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Endocytosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346440/endocytic-proteins-are-partitioned-at-the-edge-of-the-clathrin-lattice-in-mammalian-cells
#1
Kem A Sochacki, Andrea M Dickey, Marie-Paule Strub, Justin W Taraska
Dozens of proteins capture, polymerize and reshape the clathrin lattice during clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). How or if this ensemble of proteins is organized in relation to the clathrin coat is unknown. Here, we map key molecules involved in CME at the nanoscale using correlative super-resolution light and transmission electron microscopy. We localize 19 different endocytic proteins (amphiphysin1, AP2, β2-arrestin, CALM, clathrin, DAB2, dynamin2, EPS15, epsin1, epsin2, FCHO2, HIP1R, intersectin, NECAP, SNX9, stonin2, syndapin2, transferrin receptor, VAMP2) on thousands of individual clathrin structures, generating a comprehensive molecular architecture of endocytosis with nanoscale precision...
March 27, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345032/agrobacterium-delivers-vire2-protein-into-host-cells-via-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#2
Xiaoyang Li, Shen Q Pan
Agrobacterium tumefaciens can cause crown gall tumors on a wide range of host plants. As a natural genetic engineer, the bacterium can transfer both single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) [transferred DNA (T-DNA)] molecules and bacterial virulence proteins into various recipient cells. Among Agrobacterium-delivered proteins, VirE2 is an ssDNA binding protein that is involved in various steps of the transformation process. However, it is not clear how plant cells receive the T-DNA or protein molecules. Using a split-green fluorescent protein approach, we monitored the VirE2 delivery process inside plant cells in real time...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343134/exfoliated-graphene-nanosheets-ph-sensitive-drug-carrier-and-anti-cancer-activity
#3
Nisha Tyagi, Nour F Attia, Kurt E Geckeler
A straightforward and facile method for the exfoliation of graphene sheets using poly(vinylpyrrolidone) nanoparticles of an average size of 42nm was developed and their dual role as pH-sensitive drug carrier and anti-cancer agent was evaluated. The cytotoxic impact of the exfoliated nanosheets (GRP-PVP-NP) was examined on various cells (HCT-116, HeLa, SCC-9, NIH-3T3 and HEK-293cells) by a series of assays. Their cytotoxic nature was attributed to affecting the mitochondrial enzyme activity, proliferation capability, and the formation of tight junctions in cancer cells...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342427/spectroscopic-studies-of-the-interaction-mechanisms-between-mono-caffeoylquinic-acids-and-transferrin
#4
Yanqing Guan, Jing Dong, Shizhong Chen, Meixian Liu, Daidong Wang, Xiaotian Zhang, Hong Wang, Zongtao Lin
Transferrin (Tf) is an important protein responsible for circulating and transporting iron into cytoplasm. Tf can be taken into cells through endocytosis mediated by Tf receptor, which usually overexpresses in cancer cells. The Tf-Tf receptor pathway opens a possible avenue for novel targeted cancer therapy by utilizing Tf-binding active compounds. Among which, anti-cancer active caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) were recently found to be promising Tf-binders by our group. For better understanding the anti-cancer activities of CQAs, it is important to unveil the binding mechanisms between CQAs and Tf...
March 7, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341806/polar-localization-of-the-nip5-1-boric-acid-channel-is-maintained-by-endocytosis-and-facilitates-boron-transport-in-arabidopsis-roots
#5
Sheliang Wang, Akira Yoshinari, Tomoo Shimada, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura, Namiki Mitani-Ueno, Jian Feng Ma, Satoshi Naito, Junpei Takano
Boron uptake in Arabidopsis thaliana is mediated by nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP)5;1, a boric acid channel that is located preferentially on the soil side of the plasma membrane in root cells. However, the mechanism underlying this polar localization is poorly understood. Here, we show that the polar localization of NIP5;1 in epidermal and endodermal root cells is mediated by the phosphorylation of Thr residues in the conserved TPG (ThrProGly) repeat in the N-terminal region of NIP5;1. Although substitutions of Ala for three Thr residues in the TPG repeat did not affect lateral diffusion in the plasma membrane, these substitutions inhibited endocytosis and strongly compromised the polar localization of GFP-NIP5;1...
March 24, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341739/modifiers-of-prion-protein-biogenesis-and-recycling-identified-by-a-highly-parallel-endocytosis-kinetics-assay
#6
Boris A Ballmer, Rita Moos, Prisca Liberali, Lucas Pelkmans, Simone Hornemann, Adriano Aguzzi
The cellular prion protein, PrP(C), is attached by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. Its misfolded isoform PrP(Sc) is the causative agent of prion diseases. Conversion of PrP(C) into PrP(Sc) is thought to take place at the cell surface or in endo-lysosomal organelles. Understanding the intracellular trafficking of PrP(C) may therefore help elucidating the conversion process. Here we describe a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay reporting membrane expression and real-time internalization rates of PrP(C) The assay is suitable for high-throughput genetic and pharmaceutical screens for modulators of PrP(C) trafficking...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341445/insulin-promotes-cell-migration-by-regulating-psa-ncam
#7
Hector J Monzo, Natacha Coppieters, Thomas I H Park, Birger V Dieriks, Richard L M Faull, Mike Dragunow, Maurice A Curtis
Cellular interactions with the extracellular environment are modulated by cell surface polysialic acid (PSA) carried by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PSA-NCAM is involved in cellular processes such as differentiation, plasticity, and migration, and is elevated in Alzheimer's disease as well as in metastatic tumour cells. Our previous work demonstrated that insulin enhances the abundance of cell surface PSA by inhibiting PSA-NCAM endocytosis. In the present study we have identified a mechanism for insulin-dependent inhibition of PSA-NCAM turnover affecting cell migration...
March 21, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340357/ruthenium-complexes-with-phenylterpyridine-derivatives-target-cell-membrane-and-trigger-death-receptors-mediated-apoptosis-in-cancer-cells
#8
Zhiqin Deng, Pan Gao, Lianling Yu, Bin Ma, Yuanyuan You, Leung Chan, Chaoming Mei, Tianfeng Chen
Elucidation of the communication between metal complexes and cell membrane may provide useful information for rational design of metal-based anticancer drugs. Herein we synthesized a novel class of ruthenium (Ru) complexes containing phtpy derivatives (phtpy = phenylterpyridine), analyzed their structure-activity relationship and revealed their action mechanisms. The result showed that, the increase in the planarity of hydrophobic Ru complexes significantly enhanced their lipophilicity and cellular uptake...
March 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339772/heterologous-desensitization-of-cardiac-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signal-via-hormone-induced-%C3%AE-ar-arrestin-pde4-complexes
#9
Qian Shi, Minghui Li, Delphine Mika, Qin Fu, Sungjin Kim, Jason Phan, Ao Shen, Gregoire Vandecasteele, Yang K Xiang
Aims: Cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) signaling is susceptible to heterologous desensitization by different neurohormonal stimuli in clinical conditions associated with heart failure. We aim to examine the underlying mechanism of cross talk between βARs and a set of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) activated by hormones/agonists. Methods and results: Rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were used to determine heterologous phosphorylation of βARs under a series of GPCR agonists...
February 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339082/effects-of-autophagy-and-endocytosis-on-the-activity-of-matrix-metalloproteinase%C3%A2-2-in-human-renal-proximal-tubular-cells-under-hypoxia
#10
Wenmin Yu, Zhi Wang, Yiping Li, Lei Liu, Jing Liu, Fenggan Ding, Xiaoyi Zhang, Zhengyuan Cheng, Pingsheng Chen
Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is characterized by tubular atrophy with basement membrane thickening and accumulation of interstitial extracellular matrix (ECM). A decrease in the activity of matrix metalloproteinase‑2 (MMP‑2) may promote this process. Although proximal tubular cells are sensitive to oxygen deprivation, whether cellular autophagy or endocytosis induced by hypoxia can alter the activity of MMP‑2 remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether autophagy and endocytosis induced by hypoxia can have an effect on the activity of MMP‑2 in HK‑2 cells...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338134/uniform-tio2-nanoparticles-induce-apoptosis-in-epithelial-cell-lines-in-a-size-dependent-manner
#11
Qingqing Sun, Takayuki Ishii, Koki Kanehira, Takeshi Sato, Akiyoshi Taniguchi
The size of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles is a vital parameter that determines their cytotoxicity. However, most reported studies have employed irregular shapes and sizes of TiO2 nanoparticles, as it is difficult to produce nanoparticles of suitable sizes for research. We produced good model TiO2 nanoparticles of uniform shape and size for use in studying their cytotoxicity. In this work, spherical, uniform polyethylene glycol-modified TiO2 (TiO2-PEG) nanoparticles of differing sizes (100, 200, and 300 nm) were prepared using the sol-gel method...
March 24, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337256/human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-homing-induced-by-skov3-cells
#12
Dongmei Fan, Xiaojuan Xie, Pengwei Qi, Xianan Yang, Ximeng Jin
Human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) homing is the migration of endogenous and exogenous hMSCS to the target organs and the subsequent colonization under the action chemotaxic factors. This is an important process involved in the repair of damaged tissues. However, we know little about the mechanism of hMSC homing. Stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a cytokine secreted by stromal cells. Its only receptor CXCR4 is widely expressed in blood cells, immune cells and cells in the central nervous system. SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway plays an important role in hMSC homing and tissue repair...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336828/-disorders-caused-by-mutations-in-calcium-sensing-receptor-and-related-diseases
#13
Toshimi Michigami
Sensing of extracellular calcium(Ca2+)levels involves the Ca-sensing receptor(CaSR), its downstream signaling molecule Gα11, and the adaptor-related protein complex 2(AP2)that plays a role in clathrin-dependent endocytosis of CaSR. Inactivating mutations in CaSR cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 1(FHH1)and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism(NSHPT), while activating mutations lead to autosomal dominant hypocalcemia type 1(ADH1)and Bartter syndrome type Ⅴ. Recent studies have identified that inactivating mutations in Gα11 and σ-subunit of AP2(AP2σ)also cause FHH, and these conditions have been classified as FHH2 and FHH3, respectively...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336531/vasopressin-induced-serine-269-phosphorylation-reduces-sipa111-signal-induced-proliferation-associated-1-like-1-mediated-aquaporin-2-endocytosis
#14
Po-Jen Wang, Shu-Ting Lin, Shao-Hsuan Liu, Kuang-Ting Kuo, Chun-Hua Hsu, Mark A Knepper, Ming-Jiun Yu
The abundance of integral membrane proteins in the plasma membrane is determined by a dynamic balance between exocytosis and endocytosis, which can often be regulated by physiological stimuli. Here, we describe a mechanism that accounts for the ability of the peptide hormone vasopressin to regulate water excretion via a phosphorylation-dependent modulation of the PDZ domain-ligand interactions involving the water channel protein aquaporin-2. We discovered that the PDZ domain-containing protein Sipa1l1 (signal-induced proliferation-associated 1 like 1) binds to the cytoplasmic PDZ-ligand motif of aquaporin-2 and accelerates its endocytosis in the absence of vasopressin...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335277/receptor-meditated-endocytosis-by-hyaluronic-acid-superparamagnetic-nanovetor-for-targeting-of-cd44-overexpressing-tumor-cells
#15
Kwang Sik Yu, Meng Meng Lin, Hyun-Ju Lee, Ki-Sik Tae, Bo-Sun Kang, Je Hun Lee, Nam Seob Lee, Young Gil Jeong, Seung-Yun Han, Do Kyung Kim
The present report proposes a more rational hyaluronic acid (HA) conjugation protocol that can be used to modify the surface of the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) by covalently binding the targeting molecules (HA) with glutamic acid as a molecular linker on peripheral surface of SPIONs. The synthesis of HA-Glutamic Acid (GA)@SPIONs was included oxidization of nanoparticle's surface with H₂O₂ followed by activation of hydroxyl group and reacting glutamic acid as an intermediate molecule demonstrating transfection of lung cancer cells...
August 18, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334785/amino-acid-substitution-equivalent-to-human-chorea-acanthocytosis-i2771r-in-yeast-vps13-protein-affects-its-binding-to-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate
#16
Weronika Rzepnikowska, Krzysztof Flis, Joanna Kaminska, Marcin Grynberg, Agnieszka Urbanek, Kathryn R Ayscough, Teresa Zoladek
The rare human disorder chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is caused by mutations in hVPS13A gene. The hVps13A protein interacts with actin and regulates the level of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) in the membranes of neuronal cells. Yeast Vps13 is involved in vacuolar protein transport and, like hVps13A, participates in PI4P metabolism. Vps13 proteins are conserved in eukaryotes, but their molecular function remains unknown. One of the mutations found in ChAc patients causes amino acids substitution I2771R which affects the localization of hVps13A in skeletal muscles...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334690/intracellular-fluorescent-light-up-bioprobes-with-different-morphology-for-image-guided-photothermal-cancer-therapy
#17
Bangbang Li, Peng Zhang, Jianwei Du, Xiao Zhao, Youxiang Wang
Multifunctional nanoprobe was drawing increased attention in tumor diagnosis and therapy. The simple and effective establishment of the theranostic nanoplatforms was still under urgent need. Meanwhile, the targeting ability and morphology of nanoprobe were essential for the effective endocytosis, which could further affect the diagnosis. In this work, two morphologies of nanoprobes were fabricated using gold nanorods (AuNRs) and gold nanospheres (AuNSs). Thiolated-hyaluronic acid labeled with nile blue (HS-HA-NB), a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence dye, was coated on the surface of the gold nanoparticles to form stable nanoprobes (AuNR@HS-HA-NB, AuNS@HS-HA-NB)...
March 9, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334537/multivalency-effect-of-tat-peptide-functionalized-nanoparticle-in-cellular-endocytosis-and-subcellular-trafficking
#18
Nikhil R Jana, Chumki Dalal
Although trans-activating transcription (TAT)-peptide functionalized nanoparticle/polymer/liposome is widely used for cellular transfection applications, the multivalency (number of attached peptide per particle) effect on cell uptake mechanism and subcellular targeting performance is largely unexplored. Here we show that multivalency of nanoparticle controls the cellular interaction, cellular entry/exit mechanism and subcellular targeting performance. We have synthesized TAT peptide functionalized quantum dot (QD) of 30-35 nm hydrodynamic diameter with varied multivalency from 10 to 75 (e...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332829/impact-of-peg-chain-length-on-the-physical-properties-and-bioactivity-of-pegylated-chitosan-sirna-nanoparticles-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
Chuanxu Yang, Shan Gao, Frederik Dagnaes-Hansen, Maria Jakobsen, Jørgen Kjems
PEGylation of cationic polyplexes is a promising approach to enhance the stability and reduce unspecific interaction with biological components. Herein, we systematically investigate the impact of PEGylation on physical and biological properties of chitosan/siRNA polyplexes. A series of chitosan-PEG copolymers (CS-PEG2k, CS-PEG5k and CS-PEG10k) were synthesized with similar PEG mass content but with different molecular weight. PEGylation with higher molecular weight and less grafting degree resulted in smaller and more compacted nanoparticles with relatively higher surface charge...
March 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331029/the-sac1-domain-in-synaptojanin-is-required-for%C3%A2-autophagosome-maturation-at-presynaptic%C3%A2-terminals
#20
Roeland Vanhauwaert, Sabine Kuenen, Roy Masius, Adekunle Bademosi, Julia Manetsberger, Nils Schoovaerts, Laura Bounti, Serguei Gontcharenko, Jef Swerts, Sven Vilain, Marina Picillo, Paolo Barone, Shashini T Munshi, Femke Ms de Vrij, Steven A Kushner, Natalia V Gounko, Wim Mandemakers, Vincenzo Bonifati, Frederic A Meunier, Sandra-Fausia Soukup, Patrik Verstreken
Presynaptic terminals are metabolically active and accrue damage through continuous vesicle cycling. How synapses locally regulate protein homeostasis is poorly understood. We show that the presynaptic lipid phosphatase synaptojanin is required for macroautophagy, and this role is inhibited by the Parkinson's disease mutation R258Q. Synaptojanin drives synaptic endocytosis by dephosphorylating PI(4,5)P2, but this function appears normal in Synaptojanin(RQ) knock-in flies. Instead, R258Q affects the synaptojanin SAC1 domain that dephosphorylates PI(3)P and PI(3,5)P2, two lipids found in autophagosomal membranes...
March 22, 2017: EMBO Journal
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