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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920383/effects-of-fragmentation-on-plant-adaptation-to-urban-environments
#1
Jonathan Dubois, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou
Urban ecosystems are relatively recent and heavily human-altered terrestrial ecosystems with a surprisingly high diversity of animals, plants and other organisms. Urban habitats are also strongly fragmented and subject to higher temperatures, providing a compelling model for studying adaptation to global change. Crepis sancta (Asteraceae), an annual Mediterranean wasteland weed, occupies fragmented urban environments as well as certain unfragmented landscapes in southern France. We tested for shifts in dispersal, reproductive traits and size across a rural-urban gradient to learn whether and how selection may be driving changes in life history in urban and fragmented habitats...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914754/antiparasitic-and-disease-modifying-activity-of-nyctanthes-arbor-tristis-linn-in-malaria-an-exploratory-clinical-study
#2
Chhaya S Godse, Prakash S Tathed, Sameer S Talwalkar, Rama A Vaidya, Ashok J Amonkar, Akhil B Vaidya, Ashok D B Vaidya
BACKGROUND: An unceasing threat of drug resistance continuously poses demand for new antimalarial drugs. A scientific assessment of traditionally used antimalarial plants through reverse pharmacology is crucial for a fast track drug discovery. An Ayurvedic plant Nyctanthesarbor-tristis Linn. - (Parijat) had shown antimalarial activity, with a parasite clearance in 76.6% of 120 patients, in an earlier clinical study. OBJECTIVE: To further explore antimalarial potential of the plant through additional objective markers...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914355/characterisation-of-fine-grained-tailings-from-a-marble-processing-plant-and-their-acute-effects-on-the-copepod-calanus-finmarchicus
#3
Julia Farkas, Dag Altin, Karen M Hammer, Kaja C Hellstrøm, Andy M Booth, Bjørn Henrik Hansen
Submarine tailing disposal (STD) of mining waste is practiced as an alternative to land fill disposal in several countries. Knowledge regarding the environmental implications of STD on fjord and other marine ecosystems, including the pelagic environment, is scarce. In this study, we characterised the particle shape, size and metal content of the fine-grained fraction of tailings (FGT) from a Norwegian marble processing plant and investigated their acute toxicity and impact on feeding rate in adult Calanus finmarchicus...
November 30, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901170/bilayer-hydrogel-actuators-with-tight-interfacial-adhesion-fully-constructed-from-natural-polysaccharides
#4
Jiangjiang Duan, Xichao Liang, Kunkun Zhu, Jinhua Guo, Lina Zhang
Smart hydrogel actuators with excellent biocompatibility and biodegradation are extremely desired for biomedical applications. Herein, we have constructed bio-hydrogel actuators inspired by the bilayer structures of plant organs from chitosan and cellulose/carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution in an alkali/urea aqueous system containing epichlorohydrin (ECH) as a crosslinker, and demonstrated tight adhesion between two layers through strong electrostatic attraction and chemical crosslinking. The bilayer hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties could carry out rapid, reversible, and repeated self-rolling deformation actuated by pH-triggered swelling/deswelling, and transformed into rings, tubules, and flower-, helix-, bamboo-, and wave-like shapes by effectively designing the geometric shape and size...
November 30, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895658/overexpression-of-a-hevea-brasiliensis-erbb-3-binding-protein-1-gene-increases-drought-tolerance-and-organ-size-in-arabidopsis
#5
Han Cheng, Xiang Chen, Jianshun Zhu, Huasun Huang
Rubber trees are economically important tropical tree species and the major source of natural rubber, which is an essential industrial material. This tropical perennial tree is susceptible to cold stress and other abiotic stresses, especially in the marginal northern tropics. Recent years, the genome sequencing and RNA-seq projects produced huge amount of sequence data, which greatly facilitated the functional genomics study. However, the characterization of individual functional gene is in urgent demands, especially for those involved in stress resistance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895202/the-lbd12-1-transcription-factor-suppresses-apical-meristem-size-by-repressing-argonaute-10-expression
#6
Weiwei Ma, Fuqing Wu, Peike Sheng, Xiaole Wang, Zhe Zhang, Kunneng Zhou, Huan Zhang, Jinlong Hu, Qibing Lin, Zhijun Cheng, Jiulin Wang, Shanshan Zhu, Xin Zhang, Xiuping Guo, Haiyang Wang, Chuanyin Wu, Jianmin Wan
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) consists of a population of multipotent cells that generate all aerial structures and regenerates itself. SAM maintenance and lateral organ development are regulated by several complex signaling pathways, in which the Argonaute gene mediated pathway plays a key role. One Argonaute gene, AGO10, functions as a miRNA locker that attenuates miR165/166 activity and positively regulates shoot apical meristem development, but little is known about when and how AGO10 is regulated at the transcriptional level...
November 28, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893833/increasing-the-size-of-the-microbial-biomass-altered-bacterial-community-structure-which-enhances-plant-phosphorus-uptake
#7
Pu Shen, Daniel Vaughan Murphy, Suman J George, Hazel Lapis-Gaza, Minggang Xu, Deirdre Bridget Gleeson
Agricultural production can be limited by low phosphorus (P) availability, with soil P being constrained by sorption and precipitation reactions making it less available for plant uptake. There are strong links between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) availability and P cycling within soil P pools, with microorganisms being an integral component of soil P cycling mediating the availability of P to plants. Here we tested a conceptual model that proposes (i) the addition of readily-available organic substrates would increase the size of the microbial biomass thus exhausting the pool of easily-available P and (ii) this would cause the microbial biomass to access P from more recalcitrant pools...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888361/morphological-and-structural-characterization-of-the-attachment-system-in-aerial-roots-of-syngonium-podophyllum
#8
Xiaojun Yang, Wenli Deng
The attachment of aerial roots of Syngonium podophyllum involves a multi-step process adjusted by multi-scale structures. Helical-crack root hairs are first found in the attachment system, representing specialized structures for surface anchorage. The morphological variability of attachment organs reflects diverse climbing strategies. One such anchoring mode in clinging-climbers involves the time-dependent interaction between roots and the support: By naturally occurring adhesive roots with root hairs, the plant can ascend on supports of any shape and size...
November 25, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885142/characterisation-of-ultraviolet-absorbing-recalcitrant-organics-in-landfill-leachate-for-treatment-process-optimisation
#9
Olya S Keen
Organics in leachate from municipal solid waste landfills are notoriously difficult to treat by biological processes. These organics have high ultraviolet absorbance and can interfere with the ultraviolet disinfection process at the wastewater treatment plant that receives leachate if the leachate flow contribution is large enough. With more wastewater treatment plants switching to ultraviolet disinfection, landfills face increased pressure to treat leachate further. This study used size exclusion chromatography, fluorescence spectroscopy and ultraviolet/Vis spectrophotometry to characterise the bulk organic matter in raw landfill leachate and the biorecalcitrant organic matter in biologically treated leachate from the same site...
November 24, 2016: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881977/different-virus-derived-sirnas-profiles-between-leaves-and-fruits-in-cucumber-green-mottle-mosaic-virus-infected-lagenaria-siceraria-plants
#10
Junmin Li, Hongying Zheng, Chenhua Zhang, Kelei Han, Shu Wang, Jiejun Peng, Yuwen Lu, Jinping Zhao, Pei Xu, Xiaohua Wu, Guojing Li, Jianping Chen, Fei Yan
RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism, through which virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) playing roles in host antiviral defense are produced in virus-infected plant. Deep sequencing technology has revolutionized the study on the interaction between virus and plant host through the analysis of vsiRNAs profile. However, comparison of vsiRNA profiles in different tissues from a same host plant has been rarely reported. In this study, the profiles of vsiRNAs from leaves and fruits of Lagenaria siceraria plants infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) were comprehensively characterized and compared...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878090/species-mixture-effects-on-flammability-across-plant-phylogeny-the-importance-of-litter-particle-size-and-the-special-role-for-non-pinus-pinaceae
#11
Weiwei Zhao, William K Cornwell, Marinda van Pomeren, Richard S P van Logtestijn, Johannes H C Cornelissen
Fire affects and is affected by plants. Vegetation varies in flammability, that is, its general ability to burn, at different levels of ecological organization. To scale from individual plant traits to community flammability states, understanding trait effects on species flammability variation and their interaction is important. Plant traits are the cumulative result of evolution and they show, to differing extents, phylogenetic conservatism. We asked whether phylogenetic distance between species predicts species mixture effects on litterbed flammability...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872633/a-factor-linking-floral-organ-identity-and-growth-revealed-by-characterization-of-the-tomato-mutant-unfinished-flower-development-ufd
#12
Sandra Poyatos-Pertíñez, Muriel Quinet, Ana Ortíz-Atienza, Fernando J Yuste-Lisbona, Clara Pons, Estela Giménez, Trinidad Angosto, Antonio Granell, Juan Capel, Rafael Lozano
Floral organogenesis requires coordinated interactions between genes specifying floral organ identity and those regulating growth and size of developing floral organs. With the aim to isolate regulatory genes linking both developmental processes (i.e., floral organ identity and growth) in the tomato model species, a novel mutant altered in the formation of floral organs was further characterized. Under normal growth conditions, floral organ primordia of mutant plants were correctly initiated, however, they were unable to complete their development impeding the formation of mature and fertile flowers...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859095/controls-on-carbon-storage-and-weathering-in-volcanic-soils-across-a-high-elevation-climate-gradient-on-mauna-kea-hawaii
#13
Marc G Kramer, Oliver A Chadwick
Volcanic ash soils retain the largest and most persistent soil carbon pools of any ecosystem. However, the mechanisms governing soil carbon accumulation and weathering during initial phases of ecosystem development are not well understood. We examined soil organic matter dynamics and soil development across a high-altitude (3,560-3,030 m) 20-kyr climate gradient on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Four elevation sites were selected (~250-500 mm rainfall), which range from sparsely vegetated to sites that contain a mix of shrubs and grasses...
September 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858148/enhanced-aphid-abundance-in-spring-desynchronizes-predator-prey-and-plant-microorganism-interactions
#14
Benjamin Fuchs, Tatjana Breuer, Simone Findling, Markus Krischke, Martin J Mueller, Andrea Holzschuh, Jochen Krauss
Climate change leads to phenology shifts of many species. However, not all species shift in parallel, which can desynchronize interspecific interactions. Within trophic cascades, herbivores can be top-down controlled by predators or bottom-up controlled by host plant quality and host symbionts, such as plant-associated micro-organisms. Synchronization of trophic levels is required to prevent insect herbivore (pest) outbreaks. In a common garden experiment, we simulated an earlier arrival time (~2 weeks) of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi on its host grass Lolium perenne by enhancing the aphid abundance during the colonization period...
November 17, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857718/variance-genetic-control-and-spatial-phenotypic-plasticity-of-morphological-and-phenological-traits-in-prunus-spinosa-and-its-large-fruited-forms-p-x-fruticans
#15
Kristine Vander Mijnsbrugge, Arion Turcsán, Leander Depypere, Marijke Steenackers
Prunus spinosa is a highly esteemed shrub in forest and landscape plantings. Shrubs with larger organs occur often and are considered either as large fruited forms of P. spinosa or as P. x fruticans, involving a hybridization process with the ancient cultivated P. insititia (crop-to-wild gene flow). As climate change may augment hybridization processes in the future, a hybrid origin is important to detect. In addition, studying crop-to-wild gene flow can give insights in putative consequences for the wild populations...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849572/standing-genetic-variation-in-a-tissue-specific-enhancer-underlies-selfing-syndrome-evolution-in-capsella
#16
Adrien Sicard, Christian Kappel, Young Wha Lee, Natalia Joanna Woźniak, Cindy Marona, John R Stinchcombe, Stephen I Wright, Michael Lenhard
Mating system shifts recurrently drive specific changes in organ dimensions. The shift in mating system from out-breeding to selfing is one of the most frequent evolutionary transitions in flowering plants and is often associated with an organ-specific reduction in flower size. However, the evolutionary paths along which polygenic traits, such as size, evolve are poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how natural selection can specifically modulate the size of one organ despite the pleiotropic action of most known growth regulators...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849159/how-does-reproductive-strategy-influence-demography-a-case-study-in-the-tropical-unisexual-epiphyllous-moss-crossomitrium-patrisiae
#17
Lisi D P Alvarenga, Kátia C Pôrto, Maria L P Coelho, Charles E Zartman
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Leaf-inhabiting organisms offer an experimentally tractable model system within which to investigate the influence of alternative reproductive strategies on plant metapopulation dynamics. We conducted a field study to determine whether (1) threshold colony sizes exist for the onset of sexual and asexual expression, and (2) alternative reproductive strategies differentially influence within-patch dynamics of the tropical pleurocarpous moss Crossomitrium patrisiae...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847231/comprehensive-characterization-of-the-liquid-fraction-of-digestates-from-full-scale-anaerobic-co-digestion
#18
Afifi Akhiar, Audrey Battimelli, Michel Torrijos, Helene Carrere
Waste management by anaerobic digestion generates a final byproduct, the digestate, which is usually separated into solid and liquid fractions to reduce the volume for transportation. The composition of the solid fraction has been recently studied to allow its valorization. However, full composition of liquid fraction of digestate and its size fractionation are less considered in the literature for efficient post treatment and valorization purposes. Therefore, here we characterized in detail liquid fraction of digestate obtained after solid-liquid separation from 11 full-scale co-digestion plants...
November 12, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843751/assembly-and-analysis-of-the-complete-salix-purpurea-l-salicaceae-mitochondrial-genome-sequence
#19
Suyun Wei, Xuelin Wang, Changwei Bi, Yiqing Xu, Dongyang Wu, Ning Ye
Plant mitochondrial (mt) genomes possess several complex features, including a variable size, a dynamic genome structure, and complicated patterns of gene loss and gain throughout evolutionary history. Studies of plant mt genomes can, therefore, provide unique insights into organelle evolution. We assembled the complete Salix purpurea L. mt genome by screening genomic sequence reads generated by a Roche-454 pyrosequencing platform. The pseudo-molecule obtained has a typical circular structure 598,970 bp long, with an overall GC content of 55...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833829/de-novo-transcriptome-sequencing-and-comparative-analysis-to-discover-genes-related-to-floral-development-in-cymbidium-faberi-rolfe
#20
Yuying Sun, Guangdong Wang, Yuxia Li, Li Jiang, Yuxia Yang, Shuangxue Guan
Cymbidium faberi is a traditional orchid flower in China that is highly appreciated for its fragrant aroma from its zygomorphic flowers. One bottleneck of the commercial production of C. faberi is the long vegetative growth phase of the orchid and the difficulty of the regulation of its flowering time. Moreover, its flower size, shape and color are often targeting traits for orchid breeders. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of floral development in C. faberi will ultimately benefit the genetic improvement of this orchid plant...
2016: SpringerPlus
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