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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332309/how-have-leaves-of-mycoheterotrophic-plants-evolved-from-the-view-point-of-a-developmental-biologist
#1
Hirokazu Tsukaya
How mycoheterotrophs have evolved and how they are sustained are an enigma. Structural analyses of the plastid genome and phylogenetic analyses of mycoheterotrophs have been used to identify mycorrhizal fungi. Molecular genetic studies have also revealed the mechanism for plant-fungi interactions. However, the evolution of the small, scale-like vegetative leaves of mycoheterotrophs is unknown. As almost all genes determining leaf size affect the floral organ sizes, it is highly implausible that loss-of-function mutations in leaf size regulators caused the evolution of smaller foliage leaves in mycoheterotrophs...
January 14, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324855/ctls-a-new-class-of-ring-h2-ubiquitin-ligases-uncovered-by-yeell-a-motif-close-to-the-ring-domain-that-is-present-across-eukaryotes
#2
Domingo Jiménez-López, Laura Aguilar-Henonin, Juan Manuel González-Prieto, Victor Aguilar-Hernández, Plinio Guzmán
RING ubiquitin E3 ligases enclose a RING domain for ubiquitin ligase activity and associated domains and/or conserved motifs outside the RING domain that collectively facilitate their classification and usually reveal some of key information related to mechanism of action. Here we describe a new family of E3 ligases that encodes a RING-H2 domain related in sequence to the ATL and BTL RING-H2 domains. This family, named CTL, encodes a motif designed as YEELL that expands 21 amino acids next to the RING-H2 domain that is present across most eukaryotic lineages...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285397/divergent-evolutionary-patterns-of-the-mapk-cascade-genes-in-brassica-rapa-and-plant-phylogenetics
#3
Peng Wu, Wenli Wang, Ying Li, Xilin Hou
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade signal transduction modules play crucial roles in regulating many biological processes in plants. These cascades are composed of three classes of hierarchically organized protein kinases, MAPKKKs, MAPKKs and MAPKs. Here, we analyzed gene retention, phylogenetic, evolution and expression patterns of MAPK cascade genes in Brassica rapa. We further found that the MAPK branches, classes III and IV, appeared after the split of bryophytes and green algae after analyzing the MAPK cascade genes in 8 species, and their rapid expansion led to the great size of the families of MAPKs...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259616/pacyp78a9-a-cytochrome-p450-regulates-fruit-size-in-sweet-cherry-prunus-avium-l
#4
Xiliang Qi, Congli Liu, Lulu Song, Yuhong Li, Ming Li
Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is an important fruit crop in which fruit size is strongly associated with commercial value; few genes associated with fruit size have, however, been identified in sweet cherry. Members of the CYP78A subfamily, a group of important cytochrome P450s, have been found to be involved in controlling seed size and development in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, soybean, and tomato. However, the influence of CYP78A members in controlling organ size and the underlying molecular mechanisms in sweet cherry and other fruit trees remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247292/enhanced-multiple-stress-tolerance-in-arabidopsis-by-overexpression-of-the-polar-moss-peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase-fkbp12-gene
#5
Hemasundar Alavilli, Hyoungseok Lee, Mira Park, Dae-Jin Yun, Byeong-Ha Lee
PaFKBP12 overexpression in Arabidopsis resulted in stress tolerance to heat, ABA, drought, and salt stress, in addition to growth promotion under normal conditions. Polytrichastrum alpinum (alpine haircap moss) is one of polar organisms that can withstand the severe conditions of the Antarctic. In this study, we report the isolation of a peptidyl prolyl isomerase FKBP12 gene (PaFKBP12) from P. alpinum collected in the Antarctic and its functional implications in development and stress responses in plants. In P...
December 15, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237703/genome-assembly-and-annotation-of-the-medicinal-plant-calotropis-gigantea-a-producer-of-anti-cancer-and-anti-malarial-cardenolides
#6
Genevieve M Hoopes, John P Hamilton, Jeongwoon Kim, Dongyan Zhao, Krystle Wiegert-Rininger, Emily Crisovan, C Robin Buell
Calotropis gigantea produces specialized secondary metabolites known as cardenolides which have anti-cancer and anti-malarial properties. Although transcriptomic studies have been conducted in other cardenolide-producing species, no nuclear genome assembly for an Asterid cardenolide-producing species has been reported to date. A high quality de novo assembly was generated for C. gigantea, representing 157,284,427 bp with an N50 scaffold size of 805,959 bp, for which quality assessments indicated a near complete representation of the genic space...
December 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232921/the-importance-of-the-circadian-clock-in-regulating-plant-metabolism
#7
REVIEW
Jin A Kim, Hyun-Soon Kim, Seo-Hwa Choi, Ji-Young Jang, Mi-Jeong Jeong, Soo In Lee
Carbohydrates are the primary energy source for plant development. Plants synthesize sucrose in source organs and transport them to sink organs during plant growth. This metabolism is sensitive to environmental changes in light quantity, quality, and photoperiod. In the daytime, the synthesis of sucrose and starch accumulates, and starch is degraded at nighttime. The circadian clock genes provide plants with information on the daily environmental changes and directly control many developmental processes, which are related to the path of primary metabolites throughout the life cycle...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208703/distag-tbccd1-is-required-for-basal-cell-fate-determination-in-ectocarpus
#8
Olivier Godfroy, Toshiki Uji, Chikako Nagasato, Agnieszka P Lipinska, Delphine Scornet, Akira F Peters, Komlan Avia, Sebastien Colin, Mignerot Laure, Taizo Motomura, J Mark Cock, Susana M Coelho
Brown algae are one of the most developmentally complex groups within the eukaryotes. As in many land plants and animals, their main body axis is established early in development, when the initial cell gives rise to two daughter cells that have apical and basal identities, equivalent to shoot and root identities in land plants, respectively. We show here that mutations in the Ectocarpus DISTAG (DIS) gene lead to loss of basal structures during both the gametophyte and the sporophyte generations. Several abnormalities were observed in the germinating initial cell in dis mutants including increased cell size, disorganisation of the Golgi apparatus, disruption of the microtubule network and aberrant positioning of the nucleus...
December 5, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206147/phloem-conducting-cells-in-haustoria-of-the-root-parasitic-plant-phelipanche-aegyptiaca-retain-nuclei-and-are-not-mature-sieve-elements
#9
Minako Ekawa, Koh Aoki
Phelipanche aegyptiaca parasitizes a wide range of plants, including important crops, and causes serious damage to their production. P. aegyptiaca develops a specialized intrusive organ called a haustorium that establishes connections to the host's xylem and phloem. In parallel with the development of xylem vessels, the differentiation of phloem-conducting cells has been demonstrated by the translocation of symplasmic tracers from the host to the parasite. However, it is unclear yet whether haustorial phloem-conducting cells are sieve elements...
December 5, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183934/on-genes-and-form
#10
REVIEW
Enrico Coen, Richard Kennaway, Christopher Whitewoods
The mechanisms by which organisms acquire their sizes and shapes through growth was a major focus of D'Arcy Thompson's book On Growth and Form. By applying mathematical and physical principles to a range of biological forms, Thompson achieved fresh insights, such as the notion that diverse biological shapes could be related through simple deformations of a coordinate system. However, Thompson considered genetics to lie outside the scope of his work, even though genetics was a growing discipline at the time the book was published...
December 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182530/nodule-enriched-gretchen-hagen-3-enzymes-have-distinct-substrate-specificities-and-are-important-for-proper-soybean-nodule-development
#11
Suresh Damodaran, Corey S Westfall, Brian A Kisely, Joseph M Jez, Senthil Subramanian
Legume root nodules develop as a result of a symbiotic relationship between the plant and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria in soil. Auxin activity is detected in different cell types at different stages of nodule development; as well as an enhanced sensitivity to auxin inhibits, which could affect nodule development. While some transport and signaling mechanisms that achieve precise spatiotemporal auxin output are known, the role of auxin metabolism during nodule development is unclear. Using a soybean root lateral organ transcriptome data set, we identified distinct nodule enrichment of three genes encoding auxin-deactivating GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3) indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) amido transferase enzymes: GmGH3-11/12, GmGH3-14 and GmGH3-15...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175436/3d-chromatin-architecture-of-large-plant-genomes-determined-by-local-a-b-compartments
#12
Pengfei Dong, Xiaoyu Tu, Po-Yu Chu, Peitao Lü, Ning Zhu, Donald Grierson, Baijuan Du, Pinghua Li, Silin Zhong
The spatial organization of the genome plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. However, the core structural features of animal genomes, such as topologically associated domains (TADs) and chromatin loops, are not prominent in the extremely compact Arabidopsis genome. In this study, we have examined the chromatin architecture, as well as their DNA methylation, histone modifications, accessible chromatin and gene expression, of maize, tomato, sorghum, foxtail millet and rice with genome sizes ranging from 0...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163573/mitochondrial-uncoupling-protein-1-overexpression-increases-yield-in-nicotiana-tabacum-under-drought-stress-by-improving-source-and-sink-metabolism
#13
Pedro Barreto, Juliana E C T Yassitepe, Zoe A Wilson, Paulo Arruda
Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) sustain mitochondrial respiration independent of intracellular ATP concentration. Uncoupled respiration is particularly beneficial under stress conditions, during which both photosynthesis and respiration may be impaired. Sustaining carbon fixation during the reproductive phase is essential for plants to develop viable pollen grains and for seed setting. Here, we examined whether UCP1 overexpression (UCP1-oe) would help tobacco plants cope with drought stress during reproductive development...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162059/suppression-of-microrna159-impacts-multiple-agronomic-traits-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#14
Yafan Zhao, Huili Wen, Sachin Teotia, Yanxiu Du, Jing Zhang, Junzhou Li, Hongzheng Sun, Guiliang Tang, Ting Peng, Quanzhi Zhao
BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators in plant growth and development. miR159 is a conserved miRNA among different plant species and has various functions in plants. Studies on miR159 are mostly done on model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. In rice, studies on miR159 were either based upon genome-wide expression analyses focused upon responses to different nitrogen forms and abiotic stress or upon phenotypic studies of transgenic plants overexpressing its precursor. STTM (Short Tandem Target Mimic) is an effective tool to block the activity of endogenous mature miRNA activity in plant...
November 21, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155709/a-computational-method-to-quantify-fly-circadian-activity
#15
Andrey Lazopulo, Sheyum Syed
In most animals and plants, circadian clocks orchestrate behavioral and molecular processes and synchronize them to the daily light-dark cycle. Fundamental mechanisms that underlie this temporal control are widely studied using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. In flies, the clock is typically studied by analyzing multiday locomotor recording. Such a recording shows a complex bimodal pattern with two peaks of activity: a morning peak that happens around dawn, and an evening peak that happens around dusk...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138394/critical-mutation-rate-has-an-exponential-dependence-on-population-size-for-eukaryotic-length-genomes-with-crossover
#16
Elizabeth Aston, Alastair Channon, Roman V Belavkin, Danna R Gifford, Rok Krašovec, Christopher G Knight
The critical mutation rate (CMR) determines the shift between survival-of-the-fittest and survival of individuals with greater mutational robustness ("flattest"). We identify an inverse relationship between CMR and sequence length in an in silico system with a two-peak fitness landscape; CMR decreases to no more than five orders of magnitude above estimates of eukaryotic per base mutation rate. We confirm the CMR reduces exponentially at low population sizes, irrespective of peak radius and distance, and increases with the number of genetic crossovers...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134788/thermal-acclimation-in-arabidopsis-lyrata-genotypic-costs-and-transcriptional-changes
#17
Guillaume Wos, Yvonne Willi
Frost and heat events can be challenging for sessile organisms that cannot escape thermal extremes. However, adverse effects of thermal stress on fitness may be reduced by pre-exposure to cold or heat, a process known as acclimation. To understand the ecological and evolutionary implications of acclimation, we investigated (1) the reduction in performance due to stress pre-exposure, (2) the magnitude of increased leaf resistance to subsequent stress, (3) the costs of acclimation, and (4) the genes differing in expression due to stress pre-exposure...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128637/a-mads-box-transcription-factor-of-kuerlexiangli-pyrus-sinkiangensis-yu-psjointless-gene-functions-in-floral-organ-abscission
#18
Xiaoxiao Qi, Shi Hu, Hongsheng Zhou, Xing Liu, Lifen Wang, Biying Zhao, Xiaosan Huang, Shaoling Zhang
MADS-box proteins have been implicated in many biological processes. However, plant MADS-box proteins functioning in floral organ abscission and the underlying physiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of PsJOINTLESS isolated from 'Kuerlexiangli'. PsJOINTLESS had a complete open reading frame of 672bp, encoding a 224 amino acid peptide, and shared high sequence identities with MADS-box from other plants. PsJOINTLESS was subcellularly targeted to the nucleus, supporting its role as a transcription factor...
November 8, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101279/extreme-suppression-of-lateral-floret-development-by-a-single-amino-acid-change-in-the-vrs1-transcription-factor
#19
Shun Sakuma, Udda Lundqvist, Yusuke Kakei, Venkatasubbu Thirulogachandar, Takako Suzuki, Kiyosumi Hori, Jianzhong Wu, Akemi Tagiri, Twan Rutten, Ravi Koppolu, Yukihisa Shimada, Kelly Houston, William T B Thomas, Robbie Waugh, Thorsten Schnurbusch, Takao Komatsuda
Increasing grain yield is an endless challenge for cereal crop breeding. In barley, grain number is mainly controlled by Six-rowed spike 1 (Vrs1) that encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper class I transcription factor. However, little is known about the genetic basis of grain size. Here we show that extreme suppression of lateral florets contributes to enlarged grains in deficiens barley. Through a combination of fine mapping and resequencing deficiens mutants we have identified that a single amino acid substitution at a putative phosphorylation site in VRS1 is responsible for the deficiens phenotype...
November 3, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079634/small-rna-mediated-regulation-of-dna-dosage-in-the-ciliate-oxytricha
#20
Jaspreet S Khurana, Derek Clay, Sandrine Moreira, Xing Wang, Laura F Landweber
Dicer-dependent small non-coding RNAs play important roles in gene regulation in a wide variety of organisms. Endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are part of an ancient pathway of transposon control in plants and animals. The ciliate, Oxytricha trifallax, has approximately 16,000 gene-sized chromosomes in its somatic nucleus. Long non-coding RNAs establish high ploidy levels at the onset of sexual development, but the factors that regulate chromosome copy numbers during cell division and growth have been a mystery...
October 27, 2017: RNA
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