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Endocytosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243828/receptor-mediated-endocytosis-generates-nanomechanical-force-reflective-of-ligand-identity-and-cellular-property
#1
Xiao Zhang, Juan Ren, Jingren Wang, Shixie Li, Qingze Zou, Nan Gao
Whether environmental (thermal, chemical, and nutrient) signals generate quantifiable, nanoscale, mechanophysical changes in the cellular plasma membrane has not been well elucidated. Assessment of such mechanophysical properties of plasma membrane may shed lights on fundamental cellular process. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) measurement of the mechanical properties of live cells was hampered by the difficulty in accounting for the effects of the cantilever motion and the associated hydrodynamic force on the mechanical measurement...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242593/dual-repression-of-endocytic-players-by-escc-micrornas-and-the-polycomb-complex-regulates-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-pluripotency
#2
Ridim Dadasaheb Mote, Gaurang Mahajan, Anup Padmanabhan, Ramaraju Ambati, Deepa Subramanyam
Cell fate determination in the early mammalian embryo is regulated by multiple mechanisms. Recently, genes involved in vesicular trafficking have been shown to play an important role in cell fate choice, although the regulation of their expression remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate for the first time that multiple endocytosis associated genes (EAGs) are repressed through a novel, dual mechanism in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). This involves the action of the Polycomb Repressive Complex, PRC2, as well as post-transcriptional regulation by the ESC-specific cell cycle-regulating (ESCC) family of microRNAs...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242159/an-implantable-depot-capable-of-in-situ-generation-of-micelles-to-achieve-controlled-and-targeted-tumor-chemotherapy
#3
Xiaoming Luo, Maohua Chen, Zhoujiang Chen, Songzhi Xie, Nan He, Tao Wang, Xiaohong Li
Camptothecin (CPT)-containing promicelle polymers (PMCPT) based on 4-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were developed previously to self-assemble into folate-targeted and glutathione (GSH)-sensitive micelles (MCPT). To address severe systemic toxicity and lack of tumor specificity implicated in the intravenous administration of MCPT, a micelle-generating depot has been developed by blend electrospinning of PEG-poly(lactide) (PELA) copolymers, PMCPT and polyethylene oxide (PEO). Upon implantation of the depot onto the tumor, PMCPT are sustainably released to spontaneously form MCPT on the tumor site...
December 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241687/mechanisms-of-carrier-formation-during-clathrin-independent-endocytosis
#4
REVIEW
Antonio P A Ferreira, Emmanuel Boucrot
Clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) mediates the cellular uptake of many extracellular ligands, receptors, and pathogens, including several life-threatening bacterial toxins and viruses. So far, our understanding of CIE carrier formation has lagged behind that of clathrin-coated vesicles. Impediments have been the imprecise definition of some CIE pathways, the lack of specific cargoes being transported and of exclusive cytosolic markers and regulators. Notwithstanding these limitations, three distinct molecular mechanisms by which CIE carriers form can be defined...
December 11, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241186/strengthening-gastric-cancer-therapy-by-trastuzumab-conjugated-nanoparticles-with-simultaneous-encapsulation-of-anti-mir-21-and-5-fluorouridine
#5
Nan Hu, Jun Feng Yin, Ze Ji, Yidong Hong, Puyuan Wu, Baoxiang Bian, Ziyan Song, Rutian Li, Qin Liu, Fenglei Wu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MicroRNA-21 is an oncogenic miR (oncomiR) frequently elevated in gastric cancer (GC). Overexpression of miR-21 decreases the sensitivity of GC cells to 5-fluorouridine (5-Fu) and trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Receptor-mediated endocytosis plays a crucial role in the delivery of biotherapeutics including anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs). This study is a continuation of earlier findings involving poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanoparticles (PEG-PCL NPs), which were coated with trastuzumab to target GC with HER2 receptor over-expression using anti-miRNA-21 (AMO-21) and 5-Fu...
December 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240953/influence-of-excess-branched-chain-amino-acid-uptake-by-streptococcus-mutans-in-human-host-cells
#6
Takafumi Arimoto, Rei Yambe, Hirobumi Morisaki, Haruka Umezawa, Hideo Kataoka, Shohei Matsui, Hirotaka Kuwata
Oral streptococci, including cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans, comprise a large percentage of human supragingival plaque, which contacts both tooth surfaces and gingiva. Eukaryotic cells are able to take up macromolecules and particles, including bacteria, by endocytosis. Increasing evidence indicates endocytosis may be used as an entry process by bacteria. We hypothesized some endocytosed bacteria might survive and obtain nutrients, such as amino acids, until they are killed. To verify this hypothesis, we focused on bacterial utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, and valine) in host cells...
December 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240771/a-master-equation-approach-to-actin-polymerization-applied-to-endocytosis-in-yeast
#7
Xinxin Wang, Anders E Carlsson
We present a Master Equation approach to calculating polymerization dynamics and force generation by branched actin networks at membranes. The method treats the time evolution of the F-actin distribution in three dimensions, with branching included as a directional spreading term. It is validated by comparison with stochastic simulations of force generation by actin polymerization at obstacles coated with actin "nucleation promoting factors" (NPFs). The method is then used to treat the dynamics of actin polymerization and force generation during endocytosis in yeast, using a model in which NPFs form a ring around the endocytic site, centered by a spot of molecules attaching the actin network strongly to the membrane...
December 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240283/proximal-tubular-epithelial-cells-preferentially-endocytose-covalently-modified-albumin-compared-to-native-albumin
#8
Nguyen D K Ly, Greg H Tesch, David J Nikolic-Paterson, Philip Poronnik
AIM: Albumin can be covalently modified at surface lysine residues and thus the circulation contains a mixture of native albumin (i.e. not modified) and albumin with varying degrees of modification. Uptake and lysosomal degradation of glomerular filtered albumin by proximal tubular cells via the megalin scavenger receptor is considered an important mechanism to limit albumin loss in the urine. However, whether this is a general mechanism of tubular uptake of albumin or if this is restricted to modified albumin is unknown...
December 14, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237817/an-arf6-and-caveolae-dependent-pathway-links-hemidesmosome-remodeling-and-mechanoresponse
#9
Naël Osmani, Julien Pontabry, Jordi Comelles, Nina Fekonja, Jacky G Goetz, Daniel Riveline, Elisabeth Georges-Labouesse, Michel Labouesse
Hemidesmosomes (HDs) are epithelial-specific cell-matrix adhesions, which stably anchor the intracellular keratin network to the extracellular matrix. Although their main role is to protect the epithelial sheet from external mechanical strain, how HDs respond to mechanical stress remains poorly understood. Here we identify a pathway essential for HD remodeling, and outline its role with respect to α6β4 integrin recycling. We find that α6β4 integrin chains localize to the plasma membrane, caveolae and Arf6+ endocytic compartments...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237594/structure-function-analysis-of-ferroportin-defines-the-binding-site-and-an-alternative-mechanism-of-action-of-hepcidin
#10
Sharraya Aschemeyer, Bo Qiao, Deborah Stefanova, Erika V Valore, Albert C Sek, T Alex Ruwe, Kyle R Vieth, Grace Jung, Carla Casu, Stefano Rivella, Mika Jormakka, Bryan Mackenzie, Tomas Ganz, Elizabeta Nemeth
Non-classical Ferroportin Disease is a form of hereditary hemochromatosis caused by mutations in the iron transporter ferroportin (Fpn), resulting in parenchymal iron overload. Fpn is regulated by the hormone hepcidin, which induces Fpn endocytosis and cellular iron retention. We characterized 11 clinically-relevant and 5 nonclinical Fpn mutations using stably transfected, inducible, isogenic cell lines. All clinical mutants were functionally resistant to hepcidin as a consequence of either impaired hepcidin binding or impaired hepcidin-dependent ubiquitination despite intact hepcidin binding...
December 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236785/the-soluble-mannose-receptor-smr-is-elevated-in-alcoholic-liver-disease-and-associated-with-disease-severity-portal-hypertension-and-mortality-in-cirrhosis-patients
#11
Thomas Damgaard Sandahl, Sidsel Hyldgaard Støy, Tea Lund Laursen, Sidsel Rødgaard-Hansen, Holger Jon Møller, Søren Møller, Hendrik Vilstrup, Henning Grønbæk
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic macrophages (Kupffer cells) are involved in the immunopathology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The mannose receptor (MR, CD206), expressed primarily by macrophages, mediates endocytosis, antigen presentation and T-cell activation. A soluble form, sMR, has recently been identified in humans. We aimed to study plasma sMR levels and its correlation with disease severity and survival in ALD patients. METHODS: We included 50 patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH), 68 alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) patients (Child-Pugh A (23), B (24), C (21)), and 21 healthy controls (HC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236694/dynamics-of-phosphoinositide-conversion-in-clathrin-mediated-endocytic-traffic
#12
Kangmin He, Robert Marsland Iii, Srigokul Upadhyayula, Eli Song, Song Dang, Benjamin R Capraro, Weiming Wang, Wesley Skillern, Raphael Gaudin, Minghe Ma, Tom Kirchhausen
Vesicular carriers transport proteins and lipids from one organelle to another, recognizing specific identifiers for the donor and acceptor membranes. Two important identifiers are phosphoinositides and GTP-bound GTPases, which provide well-defined but mutable labels. Phosphatidylinositol and its phosphorylated derivatives are present on the cytosolic faces of most cellular membranes. Reversible phosphorylation of its headgroup produces seven distinct phosphoinositides. In endocytic traffic, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate marks the plasma membrane, and phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate mark distinct endosomal compartments...
December 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233983/endocytosis-regulates-tdp-43-toxicity-and-turnover
#13
Guangbo Liu, Alyssa N Coyne, Fen Pei, Spencer Vaughan, Matthew Chaung, Daniela C Zarnescu, J Ross Buchan
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron degenerative disease. ALS-affected motor neurons exhibit aberrant localization of a nuclear RNA binding protein, TDP-43, into cytoplasmic aggregates, which contributes to pathology via unclear mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that TDP-43 turnover and toxicity depend in part upon the endocytosis pathway. TDP-43 inhibits endocytosis, and co-localizes strongly with endocytic proteins, including in ALS patient tissue. Impairing endocytosis increases TDP-43 toxicity, aggregation, and protein levels, whereas enhancing endocytosis reverses these phenotypes...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232506/thiolactone-chemistry-based-combinatorial-methodology-to-construct-multifunctional-polymers-for-efficacious-gene-delivery
#14
Zengshi Zha, Yongyi Hu, Jean Mukerabigwi, Weijian Chen, Yuheng Wang, Chuanxin He, Zhishen Ge
Hydrophobic segments and amino moieties in polymeric nonviral gene vectors play important roles in overcoming a cas-cade of barriers for efficient gene delivery. However, it remains a great challenge to facilely construct well-defined multi-functional polymers through optimization of the amino and hydrophobic groups. Herein, we choose thiolactone chemistry to perform the ring opening reaction of varying hydrophobic groups-modified thiolactones by various amines to generate mercapto groups for further Michael addition reaction with poly[2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl methacrylate] (PAOEMA)...
December 12, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232101/a-driver-switchover-mechanism-of-influenza-virus-transport-from-microfilaments-to-microtubules
#15
Li-Juan Zhang, Li Xia, Shu-Lin Liu, En-Ze Sun, Qiu-Mei Wu, Li Wen, Zhi-Ling Zhang, Dai-Wen Pang
When infecting host cells, influenza virus must move on microfilaments (MFs) at the cell periphery and then move along microtubules (MTs) through the cytosol to reach the perinuclear region for genome release. But how viruses switch from the actin roadway to the microtubule highway remains obscure. To settle this issue, we systematically dissected the role of related motor proteins in the transport of influenza virus between cytoskeletal filaments in situ and in real-time using quantum dot (QD)-based single-virus tracking (SVT) and multicolor imaging...
December 12, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229979/near-infrared-plasmonic-assemblies-of-gold-nanoparticles-with-multimodal-function-for-targeted-cancer-theragnosis
#16
Seong-Eun Kim, Bo-Ram Lee, Hohyeon Lee, Sung Duk Jo, Hyuncheol Kim, You-Yeon Won, Jeewon Lee
Here we report a novel assembly structure of near-infrared plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), possessing both photoacoustic (PA) and photothermal (PT) properties. The template for the plasmonic AuNP assembly is a bioconjugate between short double-strand DNA (sh-dsDNA) and human methyl binding domain protein 1 (MBD1). MBD1 binds to methylated cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (mCGs) within the sequence of sh-dsDNA. Hexahistidine peptides on the engineered MBD1 function as a nucleation site for AuNP synthesis, allowing the construction of hybrid conjugates, sh-dsDNA-MBD1-AuNPs (named DMAs)...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228702/lncrna-and-mrna-profiling-during-activation-of-tilapia-macrophages-by-hsp70-and-streptococcus-agalactiae-antigen
#17
Honglin Luo, Huizan Yang, Yong Lin, Yongde Zhang, Chuanyan Pan, Pengfei Feng, Yanling Yu, Xiaohan Chen
Objectives: To investigate the lncRNA profiling during tilapia peritoneal macrophages (TPMs) activation and discuss the relationship between lncRNA and mRNA. Materials and Methods: RNA sequencing was used to investigate the lncRNA and mRNA profiles of TPMs activation following stimulation with Streptococcus agalactiae (Sa) antigen, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and HSP70+Sa. The expressions of lncRNA and mRNA were confirmed by qPCR. 356 lncRNA, 10173 mRNA and 1782 transcripts of uncertain coding potential (TUCP) were differentially expressed by pairwise comparison...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225464/apolipoprotein-e3-mediated-cellular-uptake-of-reconstituted-high-density-lipoprotein-bearing-core-3-10-or-17-nm-hydrophobic-gold-nanoparticles
#18
Skylar T Chuang, Young-Seok Shon, Vasanthy Narayanaswami
We have developed a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-based platform for transport and delivery of hydrophobic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The ability of apolipoprotein E3 (apoE3) to act as a high-affinity ligand for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) was exploited to gain entry of HDL with AuNPs into glioblastoma cells. AuNPs of 3, 10, and 17 nm diameter, the latter two synthesized by phase transfer process, were solubilized by integration with phospholipids and apoE3, yielding reconstituted HDL (rHDL) bearing AuNPs...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221907/coupling-of-exocytosis-and-endocytosis-at-the-presynaptic-active-zone
#19
REVIEW
Tanja Maritzen, Volker Haucke
Brain function depends on the ability of neurons to communicate with each other via the regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitter-containing synaptic vesicles (SVs) at specialized presynaptic release sites termed active zones (AZs). The presynaptic AZ comprises an assembly of large multidomain proteins that link the machinery for vesicle fusion to sites of voltage-dependent Ca2+ entry. Following SV fusion at AZ release sites SV membranes are retrieved by compensatory endocytosis, and SVs are reformed. Recent data suggest that Ca2+-triggered SV exocytosis at AZs and endocytic retrieval of SVs may be functionally and physically linked...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221571/micrornas-milk-s-epigenetic-regulators
#20
REVIEW
Bodo C Melnik, Gerd Schmitz
Our perception of milk has changed from a "simple food" to a highly sophisticated maternal-neonatal nutrient and communication system orchestrating early programming of the infant. Milk miRNAs delivered by exosomes and milk fat globules derived from mammary gland epithelial cells play a key role in this process. Exosomes resist the harsh intestinal environment, are taken up by intestinal cells via endocytosis, and reach the systemic circulation of the milk recipient. The most abundant miRNA found in exosomes and milk fat globules of human and cow's milk, miRNA-148a, attenuates the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1, which is critically involved in epigenetic regulation...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
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