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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326093/the-complete-chloroplast-genome-of-wild-rice-oryza-minuta-and-its-comparison-to-related-species
#1
Sajjad Asaf, Muhammad Waqas, Abdul L Khan, Muhammad A Khan, Sang-Mo Kang, Qari M Imran, Raheem Shahzad, Saqib Bilal, Byung-Wook Yun, In-Jung Lee
Oryza minuta, a tetraploid wild relative of cultivated rice (family Poaceae), possesses a BBCC genome and contains genes that confer resistance to bacterial blight (BB) and white-backed (WBPH) and brown (BPH) plant hoppers. Based on the importance of this wild species, this study aimed to understand the phylogenetic relationships of O. minuta with other Oryza species through an in-depth analysis of the composition and diversity of the chloroplast (cp) genome. The analysis revealed a cp genome size of 135,094 bp with a typical quadripartite structure and consisting of a pair of inverted repeats separated by small and large single copies, 139 representative genes, and 419 randomly distributed microsatellites...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319153/a-general-model-for-metabolic-scaling-in-self-similar-asymmetric-networks
#2
Alexander Byers Brummer, Van M Savage, Brian J Enquist
How a particular attribute of an organism changes or scales with its body size is known as an allometry. Biological allometries, such as metabolic scaling, have been hypothesized to result from selection to maximize how vascular networks fill space yet minimize internal transport distances and resistances. The West, Brown, Enquist (WBE) model argues that these two principles (space-filling and energy minimization) are (i) general principles underlying the evolution of the diversity of biological networks across plants and animals and (ii) can be used to predict how the resulting geometry of biological networks then governs their allometric scaling...
March 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298919/overestimation-of-crop-root-biomass-in-field-experiments-due-to-extraneous-organic-matter
#3
Juliane Hirte, Jens Leifeld, Samuel Abiven, Hans-Rudolf Oberholzer, Andreas Hammelehle, Jochen Mayer
Root biomass is one of the most relevant root parameters for studies of plant response to environmental change, soil carbon modeling or estimations of soil carbon sequestration. A major source of error in root biomass quantification of agricultural crops in the field is the presence of extraneous organic matter in soil: dead roots from previous crops, weed roots, incorporated above ground plant residues and organic soil amendments, or remnants of soil fauna. Using the isotopic difference between recent maize root biomass and predominantly C3-derived extraneous organic matter, we determined the proportions of maize root biomass carbon of total carbon in root samples from the Swiss long-term field trial "DOK...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295376/both-maternally-and-paternally-imprinted-genes-regulate-seed-development-in-rice
#4
Jingya Yuan, Sushu Chen, Wu Jiao, Longfei Wang, Limei Wang, Wenxue Ye, Jie Lu, Delin Hong, Siliang You, Zhukuan Cheng, Dong-Lei Yang, Z Jeffrey Chen
Genetic imprinting refers to the unequal expression of paternal and maternal alleles of a gene in sexually reproducing organisms, including mammals and flowering plants. Although many imprinted genes have been identified in plants, the functions of these imprinted genes have remained largely uninvestigated. We report genome-wide analysis of gene expression, DNA methylation and small RNAs in the rice endosperm and functional tests of five imprinted genes during seed development using Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated gene9 (CRISPR/Cas9) gene editing technology...
March 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292607/looking-for-engineered-nanoparticles-enps-in-wastewater-treatment-systems-qualification-and-quantification-aspects
#5
Soohoon Choi, Murray V Johnston, Gen-Suh Wang, C P Huang
The current study developed a rationalized method for the quantification and identification of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in wastewaters. A review of current literature revealed that overall, presently available methods focused on single ENP mostly and were applicable mainly to samples of low organic loadings or under well-controlled laboratory conditions. In the present research, procedures including dialysis for desalting and low-temperature oxidation for organic removal were used to pretreat samples of high organic loadings, specifically, municipal wastewater and sludge...
March 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285663/an-lrr-receptor-kinase-regulates-growth-development-and-pathogenesis-in-phytophthora-capsici
#6
Asma Safdar, Qi Li, Danyu Shen, Linlin Chen, Feng He, Rongbo Wang, Meixiang Zhang, Joseph Juma Mafurah, Sajid Aleem Khan, Daolong Dou
Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) domain containing kinase proteins (LRR-RK) perform various functions in eukaryotic organisms. However, their functions in Oomycetes are still largely unknown. Here, we identified an LRR-RK (PcLRR-RK1) gene and characterized its functions in Phytophthora capsici, a model oomycete specie and a major plant destroyer of solanaceous and cucurbitaceous vegetable crops. We showed that PcLRR-RK1-silenced P. capsici transformants exhibited reduced growth and produced highly branched fluffy hyphae...
May 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285133/modification-of-atgrdp1-gene-expression-affects-silique-and-seed-development-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#7
Aída Araceli Rodríguez-Hernández, Carlos Vladimir Muro-Medina, Jocelin Itzel Ramírez-Alonso, Juan Francisco Jiménez-Bremont
Glycine Rich Proteins (GRPs) are induced at different developmental stages and in specific plant tissues. Recently, we described a novel Arabidopsis gene encoding a short glycine-rich domain protein (AtGRDP1). This gene is involved in abiotic stress responsiveness; the Atgrdp1-null mutant seeds were more sensitive to stress, while the opposite phenotype was achieved by AtGRDP1 overexpression. In this study, we analyzed the phenotype of the fruits produced by Arabidopsis Atgrdp1 mutants and 35S::AtGRDP1 overexpression lines...
March 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279901/adsorption-of-microcystin-lr-on-mesoporous-carbons-and-its-potential-use-in-drinking-water-source
#8
Jeong-Ann Park, Sung-Mok Jung, In-Geol Yi, Jae-Woo Choi, Song-Bae Kim, Sang-Hyup Lee
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a common toxin derived from cyanobacterial blooms an effective, rapid and non-toxic method needs to be developed for its removal from drinking water treatment plants (DWTP). For an adsorption-based method, mesoporous carbon can be a promising supplemental adsorbent. The effect of mesoporous carbon (MC1, MC2, and MC3) properties and water quality parameters on the adsorption of MC-LR were investigated and the results were analyzed by kinetic, isotherm, thermodynamic, Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO), and intraparticle diffusion models...
March 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277967/plant-electrome-can-be-pushed-toward-a-self-organized-critical-state-by-external-cues-evidences-from-a-study-with-soybean-seedlings-subject-to-different-environmental-conditions
#9
Gustavo M Souza, Arlan S Ferreira, Gustavo F R Saraiva, Gabriel R A Toledo
In the present study, we have investigated how the low-voltage electrical signals of soybean seedlings change their temporal dynamic under different environmental conditions (cold, low light, and low osmotic potential). We have used electrophytografic technique (EPG) with sub-dermal electrodes inserted in 15-days-old seedlings located between root and shoot, accounting for a significant part of the individual seedlings. Herein, to work on a specific framework to settle this type of the study, we are adopting the term "electrome" as a reference to the totality of electrical activity measured...
March 4, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273106/implications-of-polyploidy-events-on-the-phenotype-microstructure-and-proteome-of-paulownia-australis
#10
Zhe Wang, Guoqiang Fan, Yanpeng Dong, Xiaoqiao Zhai, Minjie Deng, Zhenli Zhao, Wenshan Liu, Yabing Cao
Polyploidy events are believed to be responsible for increasing the size of plant organs and enhancing tolerance to environmental stresses. Autotetraploid Paulownia australis plants exhibit superior traits compared with their diploid progenitors. Although some transcriptomics studies have been performed and some relevant genes have been revealed, the molecular and biological mechanisms regulating the predominant characteristics and the effects of polyploidy events on P. australis remain unknown. In this study, we compared the phenotypes, microstructures, and proteomes of autotetraploid and diploid P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261319/non-destructive-determination-of-floral-staging-in-cereals-using-x-ray-micro-computed-tomography-%C3%A2%C2%B5ct
#11
Saoirse R Tracy, José Fernández Gómez, Craig J Sturrock, Zoe A Wilson, Alison C Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Accurate floral staging is required to aid research into pollen and flower development, in particular male development. Pollen development is highly sensitive to stress and is critical for crop yields. Research into male development under environmental change is important to help target increased yields. This is hindered in monocots as the flower develops internally in the pseudostem. Floral staging studies therefore typically rely on destructive analysis, such as removal from the plant, fixation, staining and sectioning...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245090/responses-of-belowground-communities-to-large-aboveground-herbivores-meta-analysis-reveals-biome-dependent-patterns-and-critical-research-gaps
#12
Walter S Andriuzzi, Diana H Wall
The importance of herbivore-plant and soil biota-plant interactions in terrestrial ecosystems is amply recognized, but the effects of aboveground herbivores on soil biota remain challenging to predict. To find global patterns in belowground responses to vertebrate herbivores, we performed a meta-analysis of studies that had measured abundance or activity of soil organisms inside and outside field exclosures (areas that excluded herbivores). Responses were often controlled by climate, ecosystem type, and dominant herbivore identity...
February 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242478/gynoecium-formation-an-intimate-and-complicated-relationship
#13
REVIEW
Laila Moubayidin, Lars Østergaard
Multicellular organisms rely on the activity of organs that develop to a specific size and shape and are patterned into particular tissues. One of the most complicated plant structures is the female reproductive organ, the gynoecium, which must integrate a range of developmental cues to ensure efficient reproduction. Here we review recent discoveries on gene networks and hormonal activities that are required to (1) control cell division, (2) pattern the gynoecium along polarity axes and (3) specify organ shape and seed dispersal...
February 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241403/non-additive-effects-of-simulated-heat-waves-and-predators-on-prey-phenotype-and-transgenerational-phenotypic-plasticity
#14
Arnaud Sentis, Jean-Louis Hemptinne, Jacques Brodeur
Understanding the effects of extreme climatic events on species and their interactions is of paramount importance for predicting and mitigating the impacts of climate change on communities and ecosystems. However, the joint effects of extreme climatic events and species interactions on the behaviour and phenotype of organisms remain poorly understood, leaving a substantial gap in our knowledge on the impacts of climatic change on ecological communities. Using an aphid-ladybeetle system, we experimentally investigated the effects of predators and heat shocks on prey body size, microhabitat use, and transgenerational phenotypic plasticity (i...
February 27, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237517/characterization-of-manganese-bearing-particles-in-the-vicinities-of-a-manganese-alloy-plant
#15
Ana Hernández-Pellón, Ignacio Fernández-Olmo, Frédéric Ledoux, Lucie Courcot, Dominique Courcot
Numerous studies have associated air manganese (Mn) exposure with negative health effects, primarily neurotoxic disorders. Despite there is not a specific European regulation, institutions such as the World Health Organization (WHO) have proposed an annual average guideline value of 150 ng/m(3). Bioaccessibility and toxicity mechanisms of Mn remain unclear, however it is generally agreed that adverse health effects are strongly linked to particle size and morphology, chemical composition and oxidation state...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236971/ligand-receptor-mediated-regulation-of-growth-in-plants
#16
Miyoshi Haruta, Michael R Sussman
Growth and development of multicellular organisms are coordinately regulated by various signaling pathways involving the communication of inter- and intracellular components. To form the appropriate body patterns, cellular growth and development are modulated by either stimulating or inhibiting these pathways. Hormones and second messengers help to mediate the initiation and/or interaction of the various signaling pathways in all complex multicellular eukaryotes. In plants, hormones include small organic molecules, as well as larger peptides and small proteins, which, as in animals, act as ligands and interact with receptor proteins to trigger rapid biochemical changes and induce the intracellular transcriptional and long-term physiological responses...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228774/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-wheat-argos-genes-influencing-plant-growth-and-stress-tolerance
#17
Yue Zhao, Xuejun Tian, Yuanyuan Li, Liyuan Zhang, Panfeng Guan, Xiaoxia Kou, Xiaobo Wang, Mingming Xin, Zhaorong Hu, Yingyin Yao, Zhongfu Ni, Qixin Sun, Huiru Peng
Auxin Regulated Gene involved in Organ Size (ARGOS) is significantly and positively associated with organ size and is involved in abiotic stress responses in plants. However, no studies on wheat ARGOS genes have been reported to date. In the present study, three TaARGOS homoeologous genes were isolated and located on chromosomes 4A, 4B, and 4D of bread wheat, all of which are highly conserved in wheat and its wild relatives. Comparisons of gene expression in different tissues demonstrated that the TaARGOSs were mainly expressed in the stem...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226277/distribution-of-trace-metals-cu-pb-ni-zn-between-particulate-colloidal-and-truly-dissolved-fractions-in-wastewater-treatment
#18
Andrew J Hargreaves, Peter Vale, Jonathan Whelan, Carlos Constantino, Gabriela Dotro, Pablo Campo, Elise Cartmell
The distribution of Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn between particulate, colloidal and truly dissolved size fractions in wastewater from a trickling filter treatment plant was investigated. Samples of influent, primary effluent, humus effluent, final effluent and sludge holding tank returns were collected and separated into particulate (i.e. > 0.45 μm), colloidal (i.e. 1 kDa to 0.45 μm), and truly dissolved (i.e. < 1 kDa) fractions using membrane filters. In the influent, substantial proportions of Cu (60%), Pb (67%), and Zn (32%) were present in the particulate fraction which was removed in conjunction with suspended particles at the works in subsequent treatment stages...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224055/is-biomass-a-reliable-estimate-of-plant-fitness
#19
Brett S Younginger, Dagmara Sirová, Mitchell B Cruzan, Daniel J Ballhorn
The measurement of fitness is critical to biological research. Although the determination of fitness for some organisms may be relatively straightforward under controlled conditions, it is often a difficult or nearly impossible task in nature. Plants are no exception. The potential for long-distance pollen dispersal, likelihood of multiple reproductive events per inflorescence, varying degrees of reproductive growth in perennials, and asexual reproduction all confound accurate fitness measurements. For these reasons, biomass is frequently used as a proxy for plant fitness...
February 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218253/environmental-conditions-regulate-the-impact-of-plants-on-cloud-formation
#20
D F Zhao, A Buchholz, R Tillmann, E Kleist, C Wu, F Rubach, A Kiendler-Scharr, Y Rudich, J Wildt, Th F Mentel
The terrestrial vegetation emits large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the atmosphere, which on oxidation produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA). By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), SOA influences cloud formation and climate. In a warming climate, changes in environmental factors can cause stresses to plants, inducing changes of the emitted VOC. These can modify particle size and composition. Here we report how induced emissions eventually affect CCN activity of SOA, a key parameter in cloud formation...
February 20, 2017: Nature Communications
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