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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105941/the-loss-of-photosynthetic-pathways-in-the-plastid-and-nuclear-genomes-of-the-non-photosynthetic-mycoheterotrophic-eudicot-monotropa-hypopitys
#1
Nikolai V Ravin, Eugeny V Gruzdev, Alexey V Beletsky, Alexander M Mazur, Egor B Prokhortchouk, Mikhail A Filyushin, Elena Z Kochieva, Vitaly V Kadnikov, Andrey V Mardanov, Konstantin G Skryabin
BACKGROUND: Chloroplasts of most plants are responsible for photosynthesis and contain a conserved set of about 110 genes that encode components of housekeeping gene expression machinery and photosynthesis-related functions. Heterotrophic plants obtaining nutrients from other organisms and their plastid genomes represent model systems in which to study the effects of relaxed selective pressure on photosynthetic function. The most evident is a reduction in the size and gene content of the plastome, which correlates with the loss of genes encoding photosynthetic machinery which become unnecessary...
November 16, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102350/manipulation-of-auxin-response-factor-19-affects-seed-size-in-the-woody-perennial-jatropha-curcas
#2
Yanwei Sun, Chunming Wang, Ning Wang, Xiyuan Jiang, Huizhu Mao, Changxiang Zhu, Fujiang Wen, Xianghua Wang, Zhijun Lu, Genhua Yue, Zengfu Xu, Jian Ye
Seed size is a major determinant of seed yield but few is known about the genetics controlling of seed size in plants. Phytohormones cytokinin and brassinosteroid were known to be involved in the regulation of herbaceous plant seed development. Here we identified a homolog of Auxin Response Factor 19 (JcARF19) from a woody plant Jatropha curcas and genetically demonstrated its functions in controlling seed size and seed yield. Through Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), we found that JcARF19 was a positive upstream modulator in auxin signaling and may control plant organ size in J...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100707/the-rla1-smos1-transcription-factor-functions-with-osbzr1-to-regulate-brassinosteroid-signaling-and-rice-architecture
#3
Shenglong Qiao, Shiyong Sun, Linlin Wang, Zhihua Wu, Chengxiang Li, Xiaoming Li, Tao Wang, Linna Leng, Weisheng Tian, Tiegang Lu, Xuelu Wang
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant-specific steroid hormones that control plant growth and development. Recent studies have identified key components of the BR signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana and in rice (Oryza sativa); however, the mechanism of BR signaling in rice, especially downstream of GSK3/SHAGGY-like kinase (GSK2), remains unclear. Here we identified a BR-insensitive rice mutant, reduced leaf angle 1 (rla1), and cloned the corresponding gene. RLA1 was identical to the previously reported SMALL ORGAN SIZE 1 (SMOS1) which was cloned from another allele...
January 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099876/antitumoral-activity-of-sesquiterpene-lactone-diacethylpiptocarphol-in-mice
#4
Fronza Alezandre, Sabel Ricardo, Carrenho Luise Zozula Blind, Pollo Luis, Bratti Letícia de Oliveira Souza, Monteiro Fabíola Branco Filippin, Biavatti Maique Weber, Kreuger Maria Regina Orofino
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sesquiterpene lactones are organic compounds derived from plants that exhibit anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities being one of the locking mechanisms of action of NF-kB pathway and synthesis of cytokines such as IL-1 and TNF- α. AIM OF THE STUDY: The overall objective of the present study was to evaluate the antitumor activity of the sesquiterpene lactone diacethylpiptocarphol (DPC) from Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers. in animal models Ehrlich tumors that has shown antitumor activity...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097785/down-regulation-of-bnda1-whose-gene-locus-is-associated-with-the-seeds-weight-improves-the-seeds-weight-and-organ-size-in-brassica-napus
#5
Jie-Li Wang, Min-Qiang Tang, Sheng Chen, Xiang-Feng Zheng, Hui-Xian Mo, Sheng-Jun Li, Zheng Wang, Ke-Ming Zhu, Li-Na Ding, Sheng-Yi Liu, Yun-Hai Li, Xiao-Li Tan
Brassica napus L. is an important oil crop worldwide, and is the main raw material for biofuel. Seed weight and seed size are the main contributors to seed yield. DA1 (DA means big in Chinese) is an ubiquitin receptor and negatively regulates seed size. Down-regulation of AtDA1 in Arabidopsis leads to larger seeds and organs by increasing cell proliferation in integuments. In this study, BnDA1was down-regulated in B. napus by over expressed of AtDA1(R358K) , which is a functional deficiency of DA1 with an arginine-to-lysine mutation at the 358(th) amino acid...
January 17, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097059/the-complete-chloroplast-genome-sequence-of-an-endemic-monotypic-genus-hagenia-rosaceae-structural-comparative-analysis-gene-content-and-microsatellite-detection
#6
Andrew W Gichira, Zhizhong Li, Josphat K Saina, Zhicheng Long, Guangwan Hu, Robert W Gituru, Qingfeng Wang, Jinming Chen
Hagenia is an endangered monotypic genus endemic to the topical mountains of Africa. The only species, Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel, is an important medicinal plant producing bioactive compounds that have been traditionally used by African communities as a remedy for gastrointestinal ailments in both humans and animals. Complete chloroplast genomes have been applied in resolving phylogenetic relationships within plant families. We employed high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine the complete chloroplast genome sequence of H...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096190/gain-of-function-mutants-of-the-cytokinin-receptors-ahk2-and-ahk3-regulate-plant-organ-size-flowering-time-and-plant-longevity
#7
Isabel Bartrina, Helen Jensen, Ondrej Novak, Miroslav Strnad, Tomas Werner, Thomas Schmülling
The phytohormone cytokinin is a regulator of numerous processes in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the cytokinin signal is perceived by three membrane-located receptors named ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE2 (AHK2), AHK3 and AHK4/CRE1. How the signal is transmitted across the membrane is an entirely unknown process. The three receptors have been shown to operate mostly in a redundant fashion and only very few specific roles have been attributed to single receptors. Using a forward genetic approach, we isolated constitutively active gain-of-function variants of the AHK2 and AHK3 genes, named repressor of cytokinin deficiency2 (rock2) and rock3, respectively...
January 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091587/bacillus-volatiles-adversely-affect-the-physiology-and-ultra-structure-of-ralstonia-solanacearum-and-induce-systemic-resistance-in-tobacco-against-bacterial-wilt
#8
Hafiz Abdul Samad Tahir, Qin Gu, Huijun Wu, Yuedi Niu, Rong Huo, Xuewen Gao
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by various bacteria have significant potential to enhance plant growth and to control phytopathogens. Six of the most effective antagonistic Bacillus spp. were used in this study against Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsc) TBBS1, the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease in tobacco. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and Bacillus artrophaeus LSSC22 had the strongest inhibitory effect against Rsc. Thirteen VOCs produced by FZB42 and 10 by LSSC22 were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078808/minimum-sample-sizes-for-population-genomics-an-empirical-study-from-an-amazonian-plant-species
#9
Alison G Nazareno, Jordan B Bemmels, Christopher W Dick, Lúcia G Lohmann
High throughput DNA sequencing facilitates the analysis of large portions of the genome in non-model organisms, ensuring high accuracy of population genetic parameters. However, empirical studies evaluating the appropriate sample size for these kinds of studies are still scarce. In this study, we use double digest restriction associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) to recover thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for two physically isolated populations of Amphirrhox longifolia (Violaceae), a non-model plant species for which no reference genome is available...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075047/growing-larger-with-domestication-a-matter-of-physiology-morphology-or-allocation
#10
R Milla, S Matesanz
• Domestication might affect plant size. We investigated whether herbaceous crops are larger than their wild progenitors, and the traits that influence size variation. • We grew six crop plants and their wild progenitors under common garden conditions. We measured the aboveground biomass gain by individual plants during the vegetative stage. We then tested whether the photosynthesis rate, biomass allocation to leaves, leaf size, and specific leaf area (SLA) accounted for variations in whole-plant photosynthesis, and ultimately in aboveground biomass...
January 11, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071749/tomato-progeny-inherit-resistance-to-the-nematode-meloidogyne-javanica-linked-to-plant-growth-induced-by-the-biocontrol-fungus-trichoderma-atroviride
#11
Hugo Agripino de Medeiros, Jerônimo Vieira de Araújo Filho, Leandro Grassi de Freitas, Pablo Castillo, María Belén Rubio, Rosa Hermosa, Enrique Monte
Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are major crop pathogens worldwide. Trichoderma genus fungi are recognized biocontrol agents and a direct activity of Trichoderma atroviride (Ta) against the RKN Meloidogyne javanica (Mj), in terms of 42% reduction of number of galls (NG), 60% of number of egg masses and 90% of number of adult nematodes inside the roots, has been observed in tomato grown under greenhouse conditions. An in vivo split-root designed experiment served to demonstrate that Ta induces systemic resistance towards Mj, without the need for the organisms to be in direct contact, and significantly reduces NG (20%) and adult nematodes inside tomato roots (87%)...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069545/small-organ-size-1-and-small-organ-size-2-dwarf-and-low-tillering-form-a-complex-to-integrate-auxin-and-brassinosteroid-signaling-in-rice
#12
Ko Hirano, Hideki Yoshida, Koichiro Aya, Mayuko Kawamura, Makoto Hayashi, Tokunori Hobo, Kanna Sato-Izawa, Hidemi Kitano, Miyako Ueguchi-Tanaka, Makoto Matsuoka
Although auxin and brassinosteroid (BR) synergistically control various plant responses, the underlying molecular mechanism of auxin-BR crosstalk is not well understood. We previously identified SMOS1, an auxin-regulated APETALA2-type transcription factor (TF), as the causal gene of the small organ size 1 (smos1) mutant that is characterized by a decreased final size of various organs. In this study we identified another smos mutant, smos2, which shows a phenotype indistinguishable from smos1. SMOS2 was identical to the previously reported DWARF AND LOW-TILLERING (DLT), which encodes a GRAS protein involved in BR signaling...
January 6, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068913/microrna-157-targeted-spl-genes-regulate-floral-organ-size-and-ovule-production-in-cotton
#13
Nian Liu, Lili Tu, Lichen Wang, Haiyan Hu, Jiao Xu, Xianlong Zhang
BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs) have been involved in regulation of diverse spectrum of plant development processes in many species. In cotton, few miRNAs have been well characterised in floral organ development. Floral organ, which should be finely tuned, is a crucial factor affecting the yield of cotton. Therefore, it is well worth revealing the function of miRNAs in regulation of floral organ development. Here, we report the role of miRNA156/157 in regulation of floral organ size in cotton...
January 10, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065918/exploiting-next-generation-sequencing-to-solve-the-haplotyping-puzzle-in-polyploids-a-simulation-study
#14
Ehsan Motazedi, Richard Finkers, Chris Maliepaard, Dick de Ridder
Haplotypes are the units of inheritance in an organism, and many genetic analyses depend on their precise determination. Methods for haplotyping single individuals use the phasing information available in next-generation sequencing reads, by matching overlapping single-nucleotide polymorphisms while penalizing post hoc nucleotide corrections made. Haplotyping diploids is relatively easy, but the complexity of the problem increases drastically for polyploid genomes, which are found in both model organisms and in economically relevant plant and animal species...
January 8, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040226/cadmium-uptake-by-cocoa-trees-in-agroforestry-and-monoculture-systems-under-conventional-and-organic-management
#15
A Gramlich, S Tandy, C Andres, J Chincheros Paniagua, L Armengot, M Schneider, R Schulin
Cadmium (Cd) uptake by cocoa has recently attracted attention, after the European Union (EU) decided to establish values for tolerable Cd concentrations in cocoa products. Bean Cd concentrations from some cocoa provenances, especially from Latin America, were found to exceed these values. Cadmium uptake by cocoa is expected not only to depend on a variety of soil factors, but also on plant and management factors. In this study, we investigated the influence of different production systems on Cd uptake by cocoa in a long-term field trial in the Alto Beni Region of Bolivia, where cocoa trees are grown in monocultures and in agroforestry systems, both under organic and conventional management...
December 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039117/size-dependent-sex-allocation-and-reproductive-investment-in-a-gynodioecious-shrub
#16
Akari Shibata, Gaku Kudo
In sexually dimorphic plants, resource allocation to reproduction often differs between sex morphs. In gynodioecious species, i.e. coexisting hermaphrodite and female plants within a population, females often produce more fruits than hermaphrodites. Since fruit production is costlier than flower production, hermaphrodites and females may regulate flower and fruit production differently in response to resource availability. To clarify the gender-specific strategies of reproductive allocation, we assessed sexual dimorphism in reproductive traits, size-dependent resource allocation, morphological traits, and photosynthetic capacity in a natural population of a gynodioecious shrub, Daphne jezoensis Hermaphrodites had larger flowers and increased flower number with plant size at a rate greater than females, but showed consistently smaller fruit production...
December 30, 2016: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028460/life-history-and-past-demography-maintain-genetic-structure-outcrossing-rate-contemporary-pollen-gene-flow-of-an-understory-herb-in-a-highly-fragmented-rainforest
#17
Pilar Suárez-Montes, Mariana Chávez-Pesqueira, Juan Núñez-Farfán
INTRODUCTION: Theory predicts that habitat fragmentation, by reducing population size and increasing isolation among remnant populations, can alter their genetic diversity and structure. A cascade of effects is expected: genetic drift and inbreeding after a population bottleneck, changes in biotic interactions that may affect, as in the case of plants, pollen dynamics, mating system, reproductive success. The detection of the effects of contemporary habitat fragmentation on the genetic structure of populations are conditioned by the magnitude of change, given the few number of generations since the onset of fragmentation, especially for long-lived organisms...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025743/relationship-between-organochlorine-pesticides-and-stress-indicators-in-hawksbill-sea-turtle-eretmochelys-imbricata-nesting-at-punta-xen-campeche-southern-gulf-of-mexico
#18
Nelly Tremblay, Alejandro Ortíz Arana, Mauricio González Jáuregui, Jaime Rendón-von Osten
Data on the impact of environmental pollution on the homeostasis of sea turtles remains scarce, particularly in the Southern Gulf of Mexico. As many municipalities along the coastline of the Yucatan Peninsula do not rely on a waste treatment plant, these organisms could be particularly vulnerable. We searched for relationships between the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and the level of several oxidative and pollutant stress indicators of the hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) during the 2010 nesting season at Punta Xen (Campeche, Mexico)...
December 26, 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024460/fungal-treatment-of-humic-rich-industrial-wastewater-application-of-white-rot-fungi-in-remediation-of-food-processing-wastewater
#19
Mostafa Zahmatkesh, Henri Spanjers, Jules B van Lier
Humic substances (HS) comprise the major content of hardly or non-biodegradable organic matters in the industrial wastewaters. Although the application of fungi has been reported before as a novel and sustainable technology for the treatment of humics, yet most of the previous studies have been performed using synthetic wastewaters. This paper presents the results of fungal treatment of a real industrial wastewater, providing insight into the main mechanisms involved and clarifying some ambiguities and uncertainties in the previous reports...
December 26, 2016: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024298/genome-sequence-and-genetic-diversity-of-european-ash-trees
#20
Elizabeth S A Sollars, Andrea L Harper, Laura J Kelly, Christine M Sambles, Ricardo H Ramirez-Gonzalez, David Swarbreck, Gemy Kaithakottil, Endymion D Cooper, Cristobal Uauy, Lenka Havlickova, Gemma Worswick, David J Studholme, Jasmin Zohren, Deborah L Salmon, Bernardo J Clavijo, Yi Li, Zhesi He, Alison Fellgett, Lea Vig McKinney, Lene Rostgaard Nielsen, Gerry C Douglas, Erik Dahl Kjær, J Allan Downie, David Boshier, Steve Lee, Jo Clark, Murray Grant, Ian Bancroft, Mario Caccamo, Richard J A Buggs
Ash trees (genus Fraxinus, family Oleaceae) are widespread throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but are being devastated in Europe by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, causing ash dieback, and in North America by the herbivorous beetle Agrilus planipennis. Here we sequence the genome of a low-heterozygosity Fraxinus excelsior tree from Gloucestershire, UK, annotating 38,852 protein-coding genes of which 25% appear ash specific when compared with the genomes of ten other plant species. Analyses of paralogous genes suggest a whole-genome duplication shared with olive (Olea europaea, Oleaceae)...
December 26, 2016: Nature
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