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Generational differences

Amanda A Soares, Jonathan P Castro, Pedro Balieiro, Sidnei Dornelles, Tiago M Degrandi, Ives J Sbalqueiro, Roberto Ferreira Artoni, Iris Hass
B chromosomes are supernumerary chromosomes found in the karyotypes of approximately 15% of all eukaryotic species. They present parasitic behavior and do not follow the standard Mendelian pattern of inheritance, resulting in an imbalance in gametogenesis. The evolutionary dynamics of B chromosomes is still unknown for many species, but studies indicate that the accumulation of repetitive sequences plays an important role in the differentiation of these elements. We analyzed morphology, frequency, and possible homologies amongst different B chromosomes found in an isolated Akodon montensis population in southern Brazil...
March 16, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Christoph Höchsmann, Anja Rossmeissl, Sandra Baumann, Denis Infanger, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss
OBJECTIVES: To examine cardiorespiratory exertion during mini trampoline exercises of different intensities in both endurance-trained athletes and overweight-obese adults. METHODS: Physically healthy participants (Group A: normal-weight, endurance-trained athletes; Group B: inactive, overweight-obese adults) participated in two measurement appointments and three training sessions in between appointments, in which participants familiarized themselves with the use of the mini trampoline and the execution of the exercises...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Andrew J Olsen, Priya Katyal, Jennifer S Haghpanah, Matthew B Kubilius, Ruipeng Li, Nicole L Schnabel, Sean C O'Neill, Yao Wang, Min Dai, Navjot Singh, Raymond S Tu, Jin Kim Montclare
Recombinant methods have been used to engineer artificial protein triblock polymers comprised of two different self-assembling domains (SADs) bearing one elastin (E) flanked by two cartilage oligomeric matrix protein coiled-coil (C) domains to generate CEC. To understand how the two C domains improve small molecule recognition and the mechanical integrity of CEC, we have constructed CL44AECL44A, which bears an impaired CL44A domain that is unstructured as a negative control. The CEC triblock polymer demonstrates increased small molecule binding and ideal elastic behavior for hydrogel formation...
March 15, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Pavel Gushchin, Valentina A Lyubimenko, Evgenii V Ivanov, Sergey I Kolesnikov, Daria A Petrova, Vladimir A Vinokurov, Ivan M Kolesnikov
The thermodynamic calculation of the optimal composition of the oxide catalysts with different natures is performed based on the theory of catalysis by polyhedra. The obtained compositions of the active catalysts are in keeping with the experimental data. The electrostatic potential generated by polyhedrons of metal oxide catalysts in a variety of directions is calculated. The dependence of the sign and magnitude of the potential on the distance from the central metal ion towards the vertex of the polyhedron, the middle of its edge or the centre of the face is estimated...
March 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Minah Han, Byeongjoon Kim, Jongduk Baek
We investigate the detectability of breast cone beam computed tomography images using human and model observers and the variations of exponent, β, of the inverse power-law spectrum for various reconstruction filters and interpolation methods in the Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) reconstruction. Using computer simulation, a breast volume with a 50% volume glandular fraction and a 2mm diameter lesion are generated and projection data are acquired. In the FDK reconstruction, projection data are apodized using one of three reconstruction filters; Hanning, Shepp-Logan, or Ram-Lak, and back-projection is performed with and without Fourier interpolation...
2018: PloS One
Vincent Plagnol, Samuel Woodhouse, Karen Howarth, Stefanie Lensing, Matt Smith, Michael Epstein, Mikidache Madi, Sarah Smalley, Catherine Leroy, Jonathan Hinton, Frank de Kievit, Esther Musgrave-Brown, Colin Herd, Katherine Baker-Neblett, Will Brennan, Peter Dimitrov, Nathan Campbell, Clive Morris, Nitzan Rosenfeld, James Clark, Davina Gale, Jamie Platt, John Calaway, Greg Jones, Tim Forshew
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis is being incorporated into cancer care; notably in profiling patients to guide treatment decisions. Responses to targeted therapies have been observed in patients with actionable mutations detected in plasma DNA at variant allele fractions (VAFs) below 0.5%. Highly sensitive methods are therefore required for optimal clinical use. To enable objective assessment of assay performance, detailed analytical validation is required. We developed the InVisionFirst™ assay, an assay based on enhanced tagged amplicon sequencing (eTAm-Seq™) technology to profile 36 genes commonly mutated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other cancer types for actionable genomic alterations in cell-free DNA...
2018: PloS One
Clarisse Ribeiro, Carlos M Costa, Daniela M Correia, João Nunes-Pereira, Juliana Oliveira, Pedro Martins, Renato Gonçalves, Vanessa F Cardoso, Senentxu Lanceros-Méndez
Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and its copolymers are the polymers with the highest dielectric constants and electroactive responses, including piezoelectric, pyroelectric and ferroelectric effects. This semicrystalline polymer can crystallize in five different forms, each related to a different chain conformation. Of these different phases, the β phase is the one with the highest dipolar moment and the highest piezoelectric response; therefore, it is the most interesting for a diverse range of applications...
April 2018: Nature Protocols
Jennifer S Evans, Guanghui Wu, David Selden, Hubert Buczkowski, Leigh Thorne, Anthony R Fooks, Ashley C Banyard
Lyssaviruses constitute a diverse range of viruses with the ability to cause fatal encephalitis known as rabies. Existing human rabies vaccines and post exposure prophylaxes (PEP) are based on inactivated preparations of, and neutralising antibody preparations directed against, classical rabies viruses, respectively. Whilst these prophylaxes are highly efficient at neutralising and preventing a productive infection with rabies virus, their ability to neutralise other lyssaviruses is thought to be limited. The remaining 15 virus species within the lyssavirus genus have been divided into at least three phylogroups that generally predict vaccine protection...
March 15, 2018: Viruses
Katsuyuki Taguchi, Toshihide Itoh, Matthew K Fuld, Eric Fournie, Okkyun Lee, Kyo Noguchi
OBJECTIVES: A novel imaging technique ("X-map") has been developed to identify acute ischemic lesions for stroke patients using non-contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (NE-DE-CT). Using the 3-material decomposition technique, the original X-map ("X-map 1.0") eliminates fat and bone from the images, suppresses the gray matter (GM)-white matter (WM) tissue contrast, and makes signals of edema induced by severe ischemia easier to detect. The aim of this study was to address the following 2 problems with the X-map 1...
March 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Melissa V Chan, Paul C Armstrong, Timothy D Warner
While there are many bench and bedside tests to assess platelet reactivity, ex vivo light transmission aggregometry (LTA) remains the gold standard. LTA, however, is expensive, time-consuming and requires dedicated equipment and staff, making it impractical in many situations. In addition, there is significant variability between data generated at different testing sites meaning that tests often need to be repeated if a patient is transferred to the care of a different hospital. As such, there is clearly an unmet need for standardization of platelet testing...
March 15, 2018: Platelets
Matthew P Kroonblawd, Fabio Pietrucci, Antonino Marco Saitta, Nir Goldman
We demonstrate the capability of creating robust density functional tight binding (DFTB) models for chemical reactivity in prebiotic mixtures through force matching to short time scale quantum free energy estimates. Molecular dynamics using density functional theory (DFT) is a highly accurate approach to generate free energy surfaces for chemical reactions, but the extreme computational cost often limits the time scales and range of thermodynamic states that can feasibly be studied. In contrast, DFTB is a semi-empirical quantum method that affords up to a thousandfold reduction in cost and can recover DFT-level accuracy...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Andy A Thomas, Andrew F Zahrt, Connor P Delaney, Scott E Denmark
The Suzuki-Miyaura reaction is the most practiced palladium-catalyzed, cross-coupling reaction because of its broad applicability, low toxicity of the metal (B), and the wide variety of commercially available boron substrates. A wide variety of boronic acids and esters, each with different properties, have been developed for this process. Despite the popularity of the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction, the precise manner in which the organic fragment is transferred from boron to palladium has remained elusive for these reagents...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Guo Zhang, Wang-Ding Yuan, Ferdinand S Vilim, Elena V Romanova, Ke Yu, Si-Yuan Yin, Zi-Wei Le, Ying-Yu Xue, Ting-Ting Chen, Guo-Kai Chen, Song-An Chen, Elizabeth C Cropper, Jonathan V Sweedler, Klaudiusz R Weiss, Jian Jing
When individual neurons in a circuit contain multiple neuropeptides, these peptides can target different sets of follower neurons. This endows the circuit with a certain degree of flexibility. Here we identified a novel family of peptides, the Aplysia SPTR-Gene Family-Derived peptides (apSPTR-GF-DPs). We demonstrated apSPTR-GF-DPs, particularly apSPTR-GF-DP2, are expressed in the Aplysia CNS using immunohistochemistry and MALDI-TOF MS. apSPTR-GF-DP2 is present in single projection neurons, e.g., in the cerebral-buccal interneuron-12 (CBI-12)...
March 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Bo Zhang, Shuyuan Wang, Jie Qian, Wenjia Yang, Fangfei Qian, Jun Lu, Yanwei Zhang, Rong Qiao, Baohui Han
BACKGROUND: Two or more different epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations can be detected within a single tumor sample, which represents complex mutations. However, the frequency and efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatments for patients harboring these mutations are unknown. METHODS: From January 2011 to January 2017, patients diagnosed with EGFR mutations were screened. The effectiveness of TKIs in patients with complex mutations was retrospectively analyzed...
March 15, 2018: Cancer
Eglal E Elrayah, Siham A Balla, Haidar Abu Ahmed
Anthropometric measurements are used to assess growth of children which is affected by different biological and environmental factors. The importance of the period after the first 1000 days of life has been identified in the attempt to restore normal growth and body functions. The objectives of this study are to assess the growth and nutritional status of school children in Khartoum locality, Khartoum State, Sudan and to verify socioeconomic status and sex as factors influencing growth of children. This is a cross-sectional school-based study including 390 children, males and females, of ages between 5-12 years (60-44 months) from private and public schools...
March 15, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Ondřej Novák, Peter R Krogen, Tobias Kroh, Tomáš Mocek, Franz X Kärtner, Kyung-Han Hong
We report on a femtosecond ∼8.5  μm, ∼2  μJ source based on the intrapulse difference-frequency generation (DFG) of 2.1 μm pulses in an AgGaSe2 (AGSe) crystal. Compared to the conventional ∼0.8 or 1 μm near-infrared (IR) pulses, a ∼2  μm driver for intrapulse DFG can provide more efficient conversion into the wavelengths longer than 5 μm due to a lower quantum defect and is more suitable for the non-oxide nonlinear crystals that have a relatively low bandgap energy. Using 26 fs, 2...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Shimao Li, Yunhong Ding, Xiaowei Guan, Heyun Tan, Zhichao Nong, Lin Wang, Lin Liu, Lidan Zhou, Chunchuan Yang, Kresten Yvind, Leif Katsuo Oxenløwe, Siyuan Yu, Xinlun Cai
Photonic integrated devices that emit vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum are becoming key components for multiple applications. Here we propose and demonstrate a high-efficiency vortex beam emitter based on a silicon micro-ring resonator integrated with a metal mirror. Such a compact emitter is capable of generating vortex beams with a high efficiency and small divergence angle. Vector vortex beams of various topological charges are selectively generated by the emitter at different wavelengths with an emission efficiency of up to 37%...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Alexandre Brieussel, Konstantin Ott, Maxime Joos, Nicolas Treps, Claude Fabre
In this work, we investigate three different compact fibered systems generating vacuum squeezing that involve optical cavities limited by the end surface of a fiber and by a curved mirror and containing a thin parametric crystal. These systems have the advantage to couple squeezed states directly to a fiber, allowing the user to benefit from the flexibility of fibers in the use of squeezing. Three types of fibers are investigated: standard single-mode fibers, photonic-crystal large-mode-area single-mode fibers, and short multimode fibers taped to a single-mode fiber...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Rong Ma, Wei Liu, Zhongzhong Qin, Xiaolong Su, Xiaojun Jia, Junxiang Zhang, Jiangrui Gao
Using a nondegenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) process based on a double-Λ scheme in hot cesium vapor, we demonstrate a compact diode-laser-pumped quantum light source for the generation of quantum correlated twin beams with a maximum squeezing of 6.5 dB. The squeezing is observed at a Fourier frequency in the audio band down to 0.7 kHz which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first observation of sub-kilohertz intensity-difference squeezing in an atomic system so far. A phase-matching condition is also investigated in our system, which confirms the spatial-multi-mode characteristics of the FWM process...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Qinyu Qian, Ying Yan, Chinhua Wang
We report on a monolithic, all-metallic, and flexible metasurface perfect absorber [black nickel (Ni)] based on coupled Mie resonances originated from vertically stepped Ni nanopillars homoepitaxially grown on an Ni substrate. Coupled Mie resonances are generated from Ni nanopillars with different sizes such that Mie resonances of the stepped two sets of Ni nanopillars occur complementarily at different wavelengths to realize polarization-independent broadband absorption over the entire visible wavelength band (400-760 nm) within an ultra-thin surface layer of only 162 nm thick in total...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
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