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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353423/polymerase-chain-reaction-based-detection-of-myc-transduction-in-feline-leukemia-virus-infected-cats
#1
Ryosuke Sumi, Ariko Miyake, Taiji Endo, Yoshiharu Ohsato, Minh Ha Ngo, Kazuo Nishigaki
Feline lymphomas are associated with the transduction and activation of cellular proto-oncogenes, such as c-myc, by feline leukemia virus (FeLV). We describe a polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of myc transduction usable in clinical diagnosis. The assay targets c-myc exons 2 and 3, which together result in a FeLV-specific fusion gene following c-myc transduction. When this assay was conducted on FeLV-infected feline tissues submitted for clinical diagnosis of tumors, myc transduction was detected in 14% of T-cell lymphoma/leukemias...
January 20, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352448/mesenchymal-stem-cell-deformability-and-implications-for-microvascular-sequestration
#2
Herbert H Lipowsky, Daniel T Bowers, Britany L Banik, Justin L Brown
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have received considerable attention in regenerative medicine, particularly in light of prospects for targeted delivery by intra-arterial injection. However, little is known about the mechanics of MSC sequestration in the microvasculature and the yield pressure (PY), above which MSCs will pass through microvessels of a given diameter. The objectives of the current study were to delineate the dependency of PY on cell size and the heterogeneity of cell mechanical properties and diameters (DCELL) of cultured MSCs...
January 19, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352121/efficient-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-skeletal-muscle-cells-by-combining-rna-based-myod1-expression-and-pou5f1-silencing
#3
Tomohiko Akiyama, Saeko Sato, Nana Chikazawa-Nohtomi, Atsumi Soma, Hiromi Kimura, Shunichi Wakabayashi, Shigeru B H Ko, Minoru S H Ko
Direct generation of skeletal muscle cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) would be beneficial for drug testing, drug discovery, and disease modelling in vitro. Here we show a rapid and robust method to induce myogenic differentiation of hPSCs by introducing mRNA encoding MYOD1 together with siRNA-mediated knockdown of POU5F1 (also known as OCT4 or OCT3/4). This integration-free approach generates functional skeletal myotubes with sarcomere-like structure and a fusion capacity in several days. The POU5F1 silencing facilitates MYOD1 recruitment to the target promoters, which results in the significant activation of myogenic genes in hPSCs...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352052/estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-exploiting-signaling-pathways-implicated-in-endocrine-resistance
#4
REVIEW
Adam M Brufsky, Maura N Dickler
Advancements in molecular profiling and endocrine therapy (ET) have led to more focused clinical attention on precision medicine. These advances have expanded our understanding of breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis and hold promising implications for the future of therapy. The estrogen receptor-α is a predominant endocrine regulatory protein in the breast and in estrogen-induced BC. Successful targeting of proteins and genes within estrogen receptor (ER) nuclear and nonnuclear pathways remains a clinical goal...
January 19, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352021/proportion-of-women-presenters-at-medical-grand-rounds-at-major-academic-centres-in-canada-a-retrospective-observational-study
#5
Danielle Buell, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Sharon E Straus
OBJECTIVE: To assess the proportion of women who presented research or medical grand rounds at five major academic hospitals in Canada. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Five major university-affiliated hospitals in Toronto and Calgary. RESULTS: Overall, at all sites and types of academic rounds, there were an average of 17% fewer women presenting than men (P<0.001). There were an average of 32% and 21% more men presenting at the city-wide grand rounds in cities A and B, respectively (P<0...
January 18, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351660/behavior-change-is-not-one-size-fits-all-psychosocial-phenotypes-of-childhood-obesity-prevention-intervention-participants
#6
Marissa Burgermaster, Isobel Contento, Pamela Koch, Lena Mamykina
Variability in individuals' responses to interventions may contribute to small average treatment effects of childhood obesity prevention interventions. But, neither the causes of this individual variability nor the mechanism by which it influences behavior are clear. We used qualitative methods to characterize variability in students' responses to participating in a childhood obesity prevention intervention and psychosocial characteristics related to the behavior change process. We interviewed 18 students participating in a school-based curriculum and policy behavior change intervention...
January 17, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351604/evaluation-of-results-based-financing-in-the-republic-of-the-congo-a-comparison-group-pre-post-study
#7
Wu Zeng, Donald S Shepard, Jean de Dieu Rusatira, Aaron P Blaakman, Bernice M Nsitou
Results-based financing (RBF) has been advocated and increasingly scaled up in low- and middle-income countries to increase utilization and quality of key primary care services, thereby reducing maternal and child mortality rates. This pilot RBF study in the Republic of the Congo from 2012 to 2014 used a quasi-experimental research design. The authors conducted pre- and post-household surveys and gathered health facility services data from both intervention and comparison groups. Using a difference-in-differences approach, the study evaluated the impact of RBF on maternal and child health services...
January 16, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351449/personalized-medicine-in-cf-from-modulator-development-to-therapy-for-cystic-fibrosis-patients-with-rare-cftr-mutations
#8
Misak Harutyunyan, Yunjie Huang, Kyu-Shik Mun, Fanmuyi Yang, Kavisha Arora, Anjaparavanda P Naren
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-shortening genetic disease affecting approximately 1 in 3500 of the Caucasian population. CF is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. To date, over 2000 CFTR mutations have been identified and produce a wide range of phenotypes. The CFTR protein, a chloride channel, is normally expressed on epithelial cells lining the lung, gut, and exocrine glands. Mutations in CFTR have led to pleiotropic effects in CF patients and have resulted in early morbidity and mortality...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350343/syringic-acid-a-phenolic-acid-promotes-osteoblast-differentiation-by-stimulation-of-runx2-expression-and-targeting-of-smad7-by-mir-21-in-mouse-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
B Arumugam, K Balagangadharan, N Selvamurugan
Syringic acid (SA), a phenolic acid, has been used in Chinese and Indian medicine for treating diabetes but its role in osteogenesis has not yet been investigated. In the present study, at the molecular and cellular levels, we evaluated the effects of SA on osteoblast differentiation. At the cellular level, there was increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition by SA treatment in mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs). At the molecular level, SA treatment of these cells stimulated expression of Runx2, a bone transcription factor, and of osteoblast differentiation marker genes such as ALP, type I collagen, and osteocalcin...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348825/a-novel-anti-cd146-antibody-specifically-targets-cancer-cells-by-internalizing-the-molecule
#10
Marie Nollet, Jimmy Stalin, Anaïs Moyon, Waël Traboulsi, Amel Essaadi, Stéphane Robert, Nausicaa Malissen, Richard Bachelier, Laurent Daniel, Alexandrine Foucault-Bertaud, Caroline Gaudy-Marqueste, Romaric Lacroix, Aurélie S Leroyer, Benjamin Guillet, Nathalie Bardin, Françoise Dignat-George, Marcel Blot-Chabaud
CD146 is an adhesion molecule present on many tumors (melanoma, kidney, pancreas, breast, ...). In addition, it has been shown to be expressed on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Generating an antibody able to specifically recognize CD146 in cancer cells (designated as tumor CD146), but not in normal cells, would thus be of major interest for targeting tumor CD146 without affecting the vascular system. We thus generated antibodies against the extracellular domain of the molecule produced in cancer cells and selected an antibody that specifically recognizes tumor CD146...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348728/systems-level-mechanisms-of-action-of-panax-ginseng-a-network-pharmacological-approach
#11
REVIEW
Sa-Yoon Park, Ji-Hun Park, Hyo-Su Kim, Choong-Yeol Lee, Hae-Jeung Lee, Ki Sung Kang, Chang-Eop Kim
Panax ginseng has been used since ancient times based on the traditional Asian medicine theory and clinical experiences, and currently, is one of the most popular herbs in the world. To date, most of the studies concerning P. ginseng have focused on specific mechanisms of action of individual constituents. However, in spite of many studies on the molecular mechanisms of P. ginseng, it still remains unclear how multiple active ingredients of P. ginseng interact with multiple targets simultaneously, giving the multidimensional effects on various conditions and diseases...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348109/review-beyond-conventional-therapies-complementary-and-alternative-medicine-in-the-management-of-hypertension-an-evidence-based-review
#12
Ang Peng Wong, Yaman Walid Kassab, Abdul Latiff Mohamed, Amelah Mohammed Abdul Qader
Hypertension is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. Worldwide, Hypertension is estimated to cause 7.5 million deaths, about 12.8% of the total of all deaths. This accounts for 57 million disability adjusted life years (DALYS) or 3.7% of total DALYS. This led WHO to set a target of 25% reduction in prevalence by 2025. To reach that, WHO has adopted non-conventional methods for the management of hypertension? Despite worldwide popularity of such non-conventional therapies, only small volume of evidence exists that supports its effectiveness...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346541/practical-implications-of-erythromycin-resistance-gene-diversity-on-surveillance-and-monitoring-of-resistance
#13
Jinlyung Choi, Elizabeth L Rieke, Thomas B Moorman, Michelle L Soupir, Heather K Allen, Schuyler D Smith, Adina Howe
Use of antibiotics in human and animal medicine has applied selective pressure for the global dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is of interest to develop strategies to mitigate the continued amplification and transmission of resistance genes in environmental reservoirs such as farms, hospitals, and watersheds. However, the efficacy of mitigation strategies is difficult to evaluate because it is unclear which resistance genes are important to monitor, and which primers to use to detect those genes...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346031/2016-new-horizons-lecture-beyond-imaging-radiology-of-tomorrow
#14
Hedvig Hricak
This article is based on the New Horizons lecture delivered at the 2016 Radiological Society of North America Annual Meeting. It addresses looming changes for radiology, many of which stem from the disruptive effects of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. This is an emerging era of unprecedented rapid innovation marked by the integration of diverse disciplines and technologies, including data science, machine learning, and artificial intelligence-technologies that narrow the gap between man and machine. Technologic advances and the convergence of life sciences, physical sciences, and bioengineering are creating extraordinary opportunities in diagnostic radiology, image-guided therapy, targeted radionuclide therapy, and radiology informatics, including radiologic image analysis...
January 18, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345255/pure-mechanistic-analysis-of-additive-neuroprotective-effects-between-baicalin-and-jasminoidin-in-ischemic-stroke-mice
#15
Peng-Qian Wang, Qiong Liu, Wen-Juan Xu, Ya-Nan Yu, Ying-Ying Zhang, Bing Li, Jun Liu, Zhong Wang
Both baicalin (BA) and jasminoidin (JA) are active ingredients in Chinese herb medicine Scutellaria baicalensis and Fructus gardeniae, respectively. They have been shown to exert additive neuroprotective action in ischemic stroke models. In this study we used transcriptome analysis to explore the pure therapeutic mechanisms of BA, JA and their combination (BJ) contributing to phenotype variation and reversal of pathological processes. Mice with middle cerebral artery obstruction were treated with BA, JA, their combination (BJ), or concha margaritifera (CM)...
January 18, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344898/methods-for-high-throughput-drug-combination-screening-and-synergy-scoring
#16
Liye He, Evgeny Kulesskiy, Jani Saarela, Laura Turunen, Krister Wennerberg, Tero Aittokallio, Jing Tang
Gene products or pathways that are aberrantly activated in cancer but not in normal tissue hold great promises for being effective and safe anticancer therapeutic targets. Many targeted drugs have entered clinical trials but so far showed limited efficacy mostly due to variability in treatment responses and often rapidly emerging resistance. Toward more effective treatment options, we will need multi-targeted drugs or drug combinations, which selectively inhibit the viability and growth of cancer cells and block distinct escape mechanisms for the cells to become resistant...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344895/bioinformatics-approaches-to-predict-drug-responses-from-genomic-sequencing
#17
Neel S Madhukar, Olivier Elemento
Fulfilling the promises of precision medicine will depend on our ability to create patient-specific treatment regimens. Therefore, being able to translate genomic sequencing into predicting how a patient will respond to a given drug is critical. In this chapter, we review common bioinformatics approaches that aim to use sequencing data to predict sample-specific drug susceptibility. First, we explain the importance of customized drug regimens to the future of medical care. Second, we discuss the different public databases and community efforts that can be leveraged to develop new methods for identifying new predictive biomarkers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344854/laser-microdissection-workflow-for-isolating-nucleic-acids-from-fixed-and-frozen-tissue-samples
#18
Yelena G Golubeva, Andrew C Warner
Laser Capture Microdissection has earned a permanent place among modern techniques connecting histology and molecular biology. Laser Capture Microdissection has become an invaluable tool in medical research as a means for collection of specific cell populations isolated from their environment. Such genomic sample enrichment dramatically increases the sensitivity and precision of downstream molecular assays used for biomarker discovery, monitoring disease onset and progression, and in the development of personalized medicine...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344415/rhizoma-coptidis-and-berberine-as-a-natural-drug-to-combat-aging-and-aging-related-diseases-via-anti-oxidation-and-ampk-activation
#19
REVIEW
Zhifang Xu, Wei Feng, Qian Shen, Nannan Yu, Kun Yu, Shenjun Wang, Zhigang Chen, Seiji Shioda, Yi Guo
Aging is the greatest risk factor for human diseases, as it results in cellular growth arrest, impaired tissue function and metabolism, ultimately impacting life span. Two different mechanisms are thought to be primary causes of aging. One is cumulative DNA damage induced by a perpetuating cycle of oxidative stress; the other is nutrient-sensing adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and rapamycin (mTOR)/ ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) pathways. As the main bioactive component of natural Chinese medicine rhizoma coptidis (RC), berberine has recently been reported to expand life span in Drosophila melanogaster, and attenuate premature cellular senescence...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344413/therapeutic-potential-and-cellular-mechanisms-of-panax-notoginseng-on-prevention-of-aging-and-cell-senescence-associated-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Haiping Zhao, Ziping Han, Guangwen Li, Sijia Zhang, Yumin Luo
Owing to a dramatic increase in average life expectancy, most countries in the world are rapidly entering an aging society. Therefore, extending health span with pharmacological agents targeting aging-related pathological changes, are now in the spotlight of gerosciences. Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen, a species of the genus Panax, has been called the "Miracle Root for the Preservation of Life," and has long been used as a Chinese herb with magical medicinal value. Panax notoginseng has been extensively employed in China to treat microcirculatory disturbances, inflammation, trauma, internal and external bleeding due to injury, and as a tonic...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
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