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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431090/current-status-of-the-blue-butterfly-in-fukushima-research
#1
Joji M Otaki, Wataru Taira
Adverse biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident have been revealed using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, since 2012, which were often considered incompatible with the conventional understanding of radiation biology. This discrepancy likely originates from different system conditions and methodologies. In this article, we first respond to comments from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) regarding our study; "technical errors" in unit usage and mathematical models noted by UNSCEAR are not errors but reflect our research philosophy not to introduce theoretical assumptions associated with unit conversion and mathematical fit...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430951/evidence-for-a-strong-correlation-between-transcription-factor-protein-disorder-and-organismic-complexity
#2
Inmaculada Yruela, Christopher J Oldfield, Karl J Niklas, A Keith Dunker
Studies of diverse phylogenetic lineages reveal that protein disorder increases in concert with organismic complexity but that differences nevertheless exist among lineages. To gain insight into this phenomenology, we analyzed all of the transcription factor (TF) families for which sequences are known for 17 species spanning bacteria, yeast, algae, land plants, and animals and for which the number of different cell types has been reported in the primary literature. Although the fraction of disordered residues in TF sequences is often moderately or poorly correlated with organismic complexity as gauged by cell type number (r2 < 0...
April 18, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428861/does-the-morphological-fit-between-flowers-and-pollinators-affect-pollen-deposition-an-experimental-test-in-a-buzz-pollinated-species-with-anther-dimorphism
#3
Lislie Solís-Montero, Mario Vallejo-Marín
Some pollination systems, such as buzz-pollination, are associated with floral morphologies that require a close physical interaction between floral sexual organs and insect visitors. In these systems, a pollinator's size relative to the flower may be an important feature determining whether the visitor touches both male and female sexual organs and thus transfers pollen between plants efficiently. To date, few studies have addressed whether in fact the "fit" between flower and pollinator influences pollen transfer, particularly among buzz-pollinated species...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428845/global-pattern-of-plant-utilization-across-different-organisms-does-plant-apparency-or-plant-phylogeny-matter
#4
Xiaohua Dai, Wei Zhang, Jiasheng Xu, Kevin J Duffy, Qingyun Guo
The present study is the first to consider human and nonhuman consumers together to reveal several general patterns of plant utilization. We provide evidence that at a global scale, plant apparency and phylogenetic isolation can be important predictors of plant utilization and consumer diversity. Using the number of species or genera or the distribution area of each plant family as the island "area" and the minimum phylogenetic distance to common plant families as the island "distance", we fitted presence-area relationships and presence-distance relationships with a binomial GLM (generalized linear model) with a logit link...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428794/fine-mapping-of-a-novel-defective-glume-1-dg1-mutant-which-affects-vegetative-and-spikelet-development-in-rice
#5
Haiping Yu, Banpu Ruan, Zhongwei Wang, Deyong Ren, Yu Zhang, Yujia Leng, Dali Zeng, Jiang Hu, Guangheng Zhang, Li Zhu, Zhenyu Gao, Guang Chen, Longbiao Guo, Wenfu Chen, Qian Qian
In cereal crops, vegetative and spikelet development play important roles in grain yield and quality, but the genetic mechanisms that control vegetative and spikelet development remain poorly understood in rice. Here, we identified a new rice mutant, defective glume 1 (dg1) mutant from cultivar Zhonghua11 after ethyl methanesulfonate treatment. The dg1 mutant displayed the dwarfism with small, rolled leaves, which resulted from smaller cells and more bulliform cells. The dg1 mutant also had an enlarged leaf angle and defects in brassinosteroid signaling...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421083/ltrtype-an-efficient-tool-to-characterize-structurally-complex-ltr-retrotransposons-and-nested-insertions-on-genomes
#6
Fan-Chun Zeng, You-Jie Zhao, Que-Jie Zhang, Li-Zhi Gao
The amplification and recombination of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons have proven to determine the size, organization, function, and evolution of most host genomes, especially very large plant genomes. However, the limitation of tools for an efficient discovery of structural complexity of LTR retrotransposons and the nested insertions is a great challenge to confront ever-growing amount of genomic sequences for many organisms. Here we developed a novel software, called as LTRtype, to characterize different types of structurally complex LTR retrotransposon elements as well as nested events...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418289/volatile-organic-compounds-produced-by-a-soil-isolate-bacillus-subtilis-fa26-induce-adverse-ultra-structural-changes-to-the-cells-of-clavibacter-michiganensis-ssp-sepedonicus-the-causal-agent-of-bacterial-ring-rot-of-potato
#7
Faheem Uddin Rajer, Huijun Wu, Yongli Xie, Shanshan Xie, Waseem Raza, Hafiz Abdul Samad Tahir, Xuewen Gao
Rhizobacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in the suppression of soil-borne phytopathogens. In this study, the VOCs produced by a soil-isolate, Bacillus subtilis FA26, were evaluated in vitro for their antibacterial activity against Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The VOCs emitted by FA26 inhibited the growth of Cms significantly compared with the control. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed distorted colony morphology and a wide range of abnormalities in Cms cells exposed to the VOCs of FA26...
April 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415554/phytosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-aqueous-leaf-extracts-of-lippia-citriodora-antimicrobial-larvicidal-and-photocatalytic-evaluations
#8
Elias E Elemike, Damian C Onwudiwe, Anthony C Ekennia, Richard C Ehiri, Nnaemeka J Nnaji
Nanoscience and nanotechnology represent new and enabling platforms that promise to provide broad range of novel and improved technologies for environmental, biological and other scientific applications. This study reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by aqueous leaf extract of Lippia citriodora at two different temperatures of 50°C and 90°C. The synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was monitored by the use of UV-visible spectroscopy at different temperatures and time intervals...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413726/gb4gv-a-genome-browser-for-geminivirus
#9
Eric S Ho, Catherine M Newsom-Stewart, Lysa Diarra, Caroline S McCauley
BACKGROUND: Geminiviruses (family Geminiviridae) are prevalent plant viruses that imperil agriculture globally, causing serious damage to the livelihood of farmers, particularly in developing countries. The virus evolves rapidly, attributing to its single-stranded genome propensity, resulting in worldwide circulation of diverse and viable genomes. Genomics is a prominent approach taken by researchers in elucidating the infectious mechanism of the virus. Currently, the NCBI Viral Genome website is a popular repository of viral genomes that conveniently provides researchers a centralized data source of genomic information...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413433/protoplast-isolation-prior-to-flow-cytometry-reveals-clear-patterns-of-endoreduplication-in-potato-tubers-related-species-and-some-starchy-root-crops
#10
F Parker E Laimbeer, Sarah H Holt, Melissa Makris, Michael Alan Hardigan, C Robin Buell, Richard E Veilleux
BACKGROUND: Endoreduplication, the process of DNA replication in the absence of cell division, is associated with specialized cellular function and increased cell size. Genes controlling endoreduplication in tomato fruit have been shown to affect mature fruit size. An efficient method of estimating endoreduplication is required to study its role in plant organ development. Flow cytometry is often utilized to evaluate endoreduplication, yet some tissues and species, among them the tubers of Solanum tuberosum, remain intractable to routine tissue preparation for flow cytometry...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398563/studying-microstructure-and-microstructural-changes-in-plant-tissues-by-advanced-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-techniques
#11
Darya Morozov, Iris Tal, Odelia Pisanty, Eilon Shani, Yoram Cohen
As sessile organisms, plants must respond to the environment by adjusting their growth and development. Most of the plant body is formed post-embryonically by continuous activity of apical and lateral meristems. The development of lateral adventitious roots is a complex process, and therefore the development of methods that can visualize, non-invasively, the plant microstructure and organ initiation that occur during growth and development is of paramount importance. In this study, relaxation-based and advanced diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods including diffusion tensor (DTI), q-space diffusion imaging (QSI), and double-pulsed-field-gradient (d-PFG) MRI, at 14...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396676/a-conserved-potential-development-framework-applies-to-shoots-of-legume-species-with-contrasting-morphogenetic-strategies
#12
Lucas Faverjon, Abraham J Escobar-Gutiérrez, Isabelle Litrico, Gaëtan Louarn
A great variety of legume species are used for forage production and grown in multi-species grasslands. Despite their close phylogenetic relationship, they display a broad range of morphologies that markedly affect their competitive abilities and persistence in mixtures. Little is yet known about the component traits that control the deployment of plant architecture in most of these species. During the present study, we compared the patterns of shoot organogenesis and shoot organ growth in contrasting forage species belonging to the four morphogenetic groups previously identified in herbaceous legumes (i...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395265/current-and-future-emissions-of-primary-pollutants-from-coal-fired-power-plants-in-shaanxi-china
#13
Yong Xu, Jianlin Hu, Qi Ying, Hongke Hao, Dexiang Wang, Hongliang Zhang
A high-resolution inventory of primary atmospheric pollutants from coal-fired power plants in Shaanxi in 2012 was built based on a detailed database compiled at unit level involving unit capacity, boiler size and type, commission time, corresponding control technologies, and average coal quality of 72 power plants. The pollutants included SO2, NOx, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), inhalable particulate matter (PM10), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)...
April 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395169/the-heterologous-expression-of-a-chrysanthemum-tcp-p-transcription-factor-cmtcp14-suppresses-organ-size-and-delays-senescence-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Ting Zhang, Yixin Qu, Haibin Wang, Jingjing Wang, Aiping Song, Yueheng Hu, Sumei Chen, Jiafu Jiang, Fadi Chen
TCP transcription factors are important for plant growth and development, but their activity in chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) has not been thoroughly explored. Here, a chrysanthemum TCP-P sequence, which encodes a protein harboring the conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif, was shown to be related phylogenetically to the Arabidopsis thaliana gene AtTCP14. A yeast-one hybrid assay showed that the encoding protein had no transcriptional activation ability, and a localization experiment indicated that it was localized in the nucleus...
April 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390087/do-ecological-communities-disperse-across-biogeographic-barriers-as-a-unit
#15
Jordan D Satler, Bryan C Carstens
Biogeographic barriers have long been implicated as drivers of biological diversification, but how these barriers influence co-occurring taxa can vary depending on factors intrinsic to the organism and in their relationships with other species. Due to the interdependence among taxa, ecological communities present a compelling opportunity to explore how interactions among species may lead to a shared response to historical events. Here we collect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from five commensal arthropods associated with the Sarracenia alata carnivorous pitcher plant, and test for co-diversification across the Mississippi River, a major biogeographic barrier in the southeastern United States...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369998/the-importance-of-hydraulic-architecture-to-the-distribution-patterns-of-trees-in-a-central-amazonian-forest
#16
Luiza H M Cosme, Juliana Schietti, Flávia R C Costa, Rafael S Oliveira
Species distributions and assemblage composition may be the result of trait selection through environmental filters. Here, we ask whether filtering of species at the local scale could be attributed to their hydraulic architectural traits, revealing the basis of hydrological microhabitat partitioning in a Central Amazonian forest. We analyzed the hydraulic characteristics at tissue (anatomical traits, wood specific gravity (WSG)), organ (leaf area, specific leaf area (SLA), leaf area : sapwood area ratio) and whole-plant (height) levels for 28 pairs of congeneric species from 14 genera restricted to either valleys or plateaus of a terra-firme forest in Central Amazonia...
March 29, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361735/key-ecological-roles-for-zoosporic-true-fungi-in-aquatic-habitats
#17
Frank H Gleason, Bettina Scholz, Thomas G Jephcott, Floris F van Ogtrop, Linda Henderson, Osu Lilje, Sandra Kittelmann, Deborah J MacArthur
The diversity and abundance of zoosporic true fungi have been analyzed recently using fungal sequence libraries and advances in molecular methods, such as high-throughput sequencing. This review focuses on four evolutionary primitive true fungal phyla: the Aphelidea, Chytridiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, and Rosellida (Cryptomycota), most species of which are not polycentric or mycelial (filamentous), rather they tend to be primarily monocentric (unicellular). Zoosporic fungi appear to be both abundant and diverse in many aquatic habitats around the world, with abundance often exceeding other fungal phyla in these habitats, and numerous novel genetic sequences identified...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348231/metabolic-evolution-and-the-self-organization-of-ecosystems
#18
Rogier Braakman, Michael J Follows, Sallie W Chisholm
Metabolism mediates the flow of matter and energy through the biosphere. We examined how metabolic evolution shapes ecosystems by reconstructing it in the globally abundant oceanic phytoplankter Prochlorococcus To understand what drove observed evolutionary patterns, we interpreted them in the context of its population dynamics, growth rate, and light adaptation, and the size and macromolecular and elemental composition of cells. This multilevel view suggests that, over the course of evolution, there was a steady increase in Prochlorococcus' metabolic rate and excretion of organic carbon...
March 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346704/the-chloroplast-rna-helicase-ise2-is-required-for-multiple-chloroplast-rna-processing-steps-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Krzysztof Bobik, Tyra N McCray, Ben Ernest, Jessica C Fernandez, Katharine A Howell, Thomas Lane, Margaret Staton, Tessa M Burch-Smith
INCREASED SIZE EXCLUSION LIMIT2 (ISE2) is a chloroplast-localized RNA helicase that is indispensable for proper plant development. Chloroplasts in leaves with reduced ISE2 expression have previously been shown to exhibit reduced thylakoid contents and increased stromal volume, indicative of defective development. It has recently been reported that ISE2 is required for the splicing of group II introns from chloroplast transcripts. The current study extends these findings, and presents evidence for ISE2's role in multiple aspects of chloroplast RNA processing beyond group II intron splicing...
March 27, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343961/protein-depletion-using-the-arabinose-promoter-in-xanthomonas-citri-subsp-citri
#20
Lilian A Lacerda, Lucia B Cavalca, Paula M M Martins, José S Govone, Maurício Bacci, Henrique Ferreira
Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) is a plant pathogen and the etiological agent of citrus canker, a severe disease that affects all the commercially important citrus varieties, and has worldwide distribution. Citrus canker cannot be healed, and the best method known to control the spread of X. citri in the orchards is the eradication of symptomatic and asymptomatic plants in the field. However, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, the main orange producing area in the world, control is evolving to an integrated management system (IMS) in which growers have to use less susceptible plants, windshields to prevent bacterial spread out and sprays of cupric bactericidal formulations...
March 24, 2017: Plasmid
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