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Organ size gene plant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091587/bacillus-volatiles-adversely-affect-the-physiology-and-ultra-structure-of-ralstonia-solanacearum-and-induce-systemic-resistance-in-tobacco-against-bacterial-wilt
#1
Hafiz Abdul Samad Tahir, Qin Gu, Huijun Wu, Yuedi Niu, Rong Huo, Xuewen Gao
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by various bacteria have significant potential to enhance plant growth and to control phytopathogens. Six of the most effective antagonistic Bacillus spp. were used in this study against Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsc) TBBS1, the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease in tobacco. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and Bacillus artrophaeus LSSC22 had the strongest inhibitory effect against Rsc. Thirteen VOCs produced by FZB42 and 10 by LSSC22 were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071749/tomato-progeny-inherit-resistance-to-the-nematode-meloidogyne-javanica-linked-to-plant-growth-induced-by-the-biocontrol-fungus-trichoderma-atroviride
#2
Hugo Agripino de Medeiros, Jerônimo Vieira de Araújo Filho, Leandro Grassi de Freitas, Pablo Castillo, María Belén Rubio, Rosa Hermosa, Enrique Monte
Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are major crop pathogens worldwide. Trichoderma genus fungi are recognized biocontrol agents and a direct activity of Trichoderma atroviride (Ta) against the RKN Meloidogyne javanica (Mj), in terms of 42% reduction of number of galls (NG), 60% of number of egg masses and 90% of number of adult nematodes inside the roots, has been observed in tomato grown under greenhouse conditions. An in vivo split-root designed experiment served to demonstrate that Ta induces systemic resistance towards Mj, without the need for the organisms to be in direct contact, and significantly reduces NG (20%) and adult nematodes inside tomato roots (87%)...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069545/small-organ-size-1-and-small-organ-size-2-dwarf-and-low-tillering-form-a-complex-to-integrate-auxin-and-brassinosteroid-signaling-in-rice
#3
Ko Hirano, Hideki Yoshida, Koichiro Aya, Mayuko Kawamura, Makoto Hayashi, Tokunori Hobo, Kanna Sato-Izawa, Hidemi Kitano, Miyako Ueguchi-Tanaka, Makoto Matsuoka
Although auxin and brassinosteroid (BR) synergistically control various plant responses, the underlying molecular mechanism of auxin-BR crosstalk is not well understood. We previously identified SMOS1, an auxin-regulated APETALA2-type transcription factor (TF), as the causal gene of the small organ size 1 (smos1) mutant that is characterized by a decreased final size of various organs. In this study we identified another smos mutant, smos2, which shows a phenotype indistinguishable from smos1. SMOS2 was identical to the previously reported DWARF AND LOW-TILLERING (DLT), which encodes a GRAS protein involved in BR signaling...
January 6, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068913/microrna-157-targeted-spl-genes-regulate-floral-organ-size-and-ovule-production-in-cotton
#4
Nian Liu, Lili Tu, Lichen Wang, Haiyan Hu, Jiao Xu, Xianlong Zhang
BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs) have been involved in regulation of diverse spectrum of plant development processes in many species. In cotton, few miRNAs have been well characterised in floral organ development. Floral organ, which should be finely tuned, is a crucial factor affecting the yield of cotton. Therefore, it is well worth revealing the function of miRNAs in regulation of floral organ development. Here, we report the role of miRNA156/157 in regulation of floral organ size in cotton...
January 10, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028460/life-history-and-past-demography-maintain-genetic-structure-outcrossing-rate-contemporary-pollen-gene-flow-of-an-understory-herb-in-a-highly-fragmented-rainforest
#5
Pilar Suárez-Montes, Mariana Chávez-Pesqueira, Juan Núñez-Farfán
INTRODUCTION: Theory predicts that habitat fragmentation, by reducing population size and increasing isolation among remnant populations, can alter their genetic diversity and structure. A cascade of effects is expected: genetic drift and inbreeding after a population bottleneck, changes in biotic interactions that may affect, as in the case of plants, pollen dynamics, mating system, reproductive success. The detection of the effects of contemporary habitat fragmentation on the genetic structure of populations are conditioned by the magnitude of change, given the few number of generations since the onset of fragmentation, especially for long-lived organisms...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024298/genome-sequence-and-genetic-diversity-of-european-ash-trees
#6
Elizabeth S A Sollars, Andrea L Harper, Laura J Kelly, Christine M Sambles, Ricardo H Ramirez-Gonzalez, David Swarbreck, Gemy Kaithakottil, Endymion D Cooper, Cristobal Uauy, Lenka Havlickova, Gemma Worswick, David J Studholme, Jasmin Zohren, Deborah L Salmon, Bernardo J Clavijo, Yi Li, Zhesi He, Alison Fellgett, Lea Vig McKinney, Lene Rostgaard Nielsen, Gerry C Douglas, Erik Dahl Kjær, J Allan Downie, David Boshier, Steve Lee, Jo Clark, Murray Grant, Ian Bancroft, Mario Caccamo, Richard J A Buggs
Ash trees (genus Fraxinus, family Oleaceae) are widespread throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but are being devastated in Europe by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, causing ash dieback, and in North America by the herbivorous beetle Agrilus planipennis. Here we sequence the genome of a low-heterozygosity Fraxinus excelsior tree from Gloucestershire, UK, annotating 38,852 protein-coding genes of which 25% appear ash specific when compared with the genomes of ten other plant species. Analyses of paralogous genes suggest a whole-genome duplication shared with olive (Olea europaea, Oleaceae)...
December 26, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018385/chloroplast-genome-sequence-of-pigeonpea-cajanus-cajan-l-millspaugh-and-cajanus-scarabaeoides-l-thouars-genome-organization-and-comparison-with-other-legumes
#7
Tanvi Kaila, Pavan K Chaduvla, Swati Saxena, Kaushlendra Bahadur, Santosh J Gahukar, Ashok Chaudhury, T R Sharma, N K Singh, Kishor Gaikwad
Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh), a diploid (2n = 22) legume crop with a genome size of 852 Mbp, serves as an important source of human dietary protein especially in South East Asian and African regions. In this study, the draft chloroplast genomes of Cajanus cajan and Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) Thouars were generated. Cajanus scarabaeoides is an important species of the Cajanus gene pool and has also been used for developing promising CMS system by different groups. A male sterile genotype harboring the C...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018377/an-lrr-malectin-receptor-like-kinase-mediates-resistance-to-non-adapted-and-adapted-powdery-mildew-fungi-in-barley-and-wheat
#8
Jeyaraman Rajaraman, Dimitar Douchkov, Götz Hensel, Francesca L Stefanato, Anna Gordon, Nelzo Ereful, Octav F Caldararu, Andrei-Jose Petrescu, Jochen Kumlehn, Lesley A Boyd, Patrick Schweizer
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) belonging to the multigene family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are the sensing devices of plants for microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns released from microbial organisms. Here we describe Rnr8 (for Required for non-host resistance 8) encoding HvLEMK1, a LRR-malectin domain-containing transmembrane RLK that mediates non-host resistance of barley to the non-adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Transgenic barley lines with silenced HvLEMK1 allow entry and colony growth of the non-adapted pathogen, although sporulation was reduced and final colony size did not reach that of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus B...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011129/fast-and-sensitive-in-vivo-studies-under-controlled-environmental-conditions-to-substitute-long-term-field-trials-with-genetically-modified-plants
#9
Patricia Horn, André Schlichting, Christel Baum, Ute Hammesfahr, Sören Thiele-Bruhn, Peter Leinweber, Inge Broer
We introduce an easy, fast and effective method to analyze the influence of genetically modified (GM) plants on soil and model organisms in the laboratory to substitute laborious and time consuming field trials. For the studies described here we focused on two GM plants of the so-called 3rd generation: GM plants producing pharmaceuticals (PMP) and plant made industrials (PMI). Cyanophycin synthetase (cphA) was chosen as model for PMI and Choleratoxin B (CTB) as model for PMP. The model genes are expressed in transgenic roots of composite Vicia hirsuta plants grown in petri dishes for semi-sterile growth or small containers filled with non-sterile soil...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003326/forever-young-the-role-of-ubiquitin-receptor-da1-and-e3-ligase-big-brother-in-controlling-leaf-growth-and-development
#10
Hannes Vanhaeren, Youn-Jeong Nam, Liesbeth De Milde, Eunyoung Chae, Véronique Storme, Detlef Weigel, Nathalie Gonzalez, Dirk Inzé
The final size of plant organs is determined by a combination of cell proliferation and cell expansion. Leaves account for a large part of above-ground biomass and provide energy to complete the plant's life cycle. Although the final size of leaves is remarkably constant under fixed environmental conditions, several genes have been described to enhance leaf growth when their expression is modulated. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutations in DA1 and BB increase leaf size, an effect which is synergistically enhanced in the double mutant...
December 21, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999174/the-histone-deubiquitinase-otld1-targets-euchromatin-to-regulate-plant-growth
#11
Ido Keren, Vitaly Citovsky
Histone monoubiquitination is associated with active chromatin and plays an important role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression in plants. Deubiquitinating enzymes remove the ubiquitin group from histones and thereby contribute to gene repression. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 50 deubiquitinases, yet only 2 of them-UBP26 and OTLD1, members of the USP/UBP (ubiquitin-specific protease and ubiquitin-binding protein) and OTU (ovarian tumor protease) deubiquitinase families-are known to target histones...
December 20, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998811/plant-proteins-are-smaller-because-they-are-encoded-by-fewer-exons-than-animal-proteins
#12
Obed Ramírez-Sánchez, Paulino Pérez-Rodríguez, Luis Delaye, Axel Tiessen
Protein size is an important biochemical feature since longer proteins can harbor more domains and therefore can display more biological functionalities than shorter proteins. We found remarkable differences in protein length, exon structure, and domain count among different phylogenetic lineages. While eukaryotic proteins have an average size of 472 amino acid residues (aa), average protein sizes in plant genomes are smaller than those of animals and fungi. Proteins unique to plants are ∼81aa shorter than plant proteins conserved among other eukaryotic lineages...
December 2016: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994177/cytological-behaviour-of-floral-organs-and-in-silico-characterization-of-differentially-expressed-transcript-derived-fragments-associated-with-floral-bud-distortion-in-soybean
#13
Prashant B Kale, Pravin V Jadhav, Rachana S Wakekar, M P Moharil, A G Deshmukh, M S Dudhare, R S Nandanwar, S S Mane, J G Manjaya, R G Dani
An attempt was made to understand the 'floral bud distortion' (FBD), an unexplored disorder prevailing in soybean. Cytological behaviour of floral reproductive organs and in silico characterization of differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in symptomatic and asymptomatic soybean plants were carried out. Pollens in asymptomatic plants do not have defects in number, size, shape and function. However, in symptomatic plant, pollens were found nonviable, abnormal in shape and with reduced germination ability...
December 2016: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964787/curd-development-associated-gene-cdag1-in-cauliflower-brassica-oleracea-l-var-botrytis-could-result-in-enlarged-organ-size-and-increased-biomass
#14
Hui Li, Qian Liu, Qingli Zhang, Erjun Qin, Chuan Jin, Yu Wang, Mei Wu, Guangshuang Shen, Chengbin Chen, Wenqin Song, Chunguo Wang
The curd is a specialized organ and the most important product organ of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis). However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of curd formation and development remains largely unknown. In the present study, a novel homologous gene containing the Organ Size Related (OSR) domain, namely, CDAG1 (Curd Development Associated Gene 1) was identified in cauliflower. Quantitative analysis indicated that CDAG1 showed significantly higher transcript levels in young tissues...
January 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940610/rpan-rice-pan-genome-browser-for-%C3%A2-3000-rice-genomes
#15
Chen Sun, Zhiqiang Hu, Tianqing Zheng, Kuangchen Lu, Yue Zhao, Wensheng Wang, Jianxin Shi, Chunchao Wang, Jinyuan Lu, Dabing Zhang, Zhikang Li, Chaochun Wei
A pan-genome is the union of the gene sets of all the individuals of a clade or a species and it provides a new dimension of genome complexity with the presence/absence variations (PAVs) of genes among these genomes. With the progress of sequencing technologies, pan-genome study is becoming affordable for eukaryotes with large-sized genomes. The Asian cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., is one of the major food sources for the world and a model organism in plant biology. Recently, the 3000 Rice Genome Project (3K RGP) sequenced more than 3000 rice genomes with a mean sequencing depth of 14...
December 10, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936244/gene-expression-and-silencing-studies-in-phytophthora-infestans-reveal-infection-specific-nutrient-transporters-and-a-role-for-the-nitrate-reductase-pathway-in-plant-pathogenesis
#16
Melania Abrahamian, Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Carol Davis, Kalina Andreeva, Howard S Judelson
To help learn how phytopathogens feed from their hosts, genes for nutrient transporters from the hemibiotrophic potato and tomato pest Phytophthora infestans were annotated. This identified 453 genes from 19 families. Comparisons with a necrotrophic oomycete, Pythium ultimum var. ultimum, and a hemibiotrophic fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, revealed diversity in the size of some families although a similar fraction of genes encoded transporters. RNA-seq of infected potato tubers, tomato leaves, and several artificial media revealed that 56 and 207 transporters from P...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932420/the-plastid-genome-of-polytoma-uvella-is-the-largest-known-among-non-photosynthetic-algae-and-plants
#17
Francisco Figueroa Martinez, Aurora M Nedelcu, David Roy Smith, Adrian Reyes Prieto
The loss of photosynthesis is frequently associated with parasitic or pathogenic lifestyles, but it can also occur in free-living, plastid-bearing lineages. A common consequence of becoming non-photosynthetic is the reduction in size and gene content of the plastid genome. In exceptional circumstances, it can even result in the complete loss of the plastid DNA (ptDNA), as recently reported in several lineages, including the nonphotosynthetic green algal genus Polytomella. Closely related to Polytomella is the genus Polytoma, the members of which lost photosynthesis independently of Polytomella...
December 8, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928690/from-shoot-to-leaf-step-wise-shifts-in-meristem-and-knox1-activity-correlate-with-the-evolution-of-a-unifoliate-body-plan-in-gesneriaceae
#18
Kanae Nishii, Bing-Hong Huang, Chun-Neng Wang, Michael Möller
Typical dicots possess equal-sized cotyledons and leaf-bearing shoots topped with a shoot apical meristem (SAM), the source of lateral organs, and where KNOX1 homeobox genes act as key regulators. New World Gesneriaceae show typical cotyledons, whereas Old World Gesneriaceae show anisocotyly, the unequal post-germination growth of cotyledons, and include unifoliate (one-leaf) plants. One-leaf plants show an extremely reduced body plan: the adult above-ground photosynthetic tissue consisting of a single cotyledon, a macrocotyledon enlarged by the basal meristem (BM), but lacking a SAM...
January 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895658/overexpression-of-a-hevea-brasiliensis-erbb-3-binding-protein-1-gene-increases-drought-tolerance-and-organ-size-in-arabidopsis
#19
Han Cheng, Xiang Chen, Jianshun Zhu, Huasun Huang
Rubber trees are economically important tropical tree species and the major source of natural rubber, which is an essential industrial material. This tropical perennial tree is susceptible to cold stress and other abiotic stresses, especially in the marginal northern tropics. Recent years, the genome sequencing and RNA-seq projects produced huge amount of sequence data, which greatly facilitated the functional genomics study. However, the characterization of individual functional gene is in urgent demands, especially for those involved in stress resistance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895202/the-lbd12-1-transcription-factor-suppresses-apical-meristem-size-by-repressing-argonaute-10-expression
#20
Weiwei Ma, Fuqing Wu, Peike Sheng, Xiaole Wang, Zhe Zhang, Kunneng Zhou, Huan Zhang, Jinlong Hu, Qibin Lin, Zhijun Cheng, Jiulin Wang, Shanshan Zhu, Xin Zhang, Xiuping Guo, Haiyang Wang, Chuanyin Wu, Huqu Zhai, Jianmin Wan
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) consists of a population of multipotent cells that generates all aerial structures and regenerates itself. SAM maintenance and lateral organ development are regulated by several complex signaling pathways, in which the Argonaute gene-mediated pathway plays a key role. One Argonaute gene, AGO10, functions as a microRNA locker that attenuates miR165/166 activity and positively regulates shoot apical meristem development, but little is known about when and how AGO10 is regulated at the transcriptional level...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
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