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α-1antitrypsin Deficiency E

Beatriz Mateos-Muñoz, María J Devesa-Medina, María P Matía-Martín, María J Torrejón, Avelina Suárez, Angélica Larrad-Sáinz, Enrique Rey-Díaz-Rubio, María C Cárdenas, Luis Ortega-Medina, José M Ladero
UNLABELLED:  Background. Nutritional deficiencies may aggravate the course of chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Our aim has been to perform a comprehensive analysis of body composition and nutritional deficiencies in CHC patients in non-cirrhotic and compensated cirrhotic stages to correlate the detected deficiencies with the fibrosis stage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Body multifrequency bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and a wide and simultaneous analytical profile were prospectively performed in 74 CHC patients (36 male) with known METAVIR fibrosis stage established with liver biopsy or transient elastography...
July 2016: Annals of Hepatology
S Sánchez-Ramón, J de Gracia, Am García-Alonso, J J Rodríguez Molina, J Melero, A de Andrés, J M García Ruiz de Morales, A Ferreira, J G Ocejo-Vinyals, J J Cid, J M García Martínez, T Lasheras, M L Vargas, J Gil-Herrera, M C García Rodríguez, J L Castañer, L I González Granado, L M Allende, P Soler-Palacin, L Herráiz, M López Hoyos, J M Bellón, G Silva, D M Gurbindo, J Carbone, C Rodríguez-Sáinz, N Matamoros, A R Parker, E Fernández-Cruz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Yin Dou, Jiawei Guo, Yue Chen, Songling Han, Xiaoqiu Xu, Qing Shi, Yi Jia, Ya Liu, Youcai Deng, Ruibing Wang, Xiaohui Li, Jianxiang Zhang
Increasing evidence has demonstrated special advantages of the nanomedicinal approach for the management of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesize that sustained delivery of rapamycin (RAP) may provide more desirable therapeutic effects than traditional oral administration by selectively inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. To evidence this assumption and develop an effective, safe, and translational nanotherapy for atherosclerosis, this study was designed to examine antiatherosclerotic efficacy of a RAP nanotherapy based on an acetalated β-cyclodextrin (Ac-bCD) material in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Maria Fusaro, Claudia D'Alessandro, Marianna Noale, Giovanni Tripepi, Mario Plebani, Nicola Veronese, Giorgio Iervasi, Sandro Giannini, Maurizio Rossini, Giovanni Tarroni, Sandro Lucatello, Alberto Vianello, Irene Santinello, Luciana Bonfante, Fabrizio Fabris, Stefania Sella, Antonio Piccoli, Agostino Naso, Daniele Ciurlino, Andrea Aghi, Maurizio Gallieni, Adamasco Cupisti
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Vitamin K acts as a coenzyme in the γ-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, including coagulation factors, osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein (MGP), and the growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) protein. Osteocalcin is a key factor for bone matrix formation. MGP is a local inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. GAS6 activity prevents the apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. Few data on vitamin K intake in chronic kidney disease patients and no data in patients on a Mediterranean diet are available...
April 28, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Chaoqun Liu, Wenting Wang, Weiqun Lin, Wenhua Ling, Dongliang Wang
SCOPE: Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum, Belgian endive), a typical Mediterranean vegetable, and its constituent protocatechuic acid (PCA) can inhibit established atherosclerosis progression. We thus investigated whether chicory can improve vascular relaxation, a critical pathway for combating atherosclerosis, and whether PCA is a contributor to a chicory-induced effect. METHODS AND RESULTS: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-) ) mice with established atherosclerosis and C57BL/6J mice without atherosclerosis were fed an AIN-93G diet, or AIN-93G plus 0...
May 28, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Ritchard G Cable, Donald Brambilla, Simone A Glynn, Steven Kleinman, Alan E Mast, Bryan R Spencer, Mars Stone, Joseph E Kiss
BACKGROUND: Understanding the effect of blood donation and iron supplementation on iron balance will inform strategies to manage donor iron status. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 215 donors were randomized to receive ferrous gluconate daily (37.5 mg iron) or no iron for 24 weeks after blood donation. Iron stores were assessed using ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. Hemoglobin (Hb) iron was calculated from total body Hb. Total body iron (TBI) was estimated by summing iron stores and Hb iron...
August 2016: Transfusion
E C Grilo, W F Medeiros, A G A Silva, C S S Gurgel, H M M Ramalho, R Dimenstein
BACKGROUND: Maternal supplementation with vitamin A is one of the strategies for controlling its deficiency in the mother-child dyad, although studies with animals showed that supplementation with high doses of vitamin A reduces the levels of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) in the mother's serum and milk. The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of maternal supplementation with vitamin A on the concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in human milk. METHODS: Healthy puerperal women were randomly distributed into a control group (n = 44) and a supplemented group (n = 44)...
October 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Hiutung Chu, Arya Khosravi, Indah P Kusumawardhani, Alice H K Kwon, Anilton C Vasconcelos, Larissa D Cunha, Anne E Mayer, Yue Shen, Wei-Li Wu, Amal Kambal, Stephan R Targan, Ramnik J Xavier, Peter B Ernst, Douglas R Green, Dermot P B McGovern, Herbert W Virgin, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with risk variants in the human genome and dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, though unifying principles for these findings remain largely undescribed. The human commensal Bacteroides fragilis delivers immunomodulatory molecules to immune cells via secretion of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). We reveal that OMVs require IBD-associated genes, ATG16L1 and NOD2, to activate a noncanonical autophagy pathway during protection from colitis. ATG16L1-deficient dendritic cells do not induce regulatory T cells (T(regs)) to suppress mucosal inflammation...
May 27, 2016: Science
Jing Shen, Xuedong Tong, Neetu Sud, Rituraj Khound, Yongyan Song, Maria X Maldonado-Gomez, Jens Walter, Qiaozhu Su
OBJECTIVE: Akkermansia muciniphila (A muciniphila) is a mucin-degrading bacterium that resides in the mucus layer whose abundance inversely correlates with body weight and the development of diabetes mellitus in mice and humans. The objective of this study was to explore the regulatory effect of A muciniphila on host lipoprotein metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic metabolic inflammation. APPROACH AND RESULTS: By establishing a novel mouse model that colonized the A muciniphila in the gastrointestinal tract of the cAMP-responsive binding protein H (CREBH)-deficient mouse and in vivo chylomicron assay, we found that increased colonization of A muciniphila in the gastrointestinal tract of wild-type mice protected mice from an acute fat load-induced hyperlipidemia compared with vehicle-treated mice...
July 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Maciej J Lazarczyk, Julia E Kemmler, Brett A Eyford, Jennifer A Short, Merina Varghese, Allison Sowa, Daniel R Dickstein, Frank J Yuk, Rishi Puri, Kaan E Biron, Marcel Leist, Wilfred A Jefferies, Dara L Dickstein
Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) proteins have been implicated in neuronal function through the modulation of neuritogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and memory consolidation during development. However, the involvement of MHCI in the aged brain is unclear. Here we demonstrate that MHCI deficiency results in significant dendritic atrophy along with an increase in thin dendritic spines and a reduction in stubby spines in the hippocampus of aged (12 month old) mice. Ultrastructural analyses revealed a decrease in spine head diameter and post synaptic density (PSD) area, as well as an increase in overall synapse density, and non-perforated, small spines...
2016: Scientific Reports
Franciane P Bernardes, Alan T Batista, Marcella L Porto, Elisardo C Vasquez, Bianca P Campagnaro, Silvana S Meyrelles
BACKGROUND: The pharmacological inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), sildenafil, is a promising candidate for antioxidant therapy that can result in cardiovascular protection. In addition to its known effects on the cardiovascular system, hypercholesterolemia leads to increased oxidative stress and DNA damage in the bone marrow, which is a non-classical target organ of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we evaluate oxidative stress and assess the effect of genomic instability on cell cycle kinetics in atherosclerotic animals and determine if sildenafil reverses these detrimental effects in bone marrow cells...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Oihane Abiega, Sol Beccari, Irune Diaz-Aparicio, Agnes Nadjar, Sophie Layé, Quentin Leyrolle, Diego Gómez-Nicola, María Domercq, Alberto Pérez-Samartín, Víctor Sánchez-Zafra, Iñaki Paris, Jorge Valero, Julie C Savage, Chin-Wai Hui, Marie-Ève Tremblay, Juan J P Deudero, Amy L Brewster, Anne E Anderson, Laura Zaldumbide, Lara Galbarriatu, Ainhoa Marinas, Maria dM Vivanco, Carlos Matute, Mirjana Maletic-Savatic, Juan M Encinas, Amanda Sierra
Phagocytosis is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis in a large number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, but its role in the diseased brain is poorly explored. Recent findings suggest that in the adult hippocampal neurogenic niche, where the excess of newborn cells undergo apoptosis in physiological conditions, phagocytosis is efficiently executed by surveillant, ramified microglia. To test whether microglia are efficient phagocytes in the diseased brain as well, we confronted them with a series of apoptotic challenges and discovered a generalized response...
May 2016: PLoS Biology
Mark D Farrar, M Zulf Mughal, Judith E Adams, Jack Wilkinson, Jacqueline L Berry, Lisa Edwards, Richard Kift, Elizabeth Marjanovic, Andy Vail, Ann R Webb, Lesley E Rhodes
CONTEXT: Vitamin D is essential for bone health in adolescence, when there is rapid bone mineral content accrual. Because cutaneous sun exposure provides vitamin D, there is no recommended oral intake for UK adolescents. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess seasonal vitamin D status and its contributors in white Caucasian adolescents and examine bone health in those found deficient. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study was undertaken. SETTING: Six schools in Greater Manchester, UK, were included...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sunny Zhihong Jiang, Lee E Eiden
We measured serum CORT elevation in wild-type and PACAP-deficient C57BL/6N male mice after acute (1 h) or prolonged (2-3 h) daily restraint stress for 7 d. The PACAP dependence of CORT elevation was compared to that of stress-induced hypophagia. Daily restraint induced unhabituated peak CORT elevation, and hypophagia/weight loss, of similar magnitude for 1, 2, and 3 h of daily restraint, in wild-type mice. Peak CORT elevation, and hypophagia, were both attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice for 2 and 3 h daily restraint...
July 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Ying-Yu Wu, Ramesh Kumar, Ryuji Iida, Harini Bagavant, Marta E Alarcón-Riquelme
The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of the adaptor Bank1 in TLR7 signaling using the B6.Sle1.yaa mouse, a lupus model that develops disease through exacerbated TLR7 expression. Crosses of B6.Sle1.yaa with Bank1-/- mice maintained several B and myeloid cell phenotypes close to normal wild-type levels. Most striking was the reduction in total serum IgG antibodies, but not of IgM, and reduced serum levels of autoantibodies, IL-6, and BAFF. Bank1 deficiency did modify numbers of MZ B cells and total B cell numbers, as well as expression of CXCR4 by follicular helper T cells...
2016: PloS One
Stefano Orlando, Samantha Diamond, Leonardo Palombi, Maaya Sundaram, Lauren Shear Zimmer, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Sandro Mancinelli, Giuseppe Liotta
The aim of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of a holistic, comprehensive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment Program in Malawi.Comprehensive cost data for the year 2010 have been collected at 30 facilities from the public network of health centers providing antiretroviral treatment (ART) throughout the country; two of these facilities were operated by the Disease Relief through Excellent and Advanced Means (DREAM) program.The outcomes analysis was carried out over five years comparing two cohorts of patients on treatment: 1) 2387 patients who started ART in the two DREAM centers during 2008, 2) patients who started ART in Malawi in the same year under the Ministry of Health program...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yuji Takahama, Yu Shibata, Ken Tanaka
It has been established that the oxidative sp(2) C-H bond allylation with aliphatic alkenes proceeds under mild conditions by using heteroarenes as directing groups and an (electron-deficient η(5)-cyclopentadienyl)rhodium(III) complex, [Cp(E)RhCl2]2, as a precatalyst. In sharp contrast, the use of [Cp*RhCl2]2 instead of [Cp(E)RhCl2]2 led to a complex mixture of products under the same reaction conditions.
June 17, 2016: Organic Letters
Filip Touska, Zoltán Winter, Alexander Mueller, Viktorie Vlachova, Jonas Larsen, Katharina Zimmermann
Currently available behavioral assays to quantify normal cold sensitivity, cold hypersensitivity and cold hyperalgesia in mice have betimes created conflicting results in the literature. Some only capture a limited spectrum of thermal experiences, others are prone to experimenter bias or are not sensitive enough to detect the contribution of ion channels to cold sensing because in mice smaller alterations in cold nociception do not manifest as frank behavioral changes. To overcome current limitations we have designed a novel device that is automated, provides a high degree of freedom, i...
January 2016: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
Fang-Xu Jiang, Grant Morahan
Pancreatic insulin-secreting β cells are essential in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis accomplished by highly specialized transcription of insulin gene, of which occupies up to 40% their transcriptome. Deficiency of these cells causes diabetes mellitus, a global public health problem. Although tremendous endeavors have been made to generate insulin-secreting cells from human pluripotent stem cells (i.e., primitive cells capable of giving rise to all cell types in the body), a regenerative therapy to diabetes has not yet been established...
May 25, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
H Sasimali M Soysa, Wipa Suginta
Chitoporin from the chitinolytic marine Vibrio has been characterized as a trimeric OmpC-like channel responsible for effective chitin uptake. In this study we describe the identification and characterization of a novel OprD-like chitoporin (so-called EcChiP) from Escherichia coli The gene was identified, cloned, and functionally expressed in the Omp-deficient E. coli BL21 (Omp8) Rosetta strain. On size exclusion chromatography, EcChiP had an apparent native molecular mass of 50 kDa, as predicted by amino acid sequencing and mass analysis, confirming that the protein is a monomer...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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