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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422069/protein-stability-and-unfolding-following-glycine-radical-formation
#1
Michael C Owen, Imre G Csizmadia, Béla Viskolcz, Birgit Strodel
Glycine (Gly) residues are particularly susceptible to hydrogen abstraction; which results in the formation of the capto-dative stabilized Cα-centered Gly radical (GLR) on the protein backbone. We examined the effect of GLR formation on the structure of the Trp cage; tryptophan zipper; and the villin headpiece; three fast-folding and stable miniproteins; using all-atom (OPLS-AA) molecular dynamics simulations. Radicalization changes the conformation of the GLR residue and affects both neighboring residues but did not affect the stability of the Trp zipper...
April 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385693/expression-and-localization-of-vpac1-the-major-receptor-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-along-the-length-of-the-intestine
#2
Dulari Jayawardena, Grace Guzman, Ravinder K Gill, Waddah A Alrefai, Hayat Onyuksel, Pradeep K Dudeja
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an endogenous neuropeptide with a broad array of physiological functions in many organs including the intestine. Its actions are mediated via G- protein coupled receptors and VPAC1 is the key receptor responsible for majority of VIP's biological activity. The distribution of VPAC1 along the length of the gastrointestinal tract and its sub cellular localization in intestinal epithelial cells has not been fully characterized. The current studies were undertaken to determine VPAC1 distribution and localization so that VIP based therapies can be targeted to specific regions of the intestine...
April 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385391/prognostic-implications-of-coronary-artery-calcium-in-the-absence-of-coronary-artery-luminal-narrowing
#3
Iksung Cho, Bríain Ó Hartaigh, Heidi Gransar, Valentina Valenti, Fay Y Lin, Stephan Achenbach, Daniel S Berman, Matthew J Budoff, Tracy Q Callister, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Filippo Cademartiri, Kavitha Chinnaiyan, Benjamin J W Chow, Allison M Dunning, Augustin DeLago, Todd C Villines, Martin Hadamitzky, Joerg Hausleiter, Jonathon Leipsic, Leslee J Shaw, Philipp A Kaufmann, Ricardo C Cury, Gudrun Feuchtner, Yong-Jin Kim, Erica Maffei, Gilbert Raff, Gianluca Pontone, Daniele Andreini, Hyuk-Jae Chang, James K Min
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring is a predictor of future adverse clinical events, and a surrogate measure of overall coronary artery plaque burden. Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is a contrast-enhanced method that allows for visualization of plaque as well as whether that plaque causes luminal narrowing. To date, the prognosis of individuals with CAC but without stenosis has not been reported. We explored the prevalence of CAC>0 and its prognostic utility for future mortality for patients without luminal narrowing by CCTA...
December 3, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363203/improved-5-year-prediction-of-all-cause-mortality-by-coronary-ct-angiography-applying-the-confirm-score
#4
Simon Deseive, Leslee J Shaw, James K Min, Stephan Achenbach, Daniele Andreini, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Daniel S Berman, Matthew J Budoff, Tracy Q Callister, Filippo Cademartiri, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Kavitha Chinnaiyan, Benjamin J W Chow, Ricardo C Cury, Augustin DeLago, Allison M Dunning, Gudrun Feuchtner, Philipp A Kaufmann, Yong-Jin Kim, Jonathon Leipsic, Hugo Marques, Erica Maffei, Gianluca Pontone, Gilbert Raff, Ronin Rubinshtein, Todd C Villines, Jörg Hausleiter, Martin Hadamitzky
Aims: To investigate the long-term performance of the CONFIRM score for prediction of all-cause mortality in a large patient cohort undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Methods and results: Patients with a 5-year follow-up from the international multicentre CONFIRM registry were included. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. The predictive value of the CONFIRM score over clinical risk scores (Morise, Framingham, and NCEP ATP III score) was studied in the entire patient population as well as in subgroups...
March 1, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346473/oral-administration-of-bifidobacterium-bifidum-g9-1-alleviates-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-through-regulation-of-intestinal-homeostasis-by-inducing-mucosal-protective-factors
#5
Tomohiro Kawahara, Yutaka Makizaki, Yosuke Oikawa, Yoshiki Tanaka, Ayako Maeda, Masaki Shimakawa, Satoshi Komoto, Kyoko Moriguchi, Hiroshi Ohno, Koki Taniguchi
Human rotavirus (RV) infection is a leading cause of dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Since therapeutic approaches to RV gastroenteritis are limited to alleviation of dehydration with oral rehydration solutions, more direct approaches to palliate symptoms of RV gastroenteritis are required. Treatments with probiotics have been increasingly recognized as alternative safe and low cost treatments for moderate infectious diarrhea. In this study, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1), which has been used as an intestinal drug for several decades, was shown to have a remarkable protective effect against RV gastroenteritis in a suckling mice model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342021/establishment-of-immortalized-mouse-intestinal-epithelial-cells-line-and-study-of-effects-of-arg-arg-on-inflammatory-response
#6
Kang Zhan, Maocheng Jiang, Yannan Sui, Kang Yan, Miao Lin, Guoqi Zhao
Primary mouse intestinal epithelial cells (MIEs) are not ideal models for long-term culture in vitro and a limited amount of approximate three generations. In addition, the mechanism that arginine-arginine dipeptide (Arg-Arg) regulates mouse intestinal inflammatory response remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish immortal MIEs and study the effects of Arg-Arg on inflammatory response after challenging the MIEs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or staphylococcal enterotoxin C (rSEC). Our data showed that immortalized MIEs could be cultured over 100 generations...
March 24, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340228/dual-immunostain-with-satb2-and-ck20-differentiates-appendiceal-mucinous-neoplasms-from-ovarian-mucinous-neoplasms
#7
Zaibo Li, Rachel Roth, Jonathan B Rock, Amy Lehman, William L Marsh, Adrian Suarez, Wendy L Frankel
Objectives: Determination of the primary site of origin for mucinous neoplasms identified in the peritoneal and/or pelvic cavities may be challenging, with major differential diagnoses including appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (AMN) and ovarian mucinous neoplasm (OMN). Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 2 (SATB2) has been shown to be highly selectively expressed in the lower gastrointestinal tract, including the appendix. Methods: We investigated the utility of a dual stain (DS) with SATB2 or caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) and cytokeratin 20 (CK20) or villin in distinguishing AMNs from OMNs...
March 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336546/barrett-s-metaplasia-develops-from-cellular-reprograming-of-esophageal-squamous-epithelium-due-to-gastroesophageal-reflux
#8
Carlos D Minacapelli, Manisha Bajpai, Xin Geng, Christina L Cheng, Abhishek A Chouthai, Rhonda F Souza, Stuart Jon Spechler, Kiron M Das
OBJECTIVE: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) clinically predisposes to columnar Barrett's metaplasia (BM) in the distal esophagus. We demonstrate evidence supporting cellular origin of BM from reprograming or trans-commitment of resident normal esophageal squamous (NES) epithelial cells in response to acid and bile exposure using an in vitro cell culture model. DESIGN: The hTERT-immortalized NES cell line, NES-B10T, was exposed 5 min/day to Acid and Bile (A+B) mixture for 30 weeks...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335843/anomalous-aortic-origin-of-a-coronary%C3%A2-artery-from-the-inappropriate%C3%A2-sinus-of%C3%A2-valsalva
#9
REVIEW
Michael K Cheezum, Richard R Liberthson, Nishant R Shah, Todd C Villines, Patrick T O'Gara, Michael J Landzberg, Ron Blankstein
Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) from the inappropriate sinus of Valsalva is increasingly recognized by cardiac imaging. Although most AAOCA subtypes are benign, autopsy studies report an associated risk of sudden death with interarterial anomalous left coronary artery (ALCA) and anomalous right coronary artery (ARCA). Despite efforts to identify high-risk ALCA and ARCA patients who may benefit from surgical repair, debate remains regarding their classification, prevalence, risk stratification, and management...
March 28, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329294/coronary-revascularization-vs-medical-therapy-following-coronary-computed-tomographic-angiography-in-patients-with-low-intermediate-and-high-risk-coronary-artery-disease-results-from-the-confirm-long-term-registry
#10
Joshua Schulman-Marcus, Fay Y Lin, Heidi Gransar, Daniel Berman, Tracy Callister, Augustin DeLago, Martin Hadamitzky, Joerg Hausleiter, Mouaz Al-Mallah, Matthew Budoff, Philipp Kaufmann, Stephan Achenbach, Gilbert Raff, Kavitha Chinnaiyan, Filippo Cademartiri, Erica Maffei, Todd Villines, Yong-Jin Kim, Jonathon Leipsic, Gudrun Feuchtner, Ronen Rubinshtein, Gianluca Pontone, Daniele Andreini, Hugo Marques, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Benjamin J W Chow, Ricardo C Cury, Allison Dunning, Leslee Shaw, James K Min
Aims: To identify the effect of early revascularization on 5-year survival in patients with CAD diagnosed by coronary-computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). Methods and results: We examined 5544 stable patients with suspected CAD undergoing CCTA who were followed a median of 5.5 years in a large international registry. Patients were categorized as having low-, intermediate-, or high-risk CAD based on CCTA findings. Two treatment groups were defined: early revascularization within 90 days of CCTA (n = 1171) and medical therapy (n = 4373)...
March 16, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292858/predictive-value-of-age-and-sex-specific-nomograms-of-global-plaque-burden-on-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-for-major-cardiac-events
#11
Christopher Naoum, Daniel S Berman, Amir Ahmadi, Philipp Blanke, Heidi Gransar, Jagat Narula, Leslee J Shaw, Leonard Kritharides, Stephan Achenbach, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Daniele Andreini, Matthew J Budoff, Filippo Cademartiri, Tracy Q Callister, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Kavitha Chinnaiyan, Benjamin Chow, Ricardo C Cury, Augustin DeLago, Allison Dunning, Gudrun Feuchtner, Martin Hadamitzky, Joerg Hausleiter, Philipp A Kaufmann, Yong-Jin Kim, Erica Maffei, Hugo Marquez, Gianluca Pontone, Gilbert Raff, Ronen Rubinshtein, Todd C Villines, James Min, Jonathon Leipsic
BACKGROUND: Age-adjusted coronary artery disease (CAD) burden identified on coronary computed tomography angiography predicts major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) risk; however, it seldom contributes to clinical decision making because of a lack of nomographic data. We aimed to develop clinically pragmatic age- and sex-specific nomograms of CAD burden using coronary computed tomography angiography and to validate their prognostic use. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients prospectively enrolled in phase I of the CONFIRM registry (Coronary CT Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcomes) were included (derivation cohort: n=21,132; 46% female) to develop CAD nomograms based on age-sex percentiles of segment involvement score (SIS) at each year of life (40-79 years)...
March 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275690/intestinal-epithelial-specific-mtorc1-activation-enhances-intestinal-adaptation-after-small-bowel-resection
#12
Lauren Barron, Raphael C Sun, Bola Aladegbami, Christopher R Erwin, Brad W Warner, Jun Guo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal adaptation is a compensatory response to the massive loss of small intestine after surgical resection. We investigated the role of intestinal epithelial cell-specific mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (i-mTORC1) in intestinal adaptation after massive small bowel resection (SBR). METHODS: We performed 50% proximal SBR on mice to study adaptation. To manipulate i-mTORC1 activity, Villin-Cre(ER) transgenic mice were crossed with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)1(flox/flox) or Raptor(flox/flox) mice to inducibly activate or inactivate i-mTORC1 activity with tamoxifen...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261667/protein-malnutrition-modifies-innate-immunity-and-gene-expression-by-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-human-rotavirus-infection-in-neonatal-gnotobiotic-pigs
#13
Anastasia N Vlasova, Francine C Paim, Sukumar Kandasamy, Moyasar A Alhamo, David D Fischer, Stephanie N Langel, Loic Deblais, Anand Kumar, Juliet Chepngeno, Lulu Shao, Huang-Chi Huang, Rosario A Candelero-Rueda, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif
Malnutrition affects millions of children in developing countries, compromising immunity and contributing to increased rates of death from infectious diseases. Rotavirus is a major etiological agent of childhood diarrhea in developing countries, where malnutrition is prevalent. However, the interactions between the two and their combined effects on immune and intestinal functions are poorly understood. In this study, we used neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs transplanted with the fecal microbiota of a healthy 2-month-old infant (HIFM) and fed protein-deficient or -sufficient bovine milk diets...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258325/n-acetylcysteine-supplementation-alleviates-intestinal-injury-in-piglets-infected-by-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#14
Lei Wang, Jia Zhou, Yongqing Hou, Dan Yi, Binying Ding, Jiaqian Xie, Yue Zhang, Hongbo Chen, Tao Wu, Di Zhao, Chien-An Andy Hu, Guoyao Wu
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infects the intestine of young pigs, but effective measures for prevention and treatment are lacking. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to reduce endotoxin-induced intestinal dysfunction. This study was conducted with the PEDV-infected neonatal piglet model to determine the effect of NAC supplementation on intestinal function. Thirty-two 7-day-old piglets were randomly allocated to one of four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design consisting of two liquid diets (0 or 50 mg/kg BW NAC supplementation) and oral administration of 0 or 10(4...
March 3, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248814/the-use-of-ancillary-stains-in-the-diagnosis-of-barrett-esophagus-and-barrett-esophagus-associated-dysplasia-recommendations-from-the-rodger-c-haggitt-gastrointestinal-pathology-society
#15
Amitabh Srivastava, Henry Appelman, Jeffrey D Goldsmith, Jon M Davison, John Hart, Alyssa M Krasinskas
Barrett esophagus (BE) is a known risk factor for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Pathologists play a critical role in confirming the diagnosis of BE and BE-associated dysplasia. As these diagnoses are not always straightforward on routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides, numerous ancillary stains have been used in an attempt to help pathologists confirm the diagnosis. On the basis of an in-depth review of the literature, the Rodger C. Haggitt Gastrointestinal Pathology Society provides recommendations regarding the use of ancillary stains in the diagnosis of BE and BE-associated dysplasia...
May 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244683/rapamycin-treatment-dose-dependently-improves-the-cystic-kidney-in-a-new-adpkd-mouse-model-via-the-mtorc1-and-cell-cycle-associated-cdk1-cyclin-axis
#16
Ao Li, Song Fan, Yuchen Xu, Jialin Meng, Xufeng Shen, Jun Mao, Li Zhang, Xiansheng Zhang, Gilbert Moeckel, Dianqing Wu, Guanqing Wu, Chaozhao Liang
Although translational research into autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and its pathogenesis has made considerable progress, there is presently lack of standardized animal model for preclinical trials. In this study, we developed an orthologous mouse model of human ADPKD by cross-mating Pkd2 conditional-knockout mice (Pkd2(f3) ) to Cre transgenic mice in which Cre is driven by a spectrum of kidney-related promoters. By systematically characterizing the mouse model, we found that Pkd2(f3/f3) mice with a Cre transgene driven by the mouse villin-1 promoter (Vil-Cre;Pkd2(f3/f3) ) develop overt cysts in the kidney, liver and pancreas and die of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) at 4-6 months of age...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170260/efficient-conformational-search-based-on-structural-dissimilarity-sampling-applications-for-reproducing-structural-transitions-of-proteins
#17
Ryuhei Harada, Yasuteru Shigeta
Structural Dissimilarity Sampling (SDS) is proposed as an efficient conformational search method to promote structural transitions essential for the biological functions of proteins. In SDS, initial structures are selected based on structural dissimilarity, and conformational resampling is repeated. Conformational resampling is performed as follows: (I) arrangement of initial structures for a diverse distribution at the edge of a conformational subspace and (II) promotion of the structural transitions with multiple short-time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations restarting from the diversely distributed initial structures...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139876/mild-binding-of-protein-to-c2-n-monolayer-reveals-its-suitable-biocompatibility
#18
Baoyu Li, Weifeng Li, Jose Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Ruhong Zhou
The development of biocompatible nanomaterials for smart drug delivery and bioimaging has attracted great interest in recent years in biomedical fields. Here, the interaction between the recently reported nitrogenated graphene (C2 N) and a prototypical protein (villin headpiece HP35) utilizing atomistic molecular dynamics simulations is studied. The simulations reveal that HP35 can form a stable binding with the C2 N monolayer. Although the C2 N-HP35 attractive interactions are constantly preserved, the binding strength between C2 N and the protein is mild and does not cause significant distortion in the protein's structural integrity...
January 31, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124181/drosophila-dunc-115-mediates-axon-projection-through-actin-binding
#19
Christopher Roblodowski, Qi He
A central step in organizing the central nervous system development is the growth cone of an axon navigating through guidance cues to reach its specific target. While a great deal of this process has been understood especially in identifying the extracellular guidance cues and their membrane receptors, much less is known about how guidance signals are further relayed to the actin filaments that are central to the mobility of the growth cone. The previous results from our laboratory have shown that Drosophila gene dunc-115 regulates axon projection in the eye and the central nervous system...
March 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095874/clinicopathological-study-of-9-cases-of-prostate-cancer-involving-the-rectal-wall
#20
Tao Tang, Zhengduo Yang, Dan Zhang, Jie Qu, Guang Liu, Shiwu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer involving the rectal wall is rare and may lead to diagnostic pitfalls. CASE PRESENTATION: Out of 9504 patients with rectal tumors between January 2003 and January 2015, 9 patients (elderly with a mean age of 74 years) with prostate cancer involving the rectal wall were clinically misdiagnosed with rectal cancer. The lesions were located in the rectum, and included 3 circumferential rectal masses, 1 ulceration lesion, 1 crater-like mass, and 4 protruding lesions...
January 17, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
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