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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548461/attending-learning-and-socioeconomic-disadvantage-developmental-cognitive-and-social-neuroscience-of-resilience-and-vulnerability
#1
REVIEW
Kylie Schibli, Kyle Wong, Nina Hedayati, Amedeo D'Angiulli
We review current findings associating socioeconomic status (SES), development of neurocognitive functions, and neurobiological pathways. A sizeable interdisciplinary literature was organized through a bifurcated developmental trajectory (BiDeT) framework, an account of the external and internal variables associated with low SES that may lead to difficulties with attention and learning, along with buffers that may protect against negative outcomes. A consistent neurocognitive finding is that low-SES children attend to information nonselectively, and engage in late filtering out of task-irrelevant information...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547824/the-promise-of-a-better-group-future-cognitive-alternatives-increase-students-self-efficacy-and-academic-performance
#2
Aarti Iyer, Airong Zhang, Jolanda Jetten, Zhen Hao, Lijuan Cui
Drawing on classic social identity theorizing (Tajfel, Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations, London, UK, Academic Press, 1978), we propose that low-status minority group members' self-efficacy and performance on intellectual tasks can be enhanced by prompting them to believe in a better future for their group (i.e., increasing awareness of cognitive alternatives to the existing low-status position). Study 1 manipulated cognitive alternatives among 157 migrant workers' children in China, showing that self-efficacy was enhanced in the high compared to the low cognitive alternative condition...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547801/is-higher-inequality-less-legitimate-depends-on-how-you-frame-it
#3
Susanne Bruckmüller, Gerhard Reese, Sarah E Martiny
Economic inequality is increasing both globally and in various countries around the world, and such inequality has been linked to worsening health, well-being, and social cohesion. A key predictor for whether people take action against inequality is the extent to which they perceive it as illegitimate. We investigate how two variables jointly predict the legitimization of inequality, namely the perceived magnitude of differences in economic outcomes and the way these differences are described. Two experiments (total N = 190) tested whether framing the same difference in outcomes as an advantaged group having more or as a disadvantaged group having less moderates whether higher inequality is perceived as less legitimate...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544135/understanding-food-vulnerability-and-health-literacy-in-older-bereaved-men-a-qualitative-study
#4
Jill Thompson, Angela Tod, Paul Bissell, Michael Bond
BACKGROUND: Older people are sometimes challenged in maintaining a healthy diet but, because of age and disadvantage, are also more vulnerable to the adverse health consequences of poor nutrition. It has been claimed that older adults have low levels of health literacy regarding food and struggle to discern which foods are healthy from the vast range available in developed counties (Br Herne 1995;97:12). However, nutrition and eating behaviour are modifiable risk factors for health in old age (Appl Physiol Nutr Keller 2007;32:991) and health benefits can accrue from promoting healthy eating later in life...
May 24, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542256/maternal-depression-and-anxiety-disorders-mdad-and-child-development-a-manitoba-population-based-study
#5
Brenda Comaskey, Noralou P Roos, Marni Brownell, Murray W Enns, Dan Chateau, Chelsea A Ruth, Okechukwu Ekuma
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between maternal depression and anxiety disorders (MDAD) and child development assessed during the kindergarten year. METHODS: Administrative data from several health and social databases in Manitoba, Canada, were used to study 18,331 mother-child pairs. MDAD over the period from one year prior to the child's birth to the kindergarten year was defined using physician diagnoses and filled prescriptions. Child development was assessed during the kindergarten year using the Early Development Instrument (EDI) which measures vulnerability across five domains of development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541062/antisocial-and-human-capital-pathways-to-socioeconomic-exclusion-a-42-year-prospective-study
#6
Jukka Savolainen, W Alex Mason, Anna-Liisa Lyyra, Lea Pulkkinen, Katja Kokko
Nordic welfare states have been very successful at reducing poverty and inequality among their citizens. However, the presence of a strong social safety net in these countries has not solved the problem of socioeconomic exclusion, manifesting in such outcomes as chronic unemployment and welfare dependency. In an effort to understand this phenomenon, the current study builds on the assumption that psychological risk factors emerge as important determinants of socioeconomic disadvantage in an environment where ascribed characteristics have less impact on educational and occupational attainment...
May 25, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540343/psychosocial-well-being-associated-with-activity-of-daily-living-stages-among-community-dwelling-older-adults
#7
Ling Na, Joel E Streim
Objectives: Activity of daily living (ADL) stages demonstrated ordered associations with risk of chronic conditions, hospitalization, nursing home use, and mortality among community-living elderly. This article explores the association of stages with psychosocial well-being. We hypothesized that higher ADL stages (greater ADL limitation) are associated with more restricted social networks, less perceived social support, greater social isolation, and poorer mental health. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (N = 3,002) were analyzed in regression models and latent factor models...
January 2017: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534822/violence-victimization-in-korean-adolescents-risk-factors-and-psychological-problems
#8
Subin Park, Yeeun Lee, Hyesue Jang, Minkyung Jo
We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533814/teenage-mothers-today-what-we-know-and-how-it-matters
#9
Stefanie Mollborn
Over the past two decades, births to U.S. teenagers have fallen and no longer follow overall fertility patterns. Yet the unique challenges faced by teenage mothers and their families justify continued research. Across disciplines, newer work has furthered our understanding of teenage motherhood today. In this article, I highlight four areas of progress: processes of selection into teenage motherhood, the broader consequences of teenage childbearing beyond the socioeconomic realm, heterogeneity of effects, and the application of life course principles...
March 2017: Child Development Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533568/leveraging-geotagged-twitter-data-to-examine-neighborhood-happiness-diet-and-physical-activity
#10
Quynh C Nguyen, Suraj Kath, Hsien-Wen Meng, Dapeng Li, Ken Robert Smith, James A VanDerslice, Ming Wen, Feifei Li
OBJECTIVES: Using publicly available, geotagged Twitter data, we created neighborhood indicators for happiness, food and physical activity for three large counties: Salt Lake, San Francisco and New York. METHODS: We utilize 2.8 million tweets collected between February-August 2015 in our analysis. Geo-coordinates of where tweets were sent allow us to spatially join them to 2010 census tract locations. We implemented quality control checks and tested associations between Twitter-derived variables and sociodemographic characteristics...
August 2016: Applied Geography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528425/neet-adolescents-grown-up-eight-year-longitudinal-follow-up-of-education-employment-and-mental-health-from-adolescence-to-early-adulthood-in-mexico-city
#11
Raúl A Gutiérrez-García, Corina Benjet, Guilherme Borges, Enrique Méndez Ríos, María Elena Medina-Mora
The purpose is to examine the socio-demographic and mental health outcomes in early adulthood of those who as adolescents were not in education, employment or training, termed NEET, compared to their counterparts who studied, worked, or both. One thousand and seventy-one youth residing in Mexico City participated in a representative, prospective, longitudinal 8-year two-Wave cohort study. At Wave I the participants were aged 12-17 and at Wave II aged 19 and 26. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed psychiatric disorders, substance use and abuse, suicidal behavior, interpersonal relationships, employment and education...
May 20, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527952/community-gardening-in-poor-neighborhoods-in-france-a-way-to-re-think-food-practices
#12
Pauline Martin, Jean-Noël Consalès, Pascale Scheromm, Paul Marchand, Florence Ghestem, Nicole Darmon
Social inequalities in diet are attributed to sociocultural determinants, economic constraints, and unequal access to healthy food. Fruits and vegetables are lacking in the diets of disadvantaged populations. The objective was to test the hypothesis that, in poor neighborhoods, community gardeners will have larger supply of healthy food, especially fruit and vegetables, than non-gardeners. We examined community gardens from the perspective of production, economics and nutrition, and social and symbolic dimensions, through multidisciplinary investigations involving women with access to a community garden plot in a poor neighborhood of Marseille, France...
May 17, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526013/human-biomonitoring-from-an-environmental-justice-perspective-supporting-study-participation-of-women-of-turkish-and-moroccan-descent
#13
Bert Morrens, Elly Den Hond, Greet Schoeters, Dries Coertjens, Ann Colles, Tim S Nawrot, Willy Baeyens, Stefaan De Henauw, Vera Nelen, Ilse Loots
BACKGROUND: Environmental justice research shows how socially disadvantaged groups are more exposed and more vulnerable to environmental pollution. At the same time, these groups are less represented and, thus, less visible in biomedical studies. This socioeconomic participation bias is a form of environmental injustice within research practice itself. METHODS: We designed, implemented and evaluated a targeted recruitment strategy to enhance the participation of socially disadvantaged pregnant women in a human biomonitoring study in Belgium...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525440/prevention-and-management-of-hypertension-and-diabetes-using-social-capital-and-physical-activity-among-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-populations
#14
Akiko Kamimura, Jennifer Tabler, Maziar M Nourian, Nushean Assasnik, Lindsey Wright, Jeanie Ashby
The purpose of this study is to examine the association between physical activity adherence and social capital among uninsured primary care patients with or without hypertension and/or diabetes. Uninsured adults using a free clinic (N = 374) participated in a self-administered survey from January to April in 2016. The percentage of participants who were adherent to physical activity was low regardless of having hypertension and/or diabetes, or not. Individuals who reported a high sense of community were associated with a higher percentage of physical activity adherence...
July 2017: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521791/exploring-the-role-of-socioeconomic-factors-in-the-development-and-spread-of-anti-malarial-drug-resistance-a-qualitative-study
#15
Philip Emeka Anyanwu, John Fulton, Etta Evans, Timothy Paget
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a global health issue with the burden unevenly distributed to the disadvantage of the developing countries of the world. Poverty contributes to the malaria burden as it has the ability to affect integral aspects of malaria control. There have been renewed efforts in the global malaria control, resulting in reductions in the global malaria burden over the last decade. However, the development of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy threatens the sustainability of the present success in malaria control...
May 18, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521056/ethnic-minority-status-age-at-immigration-and-psychosis-risk-in-rural-environments-evidence-from-the-sepea-study
#16
James B Kirkbride, Yasir Hameed, Konstantinos Ioannidis, Gayatri Ankireddypalli, Carolyn M Crane, Mukhtar Nasir, Nikolett Kabacs, Antonio Metastasio, Oliver Jenkins, Ashkan Espandian, Styliani Spyridi, Danica Ralevic, Suneetha Siddabattuni, Ben Walden, Adewale Adeoye, Jesus Perez, Peter B Jones
Objective: Several ethnic minority groups experience elevated rates of first-episode psychosis (FEP), but most studies have been conducted in urban settings. We investigated whether incidence varied by ethnicity, generation status, and age-at-immigration in a diverse, mixed rural, and urban setting. Method: We identified 687 people, 16-35 years, with an ICD-10 diagnosis of FEP, presenting to Early Intervention Psychosis services in the East of England over 2 million person-years...
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520683/socioeconomic-consequences-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#17
Megan R W Barber, Ann E Clarke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review addresses recent literature investigating the socioeconomic consequences of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We highlight the latest updates on health disparities affecting the SLE population, the direct and indirect economic costs of the disease, and less quantifiable costs such as reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). RECENT FINDINGS: Health disparities continue to exist among socially disadvantaged populations, including African Americans, Hispanics, and patients with decreased educational attainment and in poverty...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514914/using-action-learning-to-reduce-health-inequity-in-danish-municipalities
#18
Anna Paldam Folker, Sigurd Lauridsen
Purpose The aim of this study is to clarify how action learning can be used as a vehicle for promoting equal access to municipal health services for socially disadvantaged groups in a Danish context. It is the purpose of this paper to describe the methods for reducing health inequity developed in the study and to discuss how action learning methodologically contributed to achieving these results. Design/methodology/approach In the study, the front-line staff from 19 health and social service units in six different municipalities, in Denmark, each formed an action learning group to develop methods for reducing health inequity in a municipal health setting...
May 2, 2017: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504060/responding-to-the-support-needs-of-frontline-public-health-nurses-who-work-with-vulnerable-families-and-children-a-qualitative-study
#19
Jackie Austin, Stephanie Holt
BACKGROUND: This paper reports on a research study to inform the development of a specialist role designed to lead and support front line public health nurses (PHNs) working with vulnerable families and at risk children in Ireland. PHNs in Ireland provide a programme of intervention that promotes optimum health and wellbeing for all children in their early years under the governance of the Health Service Executive. This universal access places the PHN as a central participant in the safeguarding of young children, particularly those working in disadvantaged communities where frequent exposure to difficult situations is a common factor...
May 13, 2017: Contemporary Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502739/the-hunger-games-using-hunger-to-promote-healthy-choices-in-self-control-conflicts
#20
Tracy T L Cheung, Floor M Kroese, Bob M Fennis, Denise T D De Ridder
The majority of existing research and conventional wisdom would advise against shopping on an empty stomach as hunger is assumed to encourage impulsive choices that typically lead to self-control failure (i.e., favouring short-term gratifications at the expense of long-term goals). Nonetheless, through two studies the current research aims to demonstrate that hungry consumers would not always be disadvantaged when encountering a self-control conflict involving a trade-off choice between a healthy vs. a more palatable but unhealthy choice...
May 11, 2017: Appetite
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