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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102849/berberine-sonodynamic-therapy-induces-autophagy-and-lipid-unloading-in-macrophage
#1
Jiayuan Y Kou, Ying Li, Zhaoyu Y Zhong, Yueqing Q Jiang, Xuesong S Li, Xiaobo B Han, Zhongni N Liu, Ye Tian, Liming M Yang
Impaired autophagy in macrophages accompanies the progression of atherosclerosis and contributes to lipid loading in plaques and ineffective lipid degradation. Therefore, evoking autophagy and its associated cholesterol efflux may provide a therapeutic treatment for atherosclerosis. In the present study, berberine-mediated sonodynamic therapy (BBR-SDT) was used to induce autophagy and cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages and derived foam cells. Following BBR-SDT, autophagy was increased in the macrophages, autophagy resistance in the foam cells was prevented, and cholesterol efflux was induced...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102310/coordinated-cell-motility-is-regulated-by-a-combination-of-lkb1-farnesylation-and-kinase-activity
#2
S Wilkinson, Y Hou, J T Zoine, J Saltz, C Zhang, Z Chen, L A D Cooper, A I Marcus
Cell motility requires the precise coordination of cell polarization, lamellipodia formation, adhesion, and force generation. LKB1 is a multi-functional serine/threonine kinase that associates with actin at the cellular leading edge of motile cells and suppresses FAK. We sought to understand how LKB1 coordinates these multiple events by systematically dissecting LKB1 protein domain function in combination with live cell imaging and computational approaches. We show that LKB1-actin colocalization is dependent upon LKB1 farnesylation leading to RhoA-ROCK-mediated stress fiber formation, but membrane dynamics is reliant on LKB1 kinase activity...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102041/a-new-hla-b-55-allele-b-55-83n-with-a-stop-codon-in-exon-4-generated-by-a-point-mutation-identified-in-a-chinese-individual
#3
X-Y Zhou, P Jiang, L-Q Zhang, J Cui, J-P Cai
The new allele HLA-B*55:83N differs from HLA-B*55:02:01:01 by a single nucleotide.
February 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101915/early-medieval-stone-lined-graves-in-southern-germany-analysis-of-an-emerging-noble-class
#4
Andreas Rott, Nils Turner, Ulrike Scholz, Kristin von Heyking, Franziska Immler, Joris Peters, Jochen Haberstroh, Michaela Harbeck
OBJECTIVES: Stone-lined graves, which first appear in Bavarian territory during the 7(th) century AD, are assumed to be tombs of emerging nobility. While previous research on stone-lined grave goods supports their status as elite burials, an important factor defining nobility-kinship-has not been examined so far. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Morphological analysis of the commingled skeletal remains of 21 individuals from three archaeological sites was carried out. Radiocarbon dating was conducted on these individuals to gain information on usage intervals of these graves...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100524/making-robust-assessments-of-specialist-trainees-workplace-performance
#5
J M Weller, D J Castanelli, Y Chen, B Jolly
BACKGROUND: Workplace-based assessments should provide a reliable measure of trainee performance, but have met with mixed success. We proposed that using an entrustability scale, where supervisors scored trainees on the level of supervision required for the case would improve the utility of compulsory mini-clinical evaluation exercise (CEX) assessments in a large anaesthesia training program. METHODS: We analysed mini-CEX scores from all Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists trainees submitted to an online database over a 12-month period...
February 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098911/diagnosis-for-choroideremia-in-a-large-chinese-pedigree-by-next%C3%A2-generation-sequencing-ngs-and-non%C3%A2-invasive-prenatal-testing-nipt
#6
Li Zhu, Jingliang Cheng, Boxu Zhou, Chunli Wei, Weichan Yang, Dong Jiang, Iqra Ijaz, Xiaojun Tan, Rui Chen, Junjiang Fu
To develop an effective strategy to isolate and use cell‑free fetal DNA (cffDNA) for the combined use of next‑generation sequencing (NGS) for diagnosing choroideremia and non‑invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Y chromosome determination, a large Chinese family with an X‑linked recessive disease, choroideremia, was recruited. Cell‑free DNA was extracted from maternal plasma, and SRY polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed using NIPT. Sanger sequencing was subsequently used for fetal amniotic fluid DNA verification...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098213/tunable-diffraction-free-array-in-nonlinear-photonic-crystal
#7
Dongmei Liu, Dunzhao Wei, Yong Zhang, Zhenhua Chen, Rui Ni, Bo Yang, Xiaopeng Hu, Y Q Qin, S N Zhu, Min Xiao
Diffraction-free beams have attracted increasing research interests because of their unique performances and broad applications in various fields. Although many methods have been developed to produce such beams, it is still challenging to realize a tunable non-diffracting beam. Here, we report the generation of a tunable diffraction-free array through second-harmonic generation in a nonlinear photonic crystal, i.e., a 2D periodically-poled LiTaO3 crystal. In such a crystal, the second-harmonic wave is engineered by properly designing the domain structure based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097888/bioprocess-enhancement-of-feather-degradation-using-alkaliphilic-microbial-mixture
#8
Y Osman, A Elsayed, A M Mowafy, A A Elrazak, M Fawzy
1. The main aim of this work is to develop a robust method to generate a microbial mixture which can successfully degrade poultry feathers to overcome environmental problems. 2. Four different alkaliphilic microbes were isolated and shown to to degrade poultry feathers. 3. Two of the isolates were phylogenetically identified as Lysinibacillus and the others were identified as Nocardiopsis and Micrococcus. 4. The best microbial co-culture for white and black feather degradation were optimised for pH, temperature and relative population of the isolates to achieve almost 96% of degradation compared to a maximum of 31% when applying each isolate individually...
January 18, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096491/expressing-the-geobacter-metallireducens-pila-in-geobacter-sulfurreducens-yields-pili-with-exceptional-conductivity
#9
Yang Tan, Ramesh Y Adhikari, Nikhil S Malvankar, Joy E Ward, Trevor L Woodard, Kelly P Nevin, Derek R Lovley
: The electrically conductive pili (e-pili) of Geobacter sulfurreducens serve as a model for a novel strategy for long-range extracellular electron transfer. e-pili are also a new class of bioelectronic materials. However, the only other Geobacter pili previously studied, which were from G. uraniireducens, were poorly conductive. In order to obtain more information on the range of pili conductivities in Geobacter species, the pili of G. metallireducens were investigated. Heterologously expressing the PilA gene of G...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096413/modeling-the-role-of-voyaging-in-the-coastal-spread-of-the-early-neolithic-in-the-west-mediterranean
#10
Neus Isern, João Zilhão, Joaquim Fort, Albert J Ammerman
The earliest dates for the West Mediterranean Neolithic indicate that it expanded across 2,500 km in about 300 y. Such a fast spread is held to be mainly due to a demic process driven by dispersal along coastal routes. Here, we model the Neolithic spread in the region by focusing on the role of voyaging to understand better the core elements that produced the observed pattern of dates. We also explore the effect of cultural interaction with Mesolithic populations living along the coast. The simulation study shows that (i) sea travel is required to obtain reasonable predictions, with a minimum sea-travel range of 300 km per generation; (ii) leapfrog coastal dispersals yield the best results (quantitatively and qualitatively); and (iii) interaction with Mesolithic people can assist the spread, but long-range voyaging is still needed to explain the archaeological pattern...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096156/bacterial-derived-cell-penetrating-peptides-deliver-gentamicin-to-kill-intracellular-pathogens
#11
Marta Gomarasca, Thaynan F C Martins, Lilo Greune, Philip R Hardwidge, M Alexander Schmidt, Christian Rüter
Commonly used antimicrobials show poor cellular uptake and often have limited access to intracellular targets, resulting in low antimicrobial activity against intracellular pathogens. An efficient delivery system to transport these drugs to the intracellular site of action is needed. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) mediate the internalization of biologically active molecules into the cytoplasm. Here we characterized two CPPs, α1H and α2H, derived from the Y. enterocolitica YopM effector protein. These CPPs, as well as Tat(Trans-activator of transcription) from HIV-1 virus, were used to deliver the antibiotic gentamicin to target intracellular bacteria...
January 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096125/dietary-supplements-and-risk-of-cause-specific-death-cardiovascular-disease-and-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-primary-prevention-trials
#12
REVIEW
Lukas Schwingshackl, Heiner Boeing, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Marion Gottschald, Stefan Dietrich, Georg Hoffmann, Anna Chaimani
Our aim was to assess the efficacy of dietary supplements in the primary prevention of cause-specific death, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer by using meta-analytical approaches. Electronic and hand searches were performed until August 2016. Inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) minimum intervention period of 12 mo; 2) primary prevention trials; 3) mean age ≥18 y; 4) interventions included vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, supplements containing combinations of vitamins and minerals, protein, fiber, prebiotics, and probiotics; and 5) primary outcome of all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes of mortality or incidence from CVD or cancer...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095487/dna-metabarcoding-of-amazonian-ichthyoplankton-swarms
#13
M E Maggia, Y Vigouroux, J F Renno, F Duponchelle, E Desmarais, J Nunez, C García-Dávila, F M Carvajal-Vallejos, E Paradis, J F Martin, C Mariac
Tropical rainforests harbor extraordinary biodiversity. The Amazon basin is thought to hold 30% of all river fish species in the world. Information about the ecology, reproduction, and recruitment of most species is still lacking, thus hampering fisheries management and successful conservation strategies. One of the key understudied issues in the study of population dynamics is recruitment. Fish larval ecology in tropical biomes is still in its infancy owing to identification difficulties. Molecular techniques are very promising tools for the identification of larvae at the species level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094382/the-supercoiling-state-of-dna-determines-the-handedness-of-both-h3-and-cenp-a-nucleosomes
#14
R Vlijm, S H Kim, P L De Zwart, Y Dalal, C Dekker
Nucleosomes form the unit structure of the genome in eukaryotes, thereby constituting a fundamental tenet of chromatin biology. In canonical nucleosomes, DNA wraps around the histone octamer in a left-handed toroidal ramp. Here, in single-molecule magnetic tweezers studies of chaperone-assisted nucleosome assembly, we show that the handedness of the DNA wrapping around the nucleosome core is intrinsically ambidextrous, and depends on the pre-assembly supercoiling state of the DNA, i.e., it is not uniquely determined by the octameric histone core...
January 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093569/translational-evaluation-of-translocator-protein-as-a-marker-of-neuroinflammation-in-schizophrenia
#15
T Notter, J M Coughlin, T Gschwind, U Weber-Stadlbauer, Y Wang, M Kassiou, A C Vernon, D Benke, M G Pomper, A Sawa, U Meyer
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with radiotracers that target translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) has become a popular approach to assess putative neuroinflammatory processes and associated microglia activation in psychotic illnesses. It remains unclear, however, whether TSPO imaging can accurately capture low-grade inflammatory processes such as those present in schizophrenia and related disorders. Therefore, we evaluated the validity of TSPO as a disease-relevant marker of inflammation using a translational approach, which combined neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative mouse models with PET imaging in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and matched controls...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093304/chloride-conducting-light-activated-channel-gtacr2-can-produce-both-cessation-of-firing-and-generation-of-action-potentials-in-cortical-neurons-in-response-to-light
#16
A Y Malyshev, M V Roshchin, G R Smirnova, D A Dolgikh, P M Balaban, M A Ostrovsky
Optogenetics is a powerful technique in neuroscience that provided a great success in studying the brain functions during the last decade. Progress of optogenetics crucially depends on development of new molecular tools. Light-activated cation-conducting channelrhodopsin2 was widely used for excitation of cells since the emergence of optogenetics. In 2015 a family of natural light activated chloride channels GtACR was identified which appeared to be a very promising tool for using in optogenetics experiments as a cell silencer...
January 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092616/generation-and-characterization-of-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-duck-tembusu-virus-envelope-protein
#17
K Han, D Zhao, Y Liu, Q Liu, X Huang, J Yang, K Bi, T Xu, Y Li
Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has caused massive economic losses to the duck industry in China. Envelope (E) protein of DTMUV is an important structural protein, which is able to induce protective immune response in target animals and can be used as specific serological diagnosis tool. In this study, a novel monoclonal antibody, designated mAb 3E9, was generated against DTMUV E protein. It is positive in indirect ELISA against both His-E protein and the purified whole viral antigen...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092308/increasing-incidence-of-crohn-s-disease-with-familial-clustering-in-the-kingdom-of-bahrain-a-25-year-population-based-study
#18
Najah R Zayyani, Hoda M Malaty, David Y Graham
BACKGROUND: The incidence of Crohn's disease has been increasing in developed countries; whether this trend has extended to countries in Middle East, especially in the Arab world, remains unclear. Our aim was to study the epidemiology, incidence, time trends and clustering of Crohn's disease within the population of the Kingdom of Bahrain. METHODS: A retrospective case-cohort study was conducted on patients diagnosed with Crohn's disease at Bahrain Specialist Hospital between 1990 and 2015...
January 12, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092269/analysis-of-microtubule-growth-dynamics-arising-from-altered-actin-network-structure-and-contractility-in-breast-tumor-cells
#19
Eleanor Ory, Lekhana Bhandary, Amanda Boggs, Kristi Chakrabarti, Joshua Parker, Wolfgang Losert, Stuart S Martin
The periphery of epithelial cells is shaped by opposing cytoskeletal physical forces generated predominately by two dynamic force generating systems - growing microtubule ends push against the boundary from the cell center, and the actin cortex contracts the attached plasma membrane. Here we investigate how changes to the structure and dynamics of the actin cortex alter the dynamics of microtubules. Current drugs target actin polymerization and contraction to reduce cell division and invasiveness; however, the impacts on microtubule dynamics remain incompletely understood...
January 16, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091725/genetic-polymorphism-investigation-of-the-chinese-yi-minority-using-powerplex%C3%A2-y23-str-amplification-system
#20
GuangLin He, PengYu Chen, Xing Zou, Xu Chen, Feng Song, Jing Yan, YiPing Hou
Twenty-three Y-STR loci (DYS576, DYS389I, DYS389 II, DYS448, DYS19, DYS391, DYS481, DYS549, DYS533, DYS438, DYS437, DYS570, DYS635, DYS390, DYS439, DYS392, DYS393, DYS458 DYS456, DYS643, Y-GATA-H4, and DYS385a/b) included in the next-generation PowerPlex® Y23 System were first investigated in 311 unrelated, healthy male individuals from the Yi minority population residing in the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan, China. A total of 179 alleles and 297 haplotypes were discovered in the Yi group. In total, 285 haplotypes among them were unique, and the remaining 12 haplotypes were observed in two or three individuals...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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