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Cimicidae Vector

Olivia Lai, Derek Ho, Sharon Glick, Jared Jagdeo
The global population of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, family Cimicidae) has undergone a significant resurgence since the late 1990s. This is likely due to an increase in global travel, trade, and the number of insecticide-resistant bed bugs. The global bed bug population is estimated to be increasing by 100-500 % annually. The worldwide spread of bed bugs is concerning, because they are a significant socioeconomic burden and a major concern to public health. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, bed bugs are "a pest of significant health importance...
October 2016: Archives of Dermatological Research
F Rodhain
Among the many complex relationships between insects and microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria and parasites, some have resulted in the establishment of biological systems within which the insects act as a biological vector for infectious agents. It is therefore advisable to understand the identity and biology of these vectors in depth, in order to define procedures for epidemiological surveillance and anti-vector control. The following are successively reviewed in this article: Anoplura (lice), Siphonaptera (fleas), Heteroptera (bugs: Cimicidae, Triatoma, Belostomatidae), Psychodidae (sandflies), Simuliidae (black flies), Ceratopogonidae (biting midges), Culicidae (mosquitoes), Tabanidae (horseflies) and Muscidae (tsetse flies, stable flies and pupipara)...
April 2015: Revue Scientifique et Technique
Ralph B Narain, Sreedevi Lalithambika, Shripat T Kamble
With the recent global resurgence of the bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.), there is a need to better understand its biology, ecology, and ability to establish populations. Bed bugs are domestic pests that feed mainly on mammalian blood. Although bed bugs have not been implicated as vectors of pathogens, their biting activity inflicts severe insomnia and allergic reactions. Moreover, they have recently developed resistance to various insecticides, which requires further molecular research to determine genetic variation and appropriate interventions...
July 2015: Journal of Medical Entomology
Charles R Brown, Catherine E Page, Grant A Robison, Valerie A O'Brien, Warren Booth
The swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius) is the only known vector for Buggy Creek virus (BCRV), an alphavirus that circulates in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in North America. We discovered ants (Crematogaster lineolata and Formica spp.) preying on swallow bugs at cliff swallow colonies in western Nebraska, U.S.A. Ants reduced the numbers of visible bugs on active swallow nests by 74-90%, relative to nests in the same colony without ants. Ant predation on bugs had no effect on the reproductive success of cliff swallows inhabiting the nests where ants foraged...
June 2015: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
Zdenek Hubálek, Ivo Rudolf, Norbert Nowotny
The objective of this chapter is to provide an updated and concise systematic review on taxonomy, history, arthropod vectors, vertebrate hosts, animal disease, and geographic distribution of all arboviruses known to date to cause disease in homeotherm (endotherm) vertebrates, except those affecting exclusively man. Fifty arboviruses pathogenic for animals have been documented worldwide, belonging to seven families: Togaviridae (mosquito-borne Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan equine encephalilitis viruses; Sindbis, Middelburg, Getah, and Semliki Forest viruses), Flaviviridae (mosquito-borne yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu, Israel turkey meningoencephalitis, Tembusu and Wesselsbron viruses; tick-borne encephalitis, louping ill, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, and Tyuleniy viruses), Bunyaviridae (tick-borne Nairobi sheep disease, Soldado, and Bhanja viruses; mosquito-borne Rift Valley fever, La Crosse, Snowshoe hare, and Cache Valley viruses; biting midges-borne Main Drain, Akabane, Aino, Shuni, and Schmallenberg viruses), Reoviridae (biting midges-borne African horse sickness, Kasba, bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer, Ibaraki, equine encephalosis, Peruvian horse sickness, and Yunnan viruses), Rhabdoviridae (sandfly/mosquito-borne bovine ephemeral fever, vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey, vesicular stomatitis-Alagoas, and Coccal viruses), Orthomyxoviridae (tick-borne Thogoto virus), and Asfarviridae (tick-borne African swine fever virus)...
2014: Advances in Virus Research
Matthew Meriweather, Sara Matthews, Rita Rio, Regina S Baucom
Elucidating the spatial dynamic and core constituents of the microbial communities found in association with arthropod hosts is of crucial importance for insects that may vector human or agricultural pathogens. The hematophagous Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), known as the human bed bug, has made a recent resurgence in North America, as well as worldwide, potentially owing to increased travel, climate change and resistance to insecticides. A comprehensive survey of the bed bug microbiome has not been performed to date, nor has an assessment of the spatial dynamics of its microbiome...
2013: PloS One
Valerie A O'Brien, Charles R Brown
Wild birds are rarely found with active arbovirus infections, and relatively little is known about the patterns of viremia they exhibit under field conditions or how infection varies with date, bird age, or other factors that potentially affect transmission dynamics. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus) is an arbovirus associated with colonially nesting Cliff Swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and transmitted by its vector, the hematophagous swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius), an ectoparasite of the Cliff Swallow...
January 2012: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Paul Oesterle, Nicole Nemeth, Paul Doherty, Robert McLean, Larry Clark
The cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, Vieillot) could potentially play an important role in the transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) because of its breeding ecology, reservoir competence status, and potentially high natural exposure rates. These birds nest in colonies and their nests are occupied year round by swallow bugs (Oeciacus vicarius, Hovarth), hematophagus ectoparasites that feed primarily on cliff swallows. Swallow bugs are most likely exposed to WNV while feeding on infectious blood of cliff swallows and, thus, if competent vectors, could contribute to initiation and maintenance of seasonal WNV transmission...
September 2010: Journal of Medical Entomology
Valerie A O'Brien, Amy T Moore, Ginger R Young, Nicholas Komar, William K Reisen, Charles R Brown
Determining the effect of an invasive species on enzootic pathogen dynamics is critical for understanding both human epidemics and wildlife epizootics. Theoretical models suggest that when a naive species enters an established host-parasite system, the new host may either reduce ('dilute') or increase ('spillback') pathogen transmission to native hosts. There are few empirical data to evaluate these possibilities, especially for animal pathogens. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that is enzootically transmitted by the swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius) to colonially nesting cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota)...
January 22, 2011: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Charles R Brown, Amy T Moore, Ginger R Young, Nicholas Komar
Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) have rarely been found to persist for long in the adult insects that serve as their vectors. The ectoparasitic swallow bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus vicarius Horvath), the vector for Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus), lives year-round in the mud nests of its host, the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Vieillot). We measured the prevalence of BCRV in swallow bugs at sites with cliff swallows present and at the same sites after cliff swallows had been absent for 2 yr...
May 2010: Journal of Medical Entomology
Charles R Brown, Amy T Moore, Valerie A O'Brien, Abinash Padhi, Sarah A Knutie, Ginger R Young, Nicholas Komar
Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) is an arbovirus transmitted by the ectoparasitic swallow bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus vicarius) to cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus). BCRV occurs in two lineages (A and B) that are sympatric in bird nesting colonies in the central Great Plains, USA. Previous work on lineages isolated exclusively from swallow bugs suggested that lineage A relies on amplification by avian hosts, in contrast to lineage B, which is maintained mostly among bugs...
May 2010: Archives of Virology
Charles R Brown, Stephanie A Strickler, Amy T Moore, Sarah A Knutie, Abinash Padhi, Mary Bomberger Brown, Ginger R Young, Valerie A O'Brien, Jerome E Foster, Nicholas Komar
A largely unanswered question in the study of arboviruses is the extent to which virus can overwinter in adult vectors during the cold winter months and resume the transmission cycle in summer. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus) is an unusual arbovirus that is vectored primarily by the swallow bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus vicarius) and amplified by the ectoparasitic bug's main avian hosts, the migratory cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and resident house sparrow (Passer domesticus)...
May 2010: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Charles R Brown, Amy T Moore, Sarah A Knutie, Nicholas Komar
Arboviruses have seldom been found overwintering in adult vectors at northern latitudes in North America. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus) is an ecologically unusual arbovirus vectored principally by the cimicid swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius Horvath). The ectoparasitic bugs reside year-round in the mud nests of their host, the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Vieillot). We report successful overwintering of infectious BCRV in bugs at a field site in western North Dakota, where mid-winter temperatures routinely reach -11 to -15 degrees C...
March 2009: Journal of Medical Entomology
Charles R Brown, Amy T Moore, Ginger R Young, Abinash Padhi, Nicholas Komar
Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) rarely have been found to be vertically transmitted from female arthropods to their progeny. We report two isolations of Buggy Creek virus (BCRV), an ecologically unusual alphavirus related to western equine encephalomyelitis virus, from field-collected eggs of cimicid swallow bugs (Oeciacus vicarius Horvath), the principal vector for BCRV. Ten percent of egg pools were positive for BCRV, and we estimated minimum infection rates to be 1.03 infected eggs per 1,000 tested. The results show potential vertical transmission of BCRV, represent one of the few isolations of any alphavirus from eggs or larvae of insects in the field, and are the first report of any virus in the eggs of cimicid bedbugs...
March 2009: Journal of Medical Entomology
José Eduardo Serrão, Maria Ignez Castrillon, Jacenir Reis Dos Santos-Mallet, José Cola Zanuncio, Teresa Cristina Monte Gonçalves
Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius) is a hematophagous insect that can be an experimental host of Trypanosoma cruzi and may play a role as vector of Chagas' disease. This work analyzed the structure of the salivary glands of C. hemipterus. The secretory portion of main salivary glands has a single oval lobe that is translucent and is formed from a simple columnar epithelium lined by muscle cells. The gland cells are high, with one or two spherical nuclei, nucleolus, and some condensed chromatin. The cell cytoplasm has a well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, electron lucent vesicles, lysosomes, and glycogen deposits...
November 2008: Journal of Medical Entomology
Abinash Padhi, Amy T Moore, Mary Bomberger Brown, Jerome E Foster, Martin Pfeffer, Kathryn P Gaines, Valerie A O'Brien, Stephanie A Strickler, Allison E Johnson, Charles R Brown
Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) is an unusual arbovirus within the western equine encephalitis complex of alphaviruses. Associated with cimicid swallow bugs (Oeciacus vicarius) as its vector and the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and house sparrow (Passer domesticus) as its amplifying hosts, this virus is found primarily in the western Great Plains of North America at spatially discrete swallow nesting colonies. For 342 isolates collected in Oklahoma, Nebraska, Colorado and North Dakota, from 1974 to 2007, we sequenced a 2076 bp region of the 26S subgenomic RNA structural glycoprotein coding region, and analysed phylogenetic relationships, rates of evolution, demographical histories and temporal genetic structure of the two BCRV lineages found in the Great Plains...
September 2008: Journal of General Virology
Kathryn P Huyvaert, Amy T Moore, Nicholas A Panella, Eric A Edwards, Mary Bomberger Brown, Nicholas Komar, Charles R Brown
We performed experimental inoculations of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) with Buggy Creek virus (BCRV), a poorly known alphavirus (Togaviridae) vectored primarily by the swallow bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus vicarius) that is an ectoparasite of the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and house sparrow. Viremias were detected by plaque assay in two of six birds on days 1-3 postinoculation; viremia was highest on day 2. Viral RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in blood of six of 12 birds ranging from day 1 to day 15 postinoculation...
April 2008: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Charles R Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown, Abinash Padhi, Jerome E Foster, Amy T Moore, Martin Pfeffer, Nicholas Komar
Determining the degree of genetic variability and spatial structure of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) may help in identifying where strains that potentially cause epidemics or epizootics occur. Genetic diversity in arboviruses is assumed to reflect relative mobility of their vertebrate hosts (and invertebrate vectors), with highly mobile hosts such as birds leading to genetic similarity of viruses over large areas. There are no empirical studies that have directly related host or vector movement to virus genetic diversity and spatial structure...
May 2008: Molecular Ecology
Charles R Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown, Amy T Moore, Nicholas Komar
Predicting the spatial foci of zoonotic diseases is a major challenge for epidemiologists and disease ecologists. Migratory birds are often thought to be responsible for introducing some aviozoonotic pathogens such as West Nile and avian influenza viruses to a local area, but most information on how bird movement correlates with virus prevalence is anecdotal or indirect. We report that the prevalence of Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) infection in cimicid swallow bugs (Oeciacus vicarius), the principal invertebrate vector for this virus, was directly associated with the likelihood of movement by cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), an amplifying host for the virus, between nesting colonies...
2007: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Amy T Moore, Eric A Edwards, Mary Bomberger Brown, Nicholas Komar, Charles R Brown
Buggy Creek virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, BCRV) is an alphavirus within the western equine encephalitis virus complex whose primary vector is the swallow bug, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), an ectoparasite of the colonially nesting cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, that is also a frequent host for the virus. We investigated ecological correlates of BCRV infection in 100-bug pools at 14 different swallow colony sites in southwestern Nebraska from summer 2004, by using plaque assay on Vero cells to identify cytopathic virus and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to identify noncytopathic viral RNA...
January 2007: Journal of Medical Entomology
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