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Organ size gene plant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138394/critical-mutation-rate-has-an-exponential-dependence-on-population-size-for-eukaryotic-length-genomes-with-crossover
#1
Elizabeth Aston, Alastair Channon, Roman V Belavkin, Danna R Gifford, Rok Krašovec, Christopher G Knight
The critical mutation rate (CMR) determines the shift between survival-of-the-fittest and survival of individuals with greater mutational robustness ("flattest"). We identify an inverse relationship between CMR and sequence length in an in silico system with a two-peak fitness landscape; CMR decreases to no more than five orders of magnitude above estimates of eukaryotic per base mutation rate. We confirm the CMR reduces exponentially at low population sizes, irrespective of peak radius and distance, and increases with the number of genetic crossovers...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134788/thermal-acclimation-in-arabidopsis-lyrata-genotypic-costs-and-transcriptional-changes
#2
Guillaume Wos, Yvonne Willi
Frost and heat events can be challenging for sessile organisms that cannot escape thermal extremes. However, adverse effects of thermal stress on fitness may be reduced by pre-exposure to cold or heat, a process known as acclimation. To understand the ecological and evolutionary implications of acclimation, we investigated (1) the reduction in performance due to stress pre-exposure, (2) the magnitude of increased leaf resistance to subsequent stress, (3) the costs of acclimation, and (4) the genes differing in expression due to stress pre-exposure...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128637/a-mads-box-transcription-factor-of-kuerlexiangli-pyrus-sinkiangensis-yu-psjointless-gene-functions-in-floral-organ-abscission
#3
Xiaoxiao Qi, Shi Hu, Hongsheng Zhou, Xing Liu, Lifen Wang, Biying Zhao, Xiaosan Huang, Shaoling Zhang
MADS-box proteins have been implicated in many biological processes. However, plant MADS-box proteins functioning in floral organ abscission and the underlying physiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of PsJOINTLESS isolated from 'Kuerlexiangli'. PsJOINTLESS had a complete open reading frame of 672bp, encoding a 224 amino acid peptide, and shared high sequence identities with MADS-box from other plants. PsJOINTLESS was subcellularly targeted to the nucleus, supporting its role as a transcription factor...
November 8, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101279/extreme-suppression-of-lateral-floret-development-by-a-single-amino-acid-change-in-the-vrs1-transcription-factor
#4
Shun Sakuma, Udda Lundqvist, Yusuke Kakei, Venkatasubbu Thirulogachandar, Takako Suzuki, Kiyosumi Hori, Jianzhong Wu, Akemi Tagiri, Twan Rutten, Ravi Koppolu, Yukihisa Shimada, Kelly Houston, William T B Thomas, Robbie Waugh, Thorsten Schnurbusch, Takao Komatsuda
Increasing grain yield is an endless challenge for cereal crop breeding. In barley, grain number is mainly controlled by Six-rowed spike 1 (Vrs1) that encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper class I transcription factor. However, little is known about the genetic basis of grain size. Here we show that extreme suppression of lateral florets contributes to enlarged grains in deficiens barley. Through a combination of fine mapping and resequencing deficiens mutants we have identified that a single amino acid substitution at a putative phosphorylation site in VRS1 is responsible for the deficiens phenotype...
November 3, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079634/small-rna-mediated-regulation-of-dna-dosage-in-the-ciliate-oxytricha
#5
Jaspreet S Khurana, Derek Clay, Sandrine Moreira, Xing Wang, Laura F Landweber
Dicer-dependent small non-coding RNAs play important roles in gene regulation in a wide variety of organisms. Endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are part of an ancient pathway of transposon control in plants and animals. The ciliate, Oxytricha trifallax, has approximately 16,000 gene-sized chromosomes in its somatic nucleus. Long non-coding RNAs establish high ploidy levels at the onset of sexual development, but the factors that regulate chromosome copy numbers during cell division and growth have been a mystery...
October 27, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075872/cloning-and-characterization-of-a-monoterpene-synthase-gene-from-flowers-of-camelina-sativa
#6
Monica Borghi, De-Yu Xie
CsTPS1 encodes for a monoterpene synthase that contributes to the emission of a blend of volatile compounds emitted from flowers of Camelina sativa. The work describes the in vitro characterization of a monoterpene synthase and its regulatory region that we cloned from Camelina sativa (Camelina). Here, we named this gene as C. sativa terpene synthase 1 (CsTPS1). In vitro experiments performed with the CsTPS1 protein after expression and purification from Escherichia coli (E. coli) showed production of a blend of monoterpene volatile organic compounds, of which the emission was also detected in the floral bouquet of wild-type Camelina plants...
October 26, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075273/the-peach-rgf-glv-signaling-peptide-pctg134-is-involved-in-a-regulatory-circuit-that-sustains-auxin-and-ethylene-actions
#7
Nicola Busatto, Umberto Salvagnin, Francesca Resentini, Silvia Quaresimin, Lorella Navazio, Oriano Marin, Maria Pellegrini, Fabrizio Costa, Dale F Mierke, Livio Trainotti
In vascular plants the cell-to-cell interactions coordinating morphogenetic and physiological processes are mediated, among others, by the action of hormones, among which also short mobile peptides were recognized to have roles as signals. Such peptide hormones (PHs) are involved in defense responses, shoot and root growth, meristem homeostasis, organ abscission, nutrient signaling, hormone crosstalk and other developmental processes and act as both short and long distant ligands. In this work, the function of CTG134, a peach gene encoding a ROOT GROWTH FACTOR/GOLVEN-like PH expressed in mesocarp at the onset of ripening, was investigated for its role in mediating an auxin-ethylene crosstalk...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072548/isolation-of-mutants-with-abnormal-petal-epidermal-cell-morphology
#8
Adam M Saffer, Vivian F Irish
Plants consist of many different cell types with specific shapes optimized for their particular functions. For example, most flowering plants have conically shaped epidermal cells on the upper surface of their petals that are important for pollinator attraction. The control of cell morphology in organs such as roots and leaves has been extensively studied, but much less is known about the genes that promote conical expansion of petal epidermal cells. We have developed a technique to rapidly assay the morphology of conical petal epidermal cells, and we employed this method in an unbiased genetic screen to identify mutants that alter the development of these cells...
October 26, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071363/inter-laboratory-analysis-of-selected-genetically-modified-plant-reference-materials-with-digital-pcr
#9
David Dobnik, Tina Demšar, Ingrid Huber, Lars Gerdes, Sylvia Broeders, Nancy Roosens, Frederic Debode, Gilbert Berben, Jana Žel
Digital PCR (dPCR), as a new technology in the field of genetically modified (GM) organism (GMO) testing, enables determination of absolute target copy numbers. The purpose of our study was to test the transferability of methods designed for quantitative PCR (qPCR) to dPCR and to carry out an inter-laboratory comparison of the performance of two different dPCR platforms when determining the absolute GM copy numbers and GM copy number ratio in reference materials certified for GM content in mass fraction. Overall results in terms of measured GM% were within acceptable variation limits for both tested dPCR systems...
October 25, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036337/a-collection-of-mutants-for-cle-peptide-encoding-genes-in-arabidopsis-generated-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-targeting
#10
Yasuka L Yamaguchi, Takashi Ishida, Mika Yoshimura, Yuko Imamura, Chie Shimaoka, Shinichiro Sawa
The ligand-receptor-mediated intercellular communication system plays important roles in coordinating developmental and physiological events in multicellular organisms. In plants, CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) peptides and their cognate receptors are thought to be involved in various aspects of the plant life cycle. Although the importance of this communication is broadly recognized, most CLE peptides are yet to be functionally characterized. A major problem in research on small signaling peptide-encoding genes is the limited number of loss-of-function mutants available due to their small gene size...
November 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939837/physiological-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-heteromorphic-leaves-and-hydrophilic-roots-in-response-to-soil-drying-in-desert-populus-euphratica
#11
Arshad Iqbal, Tianxiang Wang, Guodong Wu, Wensi Tang, Chen Zhu, Dapeng Wang, Yi Li, Huafang Wang
Populus euphratica Olivier, which has been considered as a tree model for the study of higher plant response to abiotic stresses, survive in the desert ecosystem characterized by extreme drought stress. To survive in the harsh environmental condition the plant species have developed some plasticity such as the development of heteromorphic leaves and well-developed roots system. We investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms enabling this species to cope with severe stress caused by drought. The heterophylly, evolved from linear to toothed-ovate shape, showed the significant difference in cuticle thickness, stomata densities, and sizes...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934292/hawaiian-skirt-controls-size-and-floral-organ-number-by-modulating-cuc1-and-cuc2-expression
#12
Zinnia H González-Carranza, Xuebin Zhang, Janny L Peters, Veronique Boltz, Judit Szecsi, Mohammed Bendahmane, Jeremy A Roberts
The Arabidopsis thaliana F-box gene HAWAIIAN SKIRT (HWS) affects organ growth and the timing of floral organ abscission. The loss-of-function hws-1 mutant exhibits fused sepals and increased organ size. To understand the molecular mechanisms of HWS during plant development, we mutagenized hws-1 seeds with ethylmethylsulphonate (EMS) and screened for mutations suppressing hws-1 associated phenotypes. We isolated the shs1/hws-1 (suppressor of hws-1) mutant in which hws-1 sepal fusion phenotype was suppressed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922745/big-brother-uncouples-cell-proliferation-from-elongation-in-the-arabidopsis-primary-root
#13
Pietro Cattaneo, Christian S Hardtke
Plant organ size is sensitive to environmental conditions, but is also limited by hardwired genetic constraints. In Arabidopsis, a few organ size regulators have been identified. Among them, the BIG BROTHER (BB) gene has a prominent role in the determination of flower organ and leaf size. BB loss-of-function mutations result in a prolonged proliferation phase during leaf(-like) organ formation, and consequently larger leaves, petals and sepals. Whether BB has a similar role in root growth is unknown. Here we describe a novel bb allele which carries a P235L point mutation in the BB RING finger domain...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836669/vacuolar-processing-enzyme-4-contributes-to-maternal-control-of-grain-size-in-barley-by-executing-programmed-cell-death-in-the-pericarp
#14
Volodymyr Radchuk, Van Tran, Ruslana Radchuk, Mercedes Diaz-Mendoza, Diana Weier, Joerg Fuchs, David Riewe, Goetz Hensel, Jochen Kumlehn, Eberhard Munz, Nicolas Heinzel, Hardy Rolletschek, Manuel Martinez, Ljudmilla Borisjuk
The angiosperm embryo and endosperm are limited in space because they grow inside maternal seed tissues. The elimination of cell layers of the maternal seed coat by programmed cell death (PCD) could provide space and nutrition to the filial organs. Using the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed as a model, we elucidated the role of vacuolar processing enzyme 4 (VPE4) in cereals by using an RNAi approach and targeting the enzymatic properties of the recombinant protein. A comparative characterization of transgenic versus wild-type plants included transcriptional and metabolic profiling, flow cytometry, histology and nuclear magnetic imaging of grains...
August 24, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833173/disruption-of-stomatal-lineage-signaling-or-transcriptional-regulators-has-differential-effects-on-mesophyll-development-but-maintains-coordination-of-gas-exchange
#15
Graham J Dow, Joseph A Berry, Dominique C Bergmann
Stomata are simultaneously tasked with permitting the uptake of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis while limiting water loss from the plant. This process is mainly regulated by guard cell control of the stomatal aperture, but recent advancements have highlighted the importance of several genes that control stomatal development. Using targeted genetic manipulations of the stomatal lineage and a combination of gas exchange and microscopy techniques, we show that changes in stomatal development of the epidermal layer lead to coupled changes in the underlying mesophyll tissues...
October 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820899/two-disjunct-pleistocene-populations-and-anisotropic-postglacial-expansion-shaped-the-current-genetic-structure-of-the-relict-plant-amborella-trichopoda
#16
Rémi Tournebize, Stéphanie Manel, Yves Vigouroux, François Munoz, Alexandre de Kochko, Valérie Poncet
Past climate fluctuations shaped the population dynamics of organisms in space and time, and have impacted their present intra-specific genetic structure. Demo-genetic modelling allows inferring the way past demographic and migration dynamics have determined this structure. Amborella trichopoda is an emblematic relict plant endemic to New Caledonia, widely distributed in the understory of non-ultramafic rainforests. We assessed the influence of the last glacial climates on the demographic history and the paleo-distribution of 12 Amborella populations covering the whole current distribution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755910/reprint-of-fast-and-sensitive-in-vivo-studies-under-controlled-environmental-conditions-to-substitute-long-term-field-trials-with-genetically-modified-plants
#17
Patricia Horn, André Schlichting, Christel Baum, Ute Hammesfahr, Sören Thiele-Bruhn, Peter Leinweber, Inge Broer
We introduce an easy, fast and effective method to analyze the influence of genetically modified (GM) plants on soil and model organisms in the laboratory to substitute laborious and time consuming field trials. For the studies described here we focused on two GM plants of the so-called 3rd generation: GM plants producing pharmaceuticals (PMP) and plant made industrials (PMI). Cyanophycin synthetase (cphA) was chosen as model for PMI and Choleratoxin B (CTB) as model for PMP. The model genes are expressed in transgenic roots of composite Vicia hirsuta plants grown in petri dishes for semi-sterile growth or small containers filled with non-sterile soil...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727079/detection-of-dietary-dna-protein-and-glyphosate-in-meat-milk-and-eggs
#18
A L Van Eenennaam, A E Young
Products such as meat, milk, and eggs from animals that have consumed genetically engineered (GE) feed are not currently subject to mandatory GE labeling requirements. Some voluntary "non-genetically modified organism" labeling has been associated with such products, indicating that the animals were not fed GE crops, as there are no commercialized GE food animals. This review summarizes the available scientific literature on the detection of dietary DNA and protein in animal products and briefly discusses the implications of mandatory GE labeling for products from animals that have consumed GE feed...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686626/big-leaf-is-a-regulator-of-organ-size-and-adventitious-root-formation-in-poplar
#19
Yordan S Yordanov, Cathleen Ma, Elena Yordanova, Richard Meilan, Steven H Strauss, Victor B Busov
Here we report the discovery through activation tagging and subsequent characterization of the BIG LEAF (BL) gene from poplar. In poplar, BL regulates leaf size via positively affecting cell proliferation. Up and downregulation of the gene led to increased and decreased leaf size, respectively, and these phenotypes corresponded to increased and decreased cell numbers. BL function encompasses the early stages of leaf development as native BL expression was specific to the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia and was absent from the later stages of leaf development and other organs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680437/knots-untie-molecular-determinants-involved-in-knot-formation-induced-by-pseudomonas-savastanoi-in-woody-hosts
#20
REVIEW
Eloy Caballo-Ponce, Jesús Murillo, Marta Martínez-Gil, Alba Moreno-Pérez, Adrián Pintado, Cayo Ramos
The study of the molecular basis of tree diseases is lately receiving a renewed attention, especially with the emerging perception that pathogens require specific pathogenicity and virulence factors to successfully colonize woody hosts. Pathosystems involving woody plants are notoriously difficult to study, although the use of model bacterial strains together with genetically homogeneous micropropagated plant material is providing a significant impetus to our understanding of the molecular determinants leading to disease...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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