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Christina Stonoha-Arther, Dong Wang
The symbiosis formed by nitrogen-fixing bacteria with plant hosts mainly in the legume family involves a very intimate interaction. Within the symbiotic organ (the nodule) the bacteria are fully internalized by the host cell to become an intracellular organelle surrounded by a host-derived membrane. This arrangement is probably necessary for the efficient provision of energy and the sequestration of free oxygen molecules, two conditions required for sustained nitrogen fixation. Recent advances made in model legume species, such as Medicago truncatula, are beginning to uncover the genetic components allowing rhizobia to access the host cytoplasm and establish chronic intracellular infections without overt detrimental effects...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Lourens Poorter, Carolina V Castilho, Juliana Schietti, Rafael S Oliveira, Flávia R C Costa
The functional trait approach has, as a central tenet, that plant traits are functional and shape individual performance, but this has rarely been tested in the field. Here, we tested the individual-based trait approach in a hyperdiverse Amazonian tropical rainforest and evaluated intraspecific variation in trait values, plant strategies at the individual level, and whether traits are functional and predict individual performance. We evaluated > 1300 tree saplings belonging to > 383 species, measured 25 traits related to growth and defense, and evaluated the effects of environmental conditions, plant size, and traits on stem growth...
May 18, 2018: New Phytologist
Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari, Islam Javedankherad, Jahangard Mohammadi, Roholla Taghizadeh
Due to directly receiving high volume of untreated urban and industrial sewage and in turn transferring the pollutants to fish and back to humans, the International Anzali Wetland has been considered to be urgently registered in the Montreux Record. Hence, the present study was aimed to determine the spatial distribution of the linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in surface sediments of the wetland and its sewage contamination situation. The surface sediments (sampling stations = 167) were collected from the western, eastern, southwest, and central regions of the wetland...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yifeng Xu, Nathanaël Prunet, Eng-Seng Gan, Yanbin Wang, Darragh Stewart, Frank Wellmer, Jiangbo Huang, Nobutoshi Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka Tatsumi, Mikiko Kojima, Takatoshi Kiba, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Thomas P Jack, Elliot M Meyerowitz, Toshiro Ito
Proper floral patterning, including the number and position of floral organs in most plant species, is tightly controlled by the precise regulation of the persistence and size of floral meristems (FMs). In Arabidopsis , two known feedback pathways, one composed of WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3) and the other composed of AGAMOUS (AG) and WUS, spatially and temporally control floral stem cells, respectively. However, mounting evidence suggests that other factors, including phytohormones, are also involved in floral meristem regulation...
May 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
Jawad Ali, Rabia Irshad, Baoshan Li, Kamran Tahir, Aftab Ahmad, Muhammad Shakeel, Naeem Ullah Khan, Zia Ul Haq Khan
A "green route" to fabricate nanoparticles has emerged as a revolutionary approach. The reported work presents a green approach to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles using Conyza canadensis plant leaves extract. The synthesis of ZnO was conducted at two different temperatures i.e. 30 °C and 80 °C. ZnO nanoparticles prepared at 80 °C were smaller in size and exhibited spherical morphology. The prepared nanomaterials were examined for the reduction of organic dyes i.e. methylene blue and methyl orange...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Alfonso Garmendia, María Dolores Raigón, Olmo Marques, María Ferriol, Jorge Royo, Hugo Merle
Organic agriculture is becoming increasingly important, and many natural products are now available for organic farmers to manage and improve their crops. Several ethnobotanical studies have indicated that the use of nettle slurry as fertilizer in organic farming for horticultural crops is spreading. Sometimes, however, the consequences of using these natural products have been poorly evaluated, and there is very little scientific evidence for the effects of using these slurries. In this study, we aimed to analyze the possible effect of nettle slurry on potato yields produced by organic farming...
2018: PeerJ
Ruth Fisher, Ari Shammay, Juan Pablo Alvarez-Gaitan, Richard M Stuetz
The composition of wastewater in sewer catchments is known to affect the performance of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, there is limited knowledge as to how catchment characteristics, such as types of catchment industries, impact odour emissions from downstream sludge processing and biosolids management. Odorous emissions from biosolids processing at WWTPs can represent a significant community impact when the local population is exposed to odours. The main odorants emitted from biosolids are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), however, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in emissions may also be perceptable after the removal of VSCs in odour abatement systems...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
M Vaccari, P Foladori, S Nembrini, F Vitali
One of the largest surveys in Europe about energy consumption in Italian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is presented, based on 241 WWTPs and a total population equivalent (PE) of more than 9,000,000 PE. The study contributes towards standardised resilient data and benchmarking and to identify potentials for energy savings. In the energy benchmark, three indicators were used: specific energy consumption expressed per population equivalents (kWh PE-1 year-1 ), per cubic meter (kWh/m3 ), and per unit of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removed (kWh/kgCOD)...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Katarzyna Kińska, Javier Jiménez-Lamana, Joanna Kowalska, Beata Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Joanna Szpunar
In recent years, increased palladium content has been found in the environment, due to its wide use in various fields, especially as catalytic converters. Palladium can be emitted as a range of soluble and insoluble compounds and in the form of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs). The level of toxicity is equally dependent on concentration and form of palladium and hence, it is important to determine not only the total content of this element, but also its forms of occurrence. This study for the first time investigates the uptake degree and distribution of PdNPs by model plant Sinapis alba, in comparison with a platinum salt (Pd(NO3 )2 )...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rahma Goussi, Arafet Manaa, Walid Derbali, Simone Cantamessa, Chedly Abdelly, Roberto Barbato
Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stress affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Photosynthesis, together with cell growth, is among the primary process affected by salinity. Here, we report the effects of salt stress on photosynthesis in the model halophyte Thellungiella salsuginea. Plants were grown in hydroponic system and then treated for 2 weeks with different NaCl concentrations (0, 100, 200 and 400 mM). Leaf analysis using both photonic and transmission electron microscopes showed some changes in mesophyll cell organization, including shape and dimension...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Decai Jin, Xiao Kong, Jie Wang, Jiajun Sun, Xiangyang Yu, Xuliang Zhuang, Ye Deng, Zhihui Bai
A novel Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain 13T , was isolated from an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant in Beijing, China. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed this organism within the genus Chitinophaga of the class Bacteroidetes, with Chitinophaga skermanii CC-SG1B (92.4 % gene sequence similarity) and Chitinophaga rupis CS5-B1 (91.2 %) as its closest relatives. This isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and the whole-cell hydrolysate was ribose...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Shao Ping DU, Zhong Ming Ma, Liang Xue
The distribution characteristics of soil aggregates and their organic carbon in gravel-mulched land with different planting years (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 years) were studied based on a long-term field trial. The results showed that the soil aggregate fraction showed a fluctuation (down-up-down) trend with the decrease of soil aggregate size. The soil aggregates were distributed mainly in the size of >5 mm for less than 10 years cultivation, and 0.05-0.25 mm for more than 15 years. The content of aggregates over 0...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Samira Sahamishirazi, Jens Moehring, Sabine Zikeli, Michael Fleck, Wilhelm Claupein, Simone Graeff-Hoenninger
In order to develop new open pollinating cultivars of broccoli for organic farming, two experiments were conducted during fall 2015 and spring 2016. This study was aimed at comparing the agronomic performance of eleven new open pollinating breeding lines of broccoli to introduce new lines and to test their seasonal suitability for organic farming. Field experiments were carried out at the organic research station Kleinhohenheim of the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart-Germany). Different agronomic traits total biomass fresh weight, head fresh weight, head diameter, hollow-stem, fresh weight harvest index and marketable yield were assessed together with commercial control cultivars...
2018: PloS One
Katherine A Hovanes, Kyle E Harms, Paul R Gagnon, Jonathan A Myers, Bret D Elderd
Spatial patterning is a key natural history attribute of sessile organisms that frequently emerges from and dictates potential for interactions among organisms. We tested whether bunchgrasses, the dominant plant functional group in longleaf pine savanna groundcover communities, are nonrandomly patterned by characterizing the spatial dispersion of three bunchgrass species across six sites in Louisiana and Florida. We mapped bunchgrass tussocks of >5.0 cm basal diameter in three [Formula: see text] plots at each site...
May 2018: American Naturalist
Zong Zhuan Shen, Li Sun, Dong Sheng Wang, Na Na Lyu, Chao Xue, Rong Li, Qi Rong Shen
In this study, the population size of soil microbes was determined using plate counting method after the application of lime-ammonium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate fumigation. In addition, biofertilizer was applied after soil fumigation and population of Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium wilt disease control efficiency and plant biomass were determined in the cucumber and watermelon continuous cropping soil. The results showed that the population of F. oxysporum in cucumber mono-cropped soil fumigated with lime-ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium bicarbonate was decreased by 95...
October 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yi Feng Wang, Ru Lin Qi, Ya Jun Yang, Yang Yang, Wei Dong Song, Wan Yi Mao
The paper studied the effects of altitude on reproductive characteristics in 12 populations of Saussurea przewalskii at the eastern Qinhai-Tibetan Plateau, China. The results showed that the size, reproductive organ biomass, vegetative organ biomass, capitulum number, and seed number of individual plant decreased with the increasing altitude, and the capitulum mass and hundred-grain mass increased continuously. S. przewalskii could ensure its reproduction by reducing plant body size to decrease resource consumption, and increasing the allocation of limit resources to flower biomass...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Jun Koarashi, Syusaku Nishimura, Mariko Atarashi-Andoh, Takeshi Matsunaga, Tsutomu Sato, Seiya Nagao
The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident caused serious radiocesium (137 Cs) contamination in soils in a range of terrestrial ecosystems. It is well documented that the interaction of 137 Cs with soil constituents, particularly clay minerals, in surface soil layers exerts strong control on the behavior of this radionuclide in the environment; however, there is little understanding of how soil aggregation-the binding of soil particles together into aggregates-can affect the mobility and bioavailability of 137 Cs in soils...
April 18, 2018: Chemosphere
Koichi Takahashi, Kosuke Homma, Jiri Dorezal, Kotaro Yamagata, Valentina P Vetrova, Toshihiko Hara
Alders (Alnus spp.) often dominate at nutrient-poor sites by symbiotic relations with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, little is known about quantitative relationships between root nodule as a nitrogen acquisition organ and leaf as a carbon acquisition organ. To examine carbon allocation, nitrogen acquisition and net production in nutrient-poor conditions, we examined allocation patterns among organs of shrub Alnus fruticosa at a young 80-year-old moraine in Kamchatka. Slopes of double-log allometric equations were significantly smaller than 1...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Marco Garrido, Herman Silva, Nicolás Franck, Jorge Arenas, Edmundo Acevedo
Water extraction from the underground aquifers of the Pampa del Tamarugal (Atacama Desert, Chile) reduced the growing area of Prosopis tamarugo , a strict phreatic species endemic to northern Chile. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of various architectural and morpho-physiological traits adjustment of P. tamarugo subjected to three groundwater depletion intervals (GWDr): <1 m (control), 1-4 m and 6-9 m. The traits were evaluated at three levels, plant [height, trunk cross-section area, leaf fraction ( f GCC), and crown size], organ [length of internodes, leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaflet mass and area], and tissue level [wood density (WD), leaf 13 C, 18 O isotope composition (δ), and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE)]...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Guiping Ren, Lingfei Li, Yuhua Huang, Yaqin Wang, Wenbin Zhang, Rouyan Zheng, Chunmei Zhong, Xiaojing Wang
Cell expansion is a key determinant for the final size and shape of plant organ, and is regulated by various phytohormones. Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) consist of a superfamily involved in multiple aspects of organ morphogenesis. However, little is known about WIP-type ZFP function in phytohormone-mediated organ growth. Using reverse genetics, RNA-seq and phytohormone quantification, we elucidated the role of a new WIP-type ZFP from Gerbera hybrida, GhWIP2, in controlling organ growth via regulation of cell expansion...
April 22, 2018: New Phytologist
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