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Çinel Köksal Karayildirim, Mustafa Kotmakçi, Erkan Halay, Kadir Ay, Yücel Başpinar
5-Fluorouracil is one of the first line drugs for the systemic therapy of solid tumors like breast, colorectal, oesophageal, stomach, pancreatic, head and neck. It could be shown that sugars can improve the absorption across cell membranes and can help to bypass some pharmacokinetic problems. Carbohydrates as most common organic molecules are an important issue of plant and animal metabolisms. They are non toxic and have important duties in the body like participating in DNA and RNA synthesis and being responsible for energy production...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Sylvain Dépigny, Frédéric Tchotang, Médard Talla, Désirée Fofack, David Essomé, Jean-Pierre Ebongué, Bernard Kengni, Thierry Lescot
The 'Plantain-Optim' dataset (came from the 'Plantain-Optim' experiment conducted from 2009 to 2011 at CARBAP experimental station in Cameroon. The main objective was to describe agronomic potential of nine plantain varieties, including five natural plantains commonly cropped in Cameroon, and four plantain-like hybrids. A completely randomized bloc permitted to compare growth, development and yield of 45 plants per variety split between five replicates. Cropping practices guarantied non-limiting and homogenous conditions...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Daoping Zha, Ying Li, Cunman Yang, Chi Yao
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been detected in the surface water, suspended sediments, and river sediments from the Yangtze River in China. A modified polar organic chemical integrative sampler (m-POCIS) was successfully used to quantify the OPFR concentrations in surface water. The OPFR concentrations estimated by the field m-POCIS at six sampling locations ranged from 8.99 to 112.45 ng/L with an average concentration of 47.04 ng/L. The OPFR concentrations in suspended sediments were related to the sediment particle size distribution...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Keigo Nakamura, Tetsuya Hisanaga, Koichi Fujimoto, Keiji Nakajima, Hirofumi Wada
The female sex organ of the liverwort ( Marchantia polymorpha ) has a characteristic parasol-like form highly suitable for collecting water droplets containing sperm for fertilization. Motivated by this observation and using three-dimensional printing techniques, we develop a parasol-like rigid object that can grab, transport and release water droplets of a maximum size of about 1 cm. By combining experiments and scaling theory, we quantify the object's fundamental wetting and fluid dynamical properties. We construct a stability phase diagram and suggest that it is largely insensitive to properties of liquids such as surface tension and viscosity...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Mafalda Pardal
BACKGROUND: In Belgium, Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) collectively organize the cultivation and distribution of cannabis for the personal use of their members. In this paper we seek to improve understanding of the motivations and practices of cannabis growers operating within CSCs, shedding light on the cultivation process. METHODS: We draw on data gathered through face-to-face semi-structured interviews with the directors of seven active Belgian CSCs (n = 21) and CSC growers (n = 23)...
March 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
M A Filyushin, M A Slugin, E A Dzhos, E Z Kochieva, A V Shchennikova
The interspecific polymorphism and the expression patterns of the genes encoding the YABBY1 and YABBY3 transcription factors of cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and wild species S. chmielewskii, S. peruvianum, and S. habrochaites are characterized. The possibility of an inverse relationship between the level of YABBY1 and YABBY3 genes coexpression and the size of leaves and flowers of the tomato species studied is shown. The phylogeny of the genes suggests an earlier emergence of YABBY1 compared to YABBY3 as well as the origin of these paralogs from a common ancestor before the divergence of dicotyledonous plants into Rosids and Asterids...
January 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Raffaele Rani, Konrad Abramowicz, Daniel S Falster, Frank Sterck, Åke Brännström
Allocation of carbohydrates between competing organs is fundamental to plant development, growth and productivity. Carbohydrates are synthesized in mature leaves and distributed via the phloem vasculature to developing buds where they are consumed to produce new biomass. The distribution and mass-allocation processes within the plant remain poorly understood and may involve complex feedbacks between different plant functions, with implications for the emergent structure of the plant. Here, we investigate how the order in which dormant buds are flushed affects the development of tree size and reproductive output during the first 20 years of growth in full light and shaded canopy environments...
March 9, 2018: Tree Physiology
Misa Matsuda, Yuji Iwata, Nozomu Koizumi, Kei-Ichiro Mishiba
DSBs differently affect endoreduplication and organ size in radish cotyledons and hypocotyls in different light conditions, suggesting that DSBs-mediated endoreduplication varies based on different developmental and environmental cues. Endoreduplication induced by DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in Arabidopsis thaliana roots and cultured cells has been reported in recent years. In this study, we investigated whether DSBs-mediated endoreduplication also occurs in other tissues, such as cotyledons and hypocotyls of radish (Raphanus sativus var...
March 12, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Manabu Fujii, Keisuke Ono, Chihiro Yoshimura, Manami Miyamoto
Anthropogenically released radioactive cesium (RCs) poses serious ecological and environmental concerns given its persistency in the environment. Although accumulation of RCs in aqueous and sedimentary environments is often reported to associate with organic matter (OM), the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. Here, we investigated RCs in fine sediments along the Abukuma River, the largest river near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, 1.5-4 years after the accident. Measuring the density-separated sediment fractions with a broad range of OM content (%) indicated that the RCs concentration (Bq·kg-1 ) is positively correlated with OM content for intermediate-density fractions in which OM is primarily characterized by autochthonous origin...
March 2, 2018: Water Research
Sung Don Lim, Won Cheol Yim, Degao Liu, Rongbin Hu, Xiaohan Yang, John C Cushman
Strategies for improving plant size are critical targets for plant biotechnology to increase vegetative biomass or reproductive yield. To improve biomass production, a codon-optimized helix-loop-helix transcription factor (VvCEB1opt ) from wine grape was overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana resulting in significantly increased leaf number, leaf and rosette area, fresh weight, and dry weight. Cell size, but typically not cell number, was increased in all tissues resulting in increased vegetative biomass and reproductive organ size, number, and seed yield...
March 9, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Quinn R Ollivier, Edward Hammill, David J Booth, Elizabeth M P Madin, Charles Hinchliffe, Alastair R Harborne, Catherine E Lovelock, Peter I Macreadie, Trisha B Atwood
Benthic fauna play a crucial role in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling at the sediment-water boundary in aquatic ecosystems. In terrestrial systems, grazing herbivores have been shown to influence below-ground communities through alterations to plant distribution and composition, however whether similar cascading effects occur in aquatic systems is unknown. Here, we assess the relationship between benthic invertebrates and above-ground fish grazing across the 'grazing halos' of Heron Island lagoon, Australia...
2018: PloS One
Clement O Ogunkunle, Mahboob A Jimoh, Nnaemeka T Asogwa, K Viswanathan, Vinita Vishwakarma, Paul O Fatoba
Increased use of nanoparticles-based products in agriculture portends important implications for agriculture. Therefore, the impact of nano-copper particles (<25 nm and 60-80 nm) on Cu uptake, bioaccumulation (roots, leaves and seeds), activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and lipid peroxidation in leaves and roots of Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) was studied. Plants were exposed to four levels (0, 125, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) of 25 nm or 60-80 nm nano-Cu for 65 days...
March 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Lilan Hong, Mathilde Dumond, Mingyuan Zhu, Satoru Tsugawa, Chun-Biu Li, Arezki Boudaoud, Olivier Hamant, Adrienne H K Roeder
Development is remarkably reproducible, producing organs with the same size, shape, and function repeatedly from individual to individual. For example, every flower on the Antirrhinum> stalk has the same snapping dragon mouth. This reproducibility has allowed taxonomists to classify plants and animals according to their morphology. Yet these reproducible organs are composed of highly variable cells. For example, neighboring cells grow at different rates in Arabidopsis leaves, sepals, and shoot apical meristems...
March 5, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Teresa Gomes, José Alberto Pereira, Jacinto Benhadi, Teresa Lino-Neto, Paula Baptista
The diversity and factors influencing fungal assemblages in phyllosphere of Mediterranean tree species have been barely studied, especially when endophytic and epiphytic communities are simultaneously considered. In this work, the endophytic and epiphytic fungal communities from olive tree phyllosphere were studied. This tree species is natural from the Mediterranean region and adapted to grow under adverse climatic conditions. The main objectives were to determine whether there are differences between both fungal communities and to examine whether different abiotic (climate-related) and biotic (plant organs) factors play a pivotal role in structuring these communities...
March 2, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Tahir Rasheed, Muhammad Bilal, Chuanlong Li, Faran Nabeel, Muhammad Khalid, Hafiz M N Iqbal
Herein, we reported a facile, green and environmental friendlier biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the Convolvulus arvensis extract. The influences of various physicochemical factors such as the concentration of the plant extract, reaction time, and different pH levels were investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The UV-Visible absorption spectrum of biogenic silver nanoparticles at λmax around ~400 nm suggested the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed to confirm the chemical transformation and role of various phyto-reductants in the conversion of Ag+ to Ag0 ...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Anne Kempel, Abiel Rindisbacher, Markus Fischer, Eric Allan
Understanding why some species are rare while others are common remains a central and fascinating question in ecology. Recently, interactions with soil organisms have been shown to affect local abundances of plant species within communities, however, it is not known whether they might also drive patterns of rarity at large scales. Further, little is known about the specificity of soil-feedback effects, and whether closely related plants share more soil pathogens than more distantly related plants. In a multi-species soil-feedback experiment (using 19 species) we tested whether regionally and locally rare species differed in their response to soil biota...
March 2018: Ecology
Fernanda P Cid, Fumito Maruyama, Kazunori Murase, Steffen P Graether, Giovanni Larama, Leon A Bravo, Milko A Jorquera
Genome analyses are being used to characterize plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria living in different plant compartiments. In this context, we have recently isolated bacteria from the phyllosphere of an Antarctic plant (Deschampsia antarctica) showing ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI), an activity related to the presence of antifreeze proteins (AFPs). In this study, the draft genomes of six phyllospheric bacteria showing IRI activity were sequenced and annotated according to their functional gene categories...
February 28, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Tadesse Alemu, Andualem Mekonnen, Seyoum Leta
In the present study, a pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) system planted with Phragmites karka; longitudinal profile was studied. The wetland was fed with tannery wastewater, pretreated in a two-stage anaerobic digester followed by a sequence batch reactor. Samples from each CW were taken and analyzed using standard methods. The removal efficiency of the CW system in terms of biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Cr and total coliforms were 91.3%, 90%, 97...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Shengyuan Sun, Lei Wang, Hailiang Mao, Lin Shao, Xianghua Li, Jinghua Xiao, Yidan Ouyang, Qifa Zhang
Manipulating grain size is an effective strategy for increasing cereal yields. Here we identify a pathway composed of five subunits of the heterotrimeric G proteins that regulate grain length in rice. The Gβ protein is essential for plant survival and growth. Gα provides a foundation for grain size expansion. Three Gγ proteins, DEP1, GGC2 and GS3, antagonistically regulate grain size. DEP1 and GGC2, individually or in combination, increase grain length when in complex with Gβ. GS3, having no effect on grain size by itself, reduces grain length by competitively interacting with Gβ...
February 27, 2018: Nature Communications
Jagdeep Kaur, Swarup Roy Choudhury, Anitha Vijayakumar, Laryssa Hovis, Zach Rhodes, Rob Polzin, Dylan Blumenthal, Sona Pandey
Heterotrimeric G-proteins are key regulators of a multitude of growth and development pathways in eukaryotes. Along with the conserved G-protein components found in all organisms, plants have certain novel variants with unique architecture, which may be involved in the regulation of plant-specific traits. The higher plant-specific type III (or Class C) Gγ protein, which possesses a large C terminal extension, represented by AGG3 in Arabidopsis, is one such variant of canonical Gγ proteins. The type III Gγ proteins are involved in regulation of many agronomically important traits in plants, including seed yield, organ size regulation, abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent signaling and stress responses, and nitrogen use efficiency...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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