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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936671/use-of-the-cas9-orthologs-from-streptococcus-thermophilus-and-staphylococcus-aureus-for-non-homologous-end-joining-mediated-site-specific-mutagenesis-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Jeannette Steinert, Carla Schmidt, Holger Puchta
Since the discovery of the CRISPR/Cas system and its in vivo application for site-specific targeted mutagenesis, this technique is wildly used in a great variety of organisms, such as many plant species. Commonly used for this application is the Cas9 enzyme from Streptococcus pyogenes. Here, we describe the application of two Cas9 orthologs from Streptococcus thermophilus and Staphylococcus aureus for targeted non-homologous end-joining mediated mutagenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. With both orthologs, we could show efficient inheritance of the induced mutations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934292/hawaiian-skirt-controls-size-and-floral-organ-number-by-modulating-cuc1-and-cuc2-expression
#2
Zinnia H González-Carranza, Xuebin Zhang, Janny L Peters, Veronique Boltz, Judit Szecsi, Mohammed Bendahmane, Jeremy A Roberts
The Arabidopsis thaliana F-box gene HAWAIIAN SKIRT (HWS) affects organ growth and the timing of floral organ abscission. The loss-of-function hws-1 mutant exhibits fused sepals and increased organ size. To understand the molecular mechanisms of HWS during plant development, we mutagenized hws-1 seeds with ethylmethylsulphonate (EMS) and screened for mutations suppressing hws-1 associated phenotypes. We isolated the shs1/hws-1 (suppressor of hws-1) mutant in which hws-1 sepal fusion phenotype was suppressed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929369/air-quality-study-in-the-coastal-city-of-crotone-southern-italy-hosting-a-small-size-harbor
#3
Paola Romagnoli, Francesca Vichi, Catia Balducci, Andrea Imperiali, Mattia Perilli, Lucia Paciucci, Francesco Petracchini, Angelo Cecinato
Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes, and gaseous pollutants were collected from the harbor and the urban area of Crotone (Southern Italy) in October 2015. The atmospheric concentrations of organic substances associated to PM10 were determined daily, while gaseous pollutants (BTEX, O3, SO2, NOx, NO2, and NH3) were monitored on monthly basis by means of diffusive sampling. Total PAHs reached, on the average, 1.56 ± 0.72, 0.33 ± 0.14, and 0.59 ± 0.37 ng/m(3) at the urban monitoring stations (Fiore, Fermi) and at the harbor, respectively...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926606/links-between-plant-and-fungal-diversity-in-habitat-fragments-of-coastal-shrubland
#4
Mia R Maltz, Kathleen K Treseder, Krista L McGuire
Habitat fragmentation is widespread across ecosystems, detrimentally affecting biodiversity. Although most habitat fragmentation studies have been conducted on macroscopic organisms, microbial communities and fungal processes may also be threatened by fragmentation. This study investigated whether fragmentation, and the effects of fragmentation on plants, altered fungal diversity and function within a fragmented shrubland in southern California. Using fluorimetric techniques, we assayed enzymes from plant litter collected from fragments of varying sizes to investigate enzymatic responses to fragmentation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922745/big-brother-uncouples-cell-proliferation-from-elongation-in-the-arabidopsis-primary-root
#5
Pietro Cattaneo, Christian S Hardtke
Plant organ size is sensitive to environmental conditions, but is also limited by hardwired genetic constraints. In Arabidopsis, a few organ size regulators have been identified. Among them, the BIG BROTHER (BB) gene has a prominent role in the determination of flower organ and leaf size. BB loss-of-function mutations result in a prolonged proliferation phase during leaf(-like) organ formation, and consequently larger leaves, petals and sepals. Whether BB has a similar role in root growth is unknown. Here we describe a novel bb allele which carries a P235L point mutation in the BB RING finger domain...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916111/icosahedral-plant-viral-nanoparticles-bioinspired-synthesis-of-nanomaterials-nanostructures
#6
REVIEW
Kannan Badri Narayanan, Sung Soo Han
Viral nanotechnology utilizes virus nanoparticles (VNPs) and virus-like nanoparticles (VLPs) of plant viruses as highly versatile platforms for materials synthesis and molecular entrapment that can be used in the nanotechnological fields, such as in next-generation nanoelectronics, nanocatalysis, biosensing and optics, and biomedical applications, such as for targeting, therapeutic delivery, and non-invasive in vivo imaging with high specificity and selectivity. In particular, plant virus capsids provide biotemplates for the production of novel nanostructured materials with organic/inorganic moieties incorporated in a very precise and controlled manner...
August 31, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916040/matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry-for-the-analysis-of-polyamines-in-plant-micro-tissues-using-cucurbituril-as-a-host-molecule
#7
Jun Ding, Simin Liu, Hua-Ming Xiao, Tian-Tian Ye, Ping Zhou, Yu-Qi Feng
In this study, a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) strategy using cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]) as a host molecule is proposed for the analysis of low molecular weight (LMW) compounds in complex samples. As a proof-of-concept, CB[6] was selected as the host molecule, and endogenous polyamines in plant tissue were chosen as the target analytes. Due to the molecular recognition and mass shifting properties of CB[6], the ionic signals associated with polyamines were moved to the higher mass region (>1000 Da) after specifically binding to CB[6], while signal interference derived from the conventional organic matrix and the complex sample matrix remained in the low mass region because of the incompatibility of their molecular size with CB[6] cavities...
September 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899358/visualization-of-chromosome-condensation-in-plants-with-large-chromosomes
#8
Maria A Kuznetsova, Inna A Chaban, Eugene V Sheval
BACKGROUND: Most data concerning chromosome organization have been acquired from studies of a small number of model organisms, the majority of which are mammals. In plants with large genomes, the chromosomes are significantly larger than the animal chromosomes that have been studied to date, and it is possible that chromosome condensation in such plants was modified during evolution. Here, we analyzed chromosome condensation and decondensation processes in order to find structural mechanisms that allowed for an increase in chromosome size...
September 12, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898662/size-dependent-variation-in-plant-form
#9
Karl J Niklas, Edward D Cobb
The study of organic form has a long and distinguished history going at least as far back as Aristotle's Historia Anima¯lium, wherein he identified five basic biological processes that define the forms of animals (metabolism, temperature regulation, information processing, embryo development, and inheritance). Unfortunately, all of Aristotle's writings about plant forms are lost. We know of them only indirectly from his student Theophrastus's companion books, collectively called Historia Plantarum, wherein plant forms are categorized into annual herbs, herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and trees...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898659/the-abc-model-of-floral-development
#10
Vivian Irish
Flowers are organized into concentric whorls of sepals, petals, stamens and carpels, with each of these floral organ types having a unique role in reproduction (Figure 1). Sepals enclose and protect the flower bud, while petals can be large and showy so as to attract pollinators (or people!). Stamens produce pollen grains that contain male gametes, while the carpels contain the ovules that when fertilized will produce the seeds. While the size, shape, number and elaboration of each of these organ types can be quite different, the same general organization of four floral organ types arranged in concentric whorls exists across all flowering plant (angiosperm) species...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898654/plant-cell-walls
#11
Herman Höfte, Aline Voxeur
Plants are able to generate large leaf surfaces that act as two-dimensional solar panels with a minimum investment in building material, thanks to a hydrostatic skeleton. This requires high intracellular pressures (up to 1 MPa), which depend on the presence of strong cell walls. The walls of growing cells (also called primary walls), are remarkably able to reconcile extreme tensile strength (up to 100 MPa) with the extensibility necessary for growth. All walled organisms are confronted with this dilemma - the need to balance strength and extensibility - and bacteria, fungi and plants have evolved independent solutions to cope...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892160/are-litter-decomposition-and-fire-linked-through-plant-species-traits
#12
REVIEW
Johannes H C Cornelissen, Saskia Grootemaat, Lieneke M Verheijen, William K Cornwell, Peter M van Bodegom, René van der Wal, Rien Aerts
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. References SUMMARY: Biological decomposition and wildfire are connected carbon release pathways for dead plant material: slower litter decomposition leads to fuel accumulation. Are decomposition and surface fires also connected through plant community composition, via the species' traits? Our central concept involves two axes of trait variation related to decomposition and fire. The 'plant economics spectrum' (PES) links biochemistry traits to the litter decomposability of different fine organs...
September 11, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889279/impact-of-land-use-on-the-mobility-of-hg-species-in-different-compartments-of-a-tropical-watershed-in-brazil
#13
Clara Ayume Ito de Lima, Marcelo Gomes de Almeida, Inacio Abreu Pestana, Wanderley R Bastos, Maria Cristina Nery do Nascimento Recktenvald, Cristina Maria Magalhães de Souza, Paulo Pedrosa
This study evaluated the levels of total Hg and CH3Hg(+) from a comprehensive perspective, considering the retention, leaching, and deposition of these contaminants in the main compartments (soil, plant litter, and sediment) of three landscapes (Atlantic Forest, pasture, and agricultural area) in a watershed in northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Variables analyzed were total Hg, CH3Hg(+), organic carbon, total nitrogen, grain size, and surface area. In soil samples, total Hg levels were the highest in agricultural soil followed by forest soil and pasture (97...
September 9, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886555/effects-of-fe-iii-and-quality-of-humic-substances-on-as-v-distribution-in-freshwater-use-of-ultrafiltration-and-kohonen-neural-network
#14
Erik S J Gontijo, Cláudia H Watanabe, Adnívia S C Monteiro, Gilmare A da Silva, Hubert M P Roeser, Andre H Rosa, Kurt Friese
Humic substances (HS) are ubiquitous organic compounds able to affect mobility and availability of arsenic (As) in aquatic systems. Although it is known that associations between HS and As occur mainly via iron (Fe)-cationic bridges, the behaviour and distribution of this metalloid in HS- and Fe-rich environments is still not fully understood. In this paper, the quality of HS from different rivers in Brazil and Germany and its influence on the behaviour of As(V) under different Fe(III) concentrations were investigated...
August 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881936/searching-for-biotic-multipliers-of-climate-change
#15
Mark C Urban, Phoebe L Zarnetske, David K Skelly
As climates change, biologists need to prioritize which species to understand, predict, and protect. One way is to identify key species that are both sensitive to climate change and that disproportionately affect communities and ecosystems. These "biotic multipliers" provide efficient targets for research and conservation. Here, we propose eight mechanistic hypotheses related to impact and sensitivity that suggest that top consumers might often act as biotic multipliers of climate change. For impact, top consumers often affect communities and ecosystems through strong top-down effects...
July 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877493/spatially-different-tissue-scale-diffusivity-shapes-angustifolia3-gradient-in-growing-leaves
#16
Kensuke Kawade, Hirokazu Tanimoto, Gorou Horiguchi, Hirokazu Tsukaya
The spatial gradient of signaling molecules is pivotal for establishing developmental patterns of multicellular organisms. It has long been proposed that these gradients could arise from the pure diffusion process of signaling molecules between cells, but whether this simplest mechanism establishes the formation of the tissue-scale gradient remains unclear. Plasmodesmata are unique channel structures in plants that connect neighboring cells for molecular transport. In this study, we measured cellular- and tissue-scale kinetics of molecular transport through plasmodesmata in Arabidopsis thaliana developing leaf primordia by fluorescence recovery assays...
September 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861094/on-being-the-right-size-as-an-animal-with-plastids
#17
REVIEW
Cessa Rauch, Peter Jahns, Aloysius G M Tielens, Sven B Gould, William F Martin
Plastids typically reside in plant or algal cells-with one notable exception. There is one group of multicellular animals, sea slugs in the order Sacoglossa, members of which feed on siphonaceous algae. The slugs sequester the ingested plastids in the cytosol of cells in their digestive gland, giving the animals the color of leaves. In a few species of slugs, including members of the genus Elysia, the stolen plastids (kleptoplasts) can remain morphologically intact for weeks and months, surrounded by the animal cytosol, which is separated from the plastid stroma by only the inner and outer plastid membranes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854212/condensation-patterns-of-prophase-prometaphase-chromosome-are-correlated-with-h4k5-histone-acetylation-and-genomic-dna-contents-in-plants
#18
Lidiane Feitoza, Lucas Costa, Marcelo Guerra
Mitotic prophase chromosome condensation plays an essential role in nuclear division being therefore regulated by highly conserved mechanisms. However, degrees of chromatin condensation in prophase-prometaphase cells may vary along the chromosomes resulting in specific condensation patterns. We examined different condensation patterns (CPs) of prophase and prometaphase chromosomes and investigated their relationship with genome size and distribution of histone H4 acetylated at lysine 5 (H4K5ac) in 17 plant species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853576/data-resources-for-the-computer-guided-discovery-of-bioactive-natural-products
#19
Ya Chen, Christina de Bruyn Kops, Johannes Kirchmair
Natural products from plants, animals, marine life, fungi, bacteria, and other organisms are an important resource for modern drug discovery. Their biological relevance and structural diversity make natural products good starting points for drug design. Natural product-based drug discovery can benefit greatly from computational approaches, which are a valuable precursor or supplementary method to in vitro testing. We present an overview of 25 virtual and 31 physical natural product libraries that are useful for applications in cheminformatics, in particular virtual screening...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846861/wildfire-effects-on-lipid-composition-and-hydrophobicity-of-bulk-soil-and-soil-size-fractions-under-quercus-suber-cover-sw-spain
#20
Nicasio T Jiménez-Morillo, Jorge E Spangenberg, Ana Z Miller, Antonio Jordán, Lorena M Zavala, Francisco J González-Vila, José A González-Pérez
Soil water repellency (hydrophobicity) prevents water from wetting or infiltrating soils, triggering changes in the ecosystems. Fire may develop, enhance or destroy hydrophobicity in previously wettable or water-repellent soils. Soil water repellency is mostly influenced by the quality and quantity of soil organic matter, particularly the lipid fraction. Here we report the results of a study on the effect of fire on the distribution of soil lipids and their role in the hydrophobicity grade of six particle size fractions (2-1, 1-0...
August 25, 2017: Environmental Research
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