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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636697/role-of-positive-parenting-in-the-association-between-neighborhood-social-disadvantage-and-brain-development-across-adolescence
#1
Sarah Whittle, Nandita Vijayakumar, Julian G Simmons, Meg Dennison, Orli Schwartz, Christos Pantelis, Lisa Sheeber, Michelle L Byrne, Nicholas B Allen
Importance: The negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on lifelong functioning are pronounced, with some evidence suggesting that these effects are mediated by changes in brain development. To our knowledge, no research has investigated whether parenting might buffer these negative effects. Objective: To establish whether positive parenting behaviors moderate the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on brain development and adaptive functioning in adolescents...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633661/prevalence-of-arthritis-according-to-age-sex-and-socioeconomic-status-in-six-low-and-middle-income-countries-analysis-of-data-from-the-world-health-organization-study-on-global-ageing-and-adult-health-sage-wave-1
#2
Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, S Cook, M T Leech, S J Bowe, P Kowal, N Naidoo, I N Ackerman, R S Page, S M Hosking, J A Pasco, M Mohebbi
BACKGROUND: In higher income countries, social disadvantage is associated with higher arthritis prevalence; however, less is known about arthritis prevalence or determinants in low to middle income countries (LMICs). We assessed arthritis prevalence by age and sex, and marital status and occupation, as two key parameters of socioeconomic position (SEP), using data from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). METHODS: SAGE Wave 1 (2007-10) includes nationally-representative samples of older adults (≥50 yrs), plus smaller samples of adults aged 18-49 yrs...
June 21, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633054/men-and-women-with-psychosis-and-the-impact-of-illness-duration-on-sex-differences-the-second-australian-national-survey-of-psychosis
#3
Mary-Claire Hanlon, Linda E Campbell, Natalie Single, Clare Coleman, Vera A Morgan, Susan M Cotton, Helen J Stain, David J Castle
We aimed to examine and compare sex-differences in people receiving treatment for psychotic illnesses in community settings, based on long or short duration of illness; expecting association between longer illness-duration and worse outcomes in women and men. Clinical, demographic and service-use data from the Survey of High Impact Psychosis were analysed by sex and duration of illness (≤5 years; ≥6 years), using independent t-tests, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVA, and Cramer's V. Of the 1825 participants, 47% had schizophrenia, 17...
June 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631146/motivations-for-interest-disinterest-and-uncertainty-in-intrauterine-device-use-among-young-women
#4
Anu Manchikanti Gomez, Bridget Freihart
Objective To elucidate salient contraceptive preferences and priorities as they relate to young women's interest or lack thereof in intrauterine device (IUD) use. Methods Qualitative data were drawn from a 2012 survey on contraceptive preferences and IUD interest. Among 413 young (ages 18-29) women, open-ended responses describing reasons for interest, disinterest or uncertainty in future IUD use were examined using a thematic analysis approach. Results Most participants were unsure about (49.2%) or not interested in (30...
June 19, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626829/socioeconomic-status-as-an-effect-modifier-of-alcohol-consumption-and-harm-analysis-of-linked-cohort-data
#5
Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Elise Whitley, Jim Lewsey, Linsay Gray, Alastair H Leyland
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related mortality and morbidity are high in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations compared with individuals from advantaged areas. It is unclear if this increased harm reflects differences in alcohol consumption between these socioeconomic groups, reverse causation (ie, downward social selection for high-risk drinkers), or a greater risk of harm in individuals of low socioeconomic status compared with those of higher status after similar consumption. We aimed to investigate whether the harmful effects of alcohol differ by socioeconomic status, accounting for alcohol consumption and other health-related factors...
June 2017: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619784/relationships-between-socioeconomic-position-and-objectively-measured-sedentary-behaviour-in-older-adults-in-three-prospective-cohorts
#6
Richard John Shaw, Iva Čukić, Ian J Deary, Catharine R Gale, Sebastien Fm Chastin, Philippa M Dall, Dawn A Skelton, Geoff Der
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether sedentary behaviour in older adults is associated with a systematic and comprehensive range of socioeconomic position (SEP) measures across the life course. SEP measures included prospective measures of social class, income, educational qualifications and parental social class and contemporaneous measures of area deprivation. SETTING: Glasgow and the surrounding (West of Scotland) combined with Edinburgh and the surrounding area (the Lothians)...
June 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616900/what-factors-are-associated-with-abstinence-amongst-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-smokers-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-use-of-cessation-aids-and-quitting-approach
#7
Laura Twyman, Billie Bonevski, Christine Paul, Jamie Bryant, Robert West, Mohammad Siahpush, Catherine D'este, Christopher Oldmeadow, Kerrin Palazzi
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This study aimed to compare current and ex-smokers' sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics, use of cessation aids and abrupt versus gradual quitting approaches. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of financially disadvantaged adults attending a community service organisation was conducted in New South Wales, Australia, between February 2012 and December 2013. Sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, use of cessation aids and gradual versus abrupt quit approach were assessed...
June 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616807/skin-deep-enhanced-variable-may-help-explain-racial-disparities-in-type-2-diabetes-and-prediabetes
#8
Celia C Lo, Joanna Lara, Tyrone C Cheng
INTRODUCTION: The study refined definitions of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes (Pre-/T2D) via its four-category outcome variable. Respondents were identified as Pre-/T2D on the basis of (a) doctor's diagnosis only (i.e., managed Pre-/T2D); (b) biomarker only (i.e., undiagnosed Pre-/T2D); or (c) both diagnosis and biomarker (i.e., unmanaged Pre-/T2D). The reference was Pre-/T2D not indicated. We linked the outcome to social structural and social support factors, health care-related factors, mental disorder, and lifestyle variables, for each racial/ethnic group...
June 14, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615082/differential-responses-in-first-birth-behaviour-to-economic-recession-in-the-united-kingdom
#9
Mark Lyons-Amos, Ingrid Schoon
Economic conditions have dramatic influences on fertility. This paper evaluates the effect of the 2008 'Great Recession' in the UK on first birth rate, which is the fertility behaviour most susceptible to external economic conditions. The key aim of the study was to assess the effect of the recession on fertility by individual-level characteristics, enabling variation in responses to economic hardship to be observed. Data were from the nationally representative UK Household Longitudinal Study (UK-HLS). Cumulative transition models were used to model the probability of first birth for women between the ages of 17 and 30 in three UK birth cohorts...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607670/emotional-abuse-of-girls-in-swaziland-prevalence-perpetrators-risk-and-protective-factors-and-health-outcomes
#10
Franziska Meinck, Deborah Fry, Choice Ginindza, Kerri Wazny, Aldo Elizalde, Thees F Spreckelsen, M Catherine Maternowska, Michael P Dunne
BACKGROUND: Research on emotional child abuse in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. Few studies thus far have examined prevalence, risk and protective factors for emotional child abuse or the associations between emotional abuse and girls' health. METHODS: A nationally representative two-stage, cluster-sampled, household survey of females aged 13-24 years (n = 1244) on childhood abuse victimisation was conducted. Participants completed interviewer-assisted questionnaires...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606439/the-epidemiological-analysis-of-maxillofacial-fractures-in-italy-the-experience-of-a-single-tertiary-center-with-1720-patients
#11
Paola Bonavolontà, Giovanni Dell'aversana Orabona, Vincenzo Abbate, Luigi Angelo Vaira, Carmelo Lo Faro, Marzia Petrocelli, Federica Attanasi, Giacomo De Riu, Giorgio Iaconetta, Luigi Califano
PURPOSE: Maxillofacial fractures represent a serious public health problem. Their epidemiology is extremely variable, and its analysis is crucial to establish effective treatment and prevention of these injuries. However only two works have been published about maxillofacial fracture epidemiology in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of 1720 patients diagnosed with maxillofacial fractures in a 15-years period (2001-2015) in our department were retrospectively reviewed...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604435/exchange-sex-and-hiv-infection-among-women-who-inject-drugs-20-us-cities-2009
#12
Lina M Nerlander, Kristen L Hess, Charles E Rose, Catlainn Sionean, Anna Thorson, Dita Broz, Gabriela Paz-Bailey
BACKGROUND: Women who inject drugs and who also exchange sex are at increased risk for HIV infection, but data on this population in the United States remain sparse. METHODS: This study assessed the prevalence of exchanging sex for money or drugs among women who inject drugs using data from the 2009 US National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system. Prevalence of being HIV-positive (testing positive in NHBS), HIV-positive-unaware (reporting being HIV-negative or unknown status but testing positive in NHBS), and risk behaviors and use of services were compared between women who did and did not exchange sex...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604427/health-care-use-and-hiv-related-behaviors-of-black-and-latina-transgender-women-in-3-us-metropolitan-areas-results-from-the-transgender-hiv-behavioral-survey
#13
Damian J Denson, Paige M Padgett, Nicole Pitts, Gabriela Paz-Bailey, Trista Bingham, Juli-Ann Carlos, Pamela McCann, Nikhil Prachand, Jan Risser, Teresa Finlayson
PURPOSE: HIV prevalence estimates among transgender women in the United States are high, particularly among racial/ethnic minorities. Despite increased HIV risk and evidence of racial disparities in HIV prevalence among transgender women, few data are available to inform HIV prevention efforts. METHODS: A transgender HIV-related behavioral survey conducted in 2009 in 3 US metropolitan areas (Chicago, Houston, and Los Angeles County), used respondent-driven sampling to recruit 227 black (n = 139) and Latina (n = 88) transgender women...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603005/neighbourhood-socioeconomic-inequality-and-gender-differences-in-body-mass-index-the-role-of-unhealthy-behaviours
#14
Xiaoqi Feng, Andrew Wilson
Reported differences in the severity of the social gradient in body mass index (BMI) by gender may be attributable to differences in behaviour. Self-reported height, weight, socioeconomic and behavioural data were obtained for a sample of 10,281 Australians aged ≥15years in 2009. Multilevel regressions were fitted with BMI as the outcome variable. Two-way interactions between gender and neighbourhood disadvantage were fitted, adjusted for confounders. Models were then adjusted for four behavioural factors ("chips, snacks and confectionary", "smoking, little fruit or veg", "time poor and less physically active" and "alcohol consumption")...
June 8, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602028/maternal-infant-interaction-as-an-influence-on-infant-adiposity
#15
Elizabeth A Holdsworth, Lawrence M Schell
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research is to identify whether specific aspects of the early life psychosocial environment such as quality of home and maternal-infant interaction are associated with increased infant adiposity, in a disadvantaged population in the United States. METHODS: Data on 121 mother-infant pairs from the Albany Pregnancy and Infancy Lead Study were analyzed using three multiple linear regression models with subscapular skinfold thickness (SST), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), and weight z-scores at 12 months of age as outcome variables...
June 11, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596708/riots-of-the-other-an-analysis-of-societal-reactions-to-contemporary-riots-in-disadvantaged-neighbourhoods-in-the-netherlands
#16
Abdessamad Bouabid
In this article I argue that there has been a change in the dynamics of riots in the Netherlands from the escalated political protests of the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s to public disturbances in disadvantaged neighbourhoods that lack a clearly articulated political component in the last two decades. This article examines the societal reactions such recent 'riots' evoke and the means by which the demarcated autonomous and exogenous groups are designated as 'the rioters' through a process of 'Othering'. It examines the 2007 'Slotervaart riot' as an exemplary case of such recent 'riots' in the Netherlands...
November 2016: Eur J Criminol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595465/community-and-individual-risk-factors-for-physical-child-abuse-and-child-neglect-variations-by-poverty-status
#17
Kathryn Maguire-Jack, Sarah A Font
Families are impacted by a variety of risk and protective factors for maltreatment at multiple levels of the social ecology. Individual- and neighborhood-level poverty has consistently been shown to be associated with higher risk for child abuse and neglect. The current study sought to understand the ways in which individual- and neighborhood-level risk and protective factors affect physical child abuse and child neglect and whether these factors differed for families based on their individual poverty status...
January 1, 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588108/cross-sectional-analysis-of-two-social-determinants-of-health-in-california-cities-racial-ethnic-and-geographic-disparities
#18
Dulce Bustamante-Zamora, Neil Maizlish
OBJECTIVE: To study the magnitude and direction of city-level racial and ethnic differences in poverty and education to characterise health equity and social determinants of health in California cities. DESIGN: We used data from the American Community Survey, United States Census Bureau, 2006-2010, and calculated differences in the prevalence of poverty and low educational attainment in adults by race/ethnicity and by census tracts within California cities. For race/ethnicity comparisons, when the referent group (p2) to calculate the difference (p1-p2) was the non-Hispanic White population (considered a historically advantaged group), a positive difference was considered a health inequity...
June 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585100/how-do-we-get-partners-to-test-for-hiv-predictors-of-uptake-of-partner-hiv-testing-following-individual-outpatient-provider-initiated-hiv-testing-in-rural-uganda
#19
Susan M Kiene, Olumide Gbenro, Katelyn M Sileo, Haruna Lule, Rhoda K Wanyenze
In a sample of outpatients (152 females, 152 males) receiving individual provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) we aimed to identify factors associated with subsequent uptake of partner HIV testing. Purposively sampled outpatients receiving PITC at a Ugandan hospital completed a questionnaire immediately prior to testing for HIV, and then at 3 and 6 months post-test. By 6-month follow-up 96% of participants reported disclosing their HIV test results to their partner and 96.4% reported asking their partner to test...
June 5, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583970/the-role-of-nonprofit-hospitals-in-identifying-and-addressing-health-inequities-in-cities
#20
Amy Carroll-Scott, Rosie Mae Henson, Jennifer Kolker, Jonathan Purtle
For nonprofit hospitals to maintain their tax-exempt status, the Affordable Care Act requires them to conduct a community health needs assessment, in which they evaluate the health needs of the community they serve, and to create an implementation strategy, in which they propose ways to address these needs. We explored the extent to which nonprofit urban hospitals identified equity among the health needs of their communities and proposed health equity strategies to address this need. We conducted a content analysis of publicly available community health needs assessments and implementation strategies from 179 hospitals in twenty-eight US cities in the period August-December 2016...
June 1, 2017: Health Affairs
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