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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228157/gut-epithelial-vitamin-d-receptor-regulates-microbiota-dependent-mucosal-inflammation-by-suppressing-intestinal-epithelial-cell-apoptosis
#1
Lei He, Tianjing Liu, Yongyan Shi, Feng Tian, Huiyuan Hu, Dilip K Deb, Yinyin Chen, Marc Bissonnette, Yan Chun Li
Recent studies show that colonic vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling protects the mucosal epithelial barrier and suppresses colonic inflammation, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be fully understood. To investigate the implication of colonic VDR down-regulation seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, we assessed the effect of gut epithelial VDR deletion on colonic inflammatory responses in an experimental colitis model. In 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model, mice carrying VDR deletion in gut epithelial cells (VDRf/f;Villin-Cre or VDRΔIEC) or in colonic epithelial cells (VDRf/f;CDX2-Cre or VDRΔCEC) developed more severe clinical colitis than VDRf/f control mice, characterized by more robust TH1 and TH17 responses, with greater increases in mucosal IFN-γ+, IL-17+ and IFN-γ+IL-17+ T cells...
December 7, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216297/skn-1a-pou2f3-functions-as-a-master-regulator-to-generate-trpm5-expressing-chemosensory-cells-in-mice
#2
Junpei Yamashita, Makoto Ohmoto, Tatsuya Yamaguchi, Ichiro Matsumoto, Junji Hirota
Transient receptor potential channel M5 (Trpm5)-expressing cells, such as sweet, umami, and bitter taste cells in the oropharyngeal epithelium, solitary chemosensory cells in the nasal respiratory epithelium, and tuft cells in the small intestine, that express taste-related genes function as chemosensory cells. Previous studies demonstrated that Skn-1a/Pou2f3, a POU homeodomain transcription factor is expressed in these Trpm5-expressing chemosensory cells, and is necessary for their generation. Trpm5-expressing cells have recently been found in trachea, auditory tube, urethra, thymus, pancreatic duct, stomach, and large intestine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212456/helicobacter-induced-gastric-inflammation-alters-the-properties-of-gastric-tissue-stem-progenitor-cells
#3
Wataru Shibata, Soichiro Sue, Sachiko Tsumura, Yasuaki Ishii, Takeshi Sato, Eri Kameta, Makoto Sugimori, Hiroaki Yamada, Hiroaki Kaneko, Tomohiko Sasaki, Tomohiro Ishii, Toshihide Tamura, Masaaki Kondo, Shin Maeda
BACKGROUND: Although Helicobacter-induced gastric inflammation is the major predisposing factor for gastric carcinogenesis, the precise mechanism by which chronic gastritis causes gastric cancer remains unclear. Intestinal and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) is considered as precancerous lesions, changes in epithelial tissue stem/progenitor cells after chronic inflammation has not been clarified yet. In this study, we utilized three-dimensional gastric epithelial cell culture systems that could form organoids, mimicking gastric epithelial layer, and characterized the changes in epithelial cells after chronic Helicobacter felis infection...
December 6, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198708/knockdown-of-laminin-%C3%AE-5-stimulates-intestinal-cell-differentiation
#4
Manon Lepage, Amira Seltana, Marie-Pier Thibault, Éric Tremblay, Jean-François Beaulieu
Interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix regulate a wide range of cell processes such as proliferation and differentiation. Laminins are major components of the basement membrane that actively participate in most biological functions via their interactions with a variety of specific cell receptors. The α5-containing laminins (LAMA5) are one of the three main types of laminins identified at the epithelial basal lamina in the adult intestine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of α5-containing laminins on intestinal cell proliferation and differentiation...
November 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196853/immunohistochemical-characterization-of-brush-cells-in-the-rat-larynx
#5
Yoshio Yamamoto, Yuko Ozawa, Takuya Yokoyama, Nobuaki Nakamuta
The immunohistochemical characteristics of brush cells in the laryngeal mucosa were examined using immunohistochemistry for various immunohistochemical cell markers including villin at the light and electron microscopic levels. Cells that were immunoreactive to villin were barrel-shaped with thick cytoplasmic processes extending toward the lumen of the laryngeal cavity. Immunoelectron microscopic observations revealed thick and short microvilli with long rootlets of microfilaments. Numerous small clear vesicles and small finger-like cytoplasmic processes were observed in the apical process and lateral membrane, respectively...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174217/highlights-of-the-twelfth-annual-scientific-meeting-of-the-society-of-cardiovascular-computed-tomography
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan R Weir-McCall, Todd C Villines, Leslee J Shaw, Suhny Abbara, Maros Ferencik, Koen Nieman, Stephan Achenbach, Edward Nicol
The 12th Annual Scientific Meeting of the SCCT, held from July 6 to July 9 in Washington, DC, was one of the largest to date with 724 attendants from 34 countries, 130 invited talks, 4 "Read with the Experts" sessions, 42 oral abstracts presented, 20 rapid fire posters and 164 poster presentations with the abstracts of all of these published in the JCCT. This article summarises the many themes and topics of presentation and discussion in this meeting, and the many technical advances that are likely to impact future clinical practice and feature in future meetings...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153576/coronary-artery-calcium-and-long-term%C3%A2-risk-of-death-myocardial%C3%A2-infarction-and-stroke-the-walter-reed-cohort-study
#7
Joshua D Mitchell, Robert Paisley, Patrick Moon, Eric Novak, Todd C Villines
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the long-term risk of death and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) outcomes, including stroke, in a real-world cohort that underwent coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring. BACKGROUND: Large-scale, long-term studies assessing the independent relationship of CAC for prediction of ASCVD events, to include stroke, in young, low-risk patients are uncommon outside of the clinical trial setting. METHODS: A total of 23,637 consecutive subjects without ASCVD who underwent CAC scoring from 1997 to 2009 were studied...
November 10, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151911/multiple-pulmonary-metastases-with-halo-sign-from-malignant-mixed-m%C3%A3-llerian-tumors
#8
Hong-Wei Tian, Wei-Bing Yang, Meng-Jie Yang, Jing-Yuan Liu, Jian-Chu Zhang, Xiao-Nan Tao, Qiong Zhou
The lungs are one of the most common organs to which cancer metastasizes, but are a location not common for uterine sarcoma. A malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (MMMT) of the uterus is an extremely rare and aggressive sarcoma, characterized by a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal components. There are few reports regarding the pulmonary metastasis from MMMTs. The present study presents the case of a 58-year-old woman with hemoptysis and post-menopausal vaginal bleeding. The woman was initially diagnosed with invasive aspergillosis based on a chest computed tomography (CT) scan showing multiple pulmonary nodular opacities surrounded by a ground-glass attenuation halo (halo-sign)...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151345/slow-down-in-diffusion-in-crowded-protein-solutions-correlates-with-transient-cluster-formation
#9
Grzegorz Nawrocki, Po-Hung Wang, Isseki Yu, Yuji Sugita, Michael Feig
For a long time the effect of crowded cellular environment on protein dynamics has been largely ignored. Recent experiments indicate that proteins diffuse much slower in a living cell than in a diluted solution and further studies suggest that the diffusion depends on the local surrounding. Here, detailed insight into how diffusion depends on protein-protein contacts is presented based on extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of concentrated villin head piece solutions. After force field adjustments in the form of increased protein-water interactions to reproduce experimental data, translational and rotational diffusion was analyzed in detail...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106744/germ-cell-tumor-growth-patterns-originating-from-clear-cell-carcinomas-of-the-ovary-and-endometrium-a-comparative-immunohistochemical-study-favouring-their-origin-from-somatic-stem-cells
#10
F F Nogales, J Prat, M Schuldt, N Cruz-Viruel, B Kau, E D'Angelo, X Matias-Guiu, A Vidal, W G McCluggage, J W Oosterhuis
AIMS: To report a series of 11 ovarian and one endometrial neoplasm in elderly patients with mixed clear cell tumour and germ cell tumour (GCT) components, to compare their immunohistochemical and demonstrate a putative stem cell population. METHODS AND RESULTS: The clear cell tumours included 11 clear cell carcinomas (CCC) and 1 borderline clear cell tumour, while the GCT always included glandular yolk sac tumour (YST). In 4 cases, there were also foci of teratoma with immature neuroepithelial and endodermal tissues, and undifferentiated areas showing true embryoids...
November 6, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104982/on-the-toxicity-and-transport-mechanisms-of-cisplatin-in-kidney-tissues-in-comparison-to-a-gold-based-cytotoxic-agent
#11
Sarah Spreckelmeyer, Natalia Estrada-Ortiz, Gerian G H Prins, Margot van der Zee, Bente Gammelgaard, Stefan Stürup, Inge A M de Graaf, Geny M M Groothuis, Angela Casini
Mechanisms of toxicity and cellular transport of anticancer metallodrugs, including platinum-based agents, have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we studied the toxic effects and accumulation mechanisms of cisplatin in healthy rat kidneys ex vivo, using the Precision Cut Tissue Slices (PCTS) method. In addition, for the first time, we investigated the nephrotoxic effects of an experimental anticancer cyclometallated complex [Au(py(b)-H)(PTA)Cl]PF6 (PTA = 1,3,5-triazaphosphaadamantane). The viability of the kidney slices after metallodrug treatment was evaluated by ATP content determination and histomorphology analysis...
November 6, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096508/links-between-the-charge-model-and-bonded-parameter-force-constants-in-biomolecular-force-fields
#12
David S Cerutti, Karl T Debiec, David A Case, Lillian T Chong
The ff15ipq protein force field is a fixed charge model built by automated tools based on the two charge sets of the implicitly polarized charge method: one set (appropriate for vacuum) for deriving bonded parameters and the other (appropriate for aqueous solution) for running simulations. The duality is intended to treat water-induced electronic polarization with an understanding that fitting data for bonded parameters will come from quantum mechanical calculations in the gas phase. In this study, we compare ff15ipq to two alternatives produced with the same fitting software and a further expanded data set but following more conventional methods for tailoring bonded parameters (harmonic angle terms and torsion potentials) to the charge model...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074568/sendai-virus-recruits-cellular-villin-to-remodel-actin-cytoskeleton-during-fusion-with-hepatocytes
#13
Sunandini Chandra, Raju Kalaivani, Manoj Kumar, Narayanaswamy Srinivasan, Debi P Sarkar
Reconstituted Sendai viral envelopes (Virosomes) are well recognized for their promising potential in membrane fusion mediated delivery of bioactive molecules to liver cells. Despite the known function of viral envelope glycoproteins in catalyzing fusion with cellular membrane, the role of host cell proteins remains elusive. Here, we used two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to analyze hepatic cells in early response to virosome-induced membrane fusion. Quantitative mass spectrometry together with biochemical analysis revealed that villin, an actin-modifying protein, is differentially up-regulated and phosphorylated at Threonine-206 (T206), as an early molecular event during membrane fusion...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051186/distinct-roles-of-intracellular-heat-shock-protein-70-hsp70-in-maintaining-gastrointestinal-homeostasis
#14
Yunwei Wang, Fanfei Lin, Xiaorong Zhu, Vanessa A Leone, Sushila R Dalal, Yun Tao, Jeannette S Messer, Eugene B Chang
The inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is both cytoprotective and immunomodulatory, potentially accounting for its critical role in maintaining gastrointestinal homeostasis. When levels are reduced in conditions like inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), loss of function contributes to the severity and chronicity of these diseases, although through which cell types and mechanisms remains unclear. Here, the role of Hsp70-mediated intestinal epithelial protection and immune regulation in experimental colitis was examined by using a villin-promoter driven Hsp70 transgene in the TNBS and DSS models and in IL10/Hsp70 double knockout (IL10(-/-)/Hsp70(-/-)) mice...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033237/coronary-artery-calcium-guided-prevention-the-time-is-now
#15
EDITORIAL
Todd C Villines
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032508/development-and-characterization-of-2-dimensional-culture-for-buffalo-intestinal-cells
#16
Nidhi Chaudhary, Himanshu Agrawal, Mamta Pandey, Suneel Onteru, Dheer Singh
Small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) play a major role in the absorption of nutrients and toxins. Due to the similarity of genome-wide single copy protein orthologues between cattle and human, establishment of ruminant's primary small IEC culture could be a valuable tool for toxicity studies. Therefore, the current study focused on the development and characterization of buffalo IEC culture, as cattle slaughter is banned in India. The buffalo jejunum fragments were washed consecutively several times in saline, warm phosphate buffered saline (PBS), PBS with 5 mM dithiothreitol, digesting solution and 2% sorbitol in PBS...
October 14, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027093/long-term-prognostic-value-of-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography
#17
REVIEW
Takor B Arrey-Mbi, Seth M Klusewitz, Todd C Villines
Coronary CT angiography (CTA) is a highly accurate test for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD), with its use guided by numerous contemporary appropriate use criteria and clinical guidelines. Unique among non-invasive tests for CAD, coronary CTA provides direct visualization of coronary atherosclerosis for the assessment of angiographic stenosis, as well as validated measures of plaque vulnerability. Long-term studies now clearly demonstrate that the absence of CAD on coronary CTA identifies a patient that is at very low risk for future cardiovascular events...
October 12, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025243/colon-cancer-with-micropapillary-carcinoma-component-a-clinopathologic-study-of-9-cases
#18
Naoto Kuroda, Kenji Yorita
Recently, colon cancer with micropapillary pattern (MPP) has been identified. MPP is defined as tight tufts surrounded by cleft-like space and lacking true fibrovascular cores and showing reverse polarity. In this article, we studied nine cases of colon cancer with MPP. MPP usually accounted for a minor component in total tumour volume, which ranged from 3 to 40% with a mean percentage of 19.2%. Associated histological subtype showed moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma in all cases. The reverse polarity of villin (9/9, diffuse) in MPP component was superior to that of CA125 (5/9, focal) or CD10 (5/9, diffuse 2/9, focal 3/9)...
2017: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980225/merkel-cell-carcinoma-of-the-buccal-mucosa-and-lower-lip
#19
Mohammed N Islam, Hardeep Chehal, Molly Housley Smith, Sarah Islam, Indraneel Bhattacharyya
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon relatively aggressive neuroendocrine dermal neoplasm first described in 1972 as a tumor of the sun exposed skin. Although most MCC affect the skin of the head and neck, rare primarily oral mucosal cases have been documented. Merkel cells are nondendritic neuroendocrine cells that are found not only in the skin but also the oral mucosa and give rise to MCC. Neuroendocrine cells may be found as aggregates in organs or as diffuse or isolated cells within organs and their epithelial lining...
October 4, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977374/incremental-prognostic-value-of-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-over-coronary-calcium-scoring-for-major-adverse-cardiac-events-in-elderly-asymptomatic-individuals
#20
Donghee Han, Bríain Ó Hartaigh, Heidi Gransar, Ji Hyun Lee, Asim Rizvi, Lohendran Baskaran, Joshua Schulman-Marcus, Allison Dunning, Stephan Achenbach, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Daniel S Berman, Matthew J Budoff, Filippo Cademartiri, Erica Maffei, Tracy Q Callister, Kavitha Chinnaiyan, Benjamin J W Chow, Augustin DeLago, Martin Hadamitzky, Joerg Hausleiter, Philipp A Kaufmann, Gilbert Raff, Leslee J Shaw, Todd C Villines, Yong-Jin Kim, Jonathon Leipsic, Gudrun Feuchtner, Ricardo C Cury, Gianluca Pontone, Daniele Andreini, Hugo Marques, Ronen Rubinshtein, Niree Hindoyan, Erica C Jones, Millie Gomez, Fay Y Lin, Hyuk-Jae Chang, James K Min
Aims: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) have prognostic value for coronary artery disease (CAD) events beyond traditional risk assessment. Age is a risk factor with very high weight and little is known regarding the incremental value of CCTA over CAC for predicting cardiac events in older adults. Methods and results: Of 27 125 individuals undergoing CCTA, a total of 3145 asymptomatic adults were identified...
July 20, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
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