorphism and the expression patterns of the genes encoding the YABBY1 and YABBY3 transcription factors of cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and wild species S. chmielewskii, S. peruvianum, and S. habrochaites are characterized. The possibility of an inverse relationship between the level of YABBY1 and YABBY3 genes coexpression and the size of leaves and flowers of the tomato species studied is shown. The phylogeny of the genes suggests an earlier emergence of YABBY1 compared to YABBY3 as well as the origin of these paralogs from a common ancestor before the divergence of dicotyledonous plants into Rosids and Asterids...
January 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Sung Don Lim, Won Choel Yim, Degao Liu, Rongbin Hu, Xiaohan Yang, John C Cushman
Strategies for improving plant size are critical targets for plant biotechnology to increase vegetative biomass or reproductive yield. To improve biomass production, a codon-optimized helix-loop-helix transcription factor (VvCEB1opt ) from wine grape was overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana resulting in significantly increased leaf number, leaf and rosette area, fresh weight and dry weight. Cell size, but typically not cell number, was increased in all tissues resulting in increased vegetative biomass and reproductive organ size, number and seed yield...
March 9, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Fernanda P Cid, Fumito Maruyama, Kazunori Murase, Steffen P Graether, Giovanni Larama, Leon A Bravo, Milko A Jorquera
Genome analyses are being used to characterize plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria living in different plant compartiments. In this context, we have recently isolated bacteria from the phyllosphere of an Antarctic plant (Deschampsia antarctica) showing ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI), an activity related to the presence of antifreeze proteins (AFPs). In this study, the draft genomes of six phyllospheric bacteria showing IRI activity were sequenced and annotated according to their functional gene categories...
May 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Jagdeep Kaur, Swarup Roy Choudhury, Anitha Vijayakumar, Laryssa Hovis, Zach Rhodes, Rob Polzin, Dylan Blumenthal, Sona Pandey
Heterotrimeric G-proteins are key regulators of a multitude of growth and development pathways in eukaryotes. Along with the conserved G-protein components found in all organisms, plants have certain novel variants with unique architecture, which may be involved in the regulation of plant-specific traits. The higher plant-specific type III (or Class C) Gγ protein, which possesses a large C terminal extension, represented by AGG3 in Arabidopsis, is one such variant of canonical Gγ proteins. The type III Gγ proteins are involved in regulation of many agronomically important traits in plants, including seed yield, organ size regulation, abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent signaling and stress responses, and nitrogen use efficiency...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Laura L Lee, Sara E Blumer-Schuette, Javier A Izquierdo, Jeffrey V Zurawski, Andrew J Loder, Jonathan M Conway, James G Elkins, Mircea Podar, Alicia Clum, Piet C Jones, Marek J Piatek, Deborah A Weighill, Daniel A Jacobson, Michael W W Adams, Robert M Kelly
Metagenomic data from Obsidian Pool (Yellowstone National Park, USA) and 13 genome sequences were used to reassess genus-wide biodiversity for the extremely thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor The updated core genome contains 1,401 ortholog groups (average genome size for 13 species = 2,516 genes). The pangenome, which remains open with a revised total of 3,493 ortholog groups, encodes a variety of multidomain glycoside hydrolases (GHs). These include three cellulases with GH48 domains that are colocated in the glucan degradation locus (GDL) and are specific determinants for microcrystalline cellulose utilization...
May 1, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ming-Li Wu, Qing Li, Jiang Xu, Xi-Wen Li
Background: Amomum compactum is one of the basic species of the traditional herbal medicine amomi fructus rotundus, with great pharmacology effect. The system position of A. compactum is not clear yet, and the introduction of this plant has been hindered by many plant diseases. However, the correlational molecular studies are relatively scarce. Methods: The total chloroplast (cp) DNA was extracted according to previous studies, and then sequenced by 454 GS FLX Titanium platform...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Xuelin Wang, Feng Cheng, Dekai Rohlsen, Changwei Bi, Chunyan Wang, Yiqing Xu, Suyun Wei, Qiaolin Ye, Tongming Yin, Ning Ye
Although organellar genomes (including chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes) are smaller than nuclear genomes in size and gene number, organellar genomes are very important for the investigation of plant evolution and molecular ecology mechanisms. Few studies have focused on the organellar genomes of horticultural plants. Approximately 1193 chloroplast genomes and 199 mitochondrial genomes of land plants are available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), of which only 39 are from horticultural plants...
2018: Horticulture Research
Daniel C Frailey, Srinivasa R Chaluvadi, Justin N Vaughn, Caroline G Coatney, Jeffrey L Bennetzen
BACKGROUND: The chloroplast genomes (plastome) of most plants are highly conserved in structure, gene content, and gene order. Parasitic plants, including those that are fully photosynthetic, often contain plastome rearrangements. These most notably include gene deletions that result in a smaller plastome size. The nature of gene loss and genome structural rearrangement has been investigated in several parasitic plants, but their timing and contributions to the adaptation of these parasites requires further investigation, especially among the under-studied hemi-parasites...
February 6, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Daniel R Gallie
The initiation of protein synthesis requires the involvement of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4G to promote assembly of the factors needed to recruit a 40S ribosomal subunit to an mRNA. Although many eukaryotes express two eIF4G isoforms that are highly similar, those in plants, referred to as eIF4G and eIFiso4G, are highly divergent in size, sequence, and domain organization. Species of the Brassicaceae and the Cleomaceae also express a divergent eIFiso4G isoform, referred to as eIFiso4G2, not found elsewhere in the plant kingdom...
2018: PloS One
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