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Socially disadvantaged

Bertine de Vries, Jooske T van Busschbach, Elisabeth C D van der Stouwe, André Aleman, Jan J M van Dijk, Paul H Lysaker, Johan Arends, Saskia A Nijman, Gerdina H M Pijnenborg
Psychotic disorders often have been linked with violence. However, studies have shown that people with a psychotic disorder are more often victim than perpetrator of violence. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review prevalence rates for different types of victimization and to identify risk factors associated with victimization. Based on a search in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science, 27 studies were found with samples consisting of adults with a psychotic disorder and possible victimization occurring during adulthood and data on "violent victimization," "sexual victimization," "non-violent victimization," and/or "victimization not otherwise specified...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Camillia K Lui, Nina Mulia
Aims: Alcohol problems are most prevalent in young adulthood and decrease thereafter, but some studies find that racial/ethnic minorities have elevated alcohol risk beyond the 20s. This study examines racial/ethnic differences in the transitions into and out of alcohol problems, and whether these are explained by heavy drinking (HD), socioeconomic disadvantages and adult role transitions from the 20s to 30s. Short summary: Racial/ethnic groups had similar risks for earlier onset and recurrence/persistence of alcohol problems, but Blacks were at significantly greater risk than Whites for later onset in the 30s...
March 13, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Mohan Paudel, Sara Javanparast, Gouranga Dasvarma, Lareen Newman
OBJECTIVE AND THE CONTEXT: This paper examines the beliefs and experiences of women and their families in remote mountain villages of Nepal about perinatal sickness and death and considers the implications of these beliefs for future healthcare provision. METHODS: Two mountain villages were chosen for this qualitative study to provide diversity of context within a highly disadvantaged region. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 women of childbearing age and their family members, 15 health service providers, and 5 stakeholders...
2018: PloS One
Jennifer Katz, Hugh F Crean, Catherine Cerulli, Ellen L Poleshuck
Introduction Although poverty is an established correlate of poorer mental health for pregnant women, limited research has examined the mental health effects of material hardship (i.e., difficulties meeting basic needs such as for food, transportation, or stable housing) during pregnancy. Methods The current research examined rates of material hardship among pregnant women seeking prenatal care and the relationships of both income and material hardship with depression and anxiety during pregnancy. Pregnant women (N = 892) responded to self-report measures of mental health symptoms, annual household income, and current material hardship in the waiting areas of community-based obstetrics/gynecology practices serving primarily financially disadvantaged patients...
March 14, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Sivan Spitzer-Shohat, Efrat Shadmi, Margalit Goldfracht, Calanit Key, Moshe Hoshen, Ran D Balicer
BACKGROUND: Disparity-reduction programs have been shown to vary in the degree to which they achieve their goal; yet the causes of these variations is rarely studied. We investigated a broad-scale program in Israel's largest health plan, aimed at reducing disparities in socially disadvantaged groups using a composite measure of seven health and health care indicators. METHODS: A realistic evaluation was conducted to evaluate the program in 26 clinics and their associated managerial levels...
2018: PloS One
Rachel C Garthe, Deborah Gorman-Smith, Joshua Gregory, Michael E Schoeny
The link between relationship violence and aspects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage (e.g., percent of unemployed adults, percent of families below poverty level), has been established. However, the literature examining neighborhood social processes, including informal social control and social cohesion, in relation to adolescent dating violence has shown mixed results with a limited theoretical foundation and methodology. Using a social disorganization theoretical framework, this study examined the mediating role of these neighborhood social processes in the relation between concentrated disadvantage and adolescent dating violence within an urban context...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Laura Coll-Planas, Sergi Blancafort, Xavier Rojano, Marta Roqué, Rosa Monteserín
BACKGROUND: Older people living in socio-economic deprived urban areas especially suffer the effects of health inequalities but have been insufficiently targeted. Strategies promoted by local primary health care agents might influence health and social behaviours as intermediate social determinants that are modifiable and thus can potentially mitigate health inequalities. Therefore, we aim to develop and assess the effectiveness of a complex intervention based on a community programme that promotes self-management, health literacy and social capital targeting older people from urban socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in order to improve their self-perceived health as an indicator of health inequality reduction...
March 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Julia Depa, Fiona Gyngell, Annalena Müller, Laila Eleraky, Carolin Hilzendegen, Nanette Stroebele-Benschop
The prevalence of food insecurity (FI) among food bank users in many European countries is unknown. The study aims to examine FI prevalence and associated population characteristics among this particular group of disadvantaged people in Germany. Food insecurity status was assessed among 1033 adult food bank users with a mean age of 53 years (57% female, 43% male) in Germany in 2015 using the food insecurity experience scale (FIES). About half of the participants (55.8%) were single with no children and born in Germany...
March 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Mary M Mitchell, Eric D Hansen, Tuo-Yen Tseng, Meng Shen, Cynda Rushton, Tom Smith, Nancy Hutton, Jennifer Wolfe, Lee Bone, Jeanne Keruly, Lawrence Wissow, Amy R Knowlton
CONTEXT & OBJECTIVE: Advance care planning (ACP) rates remain low, especially among people who are HIV positive, disadvantaged, and African American. While ACP can be a sensitive topic for clinicians and patients to discuss, health values clarification can be an important initial step. METHODS: Data were from the first 325 participants in the AFFIRM Care study, which enrolled adults living with HIV/AIDS in Baltimore, MD, who had histories of illicit drug use...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
F Acciai
OBJECTIVES: Social inequalities in health have been largely documented in social science research. Members of the most disadvantaged groups experience worse health and higher mortality from birth throughout adulthood. However, it is not clear whether this association persists at older ages. Some studies have found a narrowing of the social gradient in health, at least when 'traditional' measures of socio-economic status (SES)-income, education, and occupation-are used. The main goal of the article is to highlight similarities and discrepancies in the age trend of social inequalities in health that arise when multiple measures of SES are considered...
March 7, 2018: Public Health
Åsa Norman, Gisela Nyberg, Liselotte Schäfer Elinder, Anita Berlin
BACKGROUND: A social gradient is evident in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, to the disadvantage of children with low socioeconomic status (SES). Parents have a substantial influence on their children's dietary behaviours and weight development through the way they interact with the children around food. This study aims to explore the variation of how parents with low SES influence their child's dietary behaviours. METHODS: A phenomenographic design and analysis was used on 29 sessions of motivational interviewing with mothers and fathers participating in the Healthy School Start intervention study in 2012...
March 7, 2018: Appetite
Jukka Savolainen, Andria Eisman, W Alex Mason, Joseph A Schwartz, Jouko Miettunen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Early exposure to multiple risk factors has been shown to predict criminal offending, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are poorly understood. Integrating social-environmental and dispositional theories of crime this research investigated the capacity of family socioeconomic disadvantage and individual psychological deficits to mediate the association between childhood cumulative risk and late adolescent criminal convictions. Male participants in the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study (n = 3414) were followed from the prenatal period through age 19-20...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Veni Kandasamy, Ashley H Hirai, Reem M Ghandour, Michael D Kogan
OBJECTIVE: Flourishing reflects positive mental health and thriving and is important for children's development and well-being. Few national studies of flourishing among school-aged children exist. Exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage is negatively associated with social and health outcomes, including flourishing. This analysis describes independent associations of the child, family, school, and neighborhood factors with flourishing, which we hypothesized may contribute to sociodemographic disparities...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Paul Charles Cheshire, Stephen Gibbons, Jemma Mouland
BACKGROUND: The National Health Service (NHS) scores well internationally on access to healthcare. But access has been measured on methods likely to undersample the more disadvantaged. Social landlords have access to more disadvantaged groups and may be able to improve health outcomes for their tenants and reduce their NHS usage by simple interventions. METHODS: This is a randomised controlled trial of 547 London social housing 'general needs' tenants over 50 years of age...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Lei Zhao, Junhui Ye, Xuexian Wu, Fengpei Hu
We examined the influence of three reference points (minimum requirements [MR], the status quo [SQ], and goal [G]) proposed by the tri-reference point (TRP) theory on fairness and satisfaction perceptions of pay in three laboratory experiments. To test the effects, we manipulated these three reference points both implicitly (Experiment 1) and explicitly (Experiments 2 and 3). We also provided the information of the salary offered to a peer person that was lower than, equal to, or higher than the salary offer to the participant...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Katherine Ann Thurber, Grace Joshy, Rosemary Korda, Sandra J Eades, Vicki Wade, Hilary Bambrick, Bette Liu, Emily Banks
BACKGROUND: High body mass index (BMI) is the second leading contributor to Australia's burden of disease and is particularly prevalent among Aboriginal peoples. This paper aims to provide insight into factors relating to obesity among Aboriginal adults and Aboriginal-non-Aboriginal differences. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 45 and Up Study, comparing obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 ) prevalence and risk factors among 1515 Aboriginal and 213 301 non-Aboriginal adults in New South Wales...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
James C Wo
Although some urban sociology perspectives suggest how certain sociodeomgraphic characteristics influence nonprofit development, there is a dearth of empirical research to assess neighborhood differences in nonprofit organizations. The goal of the current study is to build upon the extant literature by examining how both concentrated disadvantage and violent crime impact nonprofit density across neighborhoods. Using data from Los Angeles census tracts from 2010 to 2012, I test for linear and nonlinear influences that these two neighborhood factors might exert on nonprofit density...
March 2018: Social Science Research
Erin C Dunn, Katherine M Crawford, Thomas W Soare, Katherine S Button, Miriam R Raffeld, Andrew D A C Smith, Ian S Penton-Voak, Marcus R Munafò
BACKGROUND: Emotion recognition skills are essential for social communication. Deficits in these skills have been implicated in mental disorders. Prior studies of clinical and high-risk samples have consistently shown that children exposed to adversity are more likely than their unexposed peers to have emotion recognition skills deficits. However, only one population-based study has examined this association. METHODS: We analyzed data from children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective birth cohort (n = 6,506)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
John A Ford, Rachel Turley, Tom Porter, Tom Shakespeare, Geoff Wong, Andy P Jones, Nick Steel
OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore the barriers to accessing primary care for socio-economically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. METHODS: Using a community recruitment strategy, fifteen people over 65 years, living in a rural area, and receiving financial support were recruited for semi-structured interviews. Four focus groups were held with rural health professionals. Interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify barriers to primary care access...
2018: PloS One
Chris Gilleard
Much of the literature on ageing is presaged upon a model of advocacy that seeks to combat what is seen as the negative stereotyping of old age and old people. One consequence is that ageing studies has difficulty in confronting the darker side of ageing except in so far as age associated disability and distress can be attributed to extrinsic disadvantage, such as low income, poor housing and inadequate services. The pain and suffering associated with age itself tend to be neglected as subject experiences. This paper seeks to shed some light on these topics, considered under the general heading of 'suffering'...
March 2018: Journal of Aging Studies
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