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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207328/socioeconomic-determinants-of-sodium-intake-in-adult-populations-of-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Carlos de Mestral, Ana-Lucia Mayén, Dusan Petrovic, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Murielle Bochud, Silvia Stringhini
BACKGROUND: A poorer quality diet among individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) may partly explain the higher burden of noncommunicable disease among disadvantaged populations. Because there is a link between sodium intake and noncommunicable diseases, we systematically reviewed the current evidence on the social patterning of sodium intake. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the evidence on the association between SES and sodium intake in healthy adult populations of high-income countries...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202354/non-invasive-monitoring-of-physiological-markers-in-primates
#2
REVIEW
V Behringer, T Deschner
The monitoring of endocrine markers that inform about an animal's physiological state has become an invaluable tool for studying the behavioral ecology of primates. While the collection of blood samples usually requires the animal to be caught and immobilized, non-invasively collected samples of saliva, urine, feces or hair can be obtained without any major disturbance of the subject of interest. Such samples enable repeated collection which is required for matching behavioral information over long time periods with detailed information on endocrine markers...
February 12, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202141/non-intact-families-and-diverging-educational-destinies-a-decomposition-analysis-for-germany-italy-the-united-kingdom-and-the-united-states
#3
Fabrizio Bernardi, Diederik Boertien
We examine whether the presence of non-intact families in society is related to increased inequality in educational attainment according to social background, as suggested by the 'diverging destinies' thesis. We analyze four countries, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States, that differ in the prevalence of non-intact families and in the strength of the negative association between growing up in a non-intact family and children's educational attainment. We use a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to calculate a 'counterfactual' estimate of differences in educational attainment between socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged children in the hypothetical absence of non-intact families...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199042/global-effects-of-income-and-income-inequality-on-adult-height-and-sexual-dimorphism-in-height
#4
Barry Bogin, Christiane Scheffler, Michael Hermanussen
OBJECTIVES: Average adult height of a population is considered a biomarker of the quality of the health environment and economic conditions. The causal relationships between height and income inequality are not well understood. We analyze data from 169 countries for national average heights of men and women and national-level economic factors to test two hypotheses: (1) income inequality has a greater association with average adult height than does absolute income; and (2) neither income nor income inequality has an effect on sexual dimorphism in height...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198751/the-role-of-agonistic-striving-in-the-association-between-cortisol-and-high-blood-pressure
#5
Craig K Ewart, Gavin J Elder, Randall S Jorgensen, Sheila T Fitzgerald
OBJECTIVES: A social action theory of chronic stress proposes that agonistic striving (seeking to influence or control others) impairs cardiovascular health by magnifying the impact of high adversity-induced cortisol levels on blood pressure. We tested three predictions of social action theory: (1) the social action theory taxonomy of regulatory strivings characterizes young adults from high-adversity neighborhoods; (2) high cortisol levels predict high blood pressure more reliably in the subgroup with the agonistic striving profile than in subgroups with other profiles; (3) the association of higher cortisol and higher blood pressure with agonistic striving is not explained by negative affect (depressive symptoms/dysphoria, anger, hostility)...
November 3, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197995/explaining-academic-track-boys-underachievement-in-language-grades-not-a-lack-of-aptitude-but-students-motivational-beliefs-and-parents-perceptions
#6
Anke Heyder, Ursula Kessels, Ricarda Steinmayr
BACKGROUND: Boys earn lower grades in languages than girls. The expectancy-value model by Eccles et al. (, A series of books in psychology. Achievement and achievement motives. Psychological and sociological approaches, W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, CA, 76) is a comprehensive theoretical model for explaining gender differences in educational outcomes. In the past, most studies have focused on girls' disadvantage in math and science and on the role of the students' motivational beliefs...
February 15, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197819/disparities-in-infant-mortality-by-race-among-hispanic-and-non-hispanic-infants
#7
Whitney S Rice, Samantha S Goldfarb, Anne E Brisendine, Stevie Burrows, Martha S Wingate
OBJECTIVES: U.S.-born Hispanic infants have a well-documented health advantage relative to other minority groups. However, little published research has examined racial heterogeneity within the Hispanic population, in relation to health outcomes. The current study aims to explore possible implications of racial identification for the health of U.S. born Hispanic compared to non-Hispanic infants. Methods Data were drawn from 2007 to 2008 NCHS Cohort Linked Live Birth-Infant Death Files, restricted to deliveries of Hispanic black, Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white mothers (NHW) (n = 7,901,858)...
February 14, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193303/who-pays-the-price-for-high-neuroticism-moderators-of-longitudinal-risks-for-depression-and-anxiety
#8
J R Vittengl
BACKGROUND: High neuroticism is a well-established risk for present and future depression and anxiety, as well as an emerging target for treatment and prevention. The current analyses tested the hypothesis that physical, social and socio-economic disadvantages each amplify risks from high neuroticism for longitudinal increases in depression and anxiety symptoms. METHOD: A national sample of adults (n = 7108) provided structured interview and questionnaire data in the Midlife Development in the United States Survey...
February 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191991/hot-shots-and-cool-reception-an-expanded-view-of-social-consequences-for-high-performers
#9
Elizabeth M Campbell, Hui Liao, Aichia Chuang, Jing Zhou, Yuntao Dong
While high performers contribute substantially to their workgroups and organizations, research has indicated that they incur social costs from peers. Drawing from theories of social comparison and conservation of resources, we advance a rational perspective to explain why high performers draw both intentional positive and negative reactions from peers and consider how cooperative work contexts moderate these effects. A multisource field study of 936 relationships among 350 stylists within 105 salons offered support for our model and an experiment with 204 management students constructively replicated our findings and ruled out alternative explanations...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191364/how-well-can-we-predict-educational-outcomes-examining-the-roles-of-cognitive-ability-and-social-position-in-educational-attainment
#10
Tim Morris, Danny Dorling, George Davey Smith
Social inequalities in UK educational outcomes continue to persist despite improvements in recent years. However, studies that examine these inequalities fail to account for differences in prior cognitive ability. We seek to determine the influence of cognitive ability on educational outcomes and the extent of socio-economic disparities in education across a wide range of indicators while accounting for cognitive ability. Social inequalities exist whereby children from disadvantaged backgrounds systematically underperform compared to their advantaged peers regardless of cognitive ability; high ability children from disadvantaged backgrounds are disproportionately less likely to attain good grades compared to children from advantaged backgrounds...
July 2, 2016: Contemp Soc Sci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188565/poor-quality-of-life-and-functioning-in-bipolar-disorder
#11
Louisa G Sylvia, Rebecca E Montana, Thilo Deckersbach, Michael E Thase, Maurcio Tohen, Noreen Reilly-Harrington, Melvin G McInnis, James H Kocsis, Charles Bowden, Joseph Calabrese, Keming Gao, Terence Ketter, Richard C Shelton, Susan L McElroy, Edward S Friedman, Dustin J Rabideau, Andrew A Nierenberg
BACKGROUND: This study explores the association of demographic and clinical features with quality of life and functioning in individuals with bipolar disorder. METHODS: Adult participants (N = 482) with bipolar I or II disorder were enrolled in a comparative effectiveness study across eleven study sites and completed baseline measures of medical and psychiatric history, current mood, quality of life, and functioning. Participants with at least mildly depressive or manic/hypomanic symptomatic severity were randomized to receive lithium or quetiapine in addition to adjunctive personalized treatment for 6 months...
December 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187401/a-preliminary-study-to-assess-the-impact-of-maternal-age-on-stress-related-variables-in-healthy-nulliparous-women
#12
Ana García-Blanco, Alberto Monferrer, Jorge Grimaldos, David Hervás, Vicent Balanzá-Martínez, Vicente Diago, Máximo Vento, Consuelo Cháfer-Pericás
PURPOSE: Childbearing age has progressively increased in industrialized countries. The impact of this delay on motherhood, however, requires further research. METHODS: The study sample included a prospective cohort of healthy nulliparous pregnant women aged between 18 and 40 years (n=148) assessed at 38 weeks gestation (Time#1, T1), 48h after birth (Time#2, T2), and 3 months after birth (Time#3, T3). The effect of age on psychological, biological, and social variables was evaluated...
January 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185597/diabetes-in-young-adult-men-social-and-health-related-correlates
#13
Rachel L Koelmeyer, Shyamali C Dharmage, Dallas R English
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a global public health issue. It is associated with significant disability, morbidity and mortality risks and substantial healthcare costs. Of great concern is the fact that its prevalence is rising, particularly amongst the young, while epidemiological data regarding the incidence, prevalence and complications of early-onset type 2 diabetes is noted to be sparse. METHODS: We used data from the baseline wave of Ten to Men, a national cohort study of Australian males, to investigate the social and health-related correlates of Australian males aged 18-49 years reporting being diagnosed with diabetes...
October 31, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185590/how-can-health-systems-research-reach-the-worst-off-a-conceptual-exploration
#14
REVIEW
Bridget Pratt, Adnan A Hyder
BACKGROUND: Health systems research is increasingly being conducted in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Such research should aim to reduce health disparities between and within countries as a matter of global justice. For such research to do so, ethical guidance that is consistent with egalitarian theories of social justice proposes it ought to (amongst other things) focus on worst-off countries and research populations. Yet who constitutes the worst-off is not well-defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: By applying existing work on disadvantage from political philosophy, the paper demonstrates that (at least) two options exist for how to define the worst-off upon whom equity-oriented health systems research should focus: those who are worst-off in terms of health or those who are systematically disadvantaged...
November 15, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185560/inequalities-in-socio-economic-characteristics-and-health-and-wellbeing-of-men-with-and-without-disabilities-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-baseline-wave-of-the-australian-longitudinal-study-on-male-health
#15
Anne M Kavanagh, Zoe Aitken, Eric Emerson, Sash Sahabandu, Allison Milner, Rebecca Bentley, Anthony D LaMontagne, Jane Pirkis, David Studdert
BACKGROUND: Internationally, men with disabilities have higher rates of social and economic disadvantage and poorer health and wellbeing than men without disabilities. No single study has provided comprehensive, population-level information about the magnitude of such differences among adult men using a well-validated instrument to measure disability. METHODS: We analysed baseline data from Ten to Men - an Australian longitudinal study of male health. Ten to Men used a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design to recruit a national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings...
October 31, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182527/hidden-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-social-class
#16
Sébastien Goudeau, Jean-Claude Croizet
Three studies conducted among fifth and sixth graders examined how school contexts disrupt the achievement of working-class students by staging unfair comparison with their advantaged middle-class peers. In regular classrooms, differences in performance among students are usually showcased in a way that does not acknowledge the advantage (i.e., higher cultural capital) experienced by middle-class students, whose upbringing affords them more familiarity with the academic culture than their working-class peers have...
February 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181867/marital-biography-social-security-receipt-and-poverty
#17
I-Fen Lin, Susan L Brown, Anna M Hammersmith
Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social Security and they enjoy relatively high Social Security benefits and very low poverty levels...
January 2017: Research on Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181157/comprehensive-neighborhood-portraits-and-child-asthma-disparities
#18
Ashley W Kranjac, Rachel T Kimbro, Justin T Denney, Kristin M Osiecki, Brady S Moffett, Keila N Lopez
Objectives Previous research has established links between child, family, and neighborhood disadvantages and child asthma. We add to this literature by first characterizing neighborhoods in Houston, TX by demographic, economic, and air quality characteristics to establish differences in pediatric asthma diagnoses across neighborhoods. Second, we identify the relative risk of social, economic, and environmental risk factors for child asthma diagnoses. Methods We geocoded and linked electronic pediatric medical records to neighborhood-level social and economic indicators...
February 8, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173857/understanding-the-strategies-employed-to-cope-with-increased-numbers-of-aids-orphaned-children-in-families-in-rural-settings-a-case-of-mbeya-rural-district-tanzania
#19
Nelsensius Klau Fauk, Silivano Edson Mwakinyali, Sukma Putra, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to understand the strategies employed by families that adopt Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-orphaned children (Adoptive families) for coping with and mitigating the impact of AIDS in Mbeya Rural District, Tanzania. High numbers of AIDS-orphaned children aged below 18 years in Mbeya Region have led to increasing the burden of families caring for them. Understanding the coping strategies and impact mitigation activities employed by adoptive families is important in order to develop programmes to help them...
February 7, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170090/parents-attitudes-toward-genetic-testing-of-children-for-health-conditions-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Qishan Lim, Brittany C McGill, Veronica F Quinn, Katherine M Tucker, David Mizrahi, Andrea Farkas Patenaude, Meera Warby, Richard J Cohn, Claire E Wakefield
This review assessed parents' attitudes toward childhood genetic testing for health conditions, with a focus on perceived advantages and disadvantages. We also evaluated the factors that influence parents' attitudes toward childhood genetic testing. We searched Medline, Medline In-Process, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts and CINAHL. We screened 945 abstracts and identified 21 studies representing the views of 3934 parents. Parents reported largely positive attitudes toward childhood genetic testing across different genetic tests with varying medical utility...
February 7, 2017: Clinical Genetics
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