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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911046/verticillium-dahliae-lysm-effectors-differentially-contribute-to-virulence-on-plant-hosts
#1
Anja Kombrink, Hanna Rovenich, Xiaoqian Shi-Kunne, Eduardo Rojas-Padilla, Grardy C M van den Berg, Emmanouil Domazakis, Ronnie de Jonge, Dirk-Jan Valkenburg, Andrea Sánchez-Vallet, Michael F Seidl, Bart P H J Thomma
Chitin-binding LysM effectors contribute to virulence of various plant pathogenic fungi that are causal agents of foliar diseases. Here, we report on LysM effectors of the soil-borne fungal vascular wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Comparative genomics revealed three core LysM effectors that are conserved in a collection of V. dahliae strains. Remarkably, and in contrast to the previously studied LysM effectors of other plant pathogens, no expression of core LysM effectors was monitored in planta in a taxonomically diverse panel of host plants...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906172/inflammatory-macrophages-can-transdifferentiate-into-myofibroblasts-during-renal-fibrosis
#2
Xiao-Ming Meng, Shuang Wang, Xiao-Ru Huang, Chen Yang, Jun Xiao, Yang Zhang, Ka-Fai To, David J Nikolic-Paterson, Hui-Yao Lan
Myofibroblasts play a central role in renal fibrosis although the origin of these cells remains controversial. We recently reported that bone marrow-derived macrophages can give rise to myofibroblasts through macrophage to myofibroblast transition (MMT). However, several important issues remain to be addressed, including whether MMT occurs in human kidney disease and verification of the MMT process through lineage tracing. Biopsies from a cohort of 58 patients with various forms of kidney disease were examined for MMT cells that co-express macrophage (CD68) and myofibroblast (α-smooth muscle actin, α-SMA) markers...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890013/in-silico-characterization-of-a-hypothetical-protein-rv1288-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-containing-an-esterase-signature-and-an-uncommon-lyte-domain
#3
Arbind Kumar, Pratibha Maan, Gurpreet Singh, Jagdeep Kaur
BACKGROUND: Death toll due to tuberculosis is still rising day by day. Whole genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has provided a platform to conduct research in order to identify the probable drug target. OBJECTIVES: Out of 4000 gene products of M. tuberculosis, approximately 40% of proteins are annotated as hypothetical. Identifying and characterizing these proteins could provide a new prescriptive for developing new TB drugs. Rv1288, a protein of M. tuberculosis H37Rv has been annotated as a hypothetical protein in database...
November 24, 2016: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815382/therapeutic-treatment-with-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-ligands-reduces-pertussis-inflammatory-pathology-by-a-pertussis-toxin-insensitive-mechanism
#4
Ciaran Skerry, Karen Scanlon, Jeremy Ardanuy, Drew Roberts, Li Zhang, Hugh Rosen, Nicholas H Carbonetti
Recent data have demonstrated the potential of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) agonism in the treatment of infectious diseases. Previously we used a murine model of Bordetella pertussis infection to demonstrate that treatment with the S1PR agonist AAL-R reduces pulmonary inflammation during infection. Here we show that this effect is mediated via the S1PR1 receptor on LysM+ (myeloid) cells. Signaling via this receptor results in reduced lung inflammation and cellular recruitment as well as reduced morbidity and mortality in a neonatal mouse model of disease...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807643/chitin-oligosaccharide-binding-to-the-lysin-motif-of-a-novel-type-of-chitinase-from-the-multicellular-green-alga-volvox-carteri
#5
Yoshihito Kitaoku, Tamo Fukamizo, Tomoyuki Numata, Takayuki Ohnuma
The chitinase-mediated defense system in higher plants has been intensively studied from physiological and structural viewpoints. However, the defense system in the most primitive plant species, such as green algae, has not yet been elucidated in details. In this study, we solved the crystal structure of a family CBM-50 LysM module attached to the N-terminus of chitinase from Volvox carteri, and successfully analyzed its chitin-binding ability by NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry. Trp96 of the LysM module appeared to make a CH-π stacking interaction with the reducing end sugar residue of the ligand...
November 2, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806688/rgaugury-a-pipeline-for-genome-wide-prediction-of-resistance-gene-analogs-rgas-in-plants
#6
Pingchuan Li, Xiande Quan, Gaofeng Jia, Jin Xiao, Sylvie Cloutier, Frank M You
BACKGROUND: Resistance gene analogs (RGAs), such as NBS-encoding proteins, receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs), are potential R-genes that contain specific conserved domains and motifs. Thus, RGAs can be predicted based on their conserved structural features using bioinformatics tools. Computer programs have been developed for the identification of individual domains and motifs from the protein sequences of RGAs but none offer a systematic assessment of the different types of RGAs...
November 2, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770461/depletion-of-myeloid-cells-exacerbates-hepatitis-and-induces-an-aberrant-increase-in-histone-h3-in-mouse-serum
#7
Xuehua Piao, Soh Yamazaki, Sachiko Komazawa-Sakon, Sanae Miyake, Osamu Nakabayashi, Takeyuki Kurosawa, Tetsuo Mikami, Minoru Tanaka, Nico Van Rooijen, Masaki Ohmuraya, Akira Oikawa, Yuko Kojima, Soichiro Kakuta, Yasuo Uchiyama, Masato Tanaka, Hiroyasu Nakano
: Tissue-resident macrophages and bone marrow (BM)-derived monocytes play a crucial role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis; however, their contribution to recovery from acute tissue injury is not fully understood. To address this issue, we generated an acute murine liver injury model using hepatocyte-specific Cflar-deficient (Cflar(Hep-low) ) mice. Cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (cFLIP) expression was downregulated in Cflar-deficient hepatocytes, which thereby increased susceptibility of hepatocytes to death receptor-induced apoptosis...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714847/the-effects-of-aging-and-sex-steroid-deficiency-on-the-murine-skeleton-are-independent-and-mechanistically-distinct
#8
Serra Ucer, Srividhya Iyer, Ha-Neui Kim, Li Han, Christine Rutlen, Kelly Allison, Jeff D Thostenson, Rafael de Cabo, Robert L Jilka, Charles O'Brien, Maria Almeida, Stavros C Manolagas
Old age and sex steroid deficiency are the two most critical factors for the development of osteoporosis. It remains unknown, however, whether the molecular culprits of the two conditions are similar or distinct. We show herein that at 19.5 months of age - a time by which the age-dependent decline of cortical and cancellous bone mass and cortical porosity were fully manifested in C57BL/6J mice - these animals remained functionally estrogen sufficient. Transgenic mice with conditional expression of mitochondria-targeted catalase - a potent H2 O2 inactivating enzyme - in cells of the myeloid lineage (mitoCAT;LysM-Cre mice), were protected from the loss of cortical, but not cancellous, bone caused by gonadectomy in either sex...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698010/circulating-soluble-il-6r-but-not-adam17-activation-drives-mononuclear-cell-migration-in-tissue-inflammation
#9
Neele Schumacher, Stefanie Schmidt, Jeanette Schwarz, Dana Dohr, Juliane Lokau, Jürgen Scheller, Christoph Garbers, Athena Chalaris, Stefan Rose-John, Björn Rabe
Neutrophil and mononuclear cell infiltration during inflammatory processes is highly regulated. The first cells at the site of infection or inflammation are neutrophils, followed by mononuclear cells. IL-6 plays an important role during inflammatory states. It has been shown in several models that the soluble form of IL-6R (sIL-6R) is involved in the recruitment of mononuclear cells by a mechanism called IL-6 trans-signaling. It had been speculated that sIL-6R was generated at the site of inflammation by shedding from neutrophils via activation of the metalloprotease ADAM17...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670406/the-role-of-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-to-attenuate-inflammation-in-a-mouse-skin-wound-and-individually-perfused-rat-mesenteric-microvessels
#10
Fitz-Roy E Curry, Joyce F Clark, Yanyan Jiang, Min-Ho Kim, Roger H Adamson, Scott I Simon
We tested the hypothesis that the anti-inflammatory actions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) result from the modulation of leukocyte adhesion to inflamed endothelium and not solely ANP ligation of endothelial receptors to stabilize endothelial barrier function. We measured vascular permeability to albumin and accumulation of fluorescent neutrophils in a full-thickness skin wound on the flank of LysM-EGFP mice 24 h after formation. Vascular permeability in individually perfused rat mesenteric microvessels was also measured after leukocytes were washed out of the vessel lumen...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594529/autophagy-deficiency-in-macrophages-enhances-nlrp3-inflammasome-activity-and-chronic-lung-disease-following-silica-exposure
#11
Forrest Jessop, Raymond F Hamilton, Joseph F Rhoderick, Pamela K Shaw, Andrij Holian
Autophagy is an important metabolic mechanism that can promote cellular survival following injury. The specific contribution of autophagy to silica-induced inflammation and disease is not known. The objective of these studies was to determine the effects of silica exposure on the autophagic pathway in macrophages, as well as the general contribution of autophagy in macrophages to inflammation and disease. Silica exposure enhanced autophagic activity in vitro in Bone Marrow derived Macrophages and in vivo in Alveolar Macrophages isolated from silica-exposed mice...
October 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569723/combination-of-mass-cytometry-and-imaging-analysis-reveals%C3%A2-origin-location-and-functional-repopulation-of%C3%A2-liver%C3%A2-myeloid-cells-in-mice
#12
Bruna Araujo David, Rafael Machado Rezende, Maísa Mota Antunes, Mônica Morais Santos, Maria Alice Freitas Lopes, Ariane Barros Diniz, Rafaela Vaz Sousa Pereira, Sarah Cozzer Marchesi, Débora Moreira Alvarenga, Brenda Naemi Nakagaki, Alan Moreira Araújo, Daniela Silva Dos Reis, Renata Monti Rocha, Pedro Elias Marques, Woo-Yong Lee, Justin Deniset, Pei Xiong Liew, Stephen Rubino, Laura Cox, Vanessa Pinho, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Gabriel Rocha Fernandes, André Gustavo Oliveira, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Paul Kubes, Gustavo Batista Menezes
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Resident macrophages are derived from yolk sac precursors and seed the liver during embryogenesis. Native cells may be replaced by bone marrow precursors during extensive injuries, irradiation, and infections. We investigated the liver populations of myeloid immune cells and their location, as well as the dynamics of phagocyte repopulation after full depletion. The effects on liver function due to the substitution of original phagocytes by bone marrow-derived surrogates were also examined...
December 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558665/an-eye-on-trafficking-genes-identification-of-four-eye-color-mutations-in-drosophila
#13
Paaqua Grant, Tara Maga, Anna Loshakov, Rishi Singhal, Aminah Wali, Jennifer Nwankwo, Kaitlin Baron, Diana Johnson
Genes that code for proteins involved in organelle biogenesis and intracellular trafficking produce products that are critical in normal cell function . Conserved orthologs of these are present in most or all eukaryotes, including Drosophila melanogaster Some of these genes were originally identified as eye color mutants with decreases in both types of pigments found in the fly eye. These criteria were used for identification of such genes, four eye color mutations that are not annotated in the genome sequence: chocolate, maroon, mahogany, and red Malpighian tubules were molecularly mapped and their genome sequences have been evaluated...
October 13, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527873/myeloid-cell-expressed-proprotein-convertase-furin-attenuates-inflammation
#14
Zuzet Martinez Cordova, Anna Grönholm, Ville Kytölä, Valentina Taverniti, Sanna Hämäläinen, Saara Aittomäki, Wilhelmiina Niininen, Ilkka Junttila, Antti Ylipää, Matti Nykter, Marko Pesu
The proprotein convertase enzyme FURIN processes immature pro-proteins into functional end- products. FURIN is upregulated in activated immune cells and it regulates T-cell dependent peripheral tolerance and the Th1/Th2 balance. FURIN also promotes the infectivity of pathogens by activating bacterial toxins and by processing viral proteins. Here, we evaluated the role of FURIN in LysM+ myeloid cells in vivo. Mice with a conditional deletion of FURIN in their myeloid cells (LysMCre-fur(fl/fl)) were healthy and showed unchanged proportions of neutrophils and macrophages...
August 5, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519312/evaluation-of-the-role-of-the-lysm-receptor-like-kinase-osnfr5-osrlk2-for-am-symbiosis-in-rice
#15
Kana Miyata, Masahiro Hayafune, Yoshihiro Kobae, Hanae Kaku, Yoko Nishizawa, Yoshiki Masuda, Naoto Shibuya, Tomomi Nakagawa
In legume-specific rhizobial symbiosis, host plants perceive rhizobial signal molecules, Nod factors, by a couple of LysM receptor like kinases, NFR1/LYK3 and NFR5/NFP, and activate symbiotic responses through the downstream signaling components required also for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. Recently, rice NFR1/LYK3 ortholog, OsCERK1, was shown to play crucial roles for AM symbiosis. On the other hand, the roles of NFR5/NFP ortholog in rice have not been elucidated, while it has been shown that NFR5/NFP orthologs, Parasponia PaNFR5 and tomato SlRLK10, engage in AM symbiosis...
August 12, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507810/activation-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-in-macrophages-mediates-feedback-inhibition-of-m2-polarization-and-gastrointestinal-tumor-cell-growth
#16
Gang Zhao, Liping Liu, Richard M Peek, Xishan Hao, D Brent Polk, Hui Li, Fang Yan
EGF receptor (EGFR) in tumor cells serves as a tumor promoter. However, information about EGFR activation in macrophages in regulating M2 polarization and tumor development is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EGFR activation in macrophages on M2 polarization and development of gastrointestinal tumors. IL-4, a cytokine to elicit M2 polarization, stimulated release of an EGFR ligand, HB-EGF, and transactivation and down-regulation of EGFR in Raw 264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages from WT mice...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499679/crosstalk-of-signaling-mechanisms-involved-in-host-defense-and-symbiosis-against-microorganisms-in-rice
#17
Akira Akamatsu, Ko Shimamoto, Yoji Kawano
Rice is one of the most important food crops, feeding about half population in the world. Rice pathogens cause enormous damage to rice production worldwide. In plant immunity research, considerable progress has recently been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity. Using genome sequencing and molecular techniques, a number of new MAMPs and their receptors have been identified in the past two decades. Notably, the mechanisms for chitin perception via the lysine motif (LysM) domain-containing receptor OsCERK1, as well as the mechanisms for bacterial MAMP (e...
August 2016: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487182/tpl-2-regulates-macrophage-lipid-metabolism-and-m2-differentiation-to-control-th2-mediated-immunopathology
#18
Yashaswini Kannan, Jimena Perez-Lloret, Yanda Li, Lewis J Entwistle, Hania Khoury, Stamatia Papoutsopoulou, Radma Mahmood, Nuha R Mansour, Stanley Ching-Cheng Huang, Edward J Pearce, Luiz Pedro S de Carvalho, Steven C Ley, Mark S Wilson
Persistent TH2 cytokine responses following chronic helminth infections can often lead to the development of tissue pathology and fibrotic scarring. Despite a good understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in fibrogenesis, there are very few therapeutic options available, highlighting a significant medical need and gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TH2-mediated immunopathology. In this study, we found that the Map3 kinase, TPL-2 (Map3k8; Cot) regulated TH2-mediated intestinal, hepatic and pulmonary immunopathology following Schistosoma mansoni infection or S...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484038/tumor-progression-locus-2-reduces-severe-allergic-airway-inflammation-by-inhibiting-ccl24-production-in-dendritic-cells
#19
Yashaswini Kannan, Yanda Li, Stephanie M Coomes, Isobel S Okoye, Victoria S Pelly, Srividya Sriskantharajah, Eva Gückel, Lauren Webb, Stephanie Czieso, Nikolay Nikolov, Andrew S MacDonald, Steven C Ley, Mark S Wilson
BACKGROUND: The molecular and cellular pathways driving the pathogenesis of severe asthma are poorly defined. Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL-2) (COT, MAP3K8) kinase activates the MEK1/2-extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 MAP kinase signaling pathway following Toll-like receptor, TNFR1, and IL-1R stimulation. OBJECTIVE: TPL-2 has been widely described as a critical regulator of inflammation, and we sought to investigate the role of TPL-2 in house dust mite (HDM)-mediated allergic airway inflammation...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479807/tgf%C3%AE-regulates-persistent-neuroinflammation-by-controlling-th1-polarization-and-ros-production-via-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells
#20
Roham Parsa, Harald Lund, Ivana Tosevski, Xing-Mei Zhang, Ursula Malipiero, Jan Beckervordersandforth, Doron Merkler, Marco Prinz, Alexandra Gyllenberg, Tojo James, Andreas Warnecke, Jan Hillert, Lars Alfredsson, Ingrid Kockum, Tomas Olsson, Adriano Fontana, Tobias Suter, Robert A Harris
Intracerebral levels of Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFβ) rise rapidly during the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We addressed the role of TGFβ responsiveness in EAE by targeting the TGFβ receptor in myeloid cells, determining that Tgfbr2 was specifically targeted in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) but not in CNS resident microglia by using bone-marrow chimeric mice. TGFβ responsiveness in moDCs was necessary for the remission phase since LysM(Cre) Tgfbr2(fl/fl) mice developed a chronic form of EAE characterized by severe demyelination and extensive infiltration of activated moDCs in the CNS...
November 2016: Glia
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