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Postnatal anxiety

Mikko J Peltola, Tiina Mäkelä, E Juulia Paavonen, Elina Vierikko, Outi Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Tiina Paunio, Jari K Hietanen, Anneli Kylliäinen
Maternal prenatal anxiety is associated with infants' temperamental negative affectivity (NA), but it is unclear to what extent children vary in their susceptibility to prenatal influences. We tested a hypothesis that infants' respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of parasympathetic vagal tone and a potential marker of differential susceptibility to environmental influences, moderates the effects of maternal prenatal anxiety on the development of infant NA. Prenatal anxiety was assessed during the last trimester of pregnancy in a low-risk community sample...
October 20, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Kylee Trevillion, Jill Domoney, Andrew Pickles, Debra Bick, Sarah Byford, Margaret Heslin, Jeannette Milgrom, Rachel Mycroft, Carmine Pariante, Elizabeth Ryan, Myra Hunter, Louise Michele Howard
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common antenatal mental disorder and is associated with an increased risk of adverse effects on the fetus and significant morbidity for the mother; if untreated it can also continue into the post-natal period and affect mother-infant interactions. There has been little research evaluating the effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of antenatal psychological interventions for antenatal depression, particularly for mild to moderate disorders. International guidelines recommend a stepped care approach starting with Guided Self Help, and the aim of this exploratory trial is to investigate Guided Self Help modified for pregnancy...
October 18, 2016: Trials
Reza Yazdanimehr, Abdollah Omidi, Zohreh Sadat, Hossein Akbari
Introduction: Pregnancy can be associated with different psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. These problems are often neglected and left untreated. This study aimed to examine the effect of mindfulness-integrated cognitive behavior therapy on depression and anxiety among pregnant women. Methods: A convenient sample of 80 pregnant women were selected. Participants were randomly allocated to either the experimental or the control groups. Participants in the experimental group received mindfulness-integrated cognitive behavior therapy while women in the control group only received routine prenatal care services...
September 2016: Journal of Caring Sciences
Kristine Coleman, Nicola D Robertson, Gregory A Dissen, Martha D Neuringer, L Drew Martin, Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Christopher Kroenke, Damien Fair, Ansgar M Brambrink
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence correlates anesthetic exposure during early development with neuronal and glial injury and death, as well as behavioral and cognitive impairments, in young animals. Several, although not all, retrospective human studies of neurocognitive and behavioral disorders after childhood exposure to anesthesia suggest a similar association. Few studies have specifically investigated the effects of infant anesthesia exposure on subsequent neurobehavioral development...
October 5, 2016: Anesthesiology
Siyang Yan, Amanda C Kentner
Exposure to painful procedures and/or stressors during the early neonatal period can reprogram the underlying neurocircuitry involved in nociception and neuropathic pain perception. The reprogramming of these systems can result in an enduring elevation in sensitivity towards mechanical and thermal stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to mild inflammatory mediators during the neonatal period can induce similar pain responses in both adolescent and adult rats. Therefore, we sought to profile changes in the expression of several genes across brain areas involved in the active modulation of nociception and neuropathic pain using a well-recognized model of neonatal inflammation...
October 11, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Rose Coates, Susan Ayers, Richard de Visser
To demonstrate validity, questionnaires should measure the same construct in different groups and across time. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was designed as a unidimensional scale, but factor analyses of the EPDS have been equivocal, and demonstrate other structures: this may be because of sample characteristics and timing of administration. We aimed to examine the factor structure of the EPDS in pregnancy and postpartum at 4 time-points in a large population-based sample. We carried out exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children sample (n = 11,195-12,166) randomly split in 2...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Lauren P Shapiro, Ryan G Parsons, Anthony J Koleske, Shannon L Gourley
The prevalence of depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and drug and alcohol use disorders peaks during adolescence. Further, up to 50% of "adult" mental health disorders emerge in adolescence. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) undergoes dramatic structural reorganization, in which dendritic spines and synapses are refined, pruned, and stabilized. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes should help to identify factors that influence the development of psychiatric illness...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Sharmila Shrestha, Kumiko Adachi, Marcia A Petrini, Sarita Shrestha, Bina Rana Khagi
BACKGROUND: the health and survival of newborns depend on high levels of attention and care from caregivers. The growth and development of some infants are unhealthy because of their mother's or caregiver's lack of knowledge or the use of inappropriate or traditional child-rearing practices that may be harmful. OBJECTIVE: to develop a newborn care educational programme and evaluate its impact on infant and maternal health in Nepal. DESIGN: a randomised controlled trial...
September 15, 2016: Midwifery
Yoav Litvin, Cortney A Turner, Mariel B Rios, Pamela M Maras, Sraboni Chaudhury, Miriam R Baker, Peter Blandino, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil, Bruce McEwen
We aimed to determine the short-term effects of early-life stress in the form of maternal separation (MS) on anxiety-like behavior in male rat pups. In order to assess anxiety, we measured 40kHz separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) on postnatal day (PND) 11. We further aimed to evaluate the potential involvement of two neurochemical systems known to regulate social and anxiety-like behaviors throughout life: oxytocin (OT) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). For these purposes, we tested the effects of neonatal administration (on PND1) of an acute dose of FGF2 on USV and its potential interaction with MS...
September 28, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Tania A Perich, Gloria Roberts, Andrew Frankland, Carina Sinbandhit, Tanya Meade, Marie-Paul Austin, Philip B Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: Although there is clear evidence that reproductive cycle events are associated with mood episodes for women with bipolar disorder, few studies have examined for relationships between these and specific clinical characteristics of the disorder. This study aimed to explore the relationship between mood symptoms associated with reproductive cycle events and features of the disorder indicative of a more severe lifetime course. METHOD: Totally, 158 women of at least 18 years of age participated in the study...
September 28, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Natarajan Padmapriya, Jonathan Y Bernard, Shen Liang, See Ling Loy, Zhe Shen, Kenneth Kwek, Keith M Godfrey, Peter D Gluckman, Yap-Seng Chong, Seang Mei Saw, Michael J Meaney, Helen Chen, Falk Müller-Riemenschneider
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate associations of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with depression and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy among Chinese, Malay, and Indian women. METHODS: Women answered PA and SB (sitting time and television time) interview questions and self-completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires, at week 26-28 gestation. Sufficient levels of PA (≥600MET-minutes/week) and higher sitting time (≥7 h/day) were determined...
September 23, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Chelsea R McCoy, Samir Rana, Sara Anne Stringfellow, Jeremy J Day, J Michael Wyss, Sarah M Clinton, Ilan A Kerman
Early-life stress (ELS) can alter neurodevelopment in variable ways, ranging from producing deleterious outcomes to stress resilience. While most ELS studies focus on its harmful effects, recent work by our laboratory and others shows that ELS elicits positive effects in certain individuals. We exposed Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, known for a stress reactive, anxiety/depression-like phenotype, to maternal separation (MS), a model of ELS. MS exposure elicited anxiolytic and antidepressant behavioral effects as well as improved cardiovascular function in adult WKY offspring...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Xiaosong Zhang, Qi Wang, Yan Wang, Jingmin Hu, Han Jiang, Wenwen Cheng, Yuchao Ma, Mengxi Liu, Anji Sun, Xinxin Zhang, Xiaobai Li
Stress during pregnancy may cause neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. Currently, pro-inflammatory cytokines have been identified as a risk factor for depression and anxiety disorder. Unfortunately, there is very little research on the long-term effects of prenatal stress on the neuroinflammatory system of offspring. Moreover, the relationship between antidepressant treatment and cytokines in the central nervous system, especially in the hippocampus, an important emotion modulation center, is unclear...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Erica D Holliday, Paul Nucero, Munir G Kutlu, Chicora Oliver, Krista L Connelly, Thomas J Gould, Ellen M Unterwald
Nicotine dependence is associated with increased risk for emotional, cognitive, and neurological impairments later in life. This study investigated the long-term effects of nicotine exposure during adolescence and adulthood on measures of depression, anxiety, learning, and hippocampal pyramidal cell morphology. Mice (C57BL/6J) received saline or nicotine for 12 days via pumps implanted on postnatal day 32 (adolescent) or 54 (adults). Thirty days after cessation of nicotine/saline, mice were tested for learning using contextual fear conditioning, depression-like behaviors using the forced swim test, or anxiety-like behaviors with the elevated plus maze...
September 13, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
B Wang, Y Zheng, H Shi, X Du, Y Zhang, B Wei, M Luo, H Wang, X Wu, X Hua, M Sun, X Xu
Zfp462 is a newly identified vertebrate-specific zinc finger protein that contains nearly 2500 amino acids and 23 putative C2H2-type zinc finger domains. So far, the functions of Zfp462 remain unclear. In our study, we showed that Zfp462 is expressed predominantly in the developing brain, especially in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions from embryonic day 7.5 to early postnatal stage. By using a piggyBac transposon-generated Zfp462 knockout (KO) mouse model, we found that Zfp462 KO mice exhibited prenatal lethality with normal neural tube patterning, whereas heterozygous (Het) Zfp462 KO (Zfp462(+/-) ) mice showed developmental delay with low body weight and brain weight...
September 13, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Sian Stephens, Elizabeth Ford, Priya Paudyal, Helen Smith
PURPOSE: Postnatal depression affects 10% to 15% of new mothers, and approximately 90% of cases are managed in primary care. Antidepressants are effective, but adherence is poor; therefore, psychological interventions must be investigated. In this systematic review, we assessed the efficacy of psychological therapies for postnatal depression in primary care. METHODS: We undertook a systematic search to identify articles published in English between 2000 and 2014 that reported studies meeting our eligibility criteria: (1) had a randomized controlled trial design; (2) assessed psychological interventions for postnatal depression against any other treatment or a wait-list control; (3) recruited patients in primary care; and (4) enrolled mothers with a diagnosed depressive episode or a score of at least 12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale or at least 10 on the Beck Depression Inventory at baseline who had a child younger than 12 months...
September 2016: Annals of Family Medicine
Fatemeh Edalati Fard, Mojgan Mirghafourvand, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh Charandabi, Azizeh Farshbaf-Khalili, Yousef Javadzadeh, Hanieh Asgharian
Postpartum anxiety and depression are prevalent disorders. The authors of this study aimed to determine the effects of zinc and magnesium supplements on depressive symptoms and anxiety in postpartum women referred to three governmental, educational hospitals in Tabriz, Iran during 2014-2015. In this triple-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial, the participants were randomly assigned to the zinc sulfate, magnesium sulfate, and placebo groups (n = 33 per group). The intervention groups received a 27-mg zinc sulfate tablet or 320-mg magnesium sulfate tablet per day for 8 weeks, whereas the control group received a placebo tablet each day during the same period...
September 12, 2016: Women & Health
Lars H Nelson, Kathryn M Lenz
Microglia, the innate immune cells of the central nervous system, regulate brain development by promoting cell genesis, pruning synapses, and removing dying, newly-born or progenitor cells. However, the role of microglia in the early life programming of behavior under normal conditions is not well characterized. We used central infusion of liposomal clodronate to selectively deplete microglia from the neonatal rat brain and subsequently assessed the impact of microglial depletion on programming of juvenile and adult motivated behaviors...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
I Tendais, B Figueiredo
STUDY QUESTION: Does mode of conception [spontaneous/after infertility treatment (IT)], type of pregnancy (singleton/twin) and parent gender have an effect on anxiety and depression levels and trajectories during pregnancy and the post-partum period? SUMMARY ANSWER: Conception after IT was associated with a transitory increase in anxiety during the perinatal period for parents of singletons, while for IT parents of twins higher levels of psychopathological symptoms tended to persist during pregnancy and the post-partum period...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
M Carmen Míguez, Beatriz Pereira, Bárbara Figueiredo
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pregnant women's socio-demographic characteristics, smoking-related variables and psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression) and both tobacco consumption and spontaneous quitting at the first trimester of pregnancy. In particular, we wished to examine the contribution of depressive symptoms to tobacco consumption and spontaneous quitting, while controlling for anxiety symptoms, socio-demographic and smoking-related variables...
August 31, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
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