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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727079/detection-of-dietary-dna-protein-and-glyphosate-in-meat-milk-and-eggs
#1
A L Van Eenennaam, A E Young
Products such as meat, milk, and eggs from animals that have consumed genetically engineered (GE) feed are not currently subject to mandatory GE labeling requirements. Some voluntary "non-genetically modified organism" labeling has been associated with such products, indicating that the animals were not fed GE crops, as there are no commercialized GE food animals. This review summarizes the available scientific literature on the detection of dietary DNA and protein in animal products and briefly discusses the implications of mandatory GE labeling for products from animals that have consumed GE feed...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686626/big-leaf-is-a-regulator-of-organ-size-and-adventitious-root-formation-in-poplar
#2
Yordan S Yordanov, Cathleen Ma, Elena Yordanova, Richard Meilan, Steven H Strauss, Victor B Busov
Here we report the discovery through activation tagging and subsequent characterization of the BIG LEAF (BL) gene from poplar. In poplar, BL regulates leaf size via positively affecting cell proliferation. Up and downregulation of the gene led to increased and decreased leaf size, respectively, and these phenotypes corresponded to increased and decreased cell numbers. BL function encompasses the early stages of leaf development as native BL expression was specific to the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia and was absent from the later stages of leaf development and other organs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680437/knots-untie-molecular-determinants-involved-in-knot-formation-induced-by-pseudomonas-savastanoi-in-woody-hosts
#3
REVIEW
Eloy Caballo-Ponce, Jesús Murillo, Marta Martínez-Gil, Alba Moreno-Pérez, Adrián Pintado, Cayo Ramos
The study of the molecular basis of tree diseases is lately receiving a renewed attention, especially with the emerging perception that pathogens require specific pathogenicity and virulence factors to successfully colonize woody hosts. Pathosystems involving woody plants are notoriously difficult to study, although the use of model bacterial strains together with genetically homogeneous micropropagated plant material is providing a significant impetus to our understanding of the molecular determinants leading to disease...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624850/the-plant-lim-proteins-unlocking-the-hidden-attractions
#4
REVIEW
Vikas Srivastava, Praveen Kumar Verma
The plant LIMs comprise two sub-families with one (DA1/DAR) and two (2LIM) LIM domains. This review comprehensively discussed the structure and potential role of this protein family in diverse area of plant biology. The description of first eukaryote lineage-specific plant LIM domain (LIN11, ISL1, and MEC3) proteins was observed in Helianthus long back. The successive study of LIM proteins in diverse plants has shown its vital relation to development, metabolism and defence. This nascent gene family has been worked out for their role in actin dynamics, organ size determination and transcription regulation...
June 17, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622431/loss-of-cdkc-2-increases-both-cell-division-and-drought-tolerance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#5
Lina Zhao, Yaqiong Li, Qi Xie, Yaorong Wu
Drought stress is one of the abiotic stresses that limit plant growth and agricultural productivity. To further understand the mechanism of drought tolerance and identify the genes involved in this process, a genetic screen for altered drought response was conducted in Arabidopsis. One mutant with enhanced drought tolerance was isolated and named Arabidopsis drought tolerance mutant 1 (atdtm1), which has larger lateral organs, prolonged growth duration, increased relative water content and a reduced leaf stomatal density compared with the wild type...
June 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601077/structure-of-plastid-genomes-of-photosynthetic-eukaryotes
#6
REVIEW
N P Yurina, L S Sharapova, M S Odintsova
This review presents current views on the plastid genomes of higher plants and summarizes data on the size, structural organization, gene content, and other features of plastid DNAs. Special emphasis is placed on the properties of organization of land plant plastid genomes (nucleoids) that distinguish them from bacterial genomes. The prospects of genetic engineering of chloroplast genomes are discussed.
June 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578397/donor-and-recipient-contribution-to-phenotypic-traits-and-the-expression-of-biomineralisation-genes-in-the-pearl-oyster-model-pinctada-margaritifera
#7
Carole Blay, Serge Planes, Chin-Long Ky
Grafting associates two distinct genotypes, each of which maintains its own genetic identity throughout the life of the grafted organism. Grafting technology is well documented in the plant kingdom, but much less so in animals. The pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, produces valuable pearls as a result of the biomineralisation process of a mantle graft from a donor inserted together with a nucleus into the gonad of a recipient oyster. To explore the respective roles of donor and recipient in pearl formation, a uniform experimental graft was designed using donor and recipient oysters monitored for their growth traits...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570666/loose-panicle1-encoding-a-novel-wrky-transcription-factor-regulates-panicle-development-stem-elongation-and-seed-size-in-foxtail-millet-setaria-italica-l-p-beauv
#8
Jishan Xiang, Sha Tang, Hui Zhi, Guanqing Jia, Huajun Wang, Xianmin Diao
Panicle development is an important agronomic trait that aids in determining crop productivity. Foxtail millet and its wild ancestor green foxtail have recently been used as model systems to dissect gene functions. Here, we characterized a recessive mutant of foxtail millet, loose-panicle 1 (lp1), which showed pleiotropic phenotypes, such as a lax primary branching pattern, aberrant branch morphology, semi-dwarfism, and enlarged seed size. The loose panicle phenotype was attributed to increased panicle lengths and decreased primary branch numbers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561788/comprehensive-characterization-for-ginsenosides-biosynthesis-in-ginseng-root-by-integration-analysis-of-chemical-and-transcriptome
#9
Jing-Jing Zhang, He Su, Lei Zhang, Bao-Sheng Liao, Shui-Ming Xiao, Lin-Lin Dong, Zhi-Gang Hu, Ping Wang, Xi-Wen Li, Zhi-Hai Huang, Zhi-Ming Gao, Lian-Juan Zhang, Liang Shen, Rui-Yang Cheng, Jiang Xu, Shi-Lin Chen
Herbgenomics provides a global platform to explore the genetics and biology of herbs on the genome level. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is an important medicinal plant with numerous pharmaceutical effects. Previous reports mainly discussed the transcriptome of ginseng at the organ level. However, based on mass spectrometry imaging analyses, the ginsenosides varied among different tissues. In this work, ginseng root was separated into three tissues-periderm, cortex and stele-each for five duplicates. The chemical analysis and transcriptome analysis were conducted simultaneously...
May 31, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557341/over-expression-of-mutated-zmda1-or-zmdar1-gene-improves-maize-kernel-yield-by-enhancing-starch-synthesis
#10
Guangning Xie, Zhaoxia Li, Qijun Ran, Hui Wang, Juren Zhang
Grain weight and grain number are important crop yield determinants. DA1 and DAR1 are the ubiquitin receptors that function as the negative regulators of cell proliferation during development in Arabidopsis. An arginine to lysine mutant at amino acid site 358 could lead to the da1-1 phenotype, which results in an increased organ size and larger seeds. In this study, the mutated ZmDA1 (Zmda1) and mutated ZmDAR1 (Zmdar1) driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter was separately introduced into maize elite inbred line DH4866...
May 29, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549175/selfing-in-haploid-plants-and-efficacy-of-selection-codon-usage-bias-in-the-model-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#11
Péter Szövényi, Kristian K Ullrich, Stefan A Rensing, Daniel Lang, Nico van Gessel, Hans K Stenøien, Elena Conti, Ralf Reski
Long term reduction in effective population size will lead to major shift in genome evolution. In particular, when effective population size is small, genetic drift becomes dominant over natural selection. The onset of self-fertilization is one evolutionary event considerably reducing effective size of populations. Theory predicts that this reduction should be more dramatic in organisms capable for haploid than for diploid selfing. Although theoretically well-grounded, this assertion received mixed experimental support...
May 26, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490318/integrated-mrna-and-microrna-transcriptome-variations-in-the-multi-tepal-mutant-provide-insights-into-the-floral-patterning-of-the-orchid-cymbidium-goeringii
#12
Fengxi Yang, Genfa Zhu, Zhen Wang, Hailin Liu, Qingquan Xu, Dan Huang, Chaoyi Zhao
BACKGROUND: Cymbidium goeringii is a very famous traditional orchid plant in China, which is well known for its spectacular and diverse flower morphology. In particular, the multi-tepal mutants have considerable ecological and cultural value. However, the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of floral patterning and multi-tepal development is limited. In this study, we performed expression profiling of both microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA from wild-type and typical multi-tepal-mutant flowers of C...
May 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484234/inferring-the-evolutionary-mechanism-of-the-chloroplast-genome-size-by-comparing-whole-chloroplast-genome-sequences-in-seed-plants
#13
Zheng Xiao-Ming, Wang Junrui, Feng Li, Liu Sha, Pang Hongbo, Qi Lan, Li Jing, Sun Yan, Qiao Weihua, Zhang Lifang, Cheng Yunlian, Yang Qingwen
The chloroplast genome originated from photosynthetic organisms and has retained the core genes that mainly encode components of photosynthesis. However, the causes of variations in chloroplast genome size in seed plants have only been thoroughly analyzed within small subsets of spermatophytes. In this study, we conducted the first comparative analysis on a large scale to examine the relationship between sequence characteristics and genome size in 272 seed plants based on cross-species and phylogenetic signal analysis...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428794/fine-mapping-of-a-novel-defective-glume-1-dg1-mutant-which-affects-vegetative-and-spikelet-development-in-rice
#14
Haiping Yu, Banpu Ruan, Zhongwei Wang, Deyong Ren, Yu Zhang, Yujia Leng, Dali Zeng, Jiang Hu, Guangheng Zhang, Li Zhu, Zhenyu Gao, Guang Chen, Longbiao Guo, Wenfu Chen, Qian Qian
In cereal crops, vegetative and spikelet development play important roles in grain yield and quality, but the genetic mechanisms that control vegetative and spikelet development remain poorly understood in rice. Here, we identified a new rice mutant, defective glume 1 (dg1) mutant from cultivar Zhonghua11 after ethyl methanesulfonate treatment. The dg1 mutant displayed the dwarfism with small, rolled leaves, which resulted from smaller cells and more bulliform cells. The dg1 mutant also had an enlarged leaf angle and defects in brassinosteroid signaling...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413433/protoplast-isolation-prior-to-flow-cytometry-reveals-clear-patterns-of-endoreduplication-in-potato-tubers-related-species-and-some-starchy-root-crops
#15
F Parker E Laimbeer, Sarah H Holt, Melissa Makris, Michael Alan Hardigan, C Robin Buell, Richard E Veilleux
BACKGROUND: Endoreduplication, the process of DNA replication in the absence of cell division, is associated with specialized cellular function and increased cell size. Genes controlling endoreduplication in tomato fruit have been shown to affect mature fruit size. An efficient method of estimating endoreduplication is required to study its role in plant organ development. Flow cytometry is often utilized to evaluate endoreduplication, yet some tissues and species, among them the tubers of Solanum tuberosum, remain intractable to routine tissue preparation for flow cytometry...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395169/the-heterologous-expression-of-a-chrysanthemum-tcp-p-transcription-factor-cmtcp14-suppresses-organ-size-and-delays-senescence-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#16
Ting Zhang, Yixin Qu, Haibin Wang, Jingjing Wang, Aiping Song, Yueheng Hu, Sumei Chen, Jiafu Jiang, Fadi Chen
TCP transcription factors are important for plant growth and development, but their activity in chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) has not been thoroughly explored. Here, a chrysanthemum TCP-P sequence, which encodes a protein harboring the conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif, was shown to be related phylogenetically to the Arabidopsis thaliana gene AtTCP14. A yeast-one hybrid assay showed that the encoding protein had no transcriptional activation ability, and a localization experiment indicated that it was localized in the nucleus...
June 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346704/the-chloroplast-rna-helicase-ise2-is-required-for-multiple-chloroplast-rna-processing-steps-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Krzysztof Bobik, Tyra N McCray, Ben Ernest, Jessica C Fernandez, Katharine A Howell, Thomas Lane, Margaret Staton, Tessa M Burch-Smith
INCREASED SIZE EXCLUSION LIMIT2 (ISE2) is a chloroplast-localized RNA helicase that is indispensable for proper plant development. Chloroplasts in leaves with reduced ISE2 expression have previously been shown to exhibit reduced thylakoid contents and increased stromal volume, indicative of defective development. It has recently been reported that ISE2 is required for the splicing of group II introns from chloroplast transcripts. The current study extends these findings, and presents evidence for ISE2's role in multiple aspects of chloroplast RNA processing beyond group II intron splicing...
March 27, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343961/protein-depletion-using-the-arabinose-promoter-in-xanthomonas-citri-subsp-citri
#18
Lilian A Lacerda, Lucia B Cavalca, Paula M M Martins, José S Govone, Maurício Bacci, Henrique Ferreira
Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) is a plant pathogen and the etiological agent of citrus canker, a severe disease that affects all the commercially important citrus varieties, and has worldwide distribution. Citrus canker cannot be healed, and the best method known to control the spread of X. citri in the orchards is the eradication of symptomatic and asymptomatic plants in the field. However, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, the main orange producing area in the world, control is evolving to an integrated management system (IMS) in which growers have to use less susceptible plants, windshields to prevent bacterial spread out and sprays of cupric bactericidal formulations...
March 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335712/exploring-the-evolutionary-origin-of-floral-organs-of-erycina-pusilla-an-emerging-orchid-model-system
#19
Anita Dirks-Mulder, Roland Butôt, Peter van Schaik, Jan Willem P M Wijnands, Roel van den Berg, Louie Krol, Sadhana Doebar, Kelly van Kooperen, Hugo de Boer, Elena M Kramer, Erik F Smets, Rutger A Vos, Alexander Vrijdaghs, Barbara Gravendeel
BACKGROUND: Thousands of flowering plant species attract pollinators without offering rewards, but the evolution of this deceit is poorly understood. Rewardless flowers of the orchid Erycina pusilla have an enlarged median sepal and incised median petal ('lip') to attract oil-collecting bees. These bees also forage on similar looking but rewarding Malpighiaceae flowers that have five unequally sized petals and gland-carrying sepals. The lip of E. pusilla has a 'callus' that, together with winged 'stelidia', mimics these glands...
March 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330566/the-mads-box-gene-slmbp11-regulates-plant-architecture-and-affects-reproductive-development-in-tomato-plants
#20
Xuhu Guo, Guoping Chen, Muhammad Naeem, Xiaohu Yu, Boyan Tang, Anzhou Li, Zongli Hu
MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors that are involved in many biological processes of plants. In the present study, SlMBP11, a member of the AGL15 subfamily, was cloned in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicon M.). SlMBP11 is ubiquitously expressed in all of the tissues we examined, whereas the SlMBP11 transcription levels were significantly higher in reproductive tissues than in vegetative tissues. Plants exhibiting increased SlMBP11 levels displayed reduced plant height, leaf size, and internode length as well as a loss of dominance in young seedlings, highly branched growth from each leaf axil, and increased number of nodes and leaves...
May 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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