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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544549/future-warmer-seas-increased-stress-and-susceptibility-to-grazing-in-seedlings-of-a-marine-habitat-forming-species
#1
Gema Hernán, María J Ortega, Alberto M Gándara, Inés Castejón, Jorge Terrados, Fiona Tomas
Increases in seawater temperature are expected to have negative consequences for marine organisms. Beyond individual effects, species-specific differences in thermal tolerance are predicted to modify species interactions and increase the strength of top-down effects, particularly in plant-herbivore interactions. Shifts in trophic interactions will be especially important when affecting habitat-forming species such as seagrasses, as the consequences on their abundance will cascade throughout the food web. Seagrasses are a major component of coastal ecosystems offering important ecosystem services, but are threatened by multiple anthropogenic stressors, including warming...
May 22, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541794/natural-organic-matter-characterization-by-hpsec-and-its-contribution-to-trihalomethane-formation-in-athens-water-supply-network
#2
Stelios A Samios, Spyros K Golfinopoulos, Przemyslaw Andrzejewski, Joanna Świetlik
Samples from the two main watersheds that provide Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (AWSSC) with raw water were examined for Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and for their molecular weight distribution (MWD). In addition, water samples from water treatment plants (WTPs) and from the water supply network were examined for trihalomethane (THMs) levels. The main purpose of this study was to reveal the molecular composition of natural organic matter (NOM) and identify the individual differences between NOM from the two main Athens watersheds...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540532/first-occurrence-of-sternochetus-mangiferae-fabricius-coleoptera-curculionidae-in-brazil
#3
A C Silva, M P Ricalde
Specimens of the mango stone weevil Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were found in fruits of mango from a tree in the residential area of the Rio de Janeiro, RJ. This is the first report of the S. mangiferae in Brazil, currently regulated as an absent quarantine pest in the country. A taxonomist specialized in Curculionidae confirmed the identification based on morphological diagnostics characteristics. This detection is a relevant finding, because Brazil is a major producer and exporter of mango and the main areas of mango for exportation are located very far from this detection point...
May 24, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534654/functions-and-substrates-of-plastoglobule-localized-metallopeptidase-pgm48
#4
Nazmul H Bhuiyan, Klaas J van Wijk
Plastoglobules (PGs) in chloroplasts are monolayer lipid-protein particles attached to thylakoids. The size and number of PGs per chloroplast respond dynamically to abiotic environmental stresses and developmental transitions. During senescence, the thylakoid membranes and its constituents are dismantled in controlled fashion. Leaf senescence coincides with a dramatic increase in the size of PGs, which is consistent with a functional role of PG in remobilization of thylakoid membrane components. In a recent publication (1) , we showed that PG-localized metallopeptidase PGM48 promotes natural senescence...
May 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530197/green-fabricated-cuo-nanobullets-via-olea-europaea-leaf-extract-shows-auspicious-antimicrobial-potential
#5
Qaisar Maqbool, Sidra Iftikhar, Mudassar Nazar, Fazal Abbas, Asif Saleem, Talib Hussain, Rizwan Kausar, Sadaf Anwaar, Nyla Jabeen
In present investigation, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been prepared via green chemistry. Olea europaea leaf extract act as strong chelating agent for tailoring physical as well as bio-medical characteristics of CuO at the nano-size. Physical characterisation such as scanning electron microscope analysis depicts the formation of homogenised spherical shape nanoparticles (NPs) with average size of 42 nm. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further confirmed the crystalline pure phase and monoclinic structure...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527740/reductions-of-plant-cover-induced-by-sheep-grazing-change-the-above-belowground-partition-and-chemistry-of-organic-c-stocks-in-arid-rangelands-of-patagonian-monte-argentina
#6
C Larreguy, A L Carrera, M B Bertiller
The objective of this study was to estimate the size and chemical quality of the total organic C stock and its partition between above-belowground plant parts and soil at sites with different plant cover induced by sheep grazing in the arid Patagonian Monte. This study was conducted at six representative sites with increasing signs of canopy disturbance attributed to grazing pressure. We used faeces density as a proxy of grazing pressure at each site. We assessed the total plant cover, shrub and perennial grass cover, total standing aboveground biomass (AGB), litter mass and belowground biomass (BGB) at each site...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526723/anisotomous-dichotomy-results-from-an-unequal-bifurcation-of-the-original-shoot-apical-meristem-in-diphasiastrum-digitatum-lycopodiaceae
#7
Xiaofeng Yin, Roger D Meicenheimer
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Two types of dichotomy are recognized in Lycopodiaceae: isotomous (equal) and anisotomous (unequal). Anisotomous dichotomy (anisotomy) has been hypothesized to result from unequal growth of an equal bifurcation of the original shoot apical meristem (SAM). Diphasiastrum digitatum (Lycopodiaceae) exhibits anisotomy at various locations. We thus used D. digitatum to test this classic hypothesis about anisotomy. METHODS: Transverse areas of original and derived SAMs of anisotomy exhibited by the rhizome and the vertical aerial vegetative stem were measured using scanning electron microscopy...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524652/optical-characteristics-and-tumor-imaging-capabilities-of-near-infrared-dyes-in-free-and-nano-encapsulated-formulations-comprised-of-viral-capsids
#8
Yadir Guerrero, Sheela Singh, Turong Mai, Ravoori Murali, Leela Tanikella, Atta Zahedi, Vikas Kundra, Bahman Anvari
Near infrared (NIR) fluorescent molecules and nano-sized structures can serve as potential optical probes for image-guided removal of small tumor nodules (≈ < 1 mm diameter). While indocyanine green (ICG) remains as the only FDA-approved NIR dye, other organic dyes are under extensive development for enhanced imaging capabilities. One such dye is BrCy106-NHS where bromine is substituted for aromatic structures in cyanine dyes. Herein, we investigate the absorption and fluorescence characteristics of ICG and BrCy106-NHS, and quantitatively assess their tumor imaging capabilities in free (non-encapsulated) and a nano-encapsulated form that utilizes the capsid protein (CP) from genome-depleted plant-infecting brome mosaic virus as the encapsulating shell...
May 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518217/impacts-of-an-invasive-plant-are-fundamentally-altered-by-a-co-occurring-forest-disturbance
#9
Noah W Sokol, Sara E Kuebbing, Mark A Bradford
Invasive species frequently co-occur with other human disturbances, which can impact the same ecosystem functions as the invader. Yet invasion studies rarely control for the presence of these other disturbances, although their overlapping effects may influence the direction and magnitude of impacts attributed to the invader alone. Here, we ask whether controlling for the presence of a co-occurring disturbance, as well as the time since disturbance, yields different values of an invader's ecosystem effects than when these factors remain unaddressed...
May 18, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505478/dose-assessment-in-environmental-radiological-protection-state-of-the-art-and-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Karolina Stark, José M Goméz-Ros, Jordi Vives I Batlle, Elisabeth Lindbo Hansen, Karine Beaugelin-Seiller, Lawrence A Kapustka, Michael D Wood, Clare Bradshaw, Almudena Real, Corynne McGuire, Thomas G Hinton
Exposure to radiation is a potential hazard to humans and the environment. The Fukushima accident reminded the world of the importance of a reliable risk management system that incorporates the dose received from radiation exposures. The dose to humans from exposure to radiation can be quantified using a well-defined system; its environmental equivalent, however, is still in a developmental state. Additionally, the results of several papers published over the last decade have been criticized because of poor dosimetry...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498523/effects-of-chemical-management-for-invasive-plants-on-the-performance-of-lithobates-pipiens-tadpoles
#11
Amanda N Curtis, M Gabriela Bidart
Invasive plants impact amphibians by altering habitat, species interactions, and by releasing potentially toxic secondary chemicals. Despite being costly and having the potential for impacts to non-target wildlife, chemical management is commonly used to control invasive plants. Prior research has indicated that individual effects of invasive plants or herbicides can be harmful to aquatic organisms; however, information is lacking on the combined effect of these factors on amphibians. A laboratory experiment was performed to assess the impact of leachates of the invasive plants Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica), the herbicide Renovate® 3 (triclopyr), and combined effects of each plant leachate and the herbicide on the growth, morphology and survival of northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) tadpoles...
May 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490318/integrated-mrna-and-microrna-transcriptome-variations-in-the-multi-tepal-mutant-provide-insights-into-the-floral-patterning-of-the-orchid-cymbidium-goeringii
#12
Fengxi Yang, Genfa Zhu, Zhen Wang, Hailin Liu, Qingquan Xu, Dan Huang, Chaoyi Zhao
BACKGROUND: Cymbidium goeringii is a very famous traditional orchid plant in China, which is well known for its spectacular and diverse flower morphology. In particular, the multi-tepal mutants have considerable ecological and cultural value. However, the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of floral patterning and multi-tepal development is limited. In this study, we performed expression profiling of both microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA from wild-type and typical multi-tepal-mutant flowers of C...
May 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484234/inferring-the-evolutionary-mechanism-of-the-chloroplast-genome-size-by-comparing-whole-chloroplast-genome-sequences-in-seed-plants
#13
Zheng Xiao-Ming, Wang Junrui, Feng Li, Liu Sha, Pang Hongbo, Qi Lan, Li Jing, Sun Yan, Qiao Weihua, Zhang Lifang, Cheng Yunlian, Yang Qingwen
The chloroplast genome originated from photosynthetic organisms and has retained the core genes that mainly encode components of photosynthesis. However, the causes of variations in chloroplast genome size in seed plants have only been thoroughly analyzed within small subsets of spermatophytes. In this study, we conducted the first comparative analysis on a large scale to examine the relationship between sequence characteristics and genome size in 272 seed plants based on cross-species and phylogenetic signal analysis...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480539/plant-litter-chemistry-alters-the-content-and-composition-of-organic-carbon-associated-with-soil-mineral-and-aggregate-fractions-in-invaded-ecosystems
#14
Mioko Tamura, Vidya Suseela, Myrna Simpson, Brian Powell, Nishanth Tharayil
Through the input of disproportionate quantities of chemically distinct litter, invasive plants may potentially influence the fate of organic matter associated with soil mineral and aggregate fractions in some of the ecosystems they invade. Though context dependent, these native ecosystems subjected to prolonged invasion by exotic plants may be instrumental in distinguishing the role of plant-microbe-mineral interactions from the broader edaphic and climatic influences on the formation of soil organic matter (SOM)...
May 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479984/convergent-minds-some-questions-about-mental-evolution
#15
Matt Cartmill
In investigating convergent minds, we need to be sure that the things we are looking at are both minds and convergent. In determining whether a shared character state represents a convergence between two organisms, we must know the wider distribution and primitive state of that character so that we can map that character and its state transitions onto a phylogenetic tree. When we do this, some apparently primitive shared traits may prove to represent convergent losses of cognitive capacities. To avoid having to talk about the minds of plants and paramecia, we need to go beyond assessments of behaviourally defined cognition to ask questions about mind in the primary sense of the word, defined by the presence of mental events and consciousness...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478743/influence-of-the-detergent-formulation-on-the-concentration-of-phosphorus-in-the-sewage-inflows-to-the-wwtps-the-brazilian-experience
#16
Claudia Maria Gomes de Quevedo, Roque Passos Piveli, Wanderley da Silva Paganini
This work seeks to discuss the presence of phosphorus in raw sewage considering the formulation of the powder detergent for cleaning fabrics currently sold in Brazil. Based on the results of laboratory analyses performed in the sewage inflows to three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in São Paulo state, it evaluates the variations of different fractions of this element. Additionally, it sizes the impact caused by the product using as a basis the concentration of phosphorus verified in thirty different samples of Brazilian detergents...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474331/relevance-of-carbon-stocks-of-marine-sediments-for-national-greenhouse-gas-inventories-of-maritime-nations
#17
Silvania Avelar, Tessa S van der Voort, Timothy I Eglinton
BACKGROUND: Determining national carbon stocks is essential in the framework of ongoing climate change mitigation actions. Presently, assessment of carbon stocks in the context of greenhouse gas (GHG)-reporting on a nation-by-nation basis focuses on the terrestrial realm, i.e., carbon held in living plant biomass and soils, and on potential changes in these stocks in response to anthropogenic activities. However, while the ocean and underlying sediments store substantial quantities of carbon, this pool is presently not considered in the context of national inventories...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472189/habitat-specific-differences-alter-traditional-biogeographic-patterns-of-life-history-in-a-climate-change-induced-range-expansion
#18
Megan E Riley, Blaine D Griffen
Range shifts and expansions resulting from global climate change have the potential to create novel communities with unique plant-animal interactions. Organisms expanding their range into novel biotic and abiotic environments may encounter selection pressures that alter traditional biogeographic patterns of life history traits. Here, we used field surveys to examine latitudinal patterns of life history traits in a broadly distributed ectotherm (mangrove tree crab Aratus pisonii) that has recently experienced a climate change-induced range expansion into a novel habitat type...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469020/trophic-level-successional-age-and-trait-matching-determine-specialization-of-deadwood-based-interaction-networks-of-saproxylic-beetles
#19
Beate Wende, Martin M Gossner, Ingo Grass, Tobias Arnstadt, Martin Hofrichter, Andreas Floren, Karl Eduard Linsenmair, Wolfgang W Weisser, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
The specialization of ecological networks provides important insights into possible consequences of biodiversity loss for ecosystem functioning. However, mostly mutualistic and antagonistic interactions of living organisms have been studied, whereas detritivore networks and their successional changes are largely unexplored. We studied the interactions of saproxylic (deadwood-dependent) beetles with their dead host trees. In a large-scale experiment, 764 logs of 13 tree species were exposed to analyse network structure of three trophic groups of saproxylic beetles over 3 successional years...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466201/edible-wild-plants-growing-in-contaminated-floodplains-implications-for-the-issuance-of-tribal-consumption-advisories-within-the-grand-lake-watershed-of-northeastern-oklahoma-usa
#20
Ean M Garvin, Cas F Bridge, Meredith S Garvin
Metal releases from the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD) that is located in southwestern Missouri, southeastern Kansas, and northeastern Oklahoma, have contaminated floodplain soils within the Neosho and Spring river watersheds of the Grand Lake watershed. Since the Oklahoma portion of the watershed lies within ten tribal jurisdictions, the potential accumulation of metals within plant species that are gathered and consumed by tribal members, as well as the resulting metal exposure risks to tribal human health, was a warranted concern for further investigation...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
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