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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737742/systemic-transport-of-trans-zeatin-and-its-precursor-have-differing-roles-in-arabidopsis-shoots
#1
Asami Osugi, Mikiko Kojima, Yumiko Takebayashi, Nanae Ueda, Takatoshi Kiba, Hitoshi Sakakibara
Organ-to-organ signal transmission is essential for higher organisms to ensure coordinated biological reactions during metabolism and morphogenesis. Similar to organs in animals, plant organs communicate by various signalling molecules. Among them, cytokinins, a class of phytohormones, play a key role as root-to-shoot long-distance signals, regulating various growth and developmental processes in shoots(1,2). Previous studies have proposed that trans-zeatin-riboside, a type of cytokinin precursor, is a major long-distance signalling form in xylem vessels and its action depends on metabolic conversion via the LONELY GUY enzyme in proximity to the site of action(3-5)...
July 24, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727079/detection-of-dietary-dna-protein-and-glyphosate-in-meat-milk-and-eggs
#2
A L Van Eenennaam, A E Young
Products such as meat, milk, and eggs from animals that have consumed genetically engineered (GE) feed are not currently subject to mandatory GE labeling requirements. Some voluntary "non-genetically modified organism" labeling has been associated with such products, indicating that the animals were not fed GE crops, as there are no commercialized GE food animals. This review summarizes the available scientific literature on the detection of dietary DNA and protein in animal products and briefly discusses the implications of mandatory GE labeling for products from animals that have consumed GE feed...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725394/support-for-the-elevational-rapoport-s-rule-among-seed-plants-in-nepal-depends-on-biogeographical-affinities-and-boundary-effects
#3
Jianmeng Feng, Xiaokang Hu, Jie Wang, Yanmei Wang
As one of the most important hypotheses on biogeographical distribution, Rapoport's rule has attracted attention around the world. However, it is unclear whether the applicability of the elevational Rapoport's Rule differs between organisms from different biogeographical regions. We used Stevens' method, which uses species diversity and the averaged range sizes of all species within each (100 m) elevational band to explore diversity-elevation, range-elevation, and diversity-range relationships. We compared support for the elevational Rapoport's rule between tropical and temperate species of seed plants in Nepal...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725367/the-effect-of-seed-traits-on-geographic-variation-in-body-size-and-sexual-size-dimorphism-of-the-seed-feeding-beetle-acanthoscelides-macrophthalmus
#4
Eloísa B Haga, Marcelo N Rossi
Explaining large-scale patterns of variation in body size has been considered a central question in ecology and evolutionary biology because several life-history traits are directly linked to body size. For ectothermic organisms, little is known about what processes influence geographic variation in body size. Changes in body size and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) have been associated with environmental variables, particularly for Bruchinae insects, which feed exclusively on seeds during the larval stage. However, the effect of important seed traits on body size variation has rarely been investigated, and whether SSD varies substantially among populations within bruchine species is poorly known...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704673/contributions-of-combined-sewer-overflows-and-treated-effluents-to-the-bacterial-load-released-into-a-coastal-area
#5
M Al Aukidy, P Verlicchi
The impact of combined sewer overflow (CSO) on the receiving water body is an issue of increasing concern, as it may lead to restrictions in the use and destination of the receiving body, such as bathing or recreational area closures, fish and shellfish consumption restrictions, and contamination of drinking water resources. Recent investigations have mainly referred to the occurrence and loads of suspended solids, organic compounds and, in some cases, micropollutants. Attempts have been made to find correlations between the discharged load and the size and characteristics of the catchment area, climate conditions, rainfall duration and intensity...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700609/organic-farming-enhances-soil-microbial-abundance-and-activity-a-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression
#6
Martina Lori, Sarah Symnaczik, Paul Mäder, Gerlinde De Deyn, Andreas Gattinger
Population growth and climate change challenge our food and farming systems and provide arguments for an increased intensification of agriculture. A promising option is eco-functional intensification through organic farming, an approach based on using and enhancing internal natural resources and processes to secure and improve agricultural productivity, while minimizing negative environmental impacts. In this concept an active soil microbiota plays an important role for various soil based ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, erosion control and pest and disease regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686626/big-leaf-is-a-regulator-of-organ-size-and-adventitious-root-formation-in-poplar
#7
Yordan S Yordanov, Cathleen Ma, Elena Yordanova, Richard Meilan, Steven H Strauss, Victor B Busov
Here we report the discovery through activation tagging and subsequent characterization of the BIG LEAF (BL) gene from poplar. In poplar, BL regulates leaf size via positively affecting cell proliferation. Up and downregulation of the gene led to increased and decreased leaf size, respectively, and these phenotypes corresponded to increased and decreased cell numbers. BL function encompasses the early stages of leaf development as native BL expression was specific to the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia and was absent from the later stages of leaf development and other organs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681662/microwave-assisted-green-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-leaf-extract-of-elephantopus-scaber-and-its-environmental-and-biological-applications
#8
Sijo Francis, Siby Joseph, Ebey P Koshy, Beena Mathew
The fabrication of spherical silver nanoparticles using the phytoreducing agent Elephantopus scaber is reported here. Irradiation of the reaction mixture under a domestic microwave oven enabled the formation of stable silver nanoparticles and was confirmed by UV-vis spectral portrait. Chemical components inherent in the aqueous leaf extract which reduces the monovalent silver were identified by FT-IR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the synthesized nanoparticles was established as face centred cube by the powder XRD analysis...
July 6, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680437/knots-untie-molecular-determinants-involved-in-knot-formation-induced-by-pseudomonas-savastanoi-in-woody-hosts
#9
REVIEW
Eloy Caballo-Ponce, Jesús Murillo, Marta Martínez-Gil, Alba Moreno-Pérez, Adrián Pintado, Cayo Ramos
The study of the molecular basis of tree diseases is lately receiving a renewed attention, especially with the emerging perception that pathogens require specific pathogenicity and virulence factors to successfully colonize woody hosts. Pathosystems involving woody plants are notoriously difficult to study, although the use of model bacterial strains together with genetically homogeneous micropropagated plant material is providing a significant impetus to our understanding of the molecular determinants leading to disease...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671575/a-satellite-based-imaging-instrumentation-concept-for-hyperspectral-thermal-remote-sensing
#10
Thomas Udelhoven, Martin Schlerf, Karl Segl, Kaniska Mallick, Christian Bossung, Rebecca Retzlaff, Gilles Rock, Peter Fischer, Andreas Müller, Tobias Storch, Andreas Eisele, Dennis Weise, Werner Hupfer, Thiemo Knigge
This paper describes the concept of the hyperspectral Earth-observing thermal infrared (TIR) satellite mission HiTeSEM (High-resolution Temperature and Spectral Emissivity Mapping). The scientific goal is to measure specific key variables from the biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, and geosphere related to two global problems of significant societal relevance: food security and human health. The key variables comprise land and sea surface radiation temperature and emissivity, surface moisture, thermal inertia, evapotranspiration, soil minerals and grain size components, soil organic carbon, plant physiological variables, and heat fluxes...
July 1, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664693/readiness-of-adolescents-to-use-genetically-modified-organisms-according-to-their-knowledge-and-emotional-attitude-towards-gmos
#11
Stanisław Lachowski, Anna Jurkiewicz, Piotr Choina, Magdalena Florek-Łuszczki, Agnieszka Buczaj, Małgorzata Goździewska
INTRODUCTION: Agriculture based on genetically modified organisms plays an increasingly important role in feeding the world population, which is evidenced by a considerable growth in the size of land under genetically modified crops (GM). Uncertainty and controversy around GM products are mainly due to the lack of accurate and reliable information, and lack of knowledge concerning the essence of genetic modifications, and the effect of GM food on the human organism, and consequently, a negative emotional attitude towards what is unknown...
June 7, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649359/species-traits-and-interaction-rules-shape-a-species-rich-seed-dispersal-interaction-network
#12
Esther Sebastián-González, Mathias M Pires, Camila I Donatti, Paulo R Guimarães, Rodolfo Dirzo
Species phenotypic traits affect the interaction patterns and the organization of seed-dispersal interaction networks. Understanding the relationship between species characteristics and network structure help us understand the assembly of natural communities and how communities function. Here, we examine how species traits may affect the rules leading to patterns of interaction among plants and fruit-eating vertebrates. We study a species-rich seed-dispersal system using a model selection approach to examine whether the rules underlying network structure are driven by constraints in fruit resource exploitation, by preferential consumption of fruits by the frugivores, or by a combination of both...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649269/a-comprehensive-technique-for-artificial-hybridization-in-chickpea-cicer-arietinum
#13
Shweta Kalve, Million Tadege
BACKGROUND: Two crossing techniques for hybridization of chickpea have been reported and include pollination after emasculation and pollination without emasculation. Success of crossing with emasculation varied from 5 to 17%; while the success rate varied from 20 to 50% by pollination without emasculation. The important reason for the low success rate of the two procedures could be lack of detailed information on the flowering stages chosen for crossing together with the environment where plants grow...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645709/aquatic-biodiversity-in-sedimentation-ponds-receiving-road-runoff-what-are-the-key-drivers
#14
Zhenhua Sun, John E Brittain, Ekaterina Sokolova, Helene Thygesen, Svein Jakob Saltveit, Sebastien Rauch, Sondre Meland
Recently, increased attention has been paid to biodiversity conservation provided by blue-green solutions such as engineered ponds that are primarily established for water treatment and flood control. However, little research has been done to analyse the factors that affect biodiversity in such ponds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on aquatic biodiversity, mainly macroinvertebrate communities, in road sedimentation ponds in order to provide a foundation for recommendations on aquatic biodiversity conservation...
June 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644397/relationship-between-remote-sensing-data-plant-biomass-and-soil-nitrogen-dynamics-in-intensively-managed-grasslands-under-controlled-conditions
#15
Christoph Knoblauch, Conor Watson, Clara Berendonk, Rolf Becker, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, Florian Wichern
The sustainable use of grasslands in intensive farming systems aims to optimize nitrogen (N) inputs to increase crop yields and decrease harmful losses to the environment at the same time. To achieve this, simple optical sensors may provide a non-destructive, time- and cost-effective tool for estimating plant biomass in the field, considering spatial and temporal variability. However, the plant growth and related N uptake is affected by the available N in the soil, and therefore, N mineralization and N losses...
June 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641482/insights-into-eukaryotic-evolution-from-transmembrane-domain-lengths
#16
Aditya Mittal, Snigdha Singh
Biological membranes, comprised of proteins anchored by their trans-membrane domains (TMDs) creating a semi-permeable phase with lipid constituents, serve as "checkposts" for not only intracellular trafficking in eukaryotic cells but also for material transactions of all living cells with external environments. Hydropathy (or hydrophobicity) plots of "bitopic" proteins (i.e. having single alpha-helical TMDs) are routinely utilized in biochemistry texts for predicting their TMDs. The number of amino acids (i...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633337/differences-in-below-ground-bud-bank-density-and-composition-along-a-climatic-gradient-in-the-temperate-steppe-of-northern-china
#17
Jianqiang Qian, Zhengwen Wang, Jitka Klimešová, Xiaotao Lü, Wennong Kuang, Zhimin Liu, Xingguo Han
Background and Aims: Understanding the changes in below-ground bud bank density and composition along a climatic gradient is essential for the exploration of species distribution pattern and vegetation composition in response to climatic changes. Nevertheless, investigations on bud banks along climatic gradients are still scarce. The below-ground bud bank is expected to be reduced in size in arid conditions, and costly, bud-bearing organs with long spacers would be replaced by more compact forms with buds that are better protected than those found in moist conditions...
June 14, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629193/telomere-biology-insights-into-an-intriguing-phenomenon
#18
REVIEW
Shriram Venkatesan, Aik Kia Khaw, Manoor Prakash Hande
Bacteria and viruses possess circular DNA, whereas eukaryotes with typically very large DNA molecules have had to evolve into linear chromosomes to circumvent the problem of supercoiling circular DNA of that size. Consequently, such organisms possess telomeres to cap chromosome ends. Telomeres are essentially tandem repeats of any DNA sequence that are present at the ends of chromosomes. Their biology has been an enigmatic one, involving various molecules interacting dynamically in an evolutionarily well-trimmed fashion...
June 19, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624850/the-plant-lim-proteins-unlocking-the-hidden-attractions
#19
REVIEW
Vikas Srivastava, Praveen Kumar Verma
The plant LIMs comprise two sub-families with one (DA1/DAR) and two (2LIM) LIM domains. This review comprehensively discussed the structure and potential role of this protein family in diverse area of plant biology. The description of first eukaryote lineage-specific plant LIM domain (LIN11, ISL1, and MEC3) proteins was observed in Helianthus long back. The successive study of LIM proteins in diverse plants has shown its vital relation to development, metabolism and defence. This nascent gene family has been worked out for their role in actin dynamics, organ size determination and transcription regulation...
June 17, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623819/the-texture-structure-and-nutrient-availability-of-artificial-soil-on-cut-slopes-restored-with-osss-influence-of-restoration-time
#20
Zhiyu Huang, Jiao Chen, Xiaoyan Ai, Ruirui Li, Yingwei Ai, Wei Li
Outside soil spray seeding (OSSS) is widely used to restore cut slopes in southwest of China, and artificial soil is often sprayed onto cut slopes to establish a soil layer for revegetation. The stability of artificial soil layer and its supply of water and nutrients for plants is crucial for successful restoration. To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of OSSS, the texture, structure and nutrient availability of artificial soil were studied, various soil samples were obtained from three cut slopes with different restoration time (restored with OSSS in 1996, 2003 and 2007 respectively) and one natural developed slope (NS)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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