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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157914/population-sensitivities-of-animals-to-chronic-ionizing-radiation-model-predictions-from-mice-to-elephant
#1
Tatiana G Sazykina
Model predictions of population response to chronic ionizing radiation (endpoint 'morbidity') were made for 11 species of warm-blooded animals, differing in body mass and lifespan - from mice to elephant. Predictions were made also for 3 bird species (duck, pigeon, and house sparrow). Calculations were based on analytical solutions of the mathematical model, simulating a population response to low-LET ionizing radiation in an ecosystem with a limiting resource (Sazykina, Kryshev, 2016). Model parameters for different species were taken from biological and radioecological databases; allometric relationships were employed for estimating some parameter values...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155709/a-computational-method-to-quantify-fly-circadian-activity
#2
Andrey Lazopulo, Sheyum Syed
In most animals and plants, circadian clocks orchestrate behavioral and molecular processes and synchronize them to the daily light-dark cycle. Fundamental mechanisms that underlie this temporal control are widely studied using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. In flies, the clock is typically studied by analyzing multiday locomotor recording. Such a recording shows a complex bimodal pattern with two peaks of activity: a morning peak that happens around dawn, and an evening peak that happens around dusk...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144022/collagen-a-review-on-its-sources-and-potential-cosmetic-applications
#3
REVIEW
María Isabela Avila Rodríguez, Laura G Rodríguez Barroso, Mirna Lorena Sánchez
Collagen is a fibrillar protein that conforms the conjunctive and connective tissues in the human body, essentially skin, joints, and bones. This molecule is one of the most abundant in many of the living organisms due to its connective role in biological structures. Due to its abundance, strength and its directly proportional relation with skin aging, collagen has gained great interest in the cosmetic industry. It has been established that the collagen fibers are damaged with the pass of time, losing thickness and strength which has been strongly related with skin aging phenomena [Colágeno para todo...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142334/approaches-to-macroevolution-2-sorting-of-variation-some-overarching-issues-and-general-conclusions
#4
David Jablonski
Approaches to macroevolution require integration of its two fundamental components, within a hierarchical framework. Following a companion paper on the origin of variation, I here discuss sorting within an evolutionary hierarchy. Species sorting-sometimes termed species selection in the broad sense, meaning differential origination and extinction owing to intrinsic biological properties-can be split into strict-sense species selection, in which rate differentials are governed by emergent, species-level traits such as geographic range size, and effect macroevolution, in which rates are governed by organism-level traits such as body size; both processes can create hitchhiking effects, indirectly causing the proliferation or decline of other traits...
2017: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139121/xyloglucan-is-released-by-plants-and-promotes-soil-particle-aggregation
#5
Andrew F Galloway, Martin J Pedersen, Beverley Merry, Susan E Marcus, Joshua Blacker, Liane G Benning, Katie J Field, J Paul Knox
Soil is a crucial component of the biosphere and is a major sink for organic carbon. Plant roots are known to release a wide range of carbon-based compounds into soils, including polysaccharides, but the functions of these are not known in detail. Using a monoclonal antibody to plant cell wall xyloglucan, we show that this polysaccharide is secreted by a wide range of angiosperm roots, and relatively abundantly by grasses. It is also released from the rhizoids of liverworts, the earliest diverging lineage of land plants...
November 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138394/critical-mutation-rate-has-an-exponential-dependence-on-population-size-for-eukaryotic-length-genomes-with-crossover
#6
Elizabeth Aston, Alastair Channon, Roman V Belavkin, Danna R Gifford, Rok Krašovec, Christopher G Knight
The critical mutation rate (CMR) determines the shift between survival-of-the-fittest and survival of individuals with greater mutational robustness ("flattest"). We identify an inverse relationship between CMR and sequence length in an in silico system with a two-peak fitness landscape; CMR decreases to no more than five orders of magnitude above estimates of eukaryotic per base mutation rate. We confirm the CMR reduces exponentially at low population sizes, irrespective of peak radius and distance, and increases with the number of genetic crossovers...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136456/the-intimate-talk-between-plants-and-microorganisms-at-the-leaf-surface
#7
Wendy Aragón, José Juan Reina-Pinto, Mario Serrano, Eva Dominguez
The plant epidermis or cuticle is constantly exposed to external and internal environmental factors, including an enriched and diverse community of bacteria, yeast, fungi, viruses, and mites. It is not only where the plant has its first physical barrier, but also where organisms can be recognized and potentially where the plant defense responses can be triggered. The plant cuticle is a polymeric composite formed by an array of structurally and chemically heterogeneous compounds, including cutin and wax. A few studies have shown that cuticular components are essential and important drivers of the structure and size of the bacterial community...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136411/shoot-apical-meristem-and-plant-body-organization-a-cross-species-comparative-study
#8
Renáta Schnablová, Tomáš Herben, Jitka Klimešová
Background and Aims: The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is the key organizing element in the plant body and is responsible for the core of plant body organization and shape. Surprisingly, there are almost no comparative data that would show links between parameters of the SAM and whole-plant traits as drivers of the plant's response to the environment. Methods: Interspecific differences in SAM anatomy were examined in 104 perennial herbaceous angiosperms. Key Results: There were differences in SAM parameters among individual species, their phylogenetic patterns, and how their variation is linked to variation in plant above-ground organs and hence species' environmental niches...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134788/thermal-acclimation-in-arabidopsis-lyrata-genotypic-costs-and-transcriptional-changes
#9
Guillaume Wos, Yvonne Willi
Frost and heat events can be challenging for sessile organisms that cannot escape thermal extremes. However, adverse effects of thermal stress on fitness may be reduced by pre-exposure to cold or heat, a process known as acclimation. To understand the ecological and evolutionary implications of acclimation, we investigated (1) the reduction in performance due to stress pre-exposure, (2) the magnitude of increased leaf resistance to subsequent stress, (3) the costs of acclimation, and (4) the genes differing in expression due to stress pre-exposure...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134739/phenotypic-plasticity-in-response-to-environmental-heterogeneity-contributes-to-fluctuating-asymmetry-in-plants-first-empirical-evidence
#10
Branka Tucić, Sanja Budečević, Sanja Manitašević Jovanović, Ana Vuleta, Christian Peter Klingenberg
Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is widely used to quantify developmental instability (DI) in ecological and evolutionary studies. It has long been recognized that FA may not exclusively originate from DI for sessile organisms such as plants, because phenotypic plasticity in response to heterogeneities in the environment might also produce FA. This study provides the first empirical evidence for this hypothesis. We reasoned that solar irradiance, which is greater on the southern side than on the northern side of plants growing in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, would cause systematic morphological differences and asymmetry associated with the orientation of plant parts...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131311/hemiparasites-can-transmit-indirect-effects-from-their-host-plants-to-herbivores
#11
Nathan L Haan, Jonathan D Bakker, M Deane Bowers
Parasitic plants can serve as critical intermediaries between their hosts and other organisms; however these relationships are not well understood. To investigate the relative importance of plant traits in such interactions, we studied the role of the root hemiparasite, Castilleja levisecta (Orobanchaceae), as a mediator of interactions between the host plants it parasitizes and the lepidopteran herbivore Euphydryas editha (Nymphalidae), whose caterpillars feed on Castilleja and sequester iridoid glycosides from it...
November 13, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128637/a-mads-box-transcription-factor-of-kuerlexiangli-pyrus-sinkiangensis-yu-psjointless-gene-functions-in-floral-organ-abscission
#12
Xiaoxiao Qi, Shi Hu, Hongsheng Zhou, Xing Liu, Lifen Wang, Biying Zhao, Xiaosan Huang, Shaoling Zhang
MADS-box proteins have been implicated in many biological processes. However, plant MADS-box proteins functioning in floral organ abscission and the underlying physiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of PsJOINTLESS isolated from 'Kuerlexiangli'. PsJOINTLESS had a complete open reading frame of 672bp, encoding a 224 amino acid peptide, and shared high sequence identities with MADS-box from other plants. PsJOINTLESS was subcellularly targeted to the nucleus, supporting its role as a transcription factor...
November 8, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126284/genetic-drift-and-indel-mutation-in-the-evolution-of-yeast-mitochondrial-genome-size
#13
Shujie Xiao, Duong T Nguyen, Baojun Wu, Weilong Hao
Mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are remarkably diverse in genome size and organization, but the origins of dynamic mitogenome architectures are still poorly understood. For instance, the mutational burden hypothesis postulates that the drastic difference between large plant mitogenomes and streamlined animal mitogenomes can be driven by their different mutation rates. However, inconsistent trends between mitogenome sizes and mutation rates have been documented in several lineages. These conflicting results highlight the need of systematic and sophisticated investigations on the evolution and diversity of mitogenome architecture...
November 8, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112129/enhanced-agronomic-traits-and-medicinal-constituents-of-autotetraploids-in-anoectochilus-formosanus-hayata-a-top-grade-medicinal-orchid
#14
Hsiao-Hang Chung, Shu-Kai Shi, Bin Huang, Jen-Tsung Chen
This study developed an efficient and reliable system for inducing polyploidy in Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata, a top-grade medicinal orchid. The resulting tetraploid gave a significant enhancement on various agronomic traits, including dry weight, fresh weight, shoot length, root length, leaf width, the size of stoma, and number of chloroplasts per stoma. A reduction of the ratio of length to width was observed in stomata and leaves of the tetraploid, and consequently, an alteration of organ shape was found...
November 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110402/high-rate-of-adaptive-evolution-in-two-widespread-european-pines
#15
Delphine Grivet, Komlan Avia, Aleksia Vaattovaara, Andrew J Eckert, David B Neale, Outi Savolainen, Santiago C González-Martínez
Comparing related organisms with differing ecological requirements and evolutionary histories can shed light on the mechanisms and drivers underlying genetic adaptation. Here, by examining a common set of hundreds of loci, we compare patterns of nucleotide diversity and molecular adaptation of two European conifers (Scots pine and maritime pine) living in contrasted environments and characterized by distinct population genetic structure (low and clinal in Scots pine, high and ecotypic in maritime pine) and demographic histories...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107418/evaluation-of-microplastic-release-caused-by-textile-washing-processes-of-synthetic-fabrics
#16
Francesca De Falco, Maria Pia Gullo, Gennaro Gentile, Emilia Di Pace, Mariacristina Cocca, Laura Gelabert, Marolda Brouta-Agnésa, Angels Rovira, Rosa Escudero, Raquel Villalba, Raffaella Mossotti, Alessio Montarsolo, Sara Gavignano, Claudio Tonin, Maurizio Avella
A new and more alarming source of marine contamination has been recently identified in micro and nanosized plastic fragments. Microplastics are difficult to see with the naked eye and to biodegrade in marine environment, representing a problem since they can be ingested by plankton or other marine organisms, potentially entering the food web. An important source of microplastics appears to be through sewage contaminated by synthetic fibres from washing clothes. Since this phenomenon still lacks of a comprehensive analysis, the objective of this contribution was to investigate the role of washing processes of synthetic textiles on microplastic release...
October 26, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104334/does-organic-farming-enhance-biodiversity-in-mediterranean-vineyards-a-case-study-with-bats-and-arachnids
#17
Jérémy S P Froidevaux, Bastien Louboutin, Gareth Jones
The effectiveness of organic farming for promoting biodiversity has been widely documented, yet most studies have been undertaken in temperate agroecosystems with a focus on birds, insects and plants. Despite the Mediterranean basin being a biodiversity hotspot for conservation priorities, the potential benefits of organic farming for biodiversity there has received little attention. Here, we assessed the effect of farming system, landscape characteristics and habitat structure on biodiversity in Mediterranean vineyards using two taxa with different functional traits (in terms of mobility, dispersal ability and home range size): bats and arachnids...
November 1, 2017: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101279/extreme-suppression-of-lateral-floret-development-by-a-single-amino-acid-change-in-the-vrs1-transcription-factor
#18
Shun Sakuma, Udda Lundqvist, Yusuke Kakei, Venkatasubbu Thirulogachandar, Takako Suzuki, Kiyosumi Hori, Jianzhong Wu, Akemi Tagiri, Twan Rutten, Ravi Koppolu, Yukihisa Shimada, Kelly Houston, William T B Thomas, Robbie Waugh, Thorsten Schnurbusch, Takao Komatsuda
Increasing grain yield is an endless challenge for cereal crop breeding. In barley, grain number is mainly controlled by Six-rowed spike 1 (Vrs1) that encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper class I transcription factor. However, little is known about the genetic basis of grain size. Here we show that extreme suppression of lateral florets contributes to enlarged grains in deficiens barley. Through a combination of fine mapping and resequencing deficiens mutants we have identified that a single amino acid substitution at a putative phosphorylation site in VRS1 is responsible for the deficiens phenotype...
November 3, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093725/dynamic-labeling-reveals-temporal-changes-in-carbon-re-allocation-within-the-central-metabolism-of-developing-apple-fruit
#19
Wasiye F Beshir, Victor B M Mbong, Maarten L A T M Hertog, Annemie H Geeraerd, Wim Van den Ende, Bart M Nicolaï
In recent years, the application of isotopically labeled substrates has received extensive attention in plant physiology. Measuring the propagation of the label through metabolic networks may provide information on carbon allocation in sink fruit during fruit development. In this research, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry based metabolite profiling was used to characterize the changing metabolic pool sizes in developing apple fruit at five growth stages (30, 58, 93, 121, and 149 days after full bloom) using (13)C-isotope feeding experiments on hypanthium tissue discs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089496/microbial-community-level-regulation-explains-soil-carbon-responses-to-long-term-litter-manipulations
#20
Katerina Georgiou, Rose Z Abramoff, John Harte, William J Riley, Margaret S Torn
Climatic, atmospheric, and land-use changes all have the potential to alter soil microbial activity, mediated by changes in plant inputs. Many microbial models of soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition have been proposed recently to advance prediction of climate and carbon (C) feedbacks. Most of these models, however, exhibit unrealistic oscillatory behavior and SOC insensitivity to long-term changes in C inputs. Here we diagnose the source of these problems in four archetypal models and propose a density-dependent formulation of microbial turnover, motivated by community-level interactions, that limits population sizes and reduces oscillations...
October 31, 2017: Nature Communications
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