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Generation x

Saban M Hus, X-G Zhang, Giang D Nguyen, Wonhee Ko, Arthur P Baddorf, Yong P Chen, An-Ping Li
We demonstrate a new method for the detection of the spin-chemical potential in topological insulators using spin-polarized four-probe scanning tunneling microscopy on in situ cleaved Bi_{2}Te_{2}Se surfaces. Two-dimensional (2D) surface and 3D bulk conductions are separated quantitatively via variable probe-spacing measurements, enabling the isolation of the nonvanishing spin-dependent electrochemical potential from the Ohmic contribution. This component is identified as the spin-chemical potential arising from the 2D charge current through the spin momentum locked topological surface states (TSS)...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Saumyak Mukherjee, Sayantan Mondal, Ashish Anilrao Deshmukh, Balasubramanian Gopal, Biman Bagchi
Self-assembly of proteins often gives rise to interesting quasi-stable structures that serve important biological purposes. Insulin hexamer is such an assembly. While monomer is the biologically active form of insulin, hexamer serves as the storehouse of the hormone. The hexamer also prevents the formation of higher order aggregates. While several studies explored the role of bivalent metal ions like Zn2+, Ca2+ etc. in the stabilization of the hexameric form, the role of water molecules has been ignored. We combine molecular dynamics simulations, quantum calculations and X-ray analyses to discover that a team of approximately ten water molecules confined inside a barrel-shaped nano-cavity at the center of insulin hexamer is one of the major causes that account for the unusual stability of the biomolecular assembly...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Xia Yu, Jia Zhang, Yan Gu, Dan Deng, Zhouwei Wu, Lei Bao, Ming Li, Zhirong Yao
BACKGROUND: Congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defects (CHILD) syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant disorder characterized by peculiar cutaneous presentations and ipsilateral skeletal abnormalities. CHILD syndrome is caused by mutations in NSDHL gene, which involves in cholesterol synthesis. OBJECTIVES: To verify the diagnosis of CHILD syndrome and seek effective pathogenesis-based therapy with little side effects. METHOD: We comprehensively evaluated the patient's conditions...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Bente Thamsen, Mathieu Plamondon, Marcus Granegger, Marianne Schmid Daners, Rolf Kaufmann, Antonia Neels, Mirko Meboldt
The HeartWare HVAD is a radial rotary blood pump with a combination of passive magnetic and hydrodynamic bearings to levitate the impeller. The axial gap size between impeller and housing in this bearing and its sensitivity to speed, flow, and pressure difference is difficult to assess. Shear stresses are exceptionally high in this tiny gap making it important for blood damage and related adverse events. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure the axial gap clearance in the HVAD at different operating conditions employing radiography...
January 17, 2018: Artificial Organs
Mayuri Vilas Ausekar, Ravi Madhukar Mawale, Pavel Pazdera, Josef Havel
The formation of W x O y+●/-● clusters in the gas phase was studied by laser desorption ionization (LDI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) of solid WO3. LDI produced (WO3) n+ ●/- ● (n = 1-7) clusters. In MALDI, when using nano-diamonds (NDs), graphene oxide (GO), or fullerene (C60) matrices, higher mass clusters were generated. In addition to (WO3) n-● clusters, oxygen-rich or -deficient species were found in both LDI and MALDI (with the total number of clusters exceeding one hundred ≈ 137)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Ryota Koike, Tomoyo Uchiyama, Sakae Arimoto-Kobayashi, Keinosuke Okamoto, Tomoe Negishi
Background: Oxidative damage is an important genotoxic source for almost all organisms. To efficiently detect mutations induced by oxidative damage, we previously developed a urate-null Drosophila strain. Using this Drosophila strain, we showed the mutagenic activity of environmental cigarette smoke (ECS) and the herbicide paraquat, which are known to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we examined the mutagenic activities of carcinogenic mutagens that are considered to cause mutations by adduct formation, alkylation, or crosslinking of cellular DNA in the oxidative damage-sensitive Drosophila to evaluate how the oxidative damage induced by these mutagens is involved in causing mutations...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
Ying-Chu Chen, Yu-Kuei Hsu, Radian Popescu, Dagmar Gerthsen, Yan-Gu Lin, Claus Feldmann
Full-spectrum utilization of diffusive solar energy by a photocatalyst for environmental remediation and fuel generation has long been pursued. In contrast to tremendous efforts in the UV-to-VIS light regime of the solar spectrum, the NIR and IR areas have been barely addressed although they represent about 50% of the solar flux. Here we put forward a biomimetic photocatalyst blueprint that emulates the growth pattern of a natural plant-a peapod-to address this issue. This design is exemplified via unidirectionally seeding core-shell Au@Nb nanoparticles in the cavity of semiconducting H x K1-xNbO3 nanoscrolls...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Venkat Swaroop Achuta, Tommi Möykkynen, Ulla-Kaisa Peteri, Giorgio Turconi, Claudio Rivera, Kari Keinänen, Maija L Castrén
Altered neuronal network formation and function involving dysregulated excitatory and inhibitory circuits are associated with fragile X syndrome (FXS). We examined functional maturation of the excitatory transmission system in FXS by investigating the response of FXS patient-derived neural progenitor cells to the glutamate analog (AMPA). Neural progenitors derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines generated from boys with FXS had augmented intracellular Ca2+ responses to AMPA and kainate that were mediated by Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) lacking the GluA2 subunit...
January 16, 2018: Science Signaling
A H Bhat, A K Chaubey, V Půža
During a survey in agricultural fields of the sub-humid region of Meerut district, India, two strains of entomopathogenic nematodes, labelled CS31 and CS32, were isolated using the Galleria baiting technique. Based on morphological and morphometric studies, and molecular data, the nematodes were identified as Steinernema pakistanense, making this finding the first report of this species from India. For the first time, we performed a molecular and biochemical characterization of the bacterial symbiont of S. pakistanense...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Yahui Zhang, Lin Wang, Xiang Xu, Fang Li, Qingsheng Wu
AIM: The combined efficacy of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) with 22 kinds of antibiotics against Escherichia coli was systematic studied, and CuO with cephalexin synergistic system was screened out. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility test included disk diffusion test, checkerboard method and time-kill assay. The interactions of CuO NPs and antibiotics were analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectra and Zeta. The interactions between bacteria and antibacterial agents were studied by surface plasmon resonance sensor for the first time...
January 17, 2018: Nanomedicine
Alessandra Prioreschi, Richard J Munthali, Juliana Kagura, Rihlat Said-Mohamed, Emanuella De Lucia Rolfe, Lisa K Micklesfield, Shane A Norris
BACKGROUND: The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- or middle-income countries precipitates the need to examine early life predictors of adiposity. OBJECTIVES: To examine growth trajectories from birth, and associations with adult body composition in the Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort, Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: Complete data at year 22 was available for 1088 participants (536 males and 537 females). Conditional weight and height indices were generated indicative of relative rate of growth between years 0-2, 2-5, 5-8, 8-18, and 18-22...
2018: PloS One
Yi Xie, J Todd Blankenship
Despite extensive work on the mechanisms that generate plasma membrane furrows, understanding how cells are able to dynamically regulate furrow dimensions is an unresolved question. Here, we present an in-depth characterization of furrow behaviors and their regulation in vivo during early Drosophila morphogenesis. We show that the deepening in furrow dimensions with successive nuclear cycles is largely due to the introduction of a new, rapid ingression phase (Ingression II). Blocking the midblastula transition (MBT) by suppressing zygotic transcription through pharmacological or genetic means causes the absence of Ingression II, and consequently reduces furrow dimensions...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Puja Pradhan, Puruswottam Aryal, Dinesh Attygalle, Abdel-Rahman Ibdah, Prakash Koirala, Jian Li, Khagendra P Bhandari, Geethika K Liyanage, Randy J Ellingson, Michael J Heben, Sylvain Marsillac, Robert W Collins, Nikolas J Podraza
Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) has been applied for in-situ monitoring of the first stage of copper indium-gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin film deposition by the three-stage co-evaporation process used for fabrication of high efficiency thin film photovoltaic (PV) devices. The first stage entails the growth of indium-gallium selenide (In1-xGax)₂Se₃ (IGS) on a substrate of Mo-coated soda lime glass maintained at a temperature of 400 °C. This is a critical stage of CIGS deposition because a large fraction of the final film thickness is deposited, and as a result precise compositional control is desired in order to achieve the optimum performance of the resulting CIGS solar cell...
January 16, 2018: Materials
Kun Zhang, Wenhui Tang, Kunkun Fu
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have been increasingly used in spacecraft applications. Spacecraft may encounter highenergy-density X-ray radiation in outer space that can cause severe damage. To protect spacecraft from such unexpected damage, it is essential to predict the dynamic behavior of CFRP composites under X-ray radiation. In this study, we developed an in-house three-dimensional explicit finite element (FEM) code to investigate the dynamic responses of CFRP composite under X-ray radiation for the first time, by incorporating a modified PUFF equation-of-state...
January 16, 2018: Materials
Fleay Brock, Joyce Christopher, Banyard Harry, Woods T Carl
This study investigated the effect of manipulating field dimensions on the technical and physical profiles of Australian football (AF) players during small-sided games (SSGs). A total of 40 male players (23.9 ± 3.5 y) participated in three, five-a-side SSGs; defined as 'small' (20m x 30m; 600m), 'medium' (30m x 40m; 1200m), and 'large' (40m x 50m; 2000m). Notational analyses enabled the quantification of technical skill indicators, while physical activity profiles were measured using microtechnology, resulting in 18 criterion variables...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ning Qin, John Wen, Carolyn L Ren
Hydrodynamic shrinkage of liquid CO2 drops in water under a Taylor flow regime is studied using a straight microchannel (length/width ~ 100). A general form of a mathematical model of the solvent-side mass transfer coefficient (ks) is developed first. Based on formulations of the surface area (A) and the volume (V) of a general Taylor drop in a rectangular microchannel, a specific form of ks is derived. Drop length and speed are experimentally measured at three specified positions of the straight channel, namely, immediately after drop generation (position 1), the midpoint of the channel (position 2) and the end of the channel (position 3)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Xi Tao, Hua Zhang, Genggeng Qin, Jianhua Ma, Qianjin Feng, Wufan Chen
Chest tomosynthesis (CTS) is a newly developed imaging technique which provides pseudo-3D volume anatomical information of thorax from limited-angle projections and contains much less of superimposed anatomy than the chest X-ray radiography. One of the relatively common problems in CTS is the patient respiratory motion during image acquisition, which negatively impacts the detectability. In this work, we propose a sin-quadratic model to analyze the respiratory motion during CTS scan, which is a real time method where the respiratory signal is generated by extracting the motion of diaphragm from projection radiographs...
January 11, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
Jingjing Jiang, Tiejia Jiang, Jialu Xu, Jue Shen, Feng Gao
INTRODUCTION: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in DMD gene. Approximately 70% of the mutations are caused by deletions or duplications of DMD exons, while the remaining were minor mutations. CASE REPORT: We present a 5-year-old boy with typical clinical features of DMD. A novel mutation was identified as a c.9358_9359insA of DMD gene by next-generation sequencing. This mutation which was origined from mother, generated a frameshift mutation and resulted in abnormal synthesis of protein polypeptide chains...
January 16, 2018: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Daopeng Zhang, Francisco Javier Valverde-Muñoz, Carlos Bartual-Murgui, Lucía Piñeiro-López, M Carmen Muñoz, José Antonio Real
We report an unprecedented series of two-dimensional (2D) spin-crossover (SCO) heterobimetallic coordination polymers generically formulated as {FeII[(HgII(SCN)3)2](L)x}·Solv, where x = 2 for L = tvp (trans-(4,4'-vinylenedipyridine)) (1tvp), bpmh ((1E,2E)-1,2-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethylene)hydrazine) (1bpmh·nCH3OH; n = 0, 1), bpeh ((1E,2E)-1,2-bis(1-(pyridin-4-yl)ethylidene)hydrazine) (1bpeh·nH2O; n = 0, 1) and x = 2.33 for L = bpbz (1,4-bis(pyridin-4-yl)benzene) (1bpbz·nH2O; n = 0, 2/3). The results confirm that self-assembly of FeII, [HgII(SCN)4]2-, and ditopic rodlike bridging ligands L containing 4-pyridyl moieties favors the formation of linear [Fe(μ-L)]n2n+ chains and in situ generated binuclear units {[HgII(SCN)3]2(μ-L)}2-...
January 16, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Sergio Scudino, Daniel Sopu
Due to the fast dynamics of shear band formation and propagation along with the small size and transient character of the shear transformation zones (STZs), the elementary units of plasticity in metallic glasses, the description of the nanoscale mechanism of shear banding often relies on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. However, the unrealistic parameters used in the simulations related to time constrains may raise questions about whether quantitative comparison between results from experimental and computational analyses is possible...
January 16, 2018: Nano Letters
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